# Important Equations in Physics for IGCSE course. Area of triangular shaped graph = ½ base height

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1 Important Equations in Physics for IGCSE course General Physics: 1 For constant motion: v = s t 2 For acceleration a v u a = t 3 Graph Area of a rectangular shaped graph = base height. 4 Weight and mass Area of triangular shaped graph = ½ base height w = m g 5 Density ρ in kg/m 3 ρ = m V v is the velocity in m/s, s is the distance or displacement in meters and t is the time in seconds u is the initial velocity, v is the final velocity and t is the time. In velocity-time graph the area under the graph is the total distance covered by an object. w is the weight in newton (N), m is the mass in kg and g is acceleration due to gravity = 10 m/s 2 m is the mass and V is the volume 6 Force F in newton (N) F = m a m is the mass and a is the acceleration 7 Terminal Velocity Weight of an object(downward) = air resistance (upwards) 8 Hooke s Law F is the force, x is the extension in F = k x meters and k is the spring constant. 9 Moment of a force in N.m moment of force = F d F is the force and d is the 10 Law of moment or equilibrium: distance from the pivot Total clockwise moment = total anticlockwise moment => F d = F d 11 Work done W joules (J) W = F d F is the force and d is the distance covered by an object 12 Kinetic Energy E k in joules (J) E = 1 m is the mass(kg) and v is the m v 2 velocity (m/s) 13 Potential Energy E p in joules (J) 14 Law of conservation of energy: E = m g h Loss of E = gain of E m g h = 1 m v 2 m is the mass (kg) and g is the acceleration due to gravity and h is the height from the ground. 15 Power in watts (W) work done Power is the rate of doing work P = time taken Energy transfer P = time taken 16 Pressure p in pascal (Pa) p = F F is the force in newton(n) and A A is the area in m 2 17 Pressure p due to liquid ρ is the density in kg/m 3, g is the acceleration due to garvity and h p = ρ g h is the height or depth of liquid in meters. 18 Atmospheric pressure P=760mmHg = 76cm Hg =1.01x10 5 Pa Prepared by Faisal Jaffer Page 1

2 Thermal Physics: 1 Pressure and volume relationship (Boyle s law) pv=constant p = p p 1 and p 2 are the two pressures in Pa and V 1 and V 2 are the two volumes in m 3 2 Thermal Expansion (Linear) L = L o L o is the original length in meters, is the change in temperature in o C, L is the change in length in meters (L 1 - L o ) and is the linear expansivity of the material 3 Thermal Expansion (Cubical) V = Vo 4 Relationship between linear and cubical expansivities 5 Charle s Law: Volume is directly proportional to absolute temperature V T 6 Pressure Law: Pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature p T 7 Gas Law: pv 8 Specific Heat Capacity: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg mass by 1 o C. 9 Thermal Capacity: amount of heat require to raise the temperature of a substance of any mass by 1 o C 10 Specific latent heat of fusion (from Ice to liquid) 11 Specific latent heat of vaporization (from liquid to vapour) V o is the original volume in m 3, is the change in temperature in o C, V is the change in volume in m 3 (V 1 - V o ) and is the cubical expansivity of the material. = 3 V = p p = p p c = = p Q m θ Thermal capacity=m c Thermal capacity = Q θ L = Q m L = Q m V is the volume in m 3 and T is the temperature in Kelvin (K). p is the pressure in Pa and T is the temperature in Kelvin (K). In thermal physics the symbol θ is used of celsius scale and T is used for Kelvin scale. c is the specific heat capacity in J/kg o C, m is the mass in kg and Δθ is the change in temperature The unit of thermal capacity is J/ o C. L f is the specific latent heat of fusion in J/kg or J/g, m is the mass of liquid change from ice in kg or g. L v is the specific latent heat of vaporization in J/kg or J/g, m is the mass of vapour change from liquid in kg or g. 12 Thermal or heat transfer In solid = conduction In liquid and gas = convection and also convection current In vacuum = radiation 13 Emitters and Radiators Dull black surface = good emitter, good radiator, bad reflector Bright shiny surface = poor emitter, poor radiator, good reflector Prepared by Faisal Jaffer Page 2

3 Waves, light and sound: 1 Wave equation 1 v = f λ v is the speed of wave in m/s f is the frequency in Hz λ is the wavelength in meters 2 Wave equation 2 T is the time period of wave in 3 Movement of the particles of the medium f = 1 T seconds Longitudinal waves=> back and forth in the direction of the waves Transverse waves=> perpendicular to the direction of the waves 4 Law of reflection Angle of incidence i = angel of reflection angle i = angle r 5 Refraction From lighter to denser medium light bend towards the normal From denser to lighter medium light bend away from the normal 6 Refractive index n sin i Refractive index has no unit n = sin r 7 Refractive index n speed of light in air or vacuum n = speed of light in any other medium 8 Image from a plane mirror Virtual, upright, same size and laterally inverted, same distance from the mirror inside 9 Image from a convex lens When close: virtual, enlarge, upright When far: real, small, upside down 10 Image from a concave lens Virtual, upright, small 11 Critical angle When light goes from denser to lighter medium, the incident angle at which the reflected angle is 90 o,is called critical angle. 12 Total internal reflection(tir) When light goes from denser to lighter medium, the refracted ray bend inside the same medium then this is called (TIR) 13 Electromagnetic Spectrum: this way the frequency decreases and wavelength increases Gamma rays X-rays UV Visible light IR Micro waves Radio waves 14 Colours of visible VIBGYOR (from bottom-up) spectrum (light) 15 Speed of light In air: m/s In glass: m/s 16 Light wave Electromagnetic waves 17 Sound wave longitudinal waves particle of the medium come close compression particles of the medium far apart rarefaction 18 Echo v = 2 d t 19 Properties of sound waves Pitch means the frequency of the wave Loudness means the amplitude of the wave 20 Speed of sound waves Air : m/s Water: 1400 m/s Concrete : 5000 m/s Steel: m/s v is the speed of sound waves, d is the distance in meters between source and the reflection surface and t is the time for echo Prepared by Faisal Jaffer Page 3

4 Electricity and magnetism: 1 Ferrous Materials Attracted by magnet and can be magnetized 2 Non-ferrous materials Not attracted by magnet and cannot be magnetized 3 Electric field intensity force exerted by the field on a unit charge placed at a point around another charge Eg. iron, steel, nickel and cobalt copper, silver, aluminum, wood, glass E is the electric field intensity in N/C E = F q 4 Current: Rate of flow of charges in a conductor I = Q t 5 Current In circuits the current always choose the easiest path 6 Ohms law Voltage across the resistor is directly proportional to current, V I or V I = R 7 Voltage Energy per unit charge V = Energy Q 8 E.M.F. Electromotive force 9 Resistance and resistivity e.m.f. = lost volts + terminal potential difference EMF=Ir+IR I is the current in amperes (A), Q is the charge in coulombs (C) t is the time in seconds (s) V is the voltage in volts (V), I is the current in amperes (A) and R is resistance in ohms (Ω) Q is the charge in coulombs (C), V is the voltage in volts (V) Energy is in joules (J) R = ρ L R is the resistance a resistor, A L is the length of a resistor in meters ρ is the resistivity of resistor in Ω.m A is the area of cross-section of a resistor in m 2 10 Circuit In series circuit the current stays the same and voltage divides In parallel circuit the voltage stays the same and current divides 11 Resistance in series R = + + R, R 1, R 2 and R 3 are resistances of 12 Resistance in parallel 1 R = Potential divider 14 Potential divider 15 Power = P = I V P = I R P = V R 16 Power P = Energy time 17 Transformer = n n resistor in ohms = ( ) V V + = ( ) V + Prepared by Faisal Jaffer Page 4 P is the power in watts (W) The unit of energy is joules (J) V p is the voltage in primary coil, V s is the voltage in secondary coil n p is the no of turns in primary and n s is the no of turns in secondary 18 Transformer Power of primary coil = power of secondary coil P = P I = I = I I I p is the current in primary coil and I s the current in secondary coil 19 Cathode rays Stream of electrons emitted from heated metal (cathode). This process is called thermionic emission. 20

5 Atomic Physics: 1 Alpha particles α-particles Helium nucleus Stopped by paper Highest ionization potential 2 Beta-particles β-particles Fast moving electrons Stopped by aluminum Less ionization potential 3 Gamma-particles γ-rays Electromagnetic radiation Only stopped by thick a sheet of lead Least ionization potential 4 Half-life Time in which the activity or mass becomes half 5 Atomic symbol X 6 Isotopes Same number of protons but different number of neutrons A is the total no of protons and neutrons Z is the total no of protons Prepared by Faisal Jaffer Page 5

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