1 UNIVERSITY OF TOLEDO SUBJECT: MOLD PREVENTION AND REMEDIATION Procedure No: HM PROCEDURE STATEMENT All indoor areas on campus are expected to present no immediate threat to the health and well-being of staff, students, faculty, patients and visitors of the University of Toledo. PURPOSE OF PROCEDURE The purpose of the Mold Prevention and Remediation procedure is to utilize prevention techniques to minimize the potential for mold growth; identify, control and remediate areas containing mold growth; and to protect all employees, faculty, students, visitors, and patients. Mold Prevention and Remediation GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS The University of Toledo is committed to providing a work environment that is free of recognized hazards and to investigate complaints that may be related to poor indoor air quality (IAQ), Environmental Health and Radiation Safety Procedure HM Although specific regulations have not been developed for Mold Prevention and Remediation in the work place, Environmental Health and Radiation Safety considers recommendations from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and New York City Department of Health among other cognizant authorities. Prevention The key to mold growth prevention is eliminating the moisture source and cleanup of materials within hours. The following must be followed to prevent mold growth. Fix leaky plumbing and leaks in the building envelope as soon as possible. Watch for condensation and wet spots. Fix source(s) of moisture problem(s) as soon as possible. Prevent moisture due to condensation by increasing surface temperature or reducing the moisture level in air (humidity). To increase surface temperature, insulate or increase air circulation. To reduce the moisture level in air, repair leaks, increase ventilation (if outside air is cold and dry), or dehumidify (if outdoor air is warm and humid). Keep heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) drip pans clean, flowing properly, and unobstructed. Vent moisture-generating appliances, such as dryers, to the outside where possible. Maintain low indoor humidity, below 60% relative humidity (RH), ideally 30-50%, if possible. Perform regular building/hvac inspections and maintenance as scheduled including replacement of wet filters. Clean and dry all wet or damp spots within 48 hours. Don't let foundations stay wet. Provide drainage and slope the ground away from the foundation. Clean with non-phosphate detergents (any phosphate residue is food for mold). Do not install vinyl wallpaper on walls. Vinyl wallpaper inhibits drying. Remove water damaged drywall within hours. When replacing drywall leave a one-inch gap to promote drying and prevent wicking in the event of water damage.
2 Page 2 Table 1: Water Damage Cleanup and Mold Prevention Guidelines for Response to Clean Water Damage within Hours to Prevent Mold Growth* WATER-DAMAGED MATERIAL ACTIONS Books and papers For non-valuable items, discard books and papers. Photocopy valuable/important items, discard originals. Freeze (in frost-free freezer or meat locker) or freeze-dry. Carpet and backing - dry within hours Any carpet that has been contaminated over a large area with sewage backup must be discarded and the entire area disinfected with a detergent solution. (see notes below) Small areas contaminated with sewage backup and areas flooded with water that does not contain sewage backup can be treated as follows: - Remove all materials from the carpet and remove water with water extraction vacuum. Shampoo the carpet with a dilute surfactant or have the carpet steam cleaned. - Reduce ambient humidity levels with dehumidifier and accelerate drying process with fans. - Never reuse flooded carpet padding. Ceiling tiles Discard and replace. Cellulose insulation Discard and replace. Concrete or cinder block Remove water with water extraction vacuum. surfaces Accelerate drying process with dehumidifiers, fans, and/or heaters. Electrical Consider all wet wiring, light fixtures, electrical outlets to be a shock hazard until it has been checked by an electrician. Until then, turn the power off in the area of the water damage. (Note: only people knowledgeable about electrical shock hazards must shut off the power.) All electrical circuit breakers, GFIs and fuses that have become wet need replacing. Switches and outlets that were wet can be cleaned and reused but, when in doubt, replace them. All electrical motors, light fixtures, etc., that were wet need to be opened, cleaned and air-dried by a qualified person. Before being put back in service, inspect the motors, light fixtures, etc., to ensure no visible moisture/water droplets are apparent. Fiberglass insulation Discard and replace. Furniture (Laminate) If laminate is intact, the furniture must be air dried and cleaned with a detergent solution. If laminate is not intact, delaminate the furniture and dispose of furniture. The pressed wood under the laminate absorbs water readily and is hard to dry. Furniture (Particle Board) Discard unless the furniture has become wet due to a steam line break. The furniture can then be dried and monitored for fungal growth. Furniture (Upholstered) Hard surface, porous flooring (Linoleum, ceramic tile, vinyl) Remove water with water extraction vacuum. Accelerate drying process with dehumidifiers, fans, and/or heaters. May be difficult to completely dry within 48 hours. If the piece is valuable, you may wish to consult a restoration/water damage professional who specializes in furniture. Dispose of furniture if it has been wet due to floods, roof leaks, or sewage back up and ground water infiltration. Vacuum or damp wipe with water and mild detergent and allow to dry; scrub if necessary. Turn heat up and use dehumidifiers to dry the area.
3 Page 3 Check to make sure underflooring is dry; dry underflooring if necessary. Table 1: Water Damage Cleanup and Mold Prevention (continued) Guidelines for Response to Clean Water Damage within Hours to Prevent Mold Growth* WATER-DAMAGED MATERIAL ACTIONS Non-porous, hard surfaces (Plastics, metals) Vacuum or damp wipe with water and mild detergent and allow to dry; scrub if necessary. Wallboard (Drywall and gypsum board) Cut away wallboard and remove all wet and damp insulation immediately, even if the wallboard appears to be dry. Ventilate the wall cavity, if possible. Window drapes Follow laundering or cleaning instructions recommended by the manufacturer. Wood surfaces Remove moisture immediately and use dehumidifiers, gentle heat, and fans for drying. (Use caution when applying heat to hardwood floors.) Test moisture content of studs and sheathing (using a moisture detector) before replacing insulation. Wood must drop below 20% moisture content by weight before you close the wall. Treated or finished wood surfaces may be cleaned with mild detergent and clean water and allowed to dry. Wet paneling must be pried away from wall for drying. If mold growth has occurred or materials have been wet for more than 48 hours, consult Mold Remediation guidelines. Even if materials are dried within 48 hours, mold growth may have occurred. Items may be tested by professionals if there is doubt. Note that mold growth will not always occur after 48 hours; this is only a guideline. These guidelines are for damage caused by clean water. If you know or suspect that the water source is contaminated with sewage, or chemical or biological pollutants, then Personal Protective Equipment and containment are required by OSHA. An experienced professional must be consulted if you and/or your remediators do not have expertise remediating in contaminated water situations. Do not use fans before determining that the water is clean or sanitary. If a particular item(s) has high monetary or sentimental value, you may wish to consult a restoration/water damage specialist. The subfloor under the carpet or other flooring material must also be cleaned and dried. See the appropriate section of this table for recommended actions depending on the composition of the subfloor. Environmental Health and Radiation Safety Investigation The presence of mold, water damage, or musty odors must be addressed immediately, beginning with a visual inspection. Ventilation systems must be visually checked for damp filters and other damp conditions. Ceiling tiles, walls, cardboard and paper must also be visually inspected for mold growth. When visible mold growth is present, the remediation process must begin. Air sampling methods for some fungi are prone to false negative results and therefore cannot be used to definitely rule out contamination. However, when visible mold growth is not present, but suspected, and/or an individual has been diagnosed with a disease that is, or may be associated with fungal exposure, air monitoring may be necessary. The purpose of this air monitoring is to determine location and extent of contamination. Air monitoring may also be conducted to determine the effectiveness of the remediation by verifying that air concentrations of mold and fungal spores are similar to ambient or outdoor air. If air monitoring is performed, outdoor air samples must also be collected for comparative purposes.
4 Page 4 PROCEDURE Remediation The following sections are guidelines for mold growth remediation. Using the following guidelines, employees will be able to determine whether the situation can be handled by UT employees, or whether the Environmental Health and Radiation Safety Department must be notified for further evaluation. Level 1: Small Isolated Areas (10 sq. ft or less) UT staff may conduct remediation, using wet methods, except under the following conditions: mold/fungal growth remediation would require destructive cleaning procedures; and/or mold/fungal growth to be remediated is located in a HVAC system. Environmental Health and Radiation Safety notification is not required if mold found is less than 10 sq. ft. and on a non-porous material (plastics, metal, floor tile/grout). Gloves and chemical goggles are required and disposable N95 respirators are optional. Remediation may be conducted by UT staff using a (10:1) water:bleach solution. Environmental Health and Radiation Safety notification is required if mold growth is found on a porous surface (drywall). An N95 respirator, gloves and eye protection must be worn. Staff must be cleared through the Environmental Health and Radiation Safety Department to wear respirators. Remediation may be conducted by UT staff trained in the remediation process using the following guidelines. Each situation should be evaluated to determine if the mold removal project requires an Infection Control Risk Assessment Permit (UTMC Construction Permit) located at Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings, U.S. EPA. April Table 2: Guidelines for Remediating Building Materials with Mold Growth Caused by Clean Water* SMALL - Total Surface Area Affected Less Than 10 square feet (ft 2 ) Material or Furnishing Affected Books and papers 3 Carpet and backing 1, 3 Concrete or cinder block 1, 3 Hard surface, porous flooring (linoleum, ceramic tile, vinyl) Non-porous, hard surfaces (plastics, metals) 1, 2, 3 Upholstered furniture & drapes 1, 3 Wallboard (drywall and gypsum board) 3 Wood surfaces 1, 2, 3 Cleanup Methods Level 2: Mid-Sized Isolated Areas ( sq. ft.) The Environmental Health and Radiation Safety Department must be contacted prior to remediation. A half- or fullface N95 respirator (determined by Environmental Health and Radiation Safety), gloves and eye protection must be worn. Disposable coveralls are optional. Staff must be cleared through the Environmental Health and Radiation Safety Department to wear respirators. Remediation may be conducted by UT staff trained in the remediation process using the following guidelines. Each situation should be evaluated to determine if the mold removal project requires an Infection Control Risk Assessment Permit (UTMC Construction Permit) located at
5 Page 5 Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings, U.S. EPA. April 2001 Table 2: Guidelines for Remediating Building Materials with Mold Growth Caused by Clean Water* MEDIUM - Total Surface Area Affected Between 10 and 100 (ft 2 ) Material or Furnishing Affected Books and papers 3 Carpet and backing 1, 3, 4 Concrete or cinder block 1, 3 Hard surface, porous flooring (linoleum, ceramic tile, vinyl) Non-porous, hard surfaces (plastics, metals) 1, 2, 3 Upholstered furniture & drapes 1, 3, 4 Wallboard (drywall and gypsum board) 3, 4 Wood surfaces 1, 2, 3 Cleanup Methods Level 3: Large Areas (100+ sq. ft.) The Environmental Health and Radiation Safety Department must be contacted prior to remediation. Personal protective equipment will be determined on a case-by-case basis. Respiratory protection must be issued in accordance with OSHA s respiratory protection standard. Remediation will be conducted in conjunction with an outside remediation contractor trained in the remediation process using the following guidelines. Each situation should be evaluated to determine if the mold removal project requires an Infection Control Risk Assessment Permit (UTMC Construction Permit) located at Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings, U.S. EPA. April 2001 Table 2: Guidelines for Remediating Building Materials with Mold Growth Caused by Clean Water* LARGE - Total Surface Area Affected Greater Than 100 (ft 2 ) or Potential for Increased Occupant or Remediator Exposure During Remediation Estimated to be Significant Material or Furnishing Affected Books and papers 3 Carpet and backing 1, 3, 4 Concrete or cinder block 1, 3 Hard surface, porous flooring (linoleum, ceramic tile, vinyl) 1, 2, 3, 4 Non-porous, hard surfaces (plastics, metals) 1, 2, 3 Upholstered furniture & drapes 1, 2, 4 Wallboard (drywall and gypsum board) 3, 4 Wood surfaces 1, 2, 3, 4 Cleanup Methods Cleanup Methods Method 1: Wet vacuum (in the case of porous materials, some mold spores/fragments will remain in the material but will not grow if the material is completely dried). Steam cleaning may be an alternative for carpets and some upholstered furniture. Method 2: Damp-wipe surfaces with plain water or with water and detergent solution (except wood - use wood floor cleaner); scrub as needed. Method 3: High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuum after the material has been thoroughly dried. Dispose of the contents of the HEPA vacuum in well-sealed plastic bags.
6 Page 6 Method 4: Discard - remove water-damaged materials and seal in plastic bags while inside of containment, if present. Dispose of as normal waste. HEPA vacuum area after it is dried. Level 4: Contamination of the Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Environmental Health and Radiation Safety must be contacted before further action is taken. Due to the potential of aerosolization through the building of toxic or allergenic molds and/or fungus, personnel trained in this type of remediation will need to follow the work practice in Appendix A. Communication If a large-scale remediation project is found, the affected employees must be notified. The notification must include a description of the remedial measures and a timetable for completion. Individuals with health problems that appear to be related to bioaerosol exposure must see their physician if a problem exists. Communication with building occupants will be coordinated by the Environmental Health and Radiation Safety Department. Source: Environmental Health and Radiation Safety Department Review/Revision Date: 10/31/06 2/18/08 2/10/11 2/06/14
7 Page 7 APPENDIX A Remediation of HVAC Systems Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments, New York City Department of Health, Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Disease Epidemiology 3 A Small Isolated Area of Contamination (<10 square feet) in the HVAC System a. Remediation can be conducted by regular building maintenance staff. Such persons must receive training on proper clean up methods, personal protection, and potential health hazards. This training can be performed as part of a program to comply with the requirements of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR ). b. Respiratory protection (e.g., N95 disposable respirator), in accordance with the OSHA respiratory protection standard (29 CFR ), is recommended. Gloves and eye protection must be worn. c. The HVAC system must be shut down prior to any remedial activities. d. The work area must be covered with a plastic sheet(s) and sealed with tape before remediation, to contain dust/debris. e. Dust suppression methods, such as misting (not soaking) surfaces prior to remediation, are recommended. f. Growth supporting materials that are contaminated, such as the paper on the insulation of interior lined ducts and filters, must be removed. Other contaminated materials that cannot be cleaned must be removed in sealed plastic bags. There are no special requirements for the disposal of moldy materials. g. The work area and areas immediately surrounding the work area must be HEPA vacuumed and cleaned with a damp cloth and/or mop and a detergent solution. h. All areas must be left dry and visibly free from contamination and debris. i. A variety of biocides are recommended by HVAC manufacturers for use with HVAC components, such as, cooling coils and condensation pans. HVAC manufacturers must be consulted for the products they recommend for use in their systems. Areas of Contamination (>10 square feet) in the HVAC System An Environmental Health and Radiation Safety professional with experience performing microbial investigations must be consulted prior to remediation activities to provide oversight for remediation projects involving more than a small isolated area in an HVAC system. The following procedures are recommended: a. Personnel trained in the handling of hazardous materials equipped with: i. Respiratory protection (e.g., N95 disposable respirator), in accordance with the OSHA respiratory protection standard (29 CFR ), is recommended. ii. iii. Gloves and eye protection Full-face respirators with HEPA cartridges and disposable protective clothing covering both head and shoes must be worn if contamination is greater than 30 square feet. b. The HVAC system must be shut down prior to any remedial activities. c. Containment of the affected area: i. Complete isolation of work area from the other areas of the HVAC system using plastic sheeting sealed with duct tape. ii. The use of an exhaust fan with a HEPA filter to generate negative pressurization. iii. Airlocks and decontamination room if contamination is greater than 30 square feet. d. Growth supporting materials that are contaminated, such as the paper on the insulation of interior lined ducts and filters, must be removed. Other contaminated materials that cannot be cleaned must be removed in sealed plastic bags. When a decontamination chamber is present, the outside of the bags must be cleaned with a damp cloth and a detergent solution or HEPA vacuumed prior to their transport to uncontaminated areas of the building. There are no special requirements for the disposal of moldy materials.
8 Page 8 e. The contained area and decontamination room must be HEPA vacuumed and cleaned with a damp cloth and/or mop and a detergent solution prior to the removal of isolation barriers. f. All areas must be left dry and visibly free from contamination and debris. g. Air monitoring must be conducted prior to re-occupancy with the HVAC system in operation to determine if the area(s) served by the system are fit to reoccupy. h. A variety of biocides are recommended by HVAC manufacturers for use with HVAC components, such as, cooling coils and condensation pans. HVAC manufacturers must be consulted for the products they recommend for use in their systems.
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