FOREIGN AFFAIRS APRIL The Hard Road to World Order. Richard N. Gardner. Volume 52 Number 3

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1 FOREIGN AFFAIRS APRIL 1974 The Hard Road to World Order Richard N. Gardner Volume 52 Number 3 The contents of Foreign Affairs are copyrighted Council on Foreign Relations, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 THE HARD ROAD TO WORLD ORDER By Richard N. Gardner was ^e k es * ^ ti mes > it was fae worst of times." What Dickens wrote

3 THE HARD ROAD TO WORLD ORDER 557 tive security is obviously dead; even for consent-type "peacekeeping," little progress has been made in devising agreed constitutional and financial arrangements. Nor are the world's principal economic forums

4 558 FOREIGN AFFAIRS decision

5 THE HARD ROAD TO WORLD ORDER 559 arrangements should be brought into an appropriate relationship with the central institutions of the U.N. system, but the main thing is that the essential functions be performed.

6 560 FOREIGN AFFAIRS will subject countries to an unprecedented degree of international surveillance over up to now sacrosanct "domestic" policies, such as farm price supports, subsidies,

7

8 562 FOREIGN AFFAIRS tional agencies access

9 THE HARD ROAD TO WORLD ORDER 563 hardheaded prediction that we shall see very substantial changes

10 564 FOREIGN AFFAIRS better; they can just go on getting worse. Even with some rollback in oil prices, it will require a special effort of cooperation for the industrialized countries to absorb the economic impact of increased oil costs without resorting to beggar-my-neighbor policies. It will take considerable statesmanship to maintain the flow

11 f THE HARD ROAD TO WORLD ORDER 565

12 566 FOREIGN AFFAIRS A major objective in the forthcoming trade negotiations should be to incorporate some new and stronger rules. At a minimum, these should prohibit the use of export or other controls for political purposes.

13

14 568 FOREIGN AFFAIRS armies will." Since the U.N. Charter, countries are no longer permitted to use force to back up their economic claims. Quite apart from legal prohibition, such actions

15

16 570 FOREIGN AFFAIRS need alone is not enough. Most national leaders around the world

17 tion THE HARD ROAD TO WORLD ORDER 571

18 572 FOREIGN AFFAIRS changes in political, economic or scientific circumstances. The traditional amendment process is as unsatisfactory a means for modernizing treaties

19 THE HARD ROAD TO WORLD ORDER 573 ing decisions. It involves both functional coordination (e.g., the respective responsibilities

20 574 FOREIGN AFFAIRS cabinet officers like

21 THE HARD ROAD TO WORLD ORDER 575 nations, and old allies. In particular, this would mean using our negotiating leverage

22 576 FOREIGN AFFAIRS of unilateralism that characterized

Copyright 2013 wolfssl Inc. All rights reserved. 2

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