LANDSLIDE RISK MANAGEMENT AT BC HYDRO. Experience with Landslide monitoring and drainage

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1 LANDSLIDE RISK MANAGEMENT AT BC HYDRO Experience with Landslide monitoring and drainage Tom Stewart, January 2017

2 PRESENTATION OVERVIEW 1. BC Hydro - Overview 2. Landslide / Reservoir Slopes Program 3. Landslide Case Histories Downie Slide Dutchman s Ridge Revelstoke Dam 4. BC Hydro Experience Lessons Learned 2

3 1. About BC Hydro BC Hydro is a Crown (State-run) corporation, established in 1961, owned by the Province of British Columbia and regulated by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC), an independent body. one of North America s leading providers of clean, renewable energy largest electric utility in British Columbia approximately 1.8 million customers serves about 95 per cent of the province s population Capacity 43 dam sites - 11,300 megawatts (MW) installed capacity 97% of generation based on clean, renewable hydroelectricity BC Hydro customers enjoy some of the world's lowest electricity rates Transmission 18,600 kilometres of transmission lines 57,278 kilometres of distribution lines 3

4 BC HYDRO DAMS GEOGRAPHIC CONTEXT 1. Aberfeldie Dam 2. Alouette Dam 3. Bear Creek Dam 4. Buntzen Dam 5. Cheakamus Dam 6. Clayton Falls Dam 7. Clowhom Dam 8. Comox Dam 9. Coquitlam Dam 10. Coursier Dam (decommissioned) 11. Duncan Dam 12. Elko Dam 13. Elliott Dam 14. Elsie Dam 15. Falls River Dam 16. Heber Diversion Dam 17. Hugh Keenleyside Dam 18. John Hart Dam 19. Jordan Diversion Dam 20. Kootenay Canal Dam 21. La Joie Dam 22. Ladore Dam 23. Mica Dam 24. Peace Canyon Dam 25. Puntledge Diversion Dam 26. Quinsam Diversion Dam 27. Quinsam Storage Dam 28. Revelstoke Dam (1902) (1985) (2001) 29. Ruskin Dam 30. Salmon River Diversion Dam 31. Seton Dam 32. Seven Mile Dam 33. Spillimacheen Dam 34. Stave Falls Dam 35. Strathcona Dam 36. Sugar Lake Dam 37. Terzaghi Dam 38. W.A.C. Bennett Dam 39. Wahleach Dam 40. Walter Hardman Dam 41. Whatshan Dam 42. Wilsey Dam 43. Site C - current 4

5 2. BC Hydro Landslide Program Peace Upper Columbia 8 of 15 monitored landslides in this area 43 Dam sites 15 Monitored Landslides Kootenays 3000 km Reservoir Shoreline Vancouver Island Fraser Valley- Bridge 5

6 3. Upper Columbia - Landslide Factors Dutchman s Ridge Large topographic relief (3500 m+) steep slopes (20 60 o ) Adverse geologic conditions (continuous structures: faults, foliation) Extensive precipitation mm/yr Downie Slide 6

7 3. Landslide - Drainage Case Histories Dutchman s Ridge All on west side of Columbia valley All structurally controlled along foliation / shears Downie Slide Precedent for large, rapid rock slides (2 in last 200 yrs) Revelstoke Dam Moderate seismic zone (pga ~ 0.3 g) 7

8 DOWNIE SLIDE - OVERVIEW Head scarp Identified 1950 s Extensively investigated (1965-present) 1.5 B m 3 (9.5 km 2 x 250m deep) 8

9 Downie Slide Key Dam Safety Issues 1. Landslide generated wave - Dam over-topping dam breach 2. Reservoir blockage 3. Dam flooding (Mica) 9

10 Downie Slide Revelstoke Dam Figure 1: Key physiographic features of Downie Slide; bounding scarps and steep bulging toe Dam Approval linked to Downie Stabilization Extensive Public Consultation and review process Drainage selected to more than offset filling of reservoir 10

11 Downie Slide Geologic Section Detailed geologic model required for drainage design Head scarp Identified 1950 s Extensively drilled B m3 Slowly moving (3 to 200 mm/yr) Drilling - Monitoring installed o downslope dip drainage Geology Mica schist/gneiss; continuous structures 2008 drainage upgrades Groundwater Multiple water levels Extensive ADAS Movement Slowly moving (3 to 200 mm/yr) DS Issues: Overtopping wave / reservoir blockage / impact to reservoir users (on 2 main surfaces) 11

12 Downie Slide Drainage Program Head scarp Drainage Adit Adits - constructed using Observational approach (piezometers) Completed in three stages

13 Downie Slide Drainage Program Head scarp Identified 1950 s Extensively drilled B m3 Slowly moving (3 to 200 mm/yr) Drainage Adit drainage 2008 Adits drainage primarily upgrades in slide mass Extensive 2.45 km ADAS of adit DS Issues: Overtopping wave / reservoir blockage / impact to reservoir users 24,000 m of drain holes 13

14 Downie Slide Drainage Adits JHT Conventional drill and blast; horseshoe shape; extensively supported 14

15 Downie Slide - Groundwater Response Rsp Test 2500 Piezometric Elevation (feet) Drain Const 77 -Rsp Test -Rsp Test Drain Const 81 1 Res Fill Start Res Fill End S49 P1/P2 connected to ADAS Nov 2007 P2 above Lower Shear 2300 Piezometric Elevation (ft) P1 below Lower Shear Drainhole drilling Nov Jun Y1 Legend DHS25P1 DHS49P1 Y2 Legend DHS49P1 A DOWNIE SLIDE STANDPIPE PIEZOMETERS (MANUAL) North Knob Area S25 P1 and P2 TWS PZ77 January 27, Significant drainage effects up to 100 m pressure reductions 2. Met initial objective but increasing pressure trends observed 15

16 Downie Slide - Groundwater Response Piezometric Elevation (feet) Drain Const 81 Res Fill Start Res Fill End S42 Sensor tip elevations: P P ' P ' P P ' 1 2 On ADAS P4 above Lower Shear 2265' P3 Stability Check Level 2236' P3 Base Level P3 in Lower Shear 2177' P2 Base Level 3 P1 / P2 below Lower Shear Piezometric Elevation (feet) Y1 Legend DHS42P5 DHS42P4 DHS42P3 DHS42P2 DHS42P1 Y2 Legend DHS42P5 A DHS42P4 A DHS42P3 A DHS42P2 A DHS42P1 A DOWNIE SLIDE STANDPIPE PIEZOMETERS South Scarp area near toe S42 P1 to P5 TWS PZ18 January 17, Most piezometers encountered perched water levels 2. Water typically perched above the 2 active zones 16

17 Downie Slide - Displacement 3 (2 mm/yr) Slope displacement response to drainage, measured across lower slide plane: 1. Slight reduction following drainage (5 > 3 mm/yr) Increase during reservoir filling (10 mm/yr) 3. Relatively consistent post reservoir fill ( 2 3 mm/yr) 17

18 Downie Slide Summary 1. Groundwater levels reduced to below pre-reservoir levels 2. Displacement rates are similar or less than pre-reservoir conditions 3. Stability increased by ~ 7% (FOS) 4. Water License Requirement must maintain system 18

19 BC HYDRO LANDSLIDES Mica Dam DR LCS Mica Dam m high earthfill dam The most upstream of 14 dams on Columbia River Major upstream landslides 19

20 Dutchman s Ridge Potential Slide Identified mid-1960 s (airphotos) 1969 drilling 30 M m 3 Physical wave model studies (50 m+ waves) Dam construction revised to accommodate slide waves Decision not to drain 20

21 Dutchman s Ridge - Displacement 1. Pre-reservoir negligible displacement detected Reservoir filling (190 m) initiated movements of 25 mm/yr 3. Slope displacement acceleration resulted in decision to further investigate 1 Slope displacement response to reservoir filling (pre-drainage) 21

22 Dutchman s Ridge Investigations Slide Base Geological Model (Updated): Well defined continuous basal sliding surface Depth of sliding 75 to 150 m Movements of up to 200mm occurred during reservoir filling 115 M m3 (~4x original) Drainage Adit Analyses concluded: Raising of reservoir reduced stability by ~ 10% Large, first time slide possible Remediation preferred drainage option selected 22

23 Dutchman s Ridge Slide - Reservoir Outline of currently active slide 1969 estimate of slide volume 30 M m 3 Post - reservoir reevaluation (1982) Slide size reassessed 115 M m 3 Drainage Adit Additional analyses (larger wave) Decision to install drainage system 23

24 Relevance of Dutchman s Ridge Aknes Aknes Similarities: Size Geology Setting Landslide wave hazard Dutchman s Ridge British Columbia 24

25 Dutchman s Ridge Drainage Design Extensive monitoring system installed (350 measurement ports): To identify where water pressures could be drained To evaluate effectiveness of drainage system 25

26 Dutchman s Ridge Drilling Observations Piezo profiling during drilling Slide Base Open hole measurements could be dry below slide Most drill holes showed perched water levels Testing allowed optimum design of piezo installation 26

27 Dutchman s Ridge Piezo Testing Piezometric testing during drilling Custom through-the-drill-string set up Reliable no issues with getting stuck Data immediately available 27

28 Dutchman s Ridge Drainage Layout 982 m of Adit installed ( ) ; 20,000 m of drainholes 28

29 Dutchman Ridge Groundwater TH Drainage - Construction Elevation (Metres) Potential Slide Base m MP s dry MP MP MP MP MP MP27 MICA RESERVOIR SLOPES Dutchman's Ridge Multi-Point Piezometers 86-33A Ports (2 of3) PBS DMR PZ27 January 18, Large portions of potential slide fully drained. 2. Up to 100 m pressure drawdown lasting effect 29

30 Dutchman s Ridge - Displacement Inclinometer Across Slide Base Pre-drainage ~15 mm/yr Post-drainage 0.5 mm/yr Slope displacement response to drainage - rate reduced by > order of magnitude 30

31 Dutchman s Ridge Adit Conditions Flow rates have reduced but pressures have remained fully drained 31

32 Dutchman s Ridge Compared to Downie Slide Base Drainage Adit Smaller slide mass - easier to effectively drain Single sliding plane (DMR) vs two + planes (Downie) Slightly better rock quality less previous slide displacement Adit below slide in competent rock Nearly fully drained condition effectively halted movements 32

33 Revelstoke Dam Marble Shear Block 175 m high concrete gravity; with earthfill wing dam 1985 dam completion Slope instability on right bank (Marble Shear Block) 200,000 m3 Potential to undermine spillway; block tailrace 33

34 Marble Shear Block - Geology 1. Quartzite / Mica Gneiss Pre-drainage 13 mm/yr Post-drainage 2. Persistent planes of weakness (foliation / shears) dipping down slope 3. Considerable groundwater Risk Management 1. Risk to spillway / discharge facilities considered unacceptable 2. Drainage selected as remedial option 34

35 Marble Shear Block Drainage 1. Spillway Structure 2. Sliding Plane 3. Adit (40 m long) 4. With ~1000 m of drainholes 35

36 Marble Shear Block Groundwater TH Start of MSB Drainage Adit and Drainhole Drilling Aug 1998 Falling Head Test 2014 drilling Piezometric Elevation (ft) Tip 1544' 79AT25 Threshold 1563' 1 79AT24 Threshold 1513' Drain cleaning and reaming in MSB adit, Feb & May Tip 1483' AT24 79AT24 A 79AT25 A 79AT25 D 79AT25 REVELSTOKE ROCKSLOPES Marble Shear Block - Piezometric Pressures Piezometers Near Section C (6+35) Threshold Levels TWS PZ56 August 19, Significant pressure reductions (up to 15 m) from drainage 2. Remedial effects are persisting over 15 years lasting results 36

37 Marble Shear Block - Displacement 1 Inclinometer slide plane Minor displacement prior to drainage installation (2mm/yr) 2. Drainage Slope displacement effectively stopped following drainage 37

38 LANDSLIDE REMEDIATION THROUGH DRAINAGE Lessons Learned Summary: 1. Drainage has been effective objectives achieved 940 Dewatering /depressurizing Displacement reduced/stopped Improved stability (5-10% FOS) Elevation (Metres) Drainage - Construction Potential Slide Base m MP MP MP MP MP MP27 MICA RESERVOIR SLOPES Dutchman's Ridge Multi-Point Piezometers 86-33A Ports (2 of3) PBS DMR PZ27 January 18, 2017 Tom Stewart, January 2017

39 LANDSLIDE REMEDIATION THROUGH DRAINAGE Lessons Learned Summary: 2. Well positioned monitoring system required (plan/evaluate) Need to understand where water is located Detailed site investigation and monitoring required Needs to be installed before drainage Tom Stewart, August 2015

40 LANDSLIDE REMEDIATION THROUGH DRAINAGE Lessons Learned Summary: 3. Well positioned monitoring system required (plan/evaluate) 1. Need to conduct in situ testing during drilling to understand where water is located 2. Identifies perched zones and downhole gradients that are otherwise missed 3. Allows planning for permanent piezometric monitoring. 4. Use of multi-port type piezometers highly effective (i.e. Westbay type).

41 LANDSLIDE REMEDIATION THROUGH DRAINAGE Lessons Learned Summary: 4. Drainage response typically confined to treated area only overage installation network spatially Tom Stewart, August 2015

42 LANDSLIDE REMEDIATION THROUGH DRAINAGE Lessons Learned Summary: 5. Plan for maintenance successful results come from longterm commitment Lighting, ventilation, power supply Drainhole replacement (cleaning ineffective) Requirement to install additional monitoring Rock support Tom Stewart, January 2017

43 LANDSLIDE REMEDIATION THROUGH DRAINAGE Questions / Discussion? Tom Stewart, January 2017

44 BRITISH COLUMBIA NORWEGIAN CONTEXT 23. Mica Dam 28. Revelstoke Dam British Columbia 944,735 sq. km 1900 km long 505 km wide Mountainous Lots of snow Lots of fjords 3% of population of Norwegian descent Norway 304,282 sq. km 1347 km long 304 km wide Mountainous Lots of snow Lots of fjords 44

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