Outline 2.1 Graph Isomorphism 2.2 Automorphisms and Symmetry 2.3 Subgraphs, part 1

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GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Abstract. Chapter focuses on the question of when two graphs are to be regarded as the same, on symmetries, and on subgraphs.. discusses the concept of graph isomorphism.. presents symmetry from the perspective of automorphisms.. introduces subgraphs. Outline. Graph Isomorphism. Automorphisms and Symmetry. Subgraphs, part

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A. Graph Isomorphism 6 7 4 4 5 5 0 0 7 6 Figure.: Two different drawings of the same graph. They are (clearly) the same because each vertex v has the exact same set of neighbors in both graphs. 0. 4. 0 5. 0 4 6. 7 4. 0 5 6 5. 4 6 6. 4 7 7. 5 6

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A s 4 6 5 G w y u z v t H 7 8 x Figure.: Two more drawings of that same graph. These two graphs are the same because, instead of having the same set of vertices, this time we have a bijection V G V H s t u 4 v 5 w 6 x 7 y 8 z between the two vertex sets, such that Nbhds map bijectively to nbhds; e.g., N() N(f()) = N(s), i.e. N() = {,, 5} {t, u, w} = {f(), f(), f(5)} = N(s)

4 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Structural Equivalence for Simple Graphs Def.. Let G and H be two simple graphs. A vertex function f : V G V H preserves adjacency if for every pair of adjacent vertices u and v in graph G, the vertices f(u) and f(v) are adjacent in graph H. Similarly, f preserves non-adjacency if f(u) and f(v) are non-adj whenever u and v are non-adj. Def.. A vertex bijection f : V G V H betw. two simple graphs G and H is structure-preserving if it preserves adjacency and non-adjacency. That is, for every pair of vertices in G, u and v are adj in G f(u) and f(v) are adj in H This leads us to a formal mathematical definition of what we mean by the same graph.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A 5 Def.. Two simple graphs G and H are isomorphic, denoted G = H, if a structure-preserving bijection f : V G V H. Such a function f is called an isomorphism from G to H. Notation: When we regard a vertex function f : V G V H as a mapping from one graph to another, we may write f : G H. ISOMORPHISM CONCEPT Two graphs related by isomorphism differ only by the names of the vertices and edges. There is a complete structural equivalence between two such graphs.

6 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A REPRESENTATION by DRAWINGS When the drawings of two isomorphic graphs look different, relabeling reveals the equivalence. One may use functional notation to specify an isomorphism between the two simple graphs shown. 6 7 a=f(0) b=f() d=f() c=f() 4 5 f=f(5) e=f(4) 0 g=f(6) h=f(7) Figure.: Specifying an isom betw two simple graphs. Alternatively, one may relabel the vertices of the codomain graph with names of vertices in the domain, as in Fig.4. 6 7 0 4 5 5 4 0 6 7 Figure.4: Another way of depicting an isomorphism.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A 7 ISOMORPHISM (SIMPLE) = BIJECTIVE on VERTICES ADJACENCY-PRESERVING (NON-ADJACENCY)-PRESERVING Example.. The vertex function j j +4 depicted in Fig.5 is bijective and adjacency-preserving, but it is not an isomorphism, since it does not preserve non-adjacency. In particular, the non-adjacent pair {0, } maps to the adjacent pair {4, 6}. 5 6 0 4 7 Figure.5: Bijective and adj-preserving, but not an isom.

8 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Example.. The vertex function j j mod depicted in Figure.6 is structure-preserving, since it preserves adjacency and non-adjacency, but it is not an isomorphism since it is not bijective. Figure.6: Preserves adj and non-adj, but not bijective.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A 9 Isomorphism for General Graphs The mapping f : V G V H between the vertex-sets of the two graphs shown in Figure.7 given by f(i) = i, i =,, preserves adjacency and non-adjacency, but the two graphs are clearly not structurally equivalent. Figure.7: These graphs are not structurally equivalent. Def.4. A vertex bijection f : V G V H between two graphs G and H, simple or general, is structure-preserving if () the # of edges (even if 0) between every pair of distinct vertices u and v in graph G equals the # of edges between their images f(u) and f(v) in graph H, and () the # of self-loops at each vertex x in G equals the # of self-loops at the vertex f(x) in H.

0 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A This general definition of structure-preserving reduces, for simple graphs, to our original definition. Moreover, it allows a unified definition of isomorphic graphs for all cases. Def.5. Two graphs G and H (simple or general) are isomorphic graphs if structure-preserving vertex bijection f : V G V H This relationship is denoted G = H.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Isomorphism for Graphs with Multi-Edges Def.6. For isomorphic graphs G and H, a pair of bijections f V : V G V H and f E : E G E H is consistent if for every edge e E G, the function f V maps the endpoints of e to the endpoints of the edge f E (e). Proposition.. G = H iff there is a consistent pair of bijections f V : V G V H and f E : E G E H Proof. Straightforward from the definitions. Remark.. If G and H are isom simple graphs, then every structurepreserving vertex bijection f : V G V H induces a unique consistent edge bijection, by the rule: uv f(u)f(v).

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Def.7. If G and H are graphs with multi-edges, then an isomorphism from G to H is specified by giving a consistent pair of bijections f V : V G V H and f E : E G E H. Example.7. Both of the structure-preserving vertex bijections G H in Fig.8 have six consistent edge-bijections. G x y z H a b c Figure.8: There are distinct isoms from G to H.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Necessary Properties of Isom Graph Pairs Although the examples below involve simple graphs, the properties apply to general graphs as well. Theorem.. Let G and H be isomorphic graphs. Then they have the same number of vertices and edges. Proof. An isomorphism maps V G and E G bijectively. Theorem.. Let f : G H be a graph isomorphism and let v V G. Then deg(f(v)) = deg(v). Proof. Since f is structure-preserving, the # of proper edges and the # of self-loops incident on vertex v equal the corresp # s for vertex f(v). Thus, deg(f(v)) = deg(v). Corollary.4. Let G and H be isomorphic graphs. Then they have the same degree sequence. Corollary.5. Let f : G H be a graph isom and e E G. Then the endpoints of edge f(e) have the same degrees as the endpoints of e.

4 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Example.8. In Fig.9 below, we observe that Q and CL 4 both have 8 vertices and edges and are -regular. The vertex labelings specify a vertex bijection. A careful examination reveals that this vertex bijection is structure-preserving. It follows that Q and CL 4 are isomorphic graphs. 0 f(00) 00 00 0 0 f(000) f(0) f(00) f() f(0) f(0) 000 00 f(00) Figure.9: Hypercube Q and circ ladder CL 4 are isom.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A 5 Def.8. The Möbius ladder ML n is a graph obtained from the circular ladder CL n by deleting from the circular ladder two of its parallel curved edges and replacing them with two edges that cross-match their endpoints. Example.9. K, and the Möbius ladder ML both have 6 vertices and 9 edges, and both are -regular. The vertex labelings for the two drawings specify an isomorphism. 0 4 0 4 5 5 K, ML Figure.0: K, and the Möbius ladder ML are isom.

6 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Isomorphism Type of a Graph Def.9. Each equivalence class under = is called an isomorphism type. (Counting isomorphism types of graphs generally involves the algebra of permutation groups see Chap 4). Figure.: The 4 isom types for a simple -vertex graph.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A 7 Isomorphism of Digraphs Def.0. Two digraphs G and H are isomorphic if there is an isomorphism f between their underlying graphs that preserves the direction of each edge. Example.0. Notice that non-isomorphic digraphs can have underlying graphs that are isomorphic. Figure.: Four non-isomorphic digraphs. Def.. The graph-isomorphism problem is to devise a practical general algorithm to decide graph isomorphism, or, alternatively, to prove that no such algorithm exists.

8 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A. Automorphisms & Symmetry Def.. An isomorphism from a graph G to itself is called an automorphism. Thus, an automorphism π of graph G is a structure-preserving permutation π V on V G along with a (consistent) permutation We may write π = (π V, π E ). π E on E G Remark.. The proportion of vertex-permutations of V G that are structurepreserving is a measure of the symmetry of G.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A 9 Permutations and Cycle Notation The most convenient representation of a permutation, for our present purposes, is as a product of disjoint cycles. Remark.. As explained in Appendix A4, every permutation can be written as a composition of disjoint cycles. Example.. The permutation ( ) 4 5 6 7 8 9 π = 7 4 8 5 9 6 which maps to 7, to 4, and so on, has the disjoint cycle form π = ( 7 9 ) ( 4 8 6 ) ( 5 )

0 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Geometric Symmetry A geometric symmetry on a graph drawing can be used to represent an automorphism on the graph. Example.. K, has six automorphisms. Each of them is realizable by a rotation or reflection of Fig.. u a w c x b v Figure.: The graph K,. Vertex Edge Symmetry permutation permutation identity (u) (v) (w) (x) (a) (b) (c) 0 rotation (x) (u v w) (a b c) 40 rotation (x) (u w v) (a c b) refl. thru a (x) (u) (v w) (a) (b c) refl. thru b (x) (v) (u w) (b) (a c) refl. thru c (x) (w) (u v) (c) (a b) There are no other automorphisms of K,.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Example.. It is easy to verify that these vertex-perms are structurepreserving, so they are all graph automorphisms. 4 5 6 7 8 Automorphisms λ 0 = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ( 8) λ = ( 8) ( 7) ( ) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) λ = ( ) ( ) ( 5) ( 4 6) ( 7) ( 8) λ = ( 8) ( 7) ( 5) ( 4 6) Figure.: A graph with four automorphisms.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Limitations of Geometric Symmetry Example.4. The leftmost drawing has 5-fold rotational symmetry that corresponds to the automorphism (0 4) (5 6 7 8 9), but this automorphism does not correspond to any geometric symmetry of either of the other two drawings. 4 0 5 9 6 4 0 5 (a) (b) (c) 8 6 6 7 0 4 8 7 9 8 9 5 7 Figure.: Three drawings of the Petersen graph.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Vertex- and Edge-Transitive Graphs Def.. A graph G is vertex-transitive if for every vertex pair u, v V G, there is an automorphism that maps u to v. Def.. A graph G is edge-transitive if for every edge pair d, e E G, there is an automorphism that maps d to e. Example.5. K, is edge-trans, but not vertex-trans, since every autom must map the -valent vertex to itself. Example.7. The hypercube graph Q n is vertex-trans and edge-trans for every n. (See Exercises.) Example.8. Every circulant graph circ(n; S) is vertex-transitive. In particular, the vertex function i i + k mod n is an automorphism. Although circ( :, 5) is edge-transitive, some circulant graphs are not. (See Exercises.) 0 0 9 4 8 7 6 5 Figure.4: The circulant graph circ( :, 5).

4 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Vertex Orbits and Edge Orbits Def.4. The equivalence classes of the vertices of a graph G under the action of the automorphisms are called vertex orbits. The equivalence classes of the edges are called edge orbits. Example.0. vertex orbits: {,8}, {4,6}, {,7}, {,5} edge orbits: {,78}, {4,56}, {,5,7,57}, {5} 4 5 6 7 8 Automorphisms λ 0 = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ( 8) λ = ( 8) ( 7) ( ) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) λ = ( ) ( ) ( 5) ( 4 6) ( 7) ( 8) λ = ( 8) ( 7) ( 5) ( 4 6) Figure.5: Graph of Example..

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A 5 Theorem.. All vertices in the same orbit have the exact same degree. Proof. This follows immediately from Theorem.. Theorem.. All edges in the same orbit have the same pair of degrees at their endpoints. Proof. This follows immediately from Corollary.5. Example.. Each of the two partite sets of K m,n is a vertex orbit. The graph is vertex-transitive if and only if m = n; otherwise it has two vertex orbits. However, K m,n is always edge-transitive (see Exercises).

6 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A How to Find the Orbits We illustrate how to find orbits by consideration of two examples. (It is not known whether there exists a polynomial-time algorithm for finding orbits. Testing all n! vertex-perms for the adjacency preservation property is too tedious an approach.) In addition to using Theorems. and., we observe that if an automorphism maps vertex u to vertex v, then it maps the neighbors of u to the neighbors of v. Example.. In Fig.6, the vertex orbits are The edge orbits are {0}, {, 4}, and {, } {}, {0, 04}, and {,, 4, 4} 0 4 Figure.6: Find the vertex orbits and the edge orbits.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A 7 Example.. We could approach the 4-regular graph of Figure.7 by recognizing the symmetry (0 5)( 4)()()(6) and seeking to find others. However, it is possible to expedite the determination of orbits. 0 6 5 4 Figure.7: Find the vertex orbits and the edge orbits. When we look at vertices 0,,, and 5, we discover that each of them has a set of neighbors that are independent, while vertices, 4, and 6 each have two pairs of adjacent vertices. This motivates us to redraw the graph as in Figure.8. 4 6 0 5 Figure.8: Find the vertex orbits and the edge orbits. In that form, we see immediately that there are two vertex orbits, namely {0,,, 5} and {, 4, 6}. One of the two edge orbits is {05, }, and the other contains all the other edges.

8 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A. Subgraphs Def.. A subgraph of a graph G is a graph H whose vertices and edges are all in G. If H is subgraph of G, we may also say that G is a supergraph of H. Def.. A proper subgraph H of G is a subgraph such that V H is a proper subset of V G or E H is a proper subset of E G. Example.. Fig. shows the line drawings and corresponding incidence tables for two proper subgraphs of a graph. G u d e a c x v b edge endpts a b c d e f u v v u x w v z x x w z w f z u d H c x v edge endpts c d v u x x u w a d e H c x v z b edge endpts a b c d e u v v u x v z x x w Figure.: A graph G and two (proper) subgraphs H and H. The usual meaning of the phrase H is a subgraph of G is that H is merely isomorphic to a subgraph of G.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A 9 Spanning Subgraphs Def.. A subgraph H is said to span a graph G if V H = V G. Def.4. A spanning tree is a spanning subgraph that is a tree. Figure.: A spanning tree. Def.5. An acyclic graph is called a forest. G Figure.4: A spanning forest H of graph G.

0 GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Cliques and Independent Sets Def.6. A subset S of V G is called a clique if every pair of vertices in S is joined by at least one edge, and no proper superset of S has this property. Def.7. The clique number of a graph G is the number ω(g) of vertices in a largest clique in G. Example.. In Fig.5, the vertex subsets, {u, v, y}, {u, x, y}, and {y, z} induce complete subgraphs, and ω(g) =. u v x y z Figure.5: A graph with three cliques. Def.8. A subset S of V G is said to be an independent set if no pair of vertices in S is joined by an edge. Def.9. The independence number of a graph G is the number α(g) of vertices in a largest independent set in G. Remark.. Thus, the clique # ω(g) and the indep # α(g) are complementary concepts (in the sense described in.4).

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A Induced Subgraphs Def.0. Subgraph induced on subset U of V G, denoted G(U). V G(U) = U and E G(U) = {e E G : endpts(e) U} v v a b u c h f g a b u c h f g d w d w induced on {u, v} Figure.6: A subgraph induced on a subset of vertices.

GRAPH THEORY LECTURE STRUCTURE AND REPRESENTATION PART A 7. Supplementary Exercises Exercise Draw all isomorphism types of general graphs with edges and no isolated vertices. Exercise 4 Fig 7.. List the vertex orbits and the edge orbits of the graph of 8 9 6 7 4 0 Figure 7.: 5 Exercise 7 Some of the 4-vertex, simple graphs have exactly two vertex orbits. Draw an illustration of each such isomorphism type.