REDUCING THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN BUILDINGS BY INCORPORATING MICROENCAPSULATED PCMS IN RIGID POLYURETHANE FOAMS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "REDUCING THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN BUILDINGS BY INCORPORATING MICROENCAPSULATED PCMS IN RIGID POLYURETHANE FOAMS"

Transcription

1 Institute of Chemical and Environmental Technology Chemical Engineering Department University of Castilla La Mancha Ciudad Real, Spain REDUCING THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN BUILDINGS BY INCORPORATING MICROENCAPSULATED PCMS IN RIGID POLYURETHANE FOAMS Manuel Salvador Carmona Franco Ana María Borreguero Simón Beatriz Talavera Almena Ángel Serrano Casero Ignacio Garrido Sáenz Juan Francisco Rodríguez Romero

2 INTRODUCTION. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE MATERIALS Petroleum 50 years Energy sources RENEWABLE Carbon 330 years Solar Energy 5000 millions of years Nuclear Fission 1 Million of years Uranium reactors 1000 years Development of new systems for saving energy Use of new renewable energy sources CLEAN SOLAR ENERGY UNIVERSAL IT NEEDS TO BE STORED! A PCM is a substance with a high heat of fusion which, melting and solidifying, is able to absorb and store or release large amounts of energy. ABSORB STORE RELEASE Wide variety of PCMs can be used: Inorganics ( hydrated salts) Organics (alkanes, paraffin, waxes)

3 INTRODUCTION. HOW DO PCMS WORK? HOT OUTSIDE COLD OUTSIDE Heat Required Heat Released BUILDING INSIDE External T > Melting T PCM becomes liquid (Heat required) BUILDING INSIDE External T < Freezing T PCM solidifies (Heat released) Properties of PCMs for applications in buildings: Melting temperature about 25ºC High latent heat Low cost Good availability. Non-toxic Non-corrosive

4 INTRODUCTION. PCMs INCORPORATION IN BUILDINGS Building systems for PCMs incorporation Wallboards, ceilings and floors Shutter of windows Cooling and heating systems SHELL CORE Ways of PCMs incorporation Direct incorporation PCMs microencapsulation

5 INTRODUCTION. PCMs INCORPORATION IN BUILDINGS Avoid loosing the PCM. Avoid interactions between PCMs and the rest of building materials. Safe handling of PCMs. Handling liquids as solid. Increase the area of heat transfer.

6 INTRODUCTION. MICROENCAPSULATION OF PCMs Spray drying technique Feed Gas for solvent evaporation Gas + solvent Product Suspension polymerization

7 Intensity (u.a.) Intensidad (u.a.) INTRODUCTION. MICROENCAPSULATED PCMs PROPERTIES Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Low Angle Laser Light Scattering (LALLS) msd-(ldpe-eva-rt27) H H f =85,81J/ f J/g g H f =200.2J/g H f J/g Microcapsule Pure paraffin Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) -1-2 H H f =85,81J/g f =96,7 H f =85,6J/g H f =96,2 J/g Material Original After thermal treatment Temperatura (ºC) Temperature (ºC)

8 OBJETIVE. WHY USE PCMs IN BULDINGS? EU directive 2010/31/UE: Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings - Buildings are responsible for 40% of energy consumption and 36% of CO 2 emissions in the Europe Community. - Energy performance of buildings is key to achieve the EU Climate and Energy objectives. Development of buildings with a more efficient use of energy Reduction of Energy consumption in heaters and air conditioners Environmental pollution Money spent in energy

9 OBJETIVE. INCORPORATION OF PCMs IN BUILDINGS MATERIALS The aim of this work is to develop sandwich panels exhibiting high TES capacity SANDWICH PANELS POLYURETHANE FOAMS EPOXI RESINS EXTERNAL SHEET RESIN CORE (POLYURETHANE FOAM)

10 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE. FOAM SYNTHESIS Polyisocyanate Polyol Polyurethane n O=C=N-R N=C=O + n HO-R -OH [-CO-NH-R NH-CO-O-R -O-] n Polyol PCMs Polyisocyanate Additives (blowing agent, surfactant and catalyst) Mix Different microencapsulated PCMs contents Microcapsules distribution Latent Heat Foam structure and cell size Density Mechanical resistance

11 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE. THERMAL ANALYSIS Experimental set up for thermal characterization 1. Rotameter 2. Signal Transmitter 3. Computer for data recording 4. Peristaltic Pump 5. Thermostatic Bath 6. Termocouples 7. Isothermal Chamber 8. Insulating Structure

12 3 cm EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE. THERMAL ANALYSIS THERMOCOUPLES DISTRIBUTION Upper Tª Middle Tª Upper Tª Middle Tª HEAT FLUX SENSORS DISTRIBUTION Plate Tª 10 cm Plate Tª Sensor Q side Sensor Q out Sensor Q in Flow Direction Flow Direction Sensor Q side

13 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE. THERMAL ANALYSIS Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC)

14 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE. MECHANICAL RESISTANCE Mechanical characterization Uniaxial compression tests were performed according to ASTM D1621 (Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Cellular Plastics) Compression Experimental Set up

15 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. SYNTHESIZED PU FOAMS Microcapsules Content (%wt) Rising Rate Final Foam Height Foam system viscosity

16 Density (kg/m 3 ) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. DENSITY Zone 1 Zone % 10% 15% 20% % PCM 30% 40% 50% Microcapsules Content (%wt) Density Density > 30kg/m 3 (UNE 92120) (pren )

17 Intensity (u.a) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. DSC ANALYSIS 0-0,05-0,1-0,15-0,2-0,25 0% Middle 10% Middle % PCM Q DOWN Q MIDDLE Q UP Q EXP Q TH (J/g) (J/g) (J/g) (J/g) (J/g) ,46 7,014 7,77 7,41 8, ,57 15,82 16,71 16,37 17, ,49 25,44 24,57 25,50 25, ,52 33,82 32,9 34,41 34, ,21 40,57 37,31 39,03 42,91-0,3-0,35-0,4 H f =40.57 J/g T=23.5ºC 20% Middle 30% Middle 40% Middle 50% Middle Q theoretical Q (J/g) microcápsules (J/g) microcapsules mass(g) Foam Weight (g) -0, Microcapsules Content (%wt) Temperature (ºC) Latent Heat Q experimental 3 i 1 3 i 1 Q V i i i V i i Microcapsules were homogeneously distributed into the whole foam

18 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. CELL STRUCTURE AND SIZE SEM photographs of PU foams with different microcapsules content 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% RPU are formed with microcapsules into the strut and also the cell wall

19 Specific Compressive Strength S (Mpa/(g/cm3)) Specific Compressive Modulus E (Mpa/(g/cm3)) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. COMPRESSION TESTS Uniaxial compression tests were performed according to ASTM D1621 Specific compression strength and modulus for excluding the density effect % PCM % PCM No significant difference between the values of foams containing 0 to 20wt% Sharp decrease in the mechanical resistance for contents higher than 20wt% S=0.2-8 MPa/g/cm 3 y E=2-200MPa/g/cm 3

20 Temperature (ºC) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. THERMAL ANALYSIS 1. Influence INTRO- of Temperature DUCCIÓN Experimental variation of temperatures at different points in a RPU foam without PCM 2. OBJETIVOS 40 T bath change in step 18 to 40ºC 3. PROCEDI- MIENTO EXPERIMENTAL 4. RESULTADOS T down1 =T down2 T middle1 =T middle2 T up1 =T up2 Tdown2 Tup2 Tbath Tup1 Tenvironment Tmiddle2 Tdown1 Tmiddle1 Tinsulation 5. CONCLU- SIONES t (s) Termocouples opposite to the flow One dimensional flow with the same temperature profile

21 Q (W/m 2 ) Temperature (ºC) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. THERMAL ANALYSIS 40 Hot Plate Temperature Microcapsules Content (%wt) Tdown average 0% Tdown average 10% Thermal Damping Slope of the curves This behavior is more clear with percentages higher than 20% Tdown average 20% Tdown average 40% Tdown average 50% Tbath 140 Input Heat Flux 15 Down Temperature t (s) q in 0% (W/m2) q in 10% (W/m2) q in 20% (W/m2) 80 q in 30% (W/m2) Microcapsules Content (%wt) 60 q in 40% (W/m2) q in 50% (W/m2) Input heat Flux Maximum energy absorb or lower insulating effect t (s)

22 Q (W/m 2 ) Temperature (ºC) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. THERMAL ANALYSIS 40 Hot Plate Temperature Tup average 0% 35 Tup average 10% Tup average 20% Similar temperatures at stationary condition, but 30 3 cm in thickness Tup average 30% Tup average 40% Tup average 50% big difference in the transition step 25 Tbath Melting of PCM by energy absorption 20 Output Heat Flux 15 External Temperature t (s) q out 0% (W/m2) q out 10% (W/m2) -4 q out 20% (W/m2) Microcapsules Content (%wt) q out 30% (W/m2) -6 q out 40% (W/m2) Output heat Flux -8 q out 50% (W/m2) Ability to store energy t (s)

23 Q (W) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. THERMAL ANALYSIS Influence of Heat Flows Accumulation curves as a function of time and the percentage content of PCMs 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 Accumulated (W) 0% Accumulated (W) 10% Accumulated (W) 20% Accumulated (W) 30% Accumulated (W) 40% Accumulated (W) 50% 0,4 0,3 0,2 Total energy absorbed during one step temperature change 18ªC-40ªC 0,1 0-0, t (s) Microcapsules Content (%wt) THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE (TES)

24 Thermal Capacity Cp (J/g ºC) Thermal Conductivity K (J/m s) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. THERMAL ANALYSIS Determination of thermal conductivity and heat capacity 10 0,100 Heat Capacity Cp 9 8 y = 0,0007x + 0,0541 0,090 c p = m probeta q ac T f T i 7 6 y = 0,0548x + 2,8559 0,080 0, ,060 Thermal conductivity K 3 0,050 κ = Q inlet Δx ΔT 2 1 Cp(J/g C) K (J/m s) 0, % PCM 0,030 Cp and K follow a straight line (0.05 and respectively) Both are representative of those reported in the literature

25 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. THERMAL APPLICATIONS Standar Room 3x4x2.5 m 3 1 m 3 panels of RPU (thickness of 3cm) Foam (% PCM) TES (kwh/m 3 ) Panels of RPU

26 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. THERMAL APPLICATIONS As example Consumption of a 60 Watt light bulb = 1.44kWh Energy saved by a room covered with panels containing 50% of microcapsules Energy spent by 4 light bulbs working all the day Centro Nacional de la Energía (CNE) CO 2emitted = 0.35kg/KWh

27 REDUCING THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN BUILDINGS BY INCORPORATING MICROENCAPSULATED PCMS IN RIGID POLYURETHANE FOAMS THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Reducing the energy consumption in buildings by incorporating microencapsulated PCMs in rigid polyurethane Título foams presentación

28 CONCLUSIONS - It is possible to incorporate up to a 50wt% of msd-(ldpe-eva-rt27) into the PU foams, achieving a homogeneous distribution of the microcapsules and improving the TES capacity of the foams. - The higher the microcapsules content, the lower the final foam height. Moreover, the foam density increases with this content. - Microcapsules are mechanically stable and they can be found into the strut and also on the cell wall. - The higher amount of microcapsules inside the building materials, the higher is the TES Capacity. - Thermal capacity and the thermal conductivity follow a straight line, increasing of 0,055 and 0,0007 respectively. - The incorporation of a 50 wt% of PCMs allows to save up to 5.38KWh/m 3, equivalent to 1.44kWh equivalent to the spent energy by 4 light bulbs working all day. - The incorporation of the msd-(pebd EVA-RT27) into conventional housings will show a great decrease in the energy consumption and thus in the CO 2 emissions.

Heat and cold storage with PCM

Heat and cold storage with PCM Harald Mehling Luisa F. Cabeza Heat and cold storage with PCM An up to date introduction into basics and applications With 208 Figures and 28 Tables 4y Springer Contents 1 Basic thermodynamics of thermal

More information

DETERMINATION OF THE HEAT STORAGE CAPACITY OF PCM AND PCM-OBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE. E. Günther, S. Hiebler, H. Mehling

DETERMINATION OF THE HEAT STORAGE CAPACITY OF PCM AND PCM-OBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE. E. Günther, S. Hiebler, H. Mehling DETERMINATION OF THE HEAT STORAGE CAPACITY OF PCM AND PCM-OBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE E. Günther, S. Hiebler, H. Mehling Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern) Walther-Meißner-Str.

More information

Determination of the heat storage capacity of PCM and PCM objects as a function of temperature

Determination of the heat storage capacity of PCM and PCM objects as a function of temperature Determination of the heat storage capacity of PCM and PCM objects as a function of temperature E. Günther, S. Hiebler, H. Mehling ZAE Bayern, Walther-Meißner-Str. 6, 85748 Garching, Germany Outline Introduction

More information

CFD Analysis of Application of Phase Change Material in Automotive Climate Control Systems

CFD Analysis of Application of Phase Change Material in Automotive Climate Control Systems CFD Analysis of Application of Phase Change Material in Automotive Climate Control Systems Vijayakumar Nachimuthu 1, Prabhu Mani 2, Muthukumar. P 3 1 Flowxplore, Coimbatore, India., 2 Kathir College of

More information

SANDWICH PANEL JAWDAH S SANDWICH PANEL COVERING MATERIALS

SANDWICH PANEL JAWDAH S SANDWICH PANEL COVERING MATERIALS SANDWICH PANEL The choice of sandwich panels is extremely important and connected with solving of a number of technical problems, which are often unknown for the customers who do not have experience in

More information

ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC SOLAR WATER HEATER USING DIFFERENT PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL

ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC SOLAR WATER HEATER USING DIFFERENT PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL 1.1General Chapter 1 Solar energy being simple to use, clean, non polluting and inexhaustible has received wide spread attention in recent times. It provides well abundant energy source if utilized efficiently.

More information

MICROENCAPSULATED PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS (PCM) FOR BUILDING APPLICATIONS

MICROENCAPSULATED PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS (PCM) FOR BUILDING APPLICATIONS MICROENCAPSULATED PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS (PCM) FOR BUILDING APPLICATIONS C. Castellón, M. Nogués, J. Roca, M. Medrano, L. F. Cabeza Departament d Informàtica i Eng. Industrial, Universitat de Lleida Pere

More information

Solar energy storage using latent heat storage techniques and application

Solar energy storage using latent heat storage techniques and application Available online at www.iosrd.org IOSRD International Journal of Engineering Journal home page: http://iosrd.org/journals Solar energy storage using latent heat storage techniques and application K Siva

More information

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYURETHANE COMPRESSION, EXTENSION AND SHEARING

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYURETHANE COMPRESSION, EXTENSION AND SHEARING EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYURETHANE COMPRESSION, EXTENSION AND SHEARING Eng. Cristian Morar, PhD Stud, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, ROMANIA ABSTRACT: Due to the climate

More information

Insulation. Polyurethane Foam Composite. Fly Ash Derived Ceramic. Anne Oberlink, Tom Robl, Bob Jewell, Brock Marrs, John Wiseman

Insulation. Polyurethane Foam Composite. Fly Ash Derived Ceramic. Anne Oberlink, Tom Robl, Bob Jewell, Brock Marrs, John Wiseman Fly Ash Derived Ceramic Polyurethane Foam Composite Insulation Anne Oberlink, Tom Robl, Bob Jewell, Brock Marrs, John Wiseman University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Lexington, Kentucky

More information

Outline. Thermal storage for low carbon buildings. Effect of global warming on design summer year. Environment impacts of buildings

Outline. Thermal storage for low carbon buildings. Effect of global warming on design summer year. Environment impacts of buildings http://www.brighton.ac.uk/csbe Thermal storage for low carbon buildings Kenneth Ip Centre for Sustainability of the Built Environment Outline Background Basic principles of thermal storage in buildings

More information

Building materials thermal conductivity measurement and correlation with heat flow meter, laser flash analysis and TCi

Building materials thermal conductivity measurement and correlation with heat flow meter, laser flash analysis and TCi J Therm Anal Calorim DOI 10.1007/s10973-011-1760-x Building materials thermal conductivity measurement and correlation with heat flow meter, laser flash analysis and TCi Junghoon Cha Jungki Seo Sumin Kim

More information

Differential Scanning Calorimetry theoretical background

Differential Scanning Calorimetry theoretical background Differential Scanning Calorimetry theoretical background Galina Kubyshkina Elektromaterial Lendava d.d., Slovenia Crystalline materials Typical features presence of a unit (cell), which is periodically

More information

HEAT STORAGE AND TRANSFORMATION

HEAT STORAGE AND TRANSFORMATION October 2001 ECN-RX--01-036 HEAT STORAGE AND TRANSFORMATION Paper presented at the ZAE-Symposium 2001, Heat and Cold Storage Munich, 3-5 October 2001 P.W. Bach W.G. Haije A October 2001; Final version

More information

Thermal Energy Storage for More Efficient Domestic Appliances

Thermal Energy Storage for More Efficient Domestic Appliances Thermal Energy Storage for More Efficient Domestic Appliances Halime PAKSOY, Selma YILMAZ, Ozgul GOK, Metin O. YILMAZ, 2 Muhsin MAZMA, Hunay EVLIYA Çukurova University 01130 Balcalı Adana-Turkey hopaksoy@cu.edu.tr,

More information

Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms

Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms Air Change: Unlike re-circulated air, this is the total air required to completely replace the air in a room or building. Air Conditioner: Equipment

More information

18th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering

18th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering CYLINDRICAL ENCAPSULATED COLD STORAGE Juan José Milón Guzmán Universidad Católica San Pablo, Av. Salaverry, 31, Vallecito, Cercado, Arequipa, Perú milonjj@ucsp.edu.pe Sergio leal Braga Pontificia Universidade

More information

Use of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in Building Applications

Use of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in Building Applications Use of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in Building Applications C. Castellón M. Medrano, PhD J. Roca, PhD M. Nogués, PhD A. Castell L.F. Cabeza, PhD ABSTRACT Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have

More information

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated

More information

THERMAL INSULATION PROPERTIES OF EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE AS CONSTRUCTION AND INSULATING MATERIALS ABSTRACT

THERMAL INSULATION PROPERTIES OF EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE AS CONSTRUCTION AND INSULATING MATERIALS ABSTRACT THERMAL INSULATION PROPERTIES OF EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE AS CONSTRUCTION AND INSULATING MATERIALS K. T. Yucel 1, C. Basyigit 2, C. Ozel 3 ABSTRACT Laboratory thermal conductivity testing of insulating materials

More information

Packaging Insulation 101 Considerations for choosing the right material and construction for temperature controlled packaging

Packaging Insulation 101 Considerations for choosing the right material and construction for temperature controlled packaging Packaging Insulation 101 Considerations for choosing the right material and construction for temperature controlled packaging Jean Bedard, VP of Cold Chain Operations, Mesa Labs Kevin Kohleriter, Marketing,

More information

Interplast Underfloor heating system

Interplast Underfloor heating system Interplast Underfloor heating system Underfloor heating operates with water at a low temperature, between 35 ο C - 45 ο C, that circulates in pipes embedded in the floor. The heat is then evenly distributed

More information

Module 2.2. Heat transfer mechanisms

Module 2.2. Heat transfer mechanisms Module 2.2 Heat transfer mechanisms Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe the 1 st and 2 nd laws of thermodynamics. - Describe heat transfer mechanisms.

More information

Nestaan Holland B.V. Quality insulation with a personal touch

Nestaan Holland B.V.  Quality insulation with a personal touch Nestaan Holland B.V. www.nestaan.nl Quality insulation with a personal touch Nestaan Holland Nestaan Holland is a family business, founded in 1968 and is specialized in the development and production of

More information

Thermal diffusivity and conductivity - an introduction to theory and practice

Thermal diffusivity and conductivity - an introduction to theory and practice Thermal diffusivity and conductivity - an introduction to theory and practice Utrecht, 02 October 2014 Dr. Hans-W. Marx Linseis Messgeräte GmbH Vielitzer Str. 43 D-95100 Selb / GERMANY www.linseis.com

More information

CONTINUOUS SANDWICH PANELS. With PUF / EPS/Mineral wool/rock wool as insulation material

CONTINUOUS SANDWICH PANELS. With PUF / EPS/Mineral wool/rock wool as insulation material CONTINUOUS SANDWICH PANELS With PUF / EPS/Mineral wool/rock wool as insulation material Sandwich panel. Sandwich panels are made of two color coated metal sheets with an insulation material sandwiched

More information

Changing energy use in old buildings

Changing energy use in old buildings Baltic Environmental Forum Latvia Antonijas iela 3-8 LV-1010 Riga, Latvia www.bef.lv REC Head Office 2000 Szentendre Ady Endre ut 9-11 Hungary www.rec.org Changing energy use in old buildings The sole

More information

Comparison of Infrared and Visible Light Absorption Properties of Water and its Application in Filtering Heat Energy from Solar Radiation

Comparison of Infrared and Visible Light Absorption Properties of Water and its Application in Filtering Heat Energy from Solar Radiation Comparison of Infrared and Visible Light Absorption Properties of Water and its Application in Filtering Heat Energy from Solar Radiation Tiasha Joardar 5124 Water Haven Lane Plano, TX 75093 2011-2012

More information

New technical solutions for energy efficient buildings

New technical solutions for energy efficient buildings - New technical solutions for energy efficient buildings State of the Art Report New technologies for heat pumps Authors: Heimo Staller, Angelika Tisch, IFZ Oct. 2010 Background Heat pumps are machines

More information

Paraffin in Water Emulsion as heat transfer and storage medium

Paraffin in Water Emulsion as heat transfer and storage medium ABSTRACT Paraffin in Water Emulsion as heat transfer and storage medium Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety, and Energy Technology UMSICHT Osterfelder Strasse 3, 46047 Oberhausen, Germany Phone:

More information

Stearic Acid as Phase Change Material: Thermal Reliability Test and Compatibility with some Construction Materials.

Stearic Acid as Phase Change Material: Thermal Reliability Test and Compatibility with some Construction Materials. Stearic Acid as Phase Change Material: Thermal Reliability Test and Compatibility with some Construction Materials. Vimal N. Chaudhari Assistant Professor Mechanical Engg. Dept., SVIT Vasad, Gujarat, India.

More information

HFM Heat Flow Meter Thermal Conductivity Analyzer

HFM Heat Flow Meter Thermal Conductivity Analyzer HFM Heat Flow Meter Thermal Conductivity Analyzer Introduction An insulating material is a material with low thermal conductivity, which in the construction industry, equipment manufacturing, or the production

More information

hore PRODUCT CATALOGUE nd Offsh arine an ms for Ma & Refrig INSULATION PANELS FOR PROVISION STORES HV VAC &

hore PRODUCT CATALOGUE nd Offsh arine an ms for Ma & Refrig INSULATION PANELS FOR PROVISION STORES HV VAC & hore nd Offsh arine an ms for Ma geration System & Refrig HV VAC & PRODUCT CATALOGUE INSULATION PANELS FOR PROVISION STORES ! "# $ % & " ' (! ) * +,+( -../01..2 PRODUCT CATALOGUE 74-11 CONTENT PAGE 1....4

More information

Characterization of Electronic Materials Using Thermal Analysis

Characterization of Electronic Materials Using Thermal Analysis application Note Thermal Analysis Characterization of Electronic Materials Using Thermal Analysis Thermal analysis comprises a series of powerful techniques for the characterization of the thermal, physical,

More information

GREENERGIZE Your Packaging

GREENERGIZE Your Packaging 1 GREENERGIZE Your Packaging PCM for Temperature Controlled Packaging The industry uses gel packs, ice and dry ice Consumers are looking for better methods to: control temperature reduce shipping weight

More information

AIR CONDITIONING EFFICIENCY F8 Energy eco-efficiency opportunities in Queensland Foundries

AIR CONDITIONING EFFICIENCY F8 Energy eco-efficiency opportunities in Queensland Foundries AIR CONDITIONING EFFICIENCY F8 Energy eco-efficiency opportunities in Queensland Foundries Hot tips and cool ideas to save energy and money! Air conditioning units or systems are often used by foundries

More information

A Critical Review of Thermochemical Energy Storage Systems

A Critical Review of Thermochemical Energy Storage Systems 42 The Open Renewable Energy Journal, 2011, 4, 42-46 A Critical Review of Thermochemical Energy Storage Systems Open Access Ali H. Abedin and Marc A. Rosen 1, * Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,

More information

ENHANCEMENT OF PHASE CHANGE ALONG THE LONG TUBES OF A LATENT HEAT STORAGE UNIT

ENHANCEMENT OF PHASE CHANGE ALONG THE LONG TUBES OF A LATENT HEAT STORAGE UNIT ENHANCEMENT OF PHASE CHANGE ALONG THE LONG TUBES OF A LATENT HEAT STORAGE UNIT Kamal A. R. ISMAIL *, Fátima A. M. LINO, Louryval C. PAIXÃO, Raquel C. R. da SILVA, Carlos T. SALINAS Department of Thermal

More information

energies ISSN

energies ISSN Energies 2013, 6, 5219-5230; doi:10.3390/en6105219 Article OPEN ACCESS energies ISSN 1996-1073 www.mdpi.com/journal/energies Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building

More information

Vicot Solar Air Conditioning. V i c o t A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g C o., l t d Tel: 86-531-8235 5576 Fax: 86-531-82357911 Http://www.vicot.com.

Vicot Solar Air Conditioning. V i c o t A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g C o., l t d Tel: 86-531-8235 5576 Fax: 86-531-82357911 Http://www.vicot.com. Vicot Solar Air Conditioning V i c o t A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g C o., l t d Tel: 86-531-8235 5576 Fax: 86-531-82357911 Http://www.vicot.com.cn Cooling, heating, and domestic hot water. Return on investment

More information

USE OF CuO NANO-MATERIAL FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND PERFORMANCE OF LOW TEMPERATURE ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM OF SOLAR POND

USE OF CuO NANO-MATERIAL FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND PERFORMANCE OF LOW TEMPERATURE ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM OF SOLAR POND Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures ` Vol. 7, No. 4, October-December 2012, p. 1833-1841 USE OF CuO NANO-MATERIAL FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND PERFORMANCE OF LOW TEMPERATURE

More information

The Advantages & Challenges of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) In Thermal Packaging. Author Richard M. Formato, R&D Manager Cold Chain Technologies

The Advantages & Challenges of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) In Thermal Packaging. Author Richard M. Formato, R&D Manager Cold Chain Technologies The Advantages & Challenges of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) In Thermal Packaging Author Richard M. Formato, R&D Manager Cold Chain Technologies OVERVIEW Cold Chain Technologies, Inc. (CCT) designs and

More information

Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat Mixed Questions

Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat Mixed Questions Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat Mixed Questions 1. 12 000 J of heat energy raises the temperature of a 2kg block of a metal from 20 0 C to 30 0 C. What is the specific heat capacity of the metal?

More information

2. CHRONOLOGICAL REVIEW ABOUT THE CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

2. CHRONOLOGICAL REVIEW ABOUT THE CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF PCM SLURRIES AND PCM EMULSIONS AS HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS M. Delgado, J. Mazo, C. Peñalosa, J.M. Marín, B. Zalba Thermal Engineering Division. Department of Mechanical Engineering University of

More information

RESULTS OF ICARUS 9 EXPERIMENTS RUN AT IMRA EUROPE

RESULTS OF ICARUS 9 EXPERIMENTS RUN AT IMRA EUROPE Roulette, T., J. Roulette, and S. Pons. Results of ICARUS 9 Experiments Run at IMRA Europe. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido,

More information

07 21 19 Guide Specification STAYFLEX CORROSION CONTROL AND THERMAL INSULATION SYSTEM

07 21 19 Guide Specification STAYFLEX CORROSION CONTROL AND THERMAL INSULATION SYSTEM 07 21 19 STAYFLEX CORROSION CONTROL AND THERMAL INSULATION SYSTEM 7819 Broadview Road Cleveland, OH 44131 800-522-4522 February, 2011 SPEC NOTE: This guide specification is intended for use when specifying

More information

HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PCM THERMAL STORAGE BY USE OF COPPER FINS

HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PCM THERMAL STORAGE BY USE OF COPPER FINS S251 HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PCM THERMAL STORAGE BY USE OF COPPER FINS by Nedžad R. RUDONJA a*, Mirko S. KOMATINA a, Goran S. ŽIVKOVI] b, and Dragi Lj. ANTONIJEVI] c a Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,

More information

Thermal properties of contemporary lightweight cavity bricks: a semi-scale experimental study

Thermal properties of contemporary lightweight cavity bricks: a semi-scale experimental study CTU Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering Department of Materials Engineering and Chemistry Thermal properties of contemporary lightweight cavity bricks: a semi-scale experimental study Z. Pavlík, J. Fořt,

More information

A brief comparison of ice packs, salts, paraffins and vegetable-derived phase change materials

A brief comparison of ice packs, salts, paraffins and vegetable-derived phase change materials A brief comparison of ice packs, salts, paraffins and vegetable-derived phase change materials In a head-to-head comparison in six key areas, phase change materials made from vegetable sources have the

More information

Solar energy storage by a two grade phase change material

Solar energy storage by a two grade phase change material Ŕ periodica polytechnica Chemical Engineering 51/2 (2007) 3 7 doi: 10.3311/pp.ch.2007-2.01 web: http:// www.pp.bme.hu/ ch c Periodica Polytechnica 2007 Solar energy storage by a two grade phase change

More information

XFA 600 Thermal Diffusivity Thermal Conductivity

XFA 600 Thermal Diffusivity Thermal Conductivity XFA 600 Thermal Diffusivity Thermal Conductivity Thermal Diffusivity, Thermal Conductivity Information of the thermo physical properties of materials and heat transfer optimization of final products is

More information

HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF LATENT HEAT STORAGE SYSTEM USING D-SORBITOL AS PCM

HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF LATENT HEAT STORAGE SYSTEM USING D-SORBITOL AS PCM HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF LATENT HEAT STORAGE SYSTEM USING D-SORBITOL AS PCM Beemkumar N. 1, A. Karthikeyan 2, C. Parthasarathy 1 and B. Bradley Bright 2 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sathyabama

More information

Ecodan Air Source Heat Pump and Flow Temperature Controller 2

Ecodan Air Source Heat Pump and Flow Temperature Controller 2 HOMEOWNER STANDALONE Homeowner Information SEPTEMBER 2011 Ecodan Air Source Heat Pump and Flow Temperature Controller 2 Ecodan Air Source Heat Pump Model Number PUHZ-W50VHA(2)-BS PUHZ-W85VHA(2)-BS PUHZ-HW140VHA(2)-BS

More information

Module 3.8. Window U-value

Module 3.8. Window U-value Module 3.8 Window U-value Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe the concept of U-values and alternative energy rating system for windows. 2 Calculation

More information

Protocol for the Certification of Energy Simulation Software: First edition, December 2009

Protocol for the Certification of Energy Simulation Software: First edition, December 2009 Copyright Agrément South Africa, December 2009 The master copy of this document appears on the website: http://www.agrement.co.za Protocol for the Certification of Energy Simulation Software: First edition,

More information

TECHNICAL DATA SHEET

TECHNICAL DATA SHEET EPOXY - NG1001 Formulated Resin System for Pre-preg Process General information Description: TECHNICAL DATA SHEET EPOXY - NG1001 is a formulated epoxy based resin system for hot melt pre-preg and pressure

More information

Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations

Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations Natti S. Rao Nick R. Schott Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations Hands-on Examples and Case Studies Sample Pages from Chapters 4 and 6 ISBNs 978--56990-509-8-56990-509-6 HANSER Hanser Publishers,

More information

state and explain how the internal energy and the absolute (kelvin) temperature are related....

state and explain how the internal energy and the absolute (kelvin) temperature are related.... 6 N08/4/PHYSI/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX+ A2. This question is about ideal gases. (a) State what is meant by an ideal gas....... For an ideal gas define internal energy. state and explain how the internal energy and

More information

2. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF FURNACES

2. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF FURNACES 2. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF FURNACES 2.1 Industrial Heating Furnaces Furnace is by definition a device for heating materials and therefore a user of energy. Heating furnaces can be divided into

More information

A LABORATORY HEATING TEST FOR THERMO- HYDRAULIC IDENTIFICATION OF ROCKS. J.J. Muñoz, E.E. Alonso & A. Lloret

A LABORATORY HEATING TEST FOR THERMO- HYDRAULIC IDENTIFICATION OF ROCKS. J.J. Muñoz, E.E. Alonso & A. Lloret Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CATALUNYA A LABORATORY HEATING TEST FOR THERMO- HYDRAULIC IDENTIFICATION OF ROCKS J.J. Muñoz, E.E. Alonso & A. Lloret nd International

More information

Clean Energy Solutions Center IEA Technology Roadmap: Energy Efficient Building Envelopes Launch

Clean Energy Solutions Center IEA Technology Roadmap: Energy Efficient Building Envelopes Launch Clean Energy Solutions Center IEA Technology Roadmap: Energy Efficient Building Envelopes Launch Didier Houssin and Marc LaFrance International Energy Agency 18 December 2013 Paris IEA/SPT Flagship Publication,

More information

Air Conditioning. The opportunity for energy efficiency. Low cost actions to reduce energy usage now

Air Conditioning. The opportunity for energy efficiency. Low cost actions to reduce energy usage now Fact Sheet #6 Air Conditioning In this fact sheet you will discover: The opportunity for energy efficiency How air conditioning works Low cost actions to reduce energy usage now Investments to reduce costs

More information

Low temperature solar assisted (heating) system based on slurry PCM

Low temperature solar assisted (heating) system based on slurry PCM ANNEX 59 - High emperature Cooling & Low emperature Heating in Buildings Riqualificazione di edifici esistenti con elevati standard energetici: metodi e tecnologie ENEA - Via G. Romano 41, 00196 Roma -

More information

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WATER-FLOW WINDOW GLAZING

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WATER-FLOW WINDOW GLAZING PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WATER-FLOW WINDOW GLAZING LI CHUNYING DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY CITY UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG FEBRUARY 2012 CITY UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG 香 港 城 市 大 學 Performance Evaluation of Water-flow

More information

Meeting the Thermal Management Needs of Evolving Electronics Applications

Meeting the Thermal Management Needs of Evolving Electronics Applications Meeting the Thermal Management Needs of Evolving Electronics Applications Dr. Glenn Mitchell / August 2015 Agenda Introduction Thermal Industry Trends TIM Challenges, Needs & Criteria TIM Industry Solutions

More information

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Polymer

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Polymer FOAMAZOL Chemical Foaming Agents INJECTION MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Polymer Foaming Agent INJECTION MOLDING WITH CHEMICAL FOAMING AGENTS Introduction The injection molding of structural foam molded parts

More information

Indirect passive solar heating systems

Indirect passive solar heating systems 3.2.4. Indirect passive solar heating systems Indirect passive solar systems are also combined with the existing elements and structures adding absorption, accumulation and distribution of the received

More information

Solid Cellular Materials

Solid Cellular Materials Solid Cellular Materials Simon Cox University of Wales Aberystwyth foams@aber.ac.uk Define foam? First make a foam which Plateau would recognise, then freeze it. To make an open cell foam, remove the films.

More information

Foam Injection Molding:

Foam Injection Molding: Foam Injection Molding: Unique Process Solutions for Light Weighting Automotive Plastic Parts Steve Braig President & CEO Trexel, Inc. AGENDA Technology Overview > Chemical Foaming > Physical Foaming Foamed

More information

TA INSTRUMENTS DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETER (DSC) Insert Nickname Here. Operating Instructions

TA INSTRUMENTS DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETER (DSC) Insert Nickname Here. Operating Instructions TA INSTRUMENTS DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETER (DSC) Insert Nickname Here Operating Instructions Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION Safety 2 Sample Preparation 3 2 BACKGROUND Background Information 4 Resources

More information

Reaction Engineering of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

Reaction Engineering of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Reaction Engineering of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells A new approach to elucidate the operation and control of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is being developed. A global reactor

More information

Dielectric Analysis Permittivity and dielectric loss 100. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Mechanical strength and energy loss 200

Dielectric Analysis Permittivity and dielectric loss 100. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Mechanical strength and energy loss 200 Relative Signal Technique Property Measured Change at Tg Differential Scanning Calorimetry Heat flow (heat capacity) 0.2 Thermomechanical Analysis Expansion coefficient or softening 3 Dielectric Analysis

More information

Calculating Heat Loss by Mark Crombie, Chromalox

Calculating Heat Loss by Mark Crombie, Chromalox Calculating Heat Loss by Mark Crombie, Chromalox Posted: January 30, 2006 This article deals with the basic principles of heat transfer and the calculations used for pipes and vessels. By understanding

More information

THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY Thermal Diffusivity, Thermal Conductivity Information of the thermo physical properties of materials and heat transfer optimization of final products is becoming

More information

FULL PAPER Standardization of PCM Characterization via DSC

FULL PAPER Standardization of PCM Characterization via DSC FULL PAPER Standardization of PCM Characterization via DSC Stefan Gschwander 1, Thomas Haussmann 1, Georg Hagelstein 1, Aran Sole 2, Luisa F. Cabeza 2 Gonzalo Diarce 3, Wolfgang Hohenauer 4, Daniel Lager

More information

Styrodur C, Environmentally friendly extruded polystyrene free of CFC, HCFC, and HFC filled with air.

Styrodur C, Environmentally friendly extruded polystyrene free of CFC, HCFC, and HFC filled with air. Styrodur C, Environmentally friendly extruded polystyrene free of CFC, HCFC, and HFC filled with air. Thermal insulation does more than protect the climate Effective thermal insulation with Styrodur C

More information

SANDWICH PANEL FILLING MATERIALS

SANDWICH PANEL FILLING MATERIALS SANDWICH PANEL FILLING MATERIALS Materials such as Polyurethane, PIR, Polystyrene, Phenolic Foam and Rockwool, etc. are the filling core materials mostly preferred in sandwich panel applications. All the

More information

Heating and cooling. Insulation. Quick facts on insulation:

Heating and cooling. Insulation. Quick facts on insulation: Heating and cooling Heating and cooling your home can be one of the biggest users of energy. Efficency in this area can bring great savings. Heating and cooling depend on many contributing factors. The

More information

Solar Energy in Egypt Advantages and Obstacles

Solar Energy in Egypt Advantages and Obstacles Solar Energy in Egypt Advantages and Obstacles By Samir S. Ayad Professor of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Engineering Benha University Email:samir_ayad@mail.com Cell Phone: +2 012 7871281 President

More information

Energy savings in commercial refrigeration. Low pressure control

Energy savings in commercial refrigeration. Low pressure control Energy savings in commercial refrigeration equipment : Low pressure control August 2011/White paper by Christophe Borlein AFF and l IIF-IIR member Make the most of your energy Summary Executive summary

More information

Residential HVAC System Sizing

Residential HVAC System Sizing Residential HVAC System Sizing William P. Goss University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA Corresponding email: goss@acad.umass.edu SUMMARY Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC)

More information

Freezing. Outline. Examples in Daily Life

Freezing. Outline. Examples in Daily Life Freezing Outline Examples of freezing in daily life Purpose of freezing Stages of freezing Effect of freezing on properties Types of freezers Freezing medium Shelf life and quality of frozen foods Equipment

More information

Examples in Daily Life

Examples in Daily Life Freezing Outline Examples of freezing in daily life Purpose of freezing Stages of freezing Effect of freezing on properties Types of freezers Freezing medium Shelf life and quality of frozen foods Equipment

More information

Heating In Agitated & Non-Agitated Vessels

Heating In Agitated & Non-Agitated Vessels Heating In Agitated & Non-Agitated Vessels IBD/BFBiMidland Section Engineering Symposium on Heat Transfer and Refrigeration Burton-on-Trent Jan 2014 Mark Phillips Briggs of Burton Contents Heat Energy

More information

Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Water

Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Water Prepared for California Energy Commission (CEC) Prepared By: Southern California Gas Company (A Sempra Energy Utility) E3M Inc. May 2012 i Disclaimer The CEC and its contractor, Southern California Gas

More information

NEW TEXTILE COMPOSITES WITH THERMO-REGULATING PROPERTIES FOR AUTOMOTIVE INTERIOR APPLICATIONS

NEW TEXTILE COMPOSITES WITH THERMO-REGULATING PROPERTIES FOR AUTOMOTIVE INTERIOR APPLICATIONS NEW TEXTILE COMPOSITES WITH THERMO-REGULATING PROPERTIES FOR AUTOMOTIVE INTERIOR APPLICATIONS B. Pause Textile Testing & Innovation, LLC. Abstract Energy can be saved and the thermal comfort inside the

More information

EE 206 Electric Energy Engineering

EE 206 Electric Energy Engineering Chapter 1: Review Lecturer: Dr Ibrahim Rida Electrical Engineering Department University of Hail First Semester (112) 2011/12 1.2. ENERGY SOURCES Energy resources are the various materials that contain

More information

International Energy Agency. Energy Storage Technologies Overview and Comparison

International Energy Agency. Energy Storage Technologies Overview and Comparison International Energy Agency Energy Storage Technologies Overview and Comparison Energy Storage Central Component Energy storages are central components of many energy systems. Waste Heat CSP SCP Agriculture

More information

New Thermal Architecture For Future Green Data Centres

New Thermal Architecture For Future Green Data Centres New Thermal Architecture For Future Green Data Centres S. Le Masson, D. Nörtershäuser France Télécom R&D 2, Av Pierre Marzin 22300 Lannion FRANCE stephane.lemasson@orange-ftgroup.com ; david.nortershauser@orange-ftgroup.com,

More information

Thermal Analysis Differential scanning calorimetry for all requirements.

Thermal Analysis Differential scanning calorimetry for all requirements. Thermal Analysis Differential scanning calorimetry for all requirements. DSC822 e Module METTLER TOLEDO DSC822 e Measuring module Outstanding performance, simple and easy to operate. Differential scanning

More information

Mineral Wool Composite Panels

Mineral Wool Composite Panels Mineral Wool Composite Panels Since inception in 1961, TSSC, a primary member of Harwal Group has been setting manufacturing benchmarks in the region with its engineering excellence. The ISO 9001:2008

More information

Thermal Analysis TGA / DTA. Linda Fröberg

Thermal Analysis TGA / DTA. Linda Fröberg Thermal Analysis TGA / DTA Linda Fröberg Outline Definitions What is thermal analysis? Instrumentation & origin of the TGA-DTA signal. TGA DTA Basics and applications Phase diagrams & Thermal analysis

More information

Calculate Available Heat for Natural Gas Fuel For Industrial Heating Equipment and Boilers

Calculate Available Heat for Natural Gas Fuel For Industrial Heating Equipment and Boilers For Industrial Heating Equipment and Boilers Prepared for California Energy Commission (CEC) Prepared By: Southern California Gas Company (A Sempra Energy Utility) E3M Inc. May 2012 i Disclaimer The CEC

More information

Introducing the Skyline. Solar Water Heater, the most Attractive and Cost Effective Solar Power Money Can Buy! 30% Federal Tax Credits*

Introducing the Skyline. Solar Water Heater, the most Attractive and Cost Effective Solar Power Money Can Buy! 30% Federal Tax Credits* Introducing the Skyline Solar Water Heater, the most Attractive and Cost Effective Solar Power Money Can Buy! 30% Federal Tax Credits* and High Energy Costs, Make Now the Time to Go Solar * Up to $2,000.

More information

Building Envelope Insulation for Energy Conservation

Building Envelope Insulation for Energy Conservation Building Envelope Insulation for Energy Conservation Himanshu Agrawal Senior Manager Sustainable Building Solutions BASF India Limited National Conference on Green Design 2012 02.03.2012, New Delhi Indian

More information

03/05/14 REVISOR RSI/JC RD3945

03/05/14 REVISOR RSI/JC RD3945 1.1 Department of Commerce 1.2 Proposed Permanent Rules Relating to Commerce; Thermal Insulation Standards; 1.3 Materials and Installation 1.4 7640.0100 AUTHORITY; PURPOSE; INCORPORATIONS BY REFERENCE.

More information

Geometry optimization of a latent heat thermal energy storage unit using RT27 Jinqiu Shen1,a, Pierre Neveu2,b, Shuiming Shu3,c and Quentin Falcoz2,d

Geometry optimization of a latent heat thermal energy storage unit using RT27 Jinqiu Shen1,a, Pierre Neveu2,b, Shuiming Shu3,c and Quentin Falcoz2,d 5th International Conference on Environment, Materials, Chemistry and Power Electronics (EMCPE 2016) Geometry optimization of a latent heat thermal energy storage unit using RT27 Jinqiu Shen1,a, Pierre

More information

How does solar air conditioning work?

How does solar air conditioning work? How does solar air conditioning work? In a conventional air conditioning system; The working fluid arrives at the compressor as a cool, low-pressure gas. The compressor is powered by electricity to squeeze

More information

Studies on Paraffin-Graphite-Cu PCM Composites for Solar Thermal Storage Applications

Studies on Paraffin-Graphite-Cu PCM Composites for Solar Thermal Storage Applications Studies on Paraffin-Graphite-Cu PCM Composites for Solar Thermal Storage Applications Kavitha. K 1, Arumugam. S 2 Solar Energy Division, Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University,

More information