1 THE EFFECT OF CRIME VICTIMIZATION ON ATTITUDES TOWARDS CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN LATIN AMERICA Gabriel Demombynes Draft of May 2009 ABSTRACT This paper examines the effects victimization on criminal justice attitudes using data for most countries in Latin America. Using a representative survey for almost all of Latin America, we show that being victimized by crime reduces trust in the criminal justice system, increases the approval of people taking the law into their own hands, and reduces the probability that an individual believes authorities should always respect the law. Identification relies on the plausible assumption that crime victimization is random conditional on individual characteristics and neighborhood location, which are controlled for in the regression analysis. Most notable in the comparisons across countries is the particularly large negative effect of victimization in Mexico, El Salvador, and Guatemala on the belief that authorities should always respect the law. These results are worrisome because they imply that high levels of crime may feed vigilantism and support for brutal tactics that may themselves fuel greater levels of crime. JEL Classification: K42, D63 Key Words: Victimization, Criminal Justice, Latin America Abby Beatriz Cordova provided research assistance on a draft of the analysis presented in this paper. The views expressed in this paper are the author s alone, and in no way reflect those of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries they represent. Corresponding author:
2 1. INTRODUCTION A number of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced rising crime rates in recent years. Central America, in particular, has faced a rising wave of violent crime since the beginning of the decade, and the governments of the region have struggled to find ways to tackle the crime problem. One of the many possible effects of rising crime rates is a change in attitudes about the criminal justice system. As the incidence of crime rises, a growing fraction of the population will be people who have recently been victimized. The emotional shock of being victimized, combined with first-hand experience with the criminal justice system, may alter one s belief about the proper way for authorities and individual citizens to confront crime. If attitudes affect the way society deals with crime, a rising crime rate can drive public and private responses via the effect of crime on victims attitudes. Attitudes towards the criminal justice system have been recognized as a potentially important determinant of how well the criminal justice system functions. Previous work has argued that public support for the criminal justice system, and in particular for the police, is essential for the system to be effective (Tyler 1990), and previous work has shown that fear of crime increases among those who are victims (Wetzels, 1997). Research has not, however, demonstrated that crime victimization can change the attitudes of victims towards the criminal justice system.
3 In this paper, we consider the effect of crime victimization on three attitudes: trust in the criminal justice system, support for vigilantism, and support for the position that authorities should always respect the law when apprehending criminals. The first of these measures captures the overall view of the functioning of the state apparatus charged with controlling crime. The second concerns citizen response to crime, and the third concerns the response of public officials to crime. These attitudes are of concern because they are likely to be determinants of public and private behavior, particularly in countries with democratically elected governments. If citizens taking the law into their own hands is more widely supported, the costs of vigilante actions in terms of social and legal sanctions is likely to decrease, raising the expected prevalence of such actions. Likewise, an increased sentiment that the authorities should bend the law when apprehending criminals is likely to translate into more abusive practices by the police and criminal justice authorities. If declining trust in the criminal justice system, greater vigilantism, and increased police abuses produce a less effective criminal justice system, there is the potential for a country to find itself in a self-reinforcing spiral of crime and ineffective responses. The objective of this paper is not to demonstrate the full set of relationships outlined above but rather to present convincing evidence of one piece of the story: the effect of crime victimization on attitudes. The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes in detail the data used. Section 3 describes the analysis and the results, and Section 4 concludes.
4 2. DATA Comparison of crime data across time and countries is notoriously difficult due to problems of underreporting and varying crime definitions. Both problems are less severe for homicide, which is consequently preferred for international comparisons. Figure 1 shows homicide rates for Central America drawn from administrative data. The countries of the region exhibit a rising trend. In Guatemala homicide rates have almost doubled since 1999, after a sharp decrease following the signing of the peace agreement which ended the country s civil war. Homicides appear to have intensified in El Salvador and Honduras, although this may be in part a consequence of the improvement in methodology for collecting statistics. Homicide rates in Nicaragua, Panama, and Costa Rica, while substantially lower, have increased at an average pace of 5 to 10 percent per year. The principal data for this study is drawn from surveys conducted by Vanderbilt University s Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP). Surveys were conducted in 10 countries in 2004, 20 countries in 2006, and 20 countries in (A survey was carried out in Guyana only in 2006 and in Argentina only in 2008.) For each survey, approximately 1500 adults were interviewed (3000 in Ecuador and Bolivia.) The questions used for the analysis in this paper were identical across years and countries. LAPOP surveys use two-stage randomized samples, and all surveys are designed to be representative at the national level of the adult population.
5 Crime victimization was measured using the question Have you been a victim of any type of crime in the past 12 months? Attitudes towards the criminal justice system were measured with three separate questions: 1) To what extent do you trust the criminal justice system? (on a scale from 1 to 7) 2) How much do your approve or disapprove of people taking the law into their own hands when the government does not punish criminals? (on a scale from 1 to 10, where 10 is the highest level of approval). 3) In order to apprehend criminals do you think that the authorities should always respect the law or that occasionally they can skate close to the limits of the law? For each of the three attitude variables, an individual-level index was created by rescaling responses to attitude questions on a scale from 0 to 100. This means that for the binary responses to the third question, responses that authorities should always respect the law were given the value 100 and the alternative response was given the value 0. Additionally, on order to control for socioeconomic status in the analysis, a wealth index was constructed using information in the LAPOP surveys on household ownership of the following assets: television, refrigerator, telephone, vehicle, washing machine, microwave oven, motorcycle, indoor plumbing, indoor bathroom, and computer. Weights for the index were constructed using the first component from a principal components analysis, following the approach described by Filmer and Pritchett (2001).
6 3. ANALYSIS First, we consider victimization rates by country and survey year in the LAPOP data. Victimization rates across all countries and years are in the range of percent, with the large bulk falling between 13 and 20 percent. Tables 2-4 present mean values by country and year of the trust in criminal justice indices. Both victimization rates and attitude measures show substantial variation across countries and time. Notable patterns include the apparent decline in beliefs that authorities should always respect the law. In 7 of the 8 countries surveyed in both 2004 and 2008, the percentage voicing support for this position declined. Figure 1 shows a scatter plot of changes in victimization rates and changes in beliefs on this question; the national level figures suggest a loose correlation between these changes. It is impossible, however, to determine the causal effect of victimization by merely examining the beliefs of victims vs. non-victims either at the national or individual level. It is possible that those who are most likely to be victimized are different from the average citizen along other characteristics that affect their attitudes. Most importantly, the people at high risk for being crime victims are those that live in areas with high crime prevalence. These people may well have different attitudes from those who live in lower crime areas, independent of whether they are actually victims or not. In order to move beyond correlations at the national level, the basic approach employed for the analysis is to regress measures of attitudes towards the criminal justice system on a binary
7 variable for crime victimization along with additional control variables. The analysis controls for wealth, demographic characteristics, and fixed effects at the neighborhood (sampling cluster) level. This econometric strategy effectively determines the effects of victimization on attitudes by comparing victims to similar non-victims who live in the same neighborhoods. This approach will produce valid estimates of the effect of victimization on attitudes if victimization is random conditional on observed characteristics and neighborhood. Results from the basic specification for all three variables are shown in Table 5. Columns 1, 3, and 5 show OLS specifications, while columns 2, 4, and 6 present specifications including cluster-level fixed effects. Columns 1 and 2 shows that trust in the criminal justice system is lower among nonwhites, those with more education, and those who are less wealthy. Trust in the criminal justice system declines with age but at a decreasing rate. Columns 3 and 4 show that approval of vigilantism people taking the law into their own hands is lower for women, nonwhites, those who are married, those with more education, and those who are wealthier. Support for vigilantism declines with age, also at a decreasing rate. Columns 5 and 6 show that support for the proposition that authorities should always uphold the rule of law is lower among men, whites, the married, and the wealthier. This belief declines with age, also at a decreasing rate.
8 For most variables, the magnitude of the point estimate is smaller in the specification including cluster effects, indicating that part of the correlation between attitudes and characteristics may be due to location-specific attitudes. Turning to the focus of the analysis, the results show significant effects of victimization on attitudes. The preferred fixed-effects estimate (columns 2, 4, and 6) imply that crime victimization reduces trust in the criminal justice system by 3.6 points, increases approval of people taking the law into their own hands by 4.1 points, and reduces the belief that authorities should always uphold the rule of law by 6.5 points. Recall that all three indices are scaled from 0 to 100. Because the third index is constructed from a simple binary question, the estimated effect can be taken as the change in the probability of an affirmative answer. In other words, the results in column 6 imply that being victimized makes one 6.5 percent less likely to believe that authorities should always uphold the rule of law. In Table 6, we present the same fixed effect results shown in Table 5 alongside an alternative specification which uses dummies for the individual components of the wealth index rather than the wealth index itself. Although very few of the coefficients on the individual assets are statistically significant, the estimates are extremely similar. Table 7 summarizes estimated effects from country-level regressions. These regressions use cluster-level dummies and the specification which includes the wealth index but not individual assets. Effects that are statistically significant at the 10 percent level are shown in bold. While the magnitude of effects varies by country, and some country-specific estimate are not statistically significant, the sign of estimates effects is the same as that of the region
9 as a whole in all except one case (the effect of victimization on attitudes towards vigilantism in Brazil, which is near zero and insignificant.) The estimated effects are remarkably robust and are not driven by only a small number of countries. The effects may differ across countries in part because the nature of crime may vary. The victimization variable is a rough measure which refers to any victimization in the previous 12 months, which could range from petty theft to violence assault, and more severe crimes are probably more likely to provoke changes in attitudes. Some weak suggestion of this is given by some of the variation across countries in estimated effects. In particular, the strongest effects of victimization on belief that authorities should not always uphold the law are in three countries which have experienced particularly violence waves of crime in recent years: Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador. 4. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the analysis shows that being victimized by crime reduces trust in the criminal justice system by 3.6 points, increases the approval of people taking the law into their own hands by 4.1 points, and reduces by 6.5 percent the probability that an individual believes authorities should always respect the law. Most notable in the comparisons across countries is the relatively large negative effect of victimization in Mexico, El Salvador, and Guatemala on the belief that authorities should always respect the law. The reported estimates imply that being victimized in those countries makes an individual approximately 10 percent less likely to say that authorities should always respect the law. These results are worrisome
10 because they imply that high levels of crime may feed vigilantism and support for brutal tactics that may themselves fuel greater levels of crime. Two limitations to this analysis merit consideration. First, it is unclear how enduring changes in attitudes as a result of victimization are likely to be. The estimates presented here are for the effect of victimization during the previous 12 months on current attitudes. However, it is possible that the effects of victimization on attitudes fades over time and is therefore less of a concern. On the other hand, if there is high serial correlation in the likelihood of victimization so that those victimized this year are particularly likely to have been victimized in past years (even after controlling for location and other variables) then the estimates presented in this paper may overestimate the effect of more recent victimization. Second, high crime rates may have an effect on attitudes of those who are not victims as well. In fact, it seems likely that the climate of fear generated by knowledge of high levels of crime may affect attitudes. In Honduras and El Salvador, two countries that have seen large declines in confidence in the criminal justice system, the changes observed are too large to be accounted for by the estimated changes in attitudes among victims. This suggests that the change in attitudes in response to rising crime occurs among non-victims as well. This effect is more difficult to analyze empirically given that an adequate control group is difficult to identify but is likely to be substantial. This remains a topic for future research.
11 5. REFERENCES Bilsky, W., & Wetzels, P. (1997). On the relationship between criminal victimization and fear of crime. Psychology, Crime & Law, 3(4), Dull, R. T., & Wint, A. V. N. (1997). Criminal Victimization and Its Effect on Fear of Crime and Justice Attitudes. J Interpers Violence, 12(5), doi: / Filmer, D., & Pritchett, L. H. (2001). Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data-or tears: an application to educational enrollments in states of India. Demography, Roberts, J. V., & Hough, J. M. (2005). Understanding Public Attitudes to Criminal Justice (p. 183). Tyler, T. R. (2004). Enhancing Police Legitimacy. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 593(1), doi: /
12 Table 1: Crime Victimization Rates by Country and Year Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mexico 17.3 (1.5) 20.2 (1.5) 16.1 (1.5) Guatemala 12.8 (1.1) 19.2 (1.3) 17.1 (1.9) El Salvador 17.1 (2.2) 15.6 (1.9) 19.0 (1.2) Honduras 13.7 (1.2) 19.2 (1.4) 13.7 (1.5) Nicaragua 15.2 (2.4) 16.0 (1.1) 16.5 (1.4) Costa Rica 15.9 (1.2) Panama 14.8 (1.0) 7.1 (0.8) 8.4 (1.0) Colombia 14.4 (1.3) 13.2 (1.1) 15.5 (1.2) Ecuador 18.3 (1.1) 20.0 (1.2) 22.6 (1.2) Bolivia 25.9 (1.3) 16.8 (1.2) 19.0 (1.1) Peru 26.2 (1.3) 25.4 (1.0) Paraguay 17.3 (1.3) 16.6 (1.3) Chile 23.1 (1.3) 22.2 (1.2) Uruguay 21.6 (1.5) 22.0 (1.6) Brazil 15.5 (1.4) 16.3 (1.3) Venezuela 25.1 (1.5) 21.4 (1.4) Argentina 27.5 (1.6) Dominican Republic 14.8 (1.0) Haiti 16.9 (1.1) 14.3 (1.0) Jamaica 10.1 (0.9) 8.4 (0.9) Guyana 11.0 (0.9) Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data. Figures shown are the percentage of respondents who report having been the victim of any crime in the previous 12 months.
13 Table 2: Levels of Trust in Justice System by Country and Year Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mexico 49.4 (1.2) 49.2 (1.1) 49.7 (1.2) Guatemala 43.0 (0.7) 46.7 (0.8) 43.2 (1.4) El Salvador 55.3 (0.9) 48.6 (0.9) 46.1 (0.8) Honduras 51.2 (0.9) 46.3 (0.6) 43.2 (1.1) Nicaragua 47.7 (1.1) 44.6 (1.0) 43.1 (0.9) Costa Rica 51.4 (0.9) Panama 50.2 (0.8) 44.2 (1.1) 46.0 (1.1) Colombia 53.0 (0.7) 52.4 (0.9) 57.0 (0.8) Ecuador 37.1 (0.6) 32.2 (1.0) 36.0 (0.7) Bolivia 36.4 (0.8) 41.3 (0.7) 43.7 (0.6) Peru 35.1 (0.6) 36.2 (0.7) Paraguay 31.2 (0.9) 24.4 (0.8) Chile 49.8 (1.0) 52.8 (1.0) Uruguay 55.1 (1.2) 54.8 (0.8) Brazil 48.8 (1.2) 46.4 (1.2) Venezuela 42.5 (1.1) 39.8 (1.6) Argentina 38.2 (1.0) Dominican Republic 50.7 (0.9) Haiti 40.1 (1.1) 45.0 (1.0) Jamaica 47.6 (1.0) 49.2 (1.1) Guyana 53.2 (1.0) Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data.
14 Table 3: Approval of People Taking the Law into Their Own Hands by Country and Year Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mexico 30.0 (1.6) 21.5 (1.2) 23.9 (1.3) Guatemala 31.0 (1.1) 36.2 (1.3) 22.9 (1.1) El Salvador 36.2 (1.2) 35.4 (1.0) 37.4 (1.1) Honduras 34.0 (1.0) 47.4 (1.3) 34.1 (1.2) Nicaragua 35.0 (1.6) 31.5 (0.8) 33.4 (1.3) Costa Rica 28.7 (1.5) Panama 25.3 (1.3) 35.0 (1.5) 27.9 (1.2) Colombia 22.5 (1.3) 25.0 (1.3) 24.0 (1.1) Ecuador 36.9 (1.2) 40.2 (1.6) 36.9 (1.2) Bolivia 27.4 (1.0) 32.3 (1.3) 31.1 (1.2) Peru 39.7 (1.5) 35.9 (1.6) Paraguay 22.7 (1.0) 21.5 (1.2) Chile 32.1 (1.6) 33.0 (1.4) Uruguay 18.4 (1.1) 26.0 (1.3) Brazil 19.1 (1.2) 17.0 (1.1) Venezuela 25.1 (1.7) 20.7 (1.7) Argentina 30.0 (1.9) Dominican Republic 31.9 (1.1) Haiti 29.0 (1.8) 24.6 (1.1) Jamaica 24.5 (1.2) 26.5 (1.3) Guyana 27.5 (1.3) Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data.
15 Table 4: Respect for the Rule of Law by Country and Year Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mexico 67.8 (2.0) 58.1 (2.0) 69.3 (1.9) Guatemala 75.9 (1.4) 56.9 (1.8) 57.6 (1.9) El Salvador 65.3 (1.3) 56.0 (1.1) 55.4 (1.5) Honduras 63.2 (1.4) 44.4 (1.8) 47.8 (1.6) Nicaragua 71.1 (2.4) 52.1 (1.5) 46.7 (2.2) Costa Rica 56.6 (1.6) Panama 65.7 (1.8) 58.3 (1.7) 62.9 (1.6) Colombia 69.7 (1.8) 60.2 (1.5) 64.8 (1.7) Ecuador 59.6 (1.6) 50.2 (2.1) 55.2 (1.7) Bolivia 56.8 (1.7) 61.7 (1.6) Peru 53.2 (1.8) 56.3 (2.0) Paraguay 47.1 (1.8) 51.3 (2.1) Chile 49.5 (1.7) 51.4 (1.3) Uruguay 51.9 (1.9) 50.2 (1.7) Brazil 71.1 (2.0) Venezuela 68.6 (2.1) 68.0 (2.4) Argentina 62.7 (2.1) Dominican Republic 66.3 (1.4) Haiti 65.1 (2.2) 78.4 (2.1) Jamaica 69.8 (1.8) 86.5 (1.3) Guyana 62.1 (2.0) Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data.
16 Table 5: Effect of Victimization on Attitudes Towards Criminal Justice: Main Results Dependent variable: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Trust in Criminal Justice System Approval of People Taking the Law into Their Own Hands Belief That Authorities Should Always Uphold the Rule of Law Crime victim -4.84*** -3.63*** 4.97*** 4.11*** -7.21*** -6.48*** (0.28) (0.24) (0.44) (0.38) (0.61) (0.55) Female *** -1.65*** 1.36** 1.27** (0.20) (0.18) (0.29) (0.28) (0.43) (0.41) Nonwhite -2.64*** -0.86*** *** 3.50*** 0.86 (0.36) (0.25) (0.42) (0.39) (0.64) (0.57) Married *** -1.69*** -1.16* 0.34 (0.26) (0.21) (0.35) (0.32) (0.51) (0.48) Yrs education -0.35*** -0.07* -0.30*** -0.52*** (0.04) (0.03) (0.05) (0.04) (0.07) (0.06) Age -0.22*** -0.21*** -0.32*** -0.30*** 0.36*** 0.23*** (0.04) (0.03) (0.05) (0.05) (0.07) (0.07) Age squared 0.00*** 0.00*** 0.00** 0.00* -0.00* (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) Wealth index 0.66*** *** -0.75*** -0.91** -0.86** (0.18) (0.14) (0.24) (0.22) (0.34) (0.32) Constant 54.19*** 49.81*** 42.80*** 46.83*** 45.56*** 50.77*** (0.87) (0.72) (1.22) (1.11) (1.80) (1.62) Number of cluster dummies N/A 3009 N/A 3009 N/A 3009 Observations R-squared Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data. All regressions include dummy variables at the level of the sampling cluster. Dependent variables are indices with ranges from 0 to 100.
17 Table 6: Effect of Victimization on Attitudes Towards Criminal Justice: Alternative Specifications Dependent variable: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Trust in Criminal Justice System Approval of People Taking the Law into Their Own Hands Belief That Authorities Should Always Uphold the Rule of Law Crime victim -3.63*** -3.65*** 4.11*** 4.10*** -6.48*** -6.52*** (0.24) (0.24) (0.38) (0.38) (0.55) (0.55) Female *** -1.57*** 1.27** 1.32** (0.18) (0.18) (0.28) (0.28) (0.41) (0.41) Nonwhite -0.86*** -0.85*** -1.41*** -1.38*** (0.25) (0.25) (0.39) (0.39) (0.57) (0.57) Married *** -1.72*** (0.21) (0.21) (0.32) (0.32) (0.48) (0.48) Yrs education -0.07* -0.07** -0.52*** -0.52*** (0.03) (0.03) (0.04) (0.04) (0.06) (0.06) Age -0.21*** -0.22*** -0.30*** -0.30*** 0.23*** 0.23** (0.03) (0.03) (0.05) (0.05) (0.07) (0.07) Age squared 0.00*** 0.00*** 0.00* 0.00* (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) Wealth index *** -0.86** (0.14) (0.22) (0.32) Assets Television *** (0.39) (0.61) (0.89) Refrigerator -0.86** (0.29) (0.45) (0.66) Landline phone * 0.12 (0.24) (0.38) (0.55) Vehicle (0.25) (0.39) (0.57) Washing machine (0.28) (0.44) (0.65) Microwave (0.27) (0.42) (0.61) Motorcycle *** (0.31) (0.47) (0.69) Indoor plumbing (0.31) (0.48) (0.71) Indoor bathroom * (0.29) (0.45) (0.67) Computer * 0.37 (0.27) (0.42) (0.62) Constant 49.81*** 50.36*** 46.83*** 48.33*** 50.77*** 55.01*** (0.72) (0.78) (1.11) (1.21) (1.62) (1.78) Number of cluster dummies Observations R-squared Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data. All regressions include dummy variables at the level of the sampling cluster. Dependent variables are indices with ranges from 0 to 100.
18 Table 7: Effects of Victimization, by Country Trust in Criminal Justice System Approval of People Taking the Law into Their Own Hands Belief That Authorities Should Always Uphold the Rule of Law Estimated Effect SE Estimated Effect SE Estimated Effect SE Argentina -4.9 (1.3) 7.1 (2.0) -6.6 (3.1) Brazil -3.5 (1.6) -0.8 (2.1) -2.0 (3.4) Chile -2.2 (1.0) 2.2 (1.5) -7.7 (2.3) Colombia -2.0 (1.2) 5.1 (1.8) -5.6 (2.7) Costa Rica -4.1 (1.9) 4.6 (2.9) -5.9 (4.1) Dominican Re -5.5 (2.0) 3.2 (2.9) -5.8 (3.5) Ecuador -2.2 (0.7) 2.9 (1.2) -7.7 (1.7) El Salvador -5.7 (1.2) 7.0 (2.0) -9.2 (2.7) Guatemala -3.6 (1.1) 5.9 (1.7) (2.6) Haiti -3.7 (1.0) 3.5 (1.7) -4.9 (2.3) Honduras -2.2 (1.0) 6.3 (1.7) -6.9 (2.5) Jamaica -3.9 (1.4) 4.0 (2.0) -2.6 (2.5) Mexico -6.9 (1.1) 3.6 (1.5) (2.4) Nicaragua -5.4 (1.2) 1.6 (1.9) -5.1 (2.6) Panama -1.9 (1.5) 1.6 (2.1) -0.3 (3.5) Paraguay -8.1 (1.9) 5.4 (2.9) -0.9 (4.7) Peru -2.4 (0.9) 2.1 (1.5) -7.2 (2.2) Uruguay -5.5 (1.1) 5.9 (1.5) -2.0 (2.4) Venezuela -6.7 (1.1) 3.9 (1.4) -3.1 (2.1) Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data. All regressions include dummy variables at the level of the sampling cluster. Dependent variables are indices with rangs from 0 to 100.
19 Figure 2: Changes in Victimization Rates vs. Changes in Belief that Authorities Should Always Uphold the Law 5 Change in % of Who Believe Authorities Should Always Respect the Law Panama Mexico Colombia Ecuador El Salvador Honduras Guatemala Nicaragua Change in % Victimized by Crime in Previous 12 Months Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data. All regressions include dummy variables at the level of the sampling cluster. Dependent variables are indices with rangs from 0 to 100.
20 Figure 3: Effect of Victimization on Trust in Criminal Justice System by Country Effect of Being a Crime Victim on Trust in Criminal Justice System Change in Index(Range: 0-100) Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela Source: Author s calculations. The plotted figures show coefficients on crime victimization from country-specific regressions of three different indices on crime victimization and other covariates. Regressions include fixed effects at the sampling cluster level. Dependent variables are indices with ranges from 0 to 100.
21 Figure 4: Effect of Victimization on Approval of People Taking the Law into Their Own Hands by Country Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela Effect of Being a Crime Victim on Approval of People Taking the Law into Their Own Hands Change in Index (Range: 0-100) Source: Author s calculations. The plotted figures show coefficients on crime victimization from country-specific regressions of three different indices on crime victimization and other covariates. Regressions include fixed effects at the sampling cluster level. Dependent variables are indices with ranges from 0 to 100.
22 Figure 5: Effect of Victimization on Belief that Authorities Should Always Respect the Rule of Law by Country Effect of Being a Crime Victim on Belief that Authorities Should Always Respect Rule of Law Change in Index (Range: 0-100) Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela Source: Author s calculations. The plotted figures show coefficients on crime victimization from country-specific regressions of three different indices on crime victimization and other covariates. Regressions include fixed effects at the sampling cluster level. Dependent variables are indices with ranges from 0 to 100.
. Find us at: www.lapopsurveys.org Like us on: Latin American Public Opinion Project Follow us at: @Lapop_Barometro Citizen Insecurities and Democracy in the Americas: Looking Back over a Decade of the
This is the third paper (I0803, I0813) in the AmericasBarometer Insight Series to analyze the sources of corruption victimization, focusing on another question included in the 2008 round of the Latin American
developing world. Studies have shown that citizens view crime as one of the most pressing problems facing their nation (Quann and Kwing 2002) AmericasBarometer Insights: 2009 (No. 32) Crime and Support
User Guide to LAPOP s System for Online Data Analysis (v1) The following guide is designed to help users navigate through and use LAPOP s System for Online Data Analysis (SODA). The system allows individuals
Issue Brief March 2008 Center for Economic and Policy Research 1611 Connecticut Ave, NW Suite 400 Washington, DC 20009 tel: 202-293-5380 fax:: 202-588-1356 www.cepr.net The Economic Impact of a U.S. Slowdown
Contents Poverty, income distribution, perceptions of distribution and social spending - Changes in poverty and its determinants - Income distribution and perceptions of distribution - Trends in household
AmericasBarometer Insights: 2015 Number 110 Public Health Services Use in Latin America and the Caribbean By email@example.com Vanderbilt University Executive Summary. This Insights report
Agrimonitor: PSE Agricultural Policy Monitoring System in LAC INE/RND WHAT POLICY MONITORING IS,WHY IS IMPORTANT AND WHAT HAS ALREADY BEEN DONE IN OUR COUNTRIES? Monitor and evaluate developments in agricultural
Obtaining Finance in Latin America and the Caribbean 1 World Bank Group latin America and the Caribbean Series Note No. REV. 8/14 Basic Definitions Countries surveyed in and how they are grouped for analysis:
UN/POP/EGM-MIG/2005/10 5 February 2006 EXPERT GROUP MEETING ON INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Population Division Department of Economic and Social Affairs United
RACE/ETHNICITY EDUCATION GDP GROWTH WOMEN S RIGHTS FINANCIAL INCLUSION UPDATED AND EXPANDED VERSION SOCIAL PROGRAMS CIVIL RIGHTS LGBT In its second year, AQ s Index adds three new variables, expands to
Ministerial Declaration Preventing through education The Ministerial Declaration Preventing through Education, was approved in Mexico City in the framework of the 1st Meeting of Ministers of Health and
AmericasBarometer Insights: 2010 (No.44) Support for Same Sex Marriage in Latin America 1 Germán Lodola, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, University of Pittsburgh firstname.lastname@example.org Margarita Corral, Vanderbilt
REPARIS A REGIONAL PROGRAM Accounting Education in Latin America and the Caribbean Henri Fortin, Program Manager, CFRR THE ROAD TO EUROPE: PROGRAM OF ACCOUNTING REFORM AND INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING (REPARIS)
Susanne Karstedt School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith University, Australia. Global Hotspots of Violence: Intervention and Prevention in the Top most Violent Countries Global Violence Reduction
INTERNATIONAL FACTORING November 3, 2011 1 L. Gabriel Segura President and founding officer of CVCredit Inc, a Miami-based company which focuses in USA-domestic and international factoring services. Nine
Health Care Expenditure and Financing in Latin America and the Caribbean [Fact sheet] December 2012 Overview of Health Expenditure and Financing Current Situation and Trends In 2011, the national or total
research brief The International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth is jointly supported by the United Nations Development Programme and the Government of Brazil. August/2014no. 47 A Profile of the Middle
100/2015-9 June 2015 EU Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) summit CELAC represents the fifth most important trading partner of the EU More than 200 bn total trade The 28 Member States
Survey of LAC agricultural research institutes on technical information management. FORAGRO Technical Secretariat Area of Technology and Innovation Directorate of Technical Leadership and Knowledge Management,
APPLICATION RECEIPT DEADLINE February 28, 2014 PROJECT PERIOD September 1, 2014 August 31, 2015 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Southern Exposure: Performing Arts of Latin America is a national initiative that supports
Human Resources Development and Training in Comprehensive Evaluation Cuarto Foro Global de los Centros para el Aprendizaje en Evaluación y Resultados (CLEAR) November 19, 2013 Conduct evaluations Train
Idle Youth in Latin America: A Persistent Problem in a Decade of Prosperity By Mauricio Cárdenas, Rafael de Hoyos and Miguel Székely 1 August 2011 1 Correspondence to: email@example.com. Cárdenas
Education and Training Education The William J. Harrington Medical Training Programs for Latin America and the Caribbean 1967 August 2011 Total 3939 Residency Program for Internal Medicine 397 Elective
Crime and Violence in Central America: A Development Challenge 2011 Sustainable Development Department and Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit Latin America and the Caribbean Region Document
Information for applicants from Latin America and the Caribbean for study commencing in 2014 Development Scholarships The Development Scholarships (NZDS) scheme offers the opportunity to people from targeted
Tourism Statistical Yearly Report 2012 The Costa Rica Tourism Board is pleased to present the Tourism Statistical Yearly Report 2012. The information has been collected and organized by officers of Subproceso
Latin America s s Foreign Debt Causes and Effects Internal Causes of the Debt Overvalued currency associated with ISI Returns on projects in future, but payments now: Debt trap Populist economic policies:
AmericasBarometer Insights: 2009(No.8) * Should Government Own Big Businesses and Industries? Views from the Americas By Margarita Corral Margarita.firstname.lastname@example.org Vanderbilt University P rivatization
Goal 4. Reduce child mortality 4.1. Introduction Target 4.A of MDG 4 reads: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate. Monitoring of this Goal consists of three indicators
Recommendations for implementing sustainable energy activities in the regions: LAC NESTOR LUNA DIRECTOR OF STUDIES AND PROJECTS ICSU: GLOBAL REGIONAL INTEGRATION WORSHOP ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY April 9th,
SIGNATURES AND CURRENT STATUS OF RATIFICATIONS AMERICAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS "PACT OF SAN JOSE, COSTA RICA" (Signed at San José, Costa Rica, 22 November 1969, at the Inter-American Specialized Conference
Social Pensions for the Elderly or Social Assistance for Poor Households? Margaret Grosh Pensions Core Course March 3, 2014 World Bank, Washington DC 1 The Elderly are Not all Poor In fact, many studies
Review of Income and Wealth Series 36, No. 2, June 1990 A BALANCE OF PAYMENTS ANALYSIS OF THE LATIN AMERICAN DEBT CRISIS BY J. THOMAS ROMANS SUNY Buffalo AND STANTON A. WARREN Niagara University In this
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Sin Fronteras, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, and the Asociación Mexicana de Impartidores de Justicia A.C. CALL FOR PROPOSALS Recognition
Citi s Online Academy Presents: The Pharmaceutical & Healthcare Industry in Latin America Jamie Davies Head of Pharmaceuticals & Healthcare Business Monitor International Oscar Mazza Consumer & Healthcare
Trends, News and Events that are Shaping the AML Arena in Latin America Presented by: Octavio Betancourt- Managing Director 1 MoneyLaundering.com 15 th Annual International Anti-MoneyLaundering Conference
Table 1. Growth of Latin American and Caribbean Medical Schools Country 1969 1975 1988 1992 2004 Argentina 9 9 9 13 24 Antigua and Barbuda 1 Bolivia 3 3 3 7 10 Belize 2 Brazil 30 75 78 80 112 Chile 4 10
. Coordinating national investment promotion with subnational investment promotion Investment climate, World Bank Global Market Access from an International Economy Spain: your partner in Europe Business
Distr. LIMITED LC/L.3379(CEA.6/7) 19 October 2011 ENGLISH ORIGINAL: SPANISH Sixth meeting of the Statistical Conference of the Americas of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean Bávaro,
Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings Below please find the complete rankings of all 75 markets considered in the analysis. Rankings are broken into overall rankings and subsector rankings. Overall Renewable
FCPA and Anti-Corruption in Latin America May 2011 FCPA Enforcement "FCPA enforcement is stronger than it's ever been and getting stronger. We are in a new era of FCPA enforcement; and we are here to stay."
352 UNHCR Global Report 2010 Argentina Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela
Senate Committee: Education and Employment QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016 Outcome: Higher Education Research and International Department of Education and Training Question No. SQ15-000549
HUNT Mobile Ads Traffic Q2-2011 Report #2-2011 Intro Continuing with the quarterly reports from HUNT Mobile Ads, the leading mobile advertising network in Latin America and the Spanish speaking markets,
nter-american Development Bank Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo Latin American Research Network Red de Centros de Investigación Office of the Chief Economist Working paper #R-376 An Asset-Based Approach
Sub- Regional Workshop and Consulta;ons on Capacity- Building in Travel Document Security: Colombia, 2013 Carlos Gómez Head of R&D and Innova.on, FNMT- RCM, Spain ICAO TRIP: Building Trust in Travel Document
What explains modes of engagement in international trade? Conference paper for Kiel International Economics Papers 2011 Current Version: June 2011 Natalia Trofimenko Kiel Institute for World Economy Hindenburgufer
Chapter 1 Religion and Demography More than two-thirds (68%) of Hispanics are Roman Catholics. The next largest category, at 15%, is made up of born-again or evangelical Protestants. Although their numbers
Energy Briefing: Global Crude Oil Demand & Supply November 6, 215 Dr. Edward Yardeni 516-972-7683 eyardeni@ Debbie Johnson 48-664-1333 djohnson@ Please visit our sites at www. blog. thinking outside the
Enterprise Surveys Country Note Series Brazil World Bank Group Country note no. 12 11 Running a Business in Brazil Brazilian firms are more integrated into their country's financial system than other firms
Please cite as: Albó, L., Hernández-Leo, D., Oliver, M. (2016) Are higher education students registering and participanting in MOOCs? The case of MiríadaX. EMOOCs 2016 conference, Graz, Austria. Are higher
THIRD MEETING OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL OEA/Ser.L./XIV.4.3 WORKING GROUP ON THE MULTILATERAL CICAD/MEM/doc.14/98 rev. 1 EVALUATION MECHANISM (MEM) 4 December 1998 October 26-28, 1998 Original: Spanish Tegucigalpa,
Resolution Seminar-Workshop The Promotion and Protection of Reproductive Rights through the Work of the National Human Rights Institutions for Latin America, the Caribbean and Canada. Representatives of
Public Policy and Development Masters Programme Paris School of Economics Course on Social Policies in Developing Countries Lecture 3: Policy objectives, constraints and domains. Francisco H. G. Ferreira
Violence and Crime in Latin America Mark A Cohen (Vanderbilt University) and Mauricio Rubio (Universidad Externado de Colombia) CHALLENGES Background Crime and violence is a major concern in Latin America.
IPv6 World Congress Meeting Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S. Azael Fernández Alcántara February 2006 CONTENTS 1. Introduction. 2. (6Bone) 3. IPv6 in Mexico 4. IPv6 in CLARA Network 5. IPv6 current status in Latin
Company Presentation Corporate Motor Show 1 Company Overview 1. Company Overview Technology & Service Provider Network Operator 2 FY 2010 Financial Highlights 1. Company Overview Revenues Ebitda 60.9 19.2
COSTA RICA: LINKING TRADE AND INVESTMENT FOR INCLUSIVE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT GETTING TO KNOW COSTA RICA o A small country of 51,100 km2 o With 4.7 million inhabitants o Strategically located in the middle
POVERTY WITHIN CONTINENTS The poverty maps we used to identify hunger hotspots throughout Africa were the main source of data for identifying the Millennium Villages. The maps acted as an organizing principle
Telephone and Cell Phone Adoptions in Latin American and Caribbean Nations Kallol K. Bagchi The University of Texas at El Paso email@example.com Adriano O. Solis The University of Texas at El Paso firstname.lastname@example.org
Professional Development Scholarship Program Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers with Web 2.0 Tools and 21st Century Skills 1 OAS/DHDEC/CIR.031/2012 1) Study venue: The course will be delivered entirely online
PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION SUBCOMMITTEE ON PLANNING AND PROGRAMMING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 31st Session, 23-24 November 1998 Provisional Agenda Item 8 SPP31/8, Rev.1
WHAT S NEXT FOR MOBILE PAYMENTS? ? INSIGHT FROM LATIN AMERICA: WHAT S NEXT FOR MOBILE PAYMENTS? Mobile technology opens new opportunities for both financial institutions and merchants in Latin America.
Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/1937256/ Latin America - Digital Media and Pay TV Market Description: This market report provides a comprehensive overview of convergence,
Capacity building for non communicable disease prevention and control in Latin America and Caribbean Advances and challenges Branka Legetic, Anselm Hennis Pan American Health Organization- World Health
SERVICES AND RATES FedEx International Solutions for your business Whether you are shipping documents to meet a deadline, saving money on a regular shipment or moving freight, FedEx offers a suite of transportation
Latin America Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Working
Goal 2. Achieve Universal primary education 2.1. Introduction The second Goal proposed in the Millennium Summit reflects the commitment adopted by the international community to achieve universal primary
News Media Consumption and Political Interest in Latin America Ryan Salzman Northern Kentucky University email@example.com Abstract For media communication researchers, a relationship between media
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Technological Innovation for Security in Latin America Phase 1: Diagnosis in Latin America With the support of: I. Introduction Technology is a key element to increase the effectiveness
Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment Prepared by The Office of International Affairs Nova Southeastern University Nova Southeastern University International Student Statistics Fall 2015 International
1) Project Leaf - Law Enforcement Assistance for Forests 2) Project summary: Project Leaf (Law Enforcement Assistance for Forests) is a consortium forests and climate initiative on combating illegal logging
Excerpt Sudan Fixed Telecommunications: Low Penetration Rates Get a Boost from Broadband Internet and VoIP Services This report is part of Pyramid Research s series of Africa & Middle East Country Intelligence
RESEARCH BRIEF Joseph Cera, PhD Survey Center Director UW-Milwaukee Atiera Coleman, MA Project Assistant UW-Milwaukee CITY OF MILWAUKEE POLICE SATISFACTION SURVEY At the request of and in cooperation with
Preventing violence against children: Attitudes, perceptions and priorities Introduction As countries in every region of the world strive to meet the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),
Page 1 of 6 Title Demonstrate knowledge of Central American and/or South American countries as tourist destinations Level 3 Credits 8 Purpose People credited with this unit standard are able to: locate
Last reviewed: 04/21/2016 1 PAY-TV SIGNAL PIRACY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Pay-TV signal piracy is a multi-billion-dollar problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. It poses daunting challenges
THE Art of moving Forward International Latino Cultural Center of Chicago Your point of encounter Tu punto de encuentro Seu ponto de encontro Introduction The International Latino Cultural Center of Chicago
Trade Finance Services: Current Environment & Recommendations: Wave 3 A Survey Among Banks Assessing the Current Trade Finance Environment Sponsored by The International Monetary Fund BAFT-IFSA April 2010
The Challenge of Financing Business in Latin America and the Caribbean The Future of the Financial Services Industry after the Crisis 14th Caribbean Business Executive Seminar Port-of of-spain, Trinidad
2008/SOM1/ECSG/SEM/018 APEC Information Privacy Principles in the Development of Outsourcing Business: Contact Center in Peru Submitted by: Peru Technical Assistance Seminar on International Implementation
Pan American Health Organization XI Annual Evaluation Meeting AMI/RAVREDA Antigua Guatemala, March 19-23, 2012 SESSION 5: Quality of the ANTIMALARIALS Strengthening of the medicines quality control laboratories