SQL Injection 2.0: Bigger, Badder, Faster and More Dangerous Than Ever. Dana Tamir, Product Marketing Manager, Imperva

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1 SQL Injection 2.0: Bigger, Badder, Faster and More Dangerous Than Ever Dana Tamir, Product Marketing Manager, Imperva

2 Consider this: In the first half of 2008, SQL injection was the number one attack vector for malware, having compromised tens of thousands of Web sites including those of some high profile companies.

3 Agenda SQL Injection 101, 102 SQL Injection Trends Automation Malware distribution DoS attacks Mitigation Techniques Q & A

4 Imperva Overview Founded in 2002 The leader in Application Data Security Global company with over 40% international revenue North American HQ in California; International HQ in Israel Local presence in all major markets (EMEA, APAC, Japan) Customers in 35+ countries Over 600 customers and organizations protected CEO Shlomo Kramer CEO of the year, co-founder of Check Point

5 What is SQL Injection? An attack methodology that manipulates SQL statements made by an application For example, an attacker inserts SQL code in an application form field or URL parameter SQL query extracting credit cards Database Hacker Malicious HTTP Post INTERNET Firewall Web Server Intranet Firewall to access or alter database data Internet DMZ Internal Network

6 Causes of SQL injection Injection occurs through malformed application input: Text box Query String Manipulated values in HTML Expected: Username: John Password: Pa55w0rd! SELECT COUNT(*) FROM users WHERE username= John and password = Pa55w0rd! Malicious: Username: a or 1=1 -- Password: PWD SELECT COUNT(*) FROM users WHERE username= a or 1=1 -- and password = PWD

7 AS SQL Injection 101 sql = "SELECT ProdID, ProdName, ProdPrice, ProdQuant, CatName, CatImage FROM Products JOIN Categories ON Products.CatID = Categories.CatID WHERE Products.CatID = " & request.querystring("catid") Unchecked user input Used for constructing a database query (rather than executing it) Query is executed through connection pool with application account privileges Attacker can extract sensitive information from DB through all existing network layer access control mechanism

8 AS SQL Injection 102 sql = UPDATE users set password = & request.querystring( new_password ) & where user_id = & session( user_id ) Same as before but attacker can make interesting modifications to data Change_password.asp?new_password=iknowyourpwd where user_id = 1 Change_password.asp?new_password=iamadmin, role= admin

9 AS SQL Injection 102 (Cont.) In fact, in some cases (MS SQL Server, PL/SQL Injection) an attack can add arbitrary SQL statements at the injection point Execute stored procedures Shutdown database Complex control structures (loops, etc.)

10 How do Hackers know? Insider Information Disgruntled employees Social Hacking Trial and Error The error message often reveals too much information Usage error messages to get more information about the database behind the application Usage of automated tools

11 Automation of SQL Injection Expedites the processes of: Discovery of attack targets Construction of a working exploit Extraction of data Two main approaches : Dedicated desktop tools Search engine hacking

12 SQL Injection Through Automation Tools Automated tools not only increases the efficiency of a hacker, but also extend the potential attacker population. Software tools equipped with a friendly GUI allow inexperienced script kiddies to mount complex SQL injection attacks against targets previously requiring in-depth knowledge of hacking techniques.

13 Using SQLi Automated Tools The risk for detection is lower as the attack duration shortens. It is much easier for attackers to find a window of opportunity to launch their attack, even against systems that are carefully watched and not always available for remote exploit. Increased number of attacks and increased number of successful attacks

14 SQL Injection - Common Automation Tools A few of the more common and publicized tools: SQL Ninja Xp_cmdshell exploits Need manual configuration of injection point Priamos GUI for direct database interaction through SQL injection Need manual configuration of injection point Power Injector Automatic detection of injection point GUI driven SQLMap Extract information given the injection point Find injection points based on Google Search!

15 Demo SQL Injection Automation

16 SQL Injection 2006 and 2007 Trends In 2006, most SQL Injection incidents were aimed at data compromise In 2007 SQL Injection used for defacement Microsoft UK defaced June 2007 UN site defaced August 2007 Cannot be detected by static change management over web modules A Hacktivist s doomsday weapon

17 2008 Trend Malware distribution In 2008, hackers used search engines to find ASP and ASPX (.net) pages that accepted a set of input parameters which they suspected are indicative of a number of poorly written modules available worldwide (most probably code samples widely used by programmers). They successfully uploaded SQL injection code in over 500,000 Web pages. The code caused a user who visited the site to be redirected to a malware serving site.

18 Demo SQL Injection Trends - Effects

19 Malware Distribution Using SQL Injection Step 1: Attacker uses SQL injection to add IFRAME HTML element to text field in the applications DB IFRAME includes redirection to malicious server Step 3: Victim downloads malware Step 2: Victim accesses application and receives HTML page with injected IFRAME

20 AS SQL Injection and DoS Can be done through Append shutdown SQL statement Create complex queries over self-joins of large tables Example: SELECT TOP 10 * FROM Article WHERE Content LIKE '%_[^!_%/%a?f%_d)_(f%)_%([)({}%){()} $&N%_)$* ()$* R"_)][%](%[x])%a][$*" $-9]_% Use of search fields that perform LIKE comparison of the search term to induce Denial of Service 1 DoS Attacks Using SQL Wildcards,

21 AS Litchfield s Lateral SQL Injection white paper at: Direct Database SQL Injection Traditionally involves stored procedure parameters of character nature (CHAR, VARCHAR2, etc.) Shows that DATE and/or NUMERIC parameters are susceptible to SQL Injection Technique based on use of NLS_DATE_FORMAT and requires the ALTER SESSION privilege: SQL> ALTER SESSION SET NLS_DATE_FORMAT = '"THIS IS A SINGLE QUOTE ''"'; Session altered. SQL> SELECT SYSDATE FROM DUAL; SYSDATE THIS IS A SINGLE QUOTE

22 Mitigating SQL Injection What we ideally would like to do: Fix the code and redeploy application What happens in reality: Fixing code takes time - for example: it takes Oracle 9 18 months to release a fix for SQL injection vulnerabilities in builtin stored procedures) Some applications contain 3 rd party components and legacy components whose code cannot be fixed within a controlled time frame Applications cannot be taken down until a they are fixed AS

23 Traditional Security Methods are Insufficient Network FW and IPS: look for SQL signatures in the incoming HTTP stream (For example, looking for SQL commands such as UNION, SELECT or xp_) The problem - high rate of false positives Vulnerability Scanning Technology (static or dynamic): Assists in discovery but not mitigation

24 AS What Should we do? Use Web Application Firewalls these should learn and discern parameter values from the HTTP request and eliminate the vulnerabilities in real-time. Consider implementing a Database Firewall - At minimum audit database activity and use the audit trail to analyze the details behind the attack Schedule code fixes and 3 rd party patches for critical pieces of the application much like any other functional flaw mitigation

25 AS Conclusion: SQL Injection is alive and kicking SQL Injection attacks keep changing shape and target Attacks become wide-spread through automated tools SQL Injection vulnerabilities, once uncovered, should first be mitigated by a Web Application Firewall and then scheduled for later fix Profiling user access can help, but this is a challenge in connection-pooling environments Keeping an DB audit trail is very helpful

26 Imperva SecureSphere Awarded Product Line Integrated WAF and DAM to protect from SQL injections and other application and/or database attacks: Management Server (MX) ADC Insights Database Database Security Gateway Web Application Firewall Web Internet Database Monitoring Gateway

27 DO Question & Answer Resources - Imperva ADC Application Data Security Webinar Series and White Papers : > Resources > Webinars: SQL Injection Still the #1 Threat Google Hacking > Resources > White Papers: SecureSphere SQL Injection Protection Whitepaper Top 10 Database Hacks and How to Stop Them

28 Thank You Dana Tamir Imperva, Inc Bridge Parkway, Suite 101, Redwood Shores, CA Sales:

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