World Wide Web Aka The Internet. Karst Koymans. Friday, October 2, 2015

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1 . WWW World Wide Web. Aka The Internet Karst Koymans Informatics Institute University of Amsterdam (version 15.6, 2015/10/08 11:21:17 UTC) Friday, October 2, 2015 Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

2 .1 WWW history.2 Basic concepts.3 Client side.4 Server side.5 Dynamic content.6 URI, URL, URN.7 Protocol.8 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills).9 Hybrids (the way forward?!) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

3 WWW history Outline.1 WWW history.2 Basic concepts.3 Client side.4 Server side.5 Dynamic content.6 URI, URL, URN.7 Protocol.8 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills).9 Hybrids (the way forward?!) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

4 WWW history WWW history (1) 1968 Doug Engelbart Earlier than ARPANET or UNIX Inventor of the mouse... and of hypermedia... and of videoconferencing Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

5 WWW history WWW history (2) 1989 Tim Berners Lee 20 years after Engelbart First Information management proposal at CERN 1990 WorldWideWeb browser (later Nexus) Developed by Berners Lee on NEXTSTEP World Wide Web (with spaces) is the abstract information space Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

6 WWW history WWW history (3) More browsers 1992 Line mode browser 1.1 ViolaWWW browser for X Windows 1993 Mosaic for X Windows (Marc Andreessen, founder of Netscape) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

7 WWW history WWW history (4) 1994 Mozilla (Netscape) W3C founded (MIT, INRIA, Keio) In 2003 ERCIM took the place of INRIA In was convened with an invalid certificate ( ) for https In 2013 Beihang University (China) was invited to join hosting W3C 1995 Microsoft launches Internet Explorer Start of the Browser Wars Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

8 WWW history WWW history (5). Standards based browsers and layout engines ( ). Gecko (Firefox, Seamonkey, Netscape, Thunderbird) KHTML (Konqueror) WebKit, using WebCore (Apple Safari, Google Chrome) Blink derived from WebCore (Chrome, Chromium, Opera) Trident/EdgeHTML (Microsoft Internet Explorer / Microsoft Edge) a Presto (Opera (until 2013)) b. a proprietary, but freely available b proprietary; freely and commercially available Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

9 Basic concepts Outline.1 WWW history.2 Basic concepts.3 Client side.4 Server side.5 Dynamic content.6 URI, URL, URN.7 Protocol.8 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills).9 Hybrids (the way forward?!) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

10 Basic concepts WWW concepts Web browser (client) Web server (server) URLs and HTTP (protocol) HTML and other markup (content) Dynamic web pages (interaction) Document Object Model (page model) 3-tier model (architecture) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

11 Client side Outline.1 WWW history.2 Basic concepts.3 Client side.4 Server side.5 Dynamic content.6 URI, URL, URN.7 Protocol.8 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills).9 Hybrids (the way forward?!) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

12 Client side Browser Client making requests for web pages Interface for the user Graphical User Interface IE, Safari, Firefox, Opera, Chrome, Chromium,... Terminal based lynx, links, w3m,... Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

13 Server side Outline.1 WWW history.2 Basic concepts.3 Client side.4 Server side.5 Dynamic content.6 URI, URL, URN.7 Protocol.8 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills).9 Hybrids (the way forward?!) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

14 Server side Web server Server responding to requests NCSA HTTPd, Apache HTTP Server Internet Information Services (IIS, Microsoft) Sun Java System Web Server (Sun ONE, iplanet) Partly open sourced (Open Web Server) Looks for information in or via files, databases, scripts locally or remote See also Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

15 Server side Lesser known or more recent web servers nginx ( engine X ) also reverse proxy and load balancer high performance Google Web Server (GWS) Google custom (mystery?) web server also runs Blogger, Google Docs,... lighttpd ( lighty ) lightweight optimised for speed qq.com Chinese IM and blog service (mostly private now) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

16 Server side Netcraft survey October 2006 Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

17 Server side Netcraft survey November 2007 Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

18 Server side Netcraft survey September 2008 Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

19 Server side Netcraft survey September 2009 Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

20 Server side Netcraft survey September 2010 Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

21 Server side Netcraft survey September 2011 Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

22 Server side Netcraft survey December 2012 (active sites) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

23 Server side Netcraft survey October 2013 (all sites) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

24 Server side Netcraft survey September 2014 (all sites) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

25 Server side Netcraft survey September 2014 (active sites) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

26 Server side Netcraft survey September 2015 (all sites) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

27 Server side Netcraft survey September 2015 (active sites) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

28 Server side 3-tier model Presentation layer (user tier) Communicates with (client) browser Business Logic layer (business tier) Applies business rules Data layer (data tier) Interacts with data store (database) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

29 Server side LAMP model (L)inux as underlying OS (A)pache as presentation layer (M)ySQL as data layer (P)HP as business logic layer Some people use (P)erl and/or (P)ython Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

30 Dynamic content Outline.1 WWW history.2 Basic concepts.3 Client side.4 Server side.5 Dynamic content.6 URI, URL, URN.7 Protocol.8 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills).9 Hybrids (the way forward?!) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

31 Dynamic content Dynamic web pages (server side) Server side dynamic web page technologies, which are able to generate unique content for each call or user Common Gateway Interface (CGI) Server Side Includes (SSI) Server-side scripting PHP, JSP, ASP Servlets: server-side java applications ASP.NET: successor of ASP, part of the.net framework Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

32 Dynamic content Dynamic web pages (client side) Client side: Dynamic HTML (DHTML) Works with the Document Object Model (DOM) Executes ECMAscript (standard) programs JavaScript (Netscape), JScript (Microsoft) Other client side techniques AJAX (Asynchronous Javascript and XML) for interactive web pages Applets (JVM) or ActiveX controls Flash, Silverlight, HTML5 Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

33 Dynamic content ECMAScript engines ( ). ECMAScript engines. SpiderMonkey/TraceMonkey (Firefox, Seamonkey) KJS (Konqueror) JavaScriptCore/SquirrelFish/Nitro (Apple Safari) V8 (Google Chrome, Opera) Chakra (Microsoft Internet Explorer 9, a JScript engine). Futhark/Carakan (Opera discontinued ) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

34 Dynamic content Document Object Model An ongoing W3C/WHATWG activity for standardizing Dynamic HTML Level 0: proprietary API for HTML (XML) documents refers to what existed before the standardization Level 1: standardized API for HTML (XML) documents Level 2: modularized with support for events and styles Level 3: support for loading and saving and for keyboard events Level 4: DOM4 working draft (July 2014) Now part of the DOM Living Specification Also see https://dom.spec.whatwg.org/ Work now integrated with HTML5 effort Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

35 Dynamic content More interaction (1) XmlHttpRequest (XHR) Javascript API to send requests to servers Used by the Ajax web development technique Response is integrated into the current web page without rendering the complete page again Response can be XML, but also JSON HTML... Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

36 Dynamic content More interaction (2) Websockets General mechanism to upgrade an existing TCP connection to multiple full-duplex connections Uses the Upgrade: HTTP header mechanism as handshake Defines the ws: and wss: schemes Uses an allowed-origin policy for security by including an Origin: header HTTP/2 defines a similar mechanism to establish multiplexed connections over the same TCP link Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

37 URI, URL, URN Outline.1 WWW history.2 Basic concepts.3 Client side.4 Server side.5 Dynamic content.6 URI, URL, URN.7 Protocol.8 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills).9 Hybrids (the way forward?!) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

38 URI, URL, URN Uniform Resource Identifiers (RFC 3986) A URI can have two forms A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) https://www.os3.nl/ ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/os/bsd/ Often identifies the location and access mechanism of the resource A URN (Uniform Resource Name) urn:<nid>:<nid-specific> urn:ietf:rfc:2648 urn:isbn: Gives a name to a resource in a certain namespace Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

39 URI, URL, URN Uniform Resource Locators <scheme>:<scheme-specific> <scheme> is often some Internet protocol http, ftp, telnet, rtsp <scheme-specific> often starts with // to indicate that an Internet address (IP address or DNS domain name) follows This is called the authority part Other schemes: mailto, news Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

40 URI, URL, URN HTTP URLs <scheme> : <hierarchy-indicator> <authority> ] <host>[ : <port>] <path> either begins with / or is empty, see RFC 3986? <query> gives extra parameters for identifying the resource # <fragment> secondary (sub)resource, mostly used in URI-references 1 1 A URI reference is a relative URI, which has to be completed by software Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

41 Protocol Outline.1 WWW history.2 Basic concepts.3 Client side.4 Server side.5 Dynamic content.6 URI, URL, URN.7 Protocol.8 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills).9 Hybrids (the way forward?!) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

42 Protocol HTTP/1.1 RFCs Uses <CR><LF> as end of line convention HTTP request/response request/response line request/response headers empty line optional body Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

43 Protocol HTTP/1.1 request <method> <path 2 > <HTTP-version> GET (to get/load a resource) HEAD (to fetch only the headers) PUT (to store a resource) POST (to provide input in the body to server side scripts) DELETE (to delete a resource) OPTIONS (to query the server options) 2 The path may include a query, but no fragment Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

44 Protocol HTTP/1.1 response <HTTP-version> <status-code> <comment> HTTP/ OK HTTP/ Moved Permanently HTTP/ Bad Request HTTP/ Not Found HTTP/ Method Not Implemented Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

45 Protocol HTTP/1.1 request headers User-Agent: <client identification> Host: <(virtual) server name> Cookie: <stored user tracking information> Date: <date/time message sent> Authorization: <credentials>... many more... Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

46 Protocol HTTP/1.1 response headers Content-Type: <MIME type> Content-Length: <page length in bytes> Last-Modified: <date of last page change> Set-Cookie: <string to keep state> Location: <redirection information>... many more... Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

47 Protocol HTTP/2 Based on SPDY Defined in RFC 7540 Improves efficiency and uses multiplexed streams Has flow control and prioritization Implements server push mode Starts out as a normal http(s) connection Uses Upgrade: h2c for http connections Uses ALPN (Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation) TLS extension (RFC 7301) for https connections with the h2 protocol identifier Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

48 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills) Outline.1 WWW history.2 Basic concepts.3 Client side.4 Server side.5 Dynamic content.6 URI, URL, URN.7 Protocol.8 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills).9 Hybrids (the way forward?!) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

49 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills) Markup SGML HTML XML XHTML Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

50 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills) SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language <!DOCTYPE... > <!ELEMENT... > <!ATTLIST... > <!ENTITY... > DTD: Document Type Definition Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

51 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills) HTML Instantiation of SGML <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC -/W3C/DTD HTML 4.01//EN > All else is bogus: <BLINK>,... Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

52 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills) XML Simpler reformulation of SGML Some differences Every start tag must have a close tag Attribute values must always be quoted <?xml... > processing instructions reserved... Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

53 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills) XHTML XML specification of HTML, which still needs a DTD The DTD can be replaced by an XML Schema instance making all syntax XML based This schema is also called WXS (W3C XML Schema) or XSD (XML Schema Definition) There are other XML schemas like RELAX NG or Schematron Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

54 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills) W3C activities See HTML, XML, XHTML CSS, XSL RDF, Semantic Web XML Schema SOAP, Web Services Accessibility, Internationalization (I18N) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

55 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills) CSS, XSL Cascading Style Sheets (CSS1, CSS2, CSS3, CSS4,... ) Starting with CSS3 the specification is modular Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) XSL Transformations (XSLT) XSL Formatting Objects (XSL-FO) XML Path Language (XPath) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

56 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills) RDF (1) Resource Description Framework Metadata Semantic Web Web 3.0 Knowledge Machine readable information Reinventing Mathematical Logic (?) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

57 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills) RDF (2) Example from UvA/SNE research NDL (Network Description Language) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

58 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills) XML Schema Replacement for an SGML DTD Is written itself in XML syntax Has support for built-in datatypes Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

59 Hybrids (the way forward?!) Outline.1 WWW history.2 Basic concepts.3 Client side.4 Server side.5 Dynamic content.6 URI, URL, URN.7 Protocol.8 Markup (a quick recap from Essential Skills).9 Hybrids (the way forward?!) Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

60 Hybrids (the way forward?!) HTML5 (1) Tries to address web applications Typical example is Adobe Flash Returns to HTML as a basis, improves and extends it Introduces new tags, for instance <nav> <video>, <audio> <canvas>, <figure> Promoted by the WHATWG (Apple, Mozilla, Opera) Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group Also W3C now has its own HTML5 specification Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

61 Hybrids (the way forward?!) HTML5 (2) HTML5 builds upon and is backward compatible with HTML4 XHTML1 DOM Level 2 HTML5 s use of DOCTYPEs <!DOCTYPE html> <!DOCTYPE html SYSTEM "about:legacy-compat"> Revival of Tag soup But with standardized error handling Karst Koymans (UvA) WWW Friday, October 2, / 61

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