1 Marsha S. Bordner, Ph.D.
2 Community Colleges 101: Mid Term Exam
3 1) What year was the first community college founded? a) 1801 b) 1851 c) 1901 d) ) What year was the first institution of higher learning founded in the US? a) 1606 b) 1636 c) 1696 d) 1736
4 3) By the year 2000, there were nearly 1,000 public two-year colleges created. True or False? 4)What % of undergraduates live on a residential campus? a) 25% b) 45% c) 55% d) 65%
5 5) What % of undergraduate students in the US begin their education at a community college? a) 25% b) 50% c) 60% d) 75% 6) What decade began the tremendous growth of community colleges in America? a) 20s b) 40s c) 60s d) 80s
6 7) What is the average age of a community college student? a) 18 b) 22 c) 25 d) 29 8) What percent of full-time community college students receive some form of financial aid? a) 25% b) 40% c) 50% d) 65%
7 9) On average, how many hours does a cc student enroll in each semester? Consider 15 hours as fulltime. a) 4 b) 8 c) 12 d) 15 10) What is the most important predictor of a student s success in college? a) Parental support b) Socioeconomic background c) School student chooses to attend d) High school curriculum student completes
8 The History of Community Colleges
9 The Beginning: Junior Colleges An Adaptation: Branch Campuses
10 Any not-for-profit institution regionally accredited to award the associate of arts or the associate of science as its highest degree.
11 Since 1960, the number of public two-year institutions increased by 150 % and enrollments increased by fifteen times.
12 More students were graduating from high school. More and more high school graduates began to go to college.
13 High school grads entering some form of post secondary education: 1960s - mid 1980s: 45-55%. 2010: nearly 70%.
14 Separate Paths? Two-year colleges should deal with the lower levels of education. Universities should deal with research and professional training.
15 The business/industrial community needed a steady stream of workers who needed training beyond the 12 th grade. Financial Aid is a huge bang for a student s buck.
16 The US was founded on the notion that all individuals should have the opportunity to rise to their highest level. Hence, community colleges are called Democracy s Colleges or the
17 The growth continues! Early College High Schools Baccalaureates offered by community colleges in 18 states.
18 Missions of Community Colleges
19 1) Academic Transfer Ohio Transfer Module Transfer Assurance Guides Course Applicability System
20 2) High School Students Attending College while in High School College Credit Plus the new Post Secondary Options Program. Becomes operational in
21 3) Occupational/Career Education 4) Reverse Transfers
22 5) Developmental Education 6) Continuing Education
23 7) Business and Industry Training In one year, Terra worked with 44 different companies to provide customized training for more than 1200 people.
24 8) Community Service So, WHO is the community college student? EVERYONE the entire spectrum of the human population.
25 Who is the Community College student?
26 All of the students who had not been served by traditional higher education NEWCOMERS!
27 Older students (those outside the traditional cohort of 18-22/24). Minorities whose background had constrained their participation in higher education. In 2010, minorities constituted 42% of all community college student enrollments nationwide, but this differs greatly state to state.
28 Women who could not go full-time or otherwise had other responsibilities. Those who might not have ever otherwise considered higher education. Those who could not afford the tuition. Those whose progress had been interrupted by a temporary condition.
29 Those who were confined to prisons, physically disabled, or otherwise unable to attend classes on campus. Those who wished to fill leisure time meaningfully.
30 Those who had never been trained to work at any job or those whose skills had become obsolete. Those bright high school students who want college credit while still in high school.
31 So how does one recruit these students?
32 OPEN ACCESS the absolute best part of the system and the bane of the system. Three theories of who should go to college: Aristocratic, Meritocratic, and Egalitarian. Community colleges, the People s Colleges, promote social mobility.
33 Location-- Enrollment is concentrated in urban environments, primarily because of proximity. On average, students live approximately 10 miles from their two-year college.
34 Cost--. Terra s, for example? The 12 credit hour rate of $2, 148. For two semesters or a full year, that s $4,296 before text books. What does it take to go to OSU for a year? To go to most private liberal arts colleges? At Wittenberg?
35 Financial Assistance Pell grants? Work Study? GI Bill? Loans? At Terra over 70% of students receive some type of financial aid.
36 Times classes are offered Today, full timers constitute just 40% of the student body. Nearly four out of every five students is employed, with 40% working full time.
37 Programs that attract and meet the needs of students. Programs offered off site/online. Childcare Centers.
38 Open Access for students who are academically ill prepared. Ohio, 2012: 40% had to take remedial English or math before enrolling in a credit-bearing course.
39 Retention and Ohio s New Funding Model
40 The new funding model is Performance-Based. Good idea? The 14 day count governed the old days.
41 FY : Funding was primarily enrollment-based with the inclusion of Success Points (5% to 10 %). Success points include completion of dev. courses, enrollment in the next college course, and completion of 12, 24, and 36 credit hours, among others.
42 FY 2014: funding was: 50% enrollment 25% course completion 25% success points
43 FY 2015: Funding enrollment component eliminated. It is now a combination of: Course Completion (50%) Success Points (25%) Completion Metrics (25%)
44 Why is the New Funding Model a Problem for Community Colleges?
46 History as an Explanation for Poor Retention
47 The 60s: Two Year Colleges Grew rapidly The 70s: Course Placement and Course pre-requisites Eroded The 80s: Community Colleges Sought a Middle Ground
48 Require an advisor s signature to register for a class? Should placement testing be required of all new students? Should the placement be mandatory? Enforce the placement?
49 Pre-requisite courses be mandatory? Part-time students whose lives do not fit the course schedule? Did most students have a clear Plan for a degree or credential?
50 Open Access Today
51 1) A student can apply for admission. 2) Take the placement test. 3) Participate in orientation.
52 4) Meet an advisor. 5) Enroll in classes. 6) Receive financial aid advising.
53 All between 9:00-4:00! Advantages? Disadvantages?
54 Only 60% of 2009 s degreeseeking students came back in the fall of % came back to traditional universities.
55 Add in non-degree seekers and retention drops to about 50%. Among part-time students the rate drops to 41%.
56 The BIG question: Why Do Students Drop Out?
57 Early engagement with students. 71% of students who withdraw were considering it in the first four weeks. Summer bridge programs. Make student services known to students.
58 Expand student support services Holistic Advising? Think admissions policies through. Create Pathways or MAPS for students.
59 Streamline requirements. Use predictive analytics more effectively. Try to reform developmental education.
60 1) Rethink College Algebra. 2) Rethink developmental mathematics courses. 3) Offer one-week boot camps.
61 it remains difficult for an institution, like the community college, which is based on easy access, to limit access.
62 The new funding model
63 Is there an educational value for those students who do not complete a credential? A value for society?
64 Is there a value to an employee who only needs to two courses to advance in his/her career? How about for the employer?
65 Will we seek out the students with higher ACT and SAT scores? How will diversity be affected by the new funding model? Will faculty feel pressure to inflate grades?
66 Complete College America : (NGA and two and four-year colleges). Completion by Design : (increase the proportion of lowincome young adults). Jobs for the Future