Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2014 Montessori Model United Nations Conference.

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1 Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2014 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN 2014 in committee sessions. Please note this guide only provides the basis for your investigation. It is your responsibility to find as much information necessary on the topics and how they relate to the country you represent. Such information should help you write your Position Paper, where you need to cite the references in the text and finally list all references in the Modern Language Association (MLA} format. The more information and understanding you acquire on the two topics, the more you will be able to influence the Resolution writing process through debates [formal and informal caucuses], and the MMUN experience as a whole. Please feel free to contact us if and when you face challenges in your research or formatting your Position Papers. We encourage you to learn all you can about your topics first and then study your country with regard to the two selected topics. Please remember that both committee members need to be well versed and ready to debate both topics. Enjoy researching and writing your Position Papers. We look forward to seeing you at the Conference! MMUN Secretariat Team

2 Disarmament and International Security First Committee The First Committee deals with disarmament, global challenges and threats to peace that affect the international community and seeks out solutions to the challenges in the international security regime. It considers all disarmament and international security matters within the scope of the Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any other organ of the United Nations; the general principles of cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security, as well as principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments; promotion of cooperative arrangements and measures aimed at strengthening stability through lower levels of armaments. The Committee works in close cooperation with the United Nations Disarmament Commission and the Genevabased Conference on Disarmament. It is the only Main Committee of the General Assembly entitled to verbatim records coverage. Source:

3 International Terrorism Topic Background The fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the subsequent end of the Cold War dramatically changed the global security environment. The short period that followed shifted focus from interstate affairs to internal affairs. In this time period, many believed nothing else could endanger global security as much as the Cold War had. Underneath this seeming calm, however, a new set of global threats was brewing. And this came as a rude awakening for the international community in the form of the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11 th, This act of terror demonstrated to the international community just how capable terrorist organizations had become. Terrorism as defined by the United States Central Intelligence Agency is premeditated politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents. However, one country s terrorist is another country s freedom fighter, and one of the greatest difficulties in combating terrorism is first defining it. One of the factors that contributed to terrorist growth has been the development of modern day warfare. Weapons of mass destruction, biochemical warfare, and cluster munitions are just a few of the weapons terrorists may now acquire. One of the biggest challenges for the United Nations and the international community is to ensure terrorist organizations do not have access to weapons of such destructive magnitude. Stemming from non-state actors, international terrorism has grown to include terrorist groups such as Al-Qaeda, Boko Haram, Al-Shabaab, and Hamas. Nearly every region of the world now has terrorist organizations present. Past Actions Following the aftermath of the September 11 th attack, on September 28 th, the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution This resolution dealt mostly with the financing of terrorist groups. It called for member states to freeze terrorist financial assets, criminalized the collection of funds for terrorist purposes, and called upon the international community to unanimously condemn terrorist acts of aggression. One of the most important provisions included in resolution 1373 was the creation of a Counter-Terrorism Committee. This committee was conceived with the purpose of overseeing the implementation of this resolution. To address the issue of weapons of mass destruction falling into terrorist hands, the General Assembly adopted resolution 57/83 in This was the first ever text on the prevention of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons from terrorist acquisition. Furthermore, in 2004 the Security Council unanimously passed resolution 1540 which obliged member countries to refrain from supporting non-state actors in the development, acquisition, and manufacturing of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons

4 In 2004, Secretary General Kofi Annan proposed a five pillar strategy leading up to the 2005 September World Summit. His five pillars included dissuading groups from resorting to terrorist acts, denying terrorist s access to the means for carrying out an attack, deterring states from supporting terrorist organizations, developing state capabilities to combat terrorism, and defending human rights in the context of terrorism and counter-terrorism. These five pillars were the key ideas leading up to the 2005 September World Summit. The summit was the first time a unanimous condemnation of terrorist acts was reached. The international community agreed to condemn terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purposes. Following the World Summit, the General Assembly was tasked with developing a universal counter-terrorism strategy. With the help of the Secretary General, this document, the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, was conceived on the 8 th of September in This strategy has four basic principles, including tackling conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, preventing and combating terrorism, building state capacity to combat terrorism, and ensuring respect for human rights while countering terrorism. Since the passing of the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, it has become the main blueprint for counter terrorism initiatives. The strategy is reviewed on a biennial basis by the General Assembly in which countries reaffirm their condemnation of terrorism and reevaluate the effectiveness of recent strategies. Aside from the development of this universal strategy, there has been more specific activity by other international organizations. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International Maritime Organization (IMO), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) are just a few bodies that have developed a network of international agreements which constitute the basic legal instruments against terrorism. Other conventions have addressed specific topics within counter terrorism. The Convention on Cluster Munitions, Biological Weapons Convention, and the Non Proliferation Treaty on Nuclear Weapons address specific weapons and their relative availability for acquisition by terrorist groups. Possible Solutions With millions of innocent civilians dying every year, terrorism remains a great evil in the world. It is the responsibility of the United Nations to address this issue. Counter terrorism efforts in the past have been met with limited success. But there are several areas in which the committee can develop possible solutions to end the use of terrorism: Defining Terrorism: The United Nations has long worked without a formal definition in combating terrorism. However, without a working definition on terrorism there is ambiguity in what may or may not be considered terrorism. In times of crises, this ambiguity slows down the decision making process. Developing a universal term for terrorism will be difficult as every country perceives terrorism in a

5 different way. Working off of definitions present in national governments will be the best approach to conceiving a universally acceptable definition of terrorism. Regional vs. International: There has been much work on the international policy of counter terrorism. However in recent years, this broad universal approach may not be seen as most effective. While terrorism is international in scope, the international community may be met with better results if counter terrorism strategies were broken down by region. Diplomacy vs. Force: As is the spirit of the United Nations, diplomacy should always be the first weapon of choice. However, there is always difficulty with arranging diplomatic talks with terrorists. Delegates will be faced with the choice of sending in armed forces in an attempt to deal with terrorist acts of aggression. Sometimes, this may be the only course of action, but more often than not delegates should explore other diplomatic options first. Delegates should discuss potential ways to attract terrorist groups into diplomatic conferences. Information Technology: Delegates should look to problems and solutions the Internet may offer. Cyber-terrorism has grown exponentially in the past few years with many terrorist groups organizing via the Internet. Additionally, the Internet also provides a venue for communication throughout the international community. It may be used to coordinate attacks or garner public support. Although it may be a double-edged sword, proper use of the Internet will further the UN in its fight against terrorism. The committee must identify what has worked and what has not worked. It is only through international cooperation that it can effectively tackle the issue of terrorism. The international community must declare unanimously that the international community will not stand for such acts of aggression and that terrorist acts can and will be punished. Further Research Guiding Questions Has terrorism affected your country? What has your government done about terrorism? What is your government s definition of terrorism? What role does the Internet play on counter terrorism efforts? What are some failings of the United Nations Global Counter Terrorism Strategy and how can we rectify them? How can we better allocate resources and use various UN organizations or NGO s to combat terrorism? Research Sources United Nations Global Issues Terrorism: Council on Foreign Relations Terrorism: Global Policy Forum:

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