THE EFFECT OF CRIME VICTIMIZATION ON ATTITUDES TOWARDS CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN LATIN AMERICA

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE EFFECT OF CRIME VICTIMIZATION ON ATTITUDES TOWARDS CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN LATIN AMERICA"

Transcription

1 THE EFFECT OF CRIME VICTIMIZATION ON ATTITUDES TOWARDS CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN LATIN AMERICA Gabriel Demombynes Draft of May 2009 ABSTRACT This paper examines the effects victimization on criminal justice attitudes using data for most countries in Latin America. Using a representative survey for almost all of Latin America, we show that being victimized by crime reduces trust in the criminal justice system, increases the approval of people taking the law into their own hands, and reduces the probability that an individual believes authorities should always respect the law. Identification relies on the plausible assumption that crime victimization is random conditional on individual characteristics and neighborhood location, which are controlled for in the regression analysis. Most notable in the comparisons across countries is the particularly large negative effect of victimization in Mexico, El Salvador, and Guatemala on the belief that authorities should always respect the law. These results are worrisome because they imply that high levels of crime may feed vigilantism and support for brutal tactics that may themselves fuel greater levels of crime. JEL Classification: K42, D63 Key Words: Victimization, Criminal Justice, Latin America Abby Beatriz Cordova provided research assistance on a draft of the analysis presented in this paper. The views expressed in this paper are the author s alone, and in no way reflect those of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries they represent. Corresponding author:

2 1. INTRODUCTION A number of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced rising crime rates in recent years. Central America, in particular, has faced a rising wave of violent crime since the beginning of the decade, and the governments of the region have struggled to find ways to tackle the crime problem. One of the many possible effects of rising crime rates is a change in attitudes about the criminal justice system. As the incidence of crime rises, a growing fraction of the population will be people who have recently been victimized. The emotional shock of being victimized, combined with first-hand experience with the criminal justice system, may alter one s belief about the proper way for authorities and individual citizens to confront crime. If attitudes affect the way society deals with crime, a rising crime rate can drive public and private responses via the effect of crime on victims attitudes. Attitudes towards the criminal justice system have been recognized as a potentially important determinant of how well the criminal justice system functions. Previous work has argued that public support for the criminal justice system, and in particular for the police, is essential for the system to be effective (Tyler 1990), and previous work has shown that fear of crime increases among those who are victims (Wetzels, 1997). Research has not, however, demonstrated that crime victimization can change the attitudes of victims towards the criminal justice system.

3 In this paper, we consider the effect of crime victimization on three attitudes: trust in the criminal justice system, support for vigilantism, and support for the position that authorities should always respect the law when apprehending criminals. The first of these measures captures the overall view of the functioning of the state apparatus charged with controlling crime. The second concerns citizen response to crime, and the third concerns the response of public officials to crime. These attitudes are of concern because they are likely to be determinants of public and private behavior, particularly in countries with democratically elected governments. If citizens taking the law into their own hands is more widely supported, the costs of vigilante actions in terms of social and legal sanctions is likely to decrease, raising the expected prevalence of such actions. Likewise, an increased sentiment that the authorities should bend the law when apprehending criminals is likely to translate into more abusive practices by the police and criminal justice authorities. If declining trust in the criminal justice system, greater vigilantism, and increased police abuses produce a less effective criminal justice system, there is the potential for a country to find itself in a self-reinforcing spiral of crime and ineffective responses. The objective of this paper is not to demonstrate the full set of relationships outlined above but rather to present convincing evidence of one piece of the story: the effect of crime victimization on attitudes. The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes in detail the data used. Section 3 describes the analysis and the results, and Section 4 concludes.

4 2. DATA Comparison of crime data across time and countries is notoriously difficult due to problems of underreporting and varying crime definitions. Both problems are less severe for homicide, which is consequently preferred for international comparisons. Figure 1 shows homicide rates for Central America drawn from administrative data. The countries of the region exhibit a rising trend. In Guatemala homicide rates have almost doubled since 1999, after a sharp decrease following the signing of the peace agreement which ended the country s civil war. Homicides appear to have intensified in El Salvador and Honduras, although this may be in part a consequence of the improvement in methodology for collecting statistics. Homicide rates in Nicaragua, Panama, and Costa Rica, while substantially lower, have increased at an average pace of 5 to 10 percent per year. The principal data for this study is drawn from surveys conducted by Vanderbilt University s Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP). Surveys were conducted in 10 countries in 2004, 20 countries in 2006, and 20 countries in (A survey was carried out in Guyana only in 2006 and in Argentina only in 2008.) For each survey, approximately 1500 adults were interviewed (3000 in Ecuador and Bolivia.) The questions used for the analysis in this paper were identical across years and countries. LAPOP surveys use two-stage randomized samples, and all surveys are designed to be representative at the national level of the adult population.

5 Crime victimization was measured using the question Have you been a victim of any type of crime in the past 12 months? Attitudes towards the criminal justice system were measured with three separate questions: 1) To what extent do you trust the criminal justice system? (on a scale from 1 to 7) 2) How much do your approve or disapprove of people taking the law into their own hands when the government does not punish criminals? (on a scale from 1 to 10, where 10 is the highest level of approval). 3) In order to apprehend criminals do you think that the authorities should always respect the law or that occasionally they can skate close to the limits of the law? For each of the three attitude variables, an individual-level index was created by rescaling responses to attitude questions on a scale from 0 to 100. This means that for the binary responses to the third question, responses that authorities should always respect the law were given the value 100 and the alternative response was given the value 0. Additionally, on order to control for socioeconomic status in the analysis, a wealth index was constructed using information in the LAPOP surveys on household ownership of the following assets: television, refrigerator, telephone, vehicle, washing machine, microwave oven, motorcycle, indoor plumbing, indoor bathroom, and computer. Weights for the index were constructed using the first component from a principal components analysis, following the approach described by Filmer and Pritchett (2001).

6 3. ANALYSIS First, we consider victimization rates by country and survey year in the LAPOP data. Victimization rates across all countries and years are in the range of percent, with the large bulk falling between 13 and 20 percent. Tables 2-4 present mean values by country and year of the trust in criminal justice indices. Both victimization rates and attitude measures show substantial variation across countries and time. Notable patterns include the apparent decline in beliefs that authorities should always respect the law. In 7 of the 8 countries surveyed in both 2004 and 2008, the percentage voicing support for this position declined. Figure 1 shows a scatter plot of changes in victimization rates and changes in beliefs on this question; the national level figures suggest a loose correlation between these changes. It is impossible, however, to determine the causal effect of victimization by merely examining the beliefs of victims vs. non-victims either at the national or individual level. It is possible that those who are most likely to be victimized are different from the average citizen along other characteristics that affect their attitudes. Most importantly, the people at high risk for being crime victims are those that live in areas with high crime prevalence. These people may well have different attitudes from those who live in lower crime areas, independent of whether they are actually victims or not. In order to move beyond correlations at the national level, the basic approach employed for the analysis is to regress measures of attitudes towards the criminal justice system on a binary

7 variable for crime victimization along with additional control variables. The analysis controls for wealth, demographic characteristics, and fixed effects at the neighborhood (sampling cluster) level. This econometric strategy effectively determines the effects of victimization on attitudes by comparing victims to similar non-victims who live in the same neighborhoods. This approach will produce valid estimates of the effect of victimization on attitudes if victimization is random conditional on observed characteristics and neighborhood. Results from the basic specification for all three variables are shown in Table 5. Columns 1, 3, and 5 show OLS specifications, while columns 2, 4, and 6 present specifications including cluster-level fixed effects. Columns 1 and 2 shows that trust in the criminal justice system is lower among nonwhites, those with more education, and those who are less wealthy. Trust in the criminal justice system declines with age but at a decreasing rate. Columns 3 and 4 show that approval of vigilantism people taking the law into their own hands is lower for women, nonwhites, those who are married, those with more education, and those who are wealthier. Support for vigilantism declines with age, also at a decreasing rate. Columns 5 and 6 show that support for the proposition that authorities should always uphold the rule of law is lower among men, whites, the married, and the wealthier. This belief declines with age, also at a decreasing rate.

8 For most variables, the magnitude of the point estimate is smaller in the specification including cluster effects, indicating that part of the correlation between attitudes and characteristics may be due to location-specific attitudes. Turning to the focus of the analysis, the results show significant effects of victimization on attitudes. The preferred fixed-effects estimate (columns 2, 4, and 6) imply that crime victimization reduces trust in the criminal justice system by 3.6 points, increases approval of people taking the law into their own hands by 4.1 points, and reduces the belief that authorities should always uphold the rule of law by 6.5 points. Recall that all three indices are scaled from 0 to 100. Because the third index is constructed from a simple binary question, the estimated effect can be taken as the change in the probability of an affirmative answer. In other words, the results in column 6 imply that being victimized makes one 6.5 percent less likely to believe that authorities should always uphold the rule of law. In Table 6, we present the same fixed effect results shown in Table 5 alongside an alternative specification which uses dummies for the individual components of the wealth index rather than the wealth index itself. Although very few of the coefficients on the individual assets are statistically significant, the estimates are extremely similar. Table 7 summarizes estimated effects from country-level regressions. These regressions use cluster-level dummies and the specification which includes the wealth index but not individual assets. Effects that are statistically significant at the 10 percent level are shown in bold. While the magnitude of effects varies by country, and some country-specific estimate are not statistically significant, the sign of estimates effects is the same as that of the region

9 as a whole in all except one case (the effect of victimization on attitudes towards vigilantism in Brazil, which is near zero and insignificant.) The estimated effects are remarkably robust and are not driven by only a small number of countries. The effects may differ across countries in part because the nature of crime may vary. The victimization variable is a rough measure which refers to any victimization in the previous 12 months, which could range from petty theft to violence assault, and more severe crimes are probably more likely to provoke changes in attitudes. Some weak suggestion of this is given by some of the variation across countries in estimated effects. In particular, the strongest effects of victimization on belief that authorities should not always uphold the law are in three countries which have experienced particularly violence waves of crime in recent years: Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador. 4. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the analysis shows that being victimized by crime reduces trust in the criminal justice system by 3.6 points, increases the approval of people taking the law into their own hands by 4.1 points, and reduces by 6.5 percent the probability that an individual believes authorities should always respect the law. Most notable in the comparisons across countries is the relatively large negative effect of victimization in Mexico, El Salvador, and Guatemala on the belief that authorities should always respect the law. The reported estimates imply that being victimized in those countries makes an individual approximately 10 percent less likely to say that authorities should always respect the law. These results are worrisome

10 because they imply that high levels of crime may feed vigilantism and support for brutal tactics that may themselves fuel greater levels of crime. Two limitations to this analysis merit consideration. First, it is unclear how enduring changes in attitudes as a result of victimization are likely to be. The estimates presented here are for the effect of victimization during the previous 12 months on current attitudes. However, it is possible that the effects of victimization on attitudes fades over time and is therefore less of a concern. On the other hand, if there is high serial correlation in the likelihood of victimization so that those victimized this year are particularly likely to have been victimized in past years (even after controlling for location and other variables) then the estimates presented in this paper may overestimate the effect of more recent victimization. Second, high crime rates may have an effect on attitudes of those who are not victims as well. In fact, it seems likely that the climate of fear generated by knowledge of high levels of crime may affect attitudes. In Honduras and El Salvador, two countries that have seen large declines in confidence in the criminal justice system, the changes observed are too large to be accounted for by the estimated changes in attitudes among victims. This suggests that the change in attitudes in response to rising crime occurs among non-victims as well. This effect is more difficult to analyze empirically given that an adequate control group is difficult to identify but is likely to be substantial. This remains a topic for future research.

11 5. REFERENCES Bilsky, W., & Wetzels, P. (1997). On the relationship between criminal victimization and fear of crime. Psychology, Crime & Law, 3(4), Dull, R. T., & Wint, A. V. N. (1997). Criminal Victimization and Its Effect on Fear of Crime and Justice Attitudes. J Interpers Violence, 12(5), doi: / Filmer, D., & Pritchett, L. H. (2001). Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data-or tears: an application to educational enrollments in states of India. Demography, Roberts, J. V., & Hough, J. M. (2005). Understanding Public Attitudes to Criminal Justice (p. 183). Tyler, T. R. (2004). Enhancing Police Legitimacy. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 593(1), doi: /

12 Table 1: Crime Victimization Rates by Country and Year Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mexico 17.3 (1.5) 20.2 (1.5) 16.1 (1.5) Guatemala 12.8 (1.1) 19.2 (1.3) 17.1 (1.9) El Salvador 17.1 (2.2) 15.6 (1.9) 19.0 (1.2) Honduras 13.7 (1.2) 19.2 (1.4) 13.7 (1.5) Nicaragua 15.2 (2.4) 16.0 (1.1) 16.5 (1.4) Costa Rica 15.9 (1.2) Panama 14.8 (1.0) 7.1 (0.8) 8.4 (1.0) Colombia 14.4 (1.3) 13.2 (1.1) 15.5 (1.2) Ecuador 18.3 (1.1) 20.0 (1.2) 22.6 (1.2) Bolivia 25.9 (1.3) 16.8 (1.2) 19.0 (1.1) Peru 26.2 (1.3) 25.4 (1.0) Paraguay 17.3 (1.3) 16.6 (1.3) Chile 23.1 (1.3) 22.2 (1.2) Uruguay 21.6 (1.5) 22.0 (1.6) Brazil 15.5 (1.4) 16.3 (1.3) Venezuela 25.1 (1.5) 21.4 (1.4) Argentina 27.5 (1.6) Dominican Republic 14.8 (1.0) Haiti 16.9 (1.1) 14.3 (1.0) Jamaica 10.1 (0.9) 8.4 (0.9) Guyana 11.0 (0.9) Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data. Figures shown are the percentage of respondents who report having been the victim of any crime in the previous 12 months.

13 Table 2: Levels of Trust in Justice System by Country and Year Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mexico 49.4 (1.2) 49.2 (1.1) 49.7 (1.2) Guatemala 43.0 (0.7) 46.7 (0.8) 43.2 (1.4) El Salvador 55.3 (0.9) 48.6 (0.9) 46.1 (0.8) Honduras 51.2 (0.9) 46.3 (0.6) 43.2 (1.1) Nicaragua 47.7 (1.1) 44.6 (1.0) 43.1 (0.9) Costa Rica 51.4 (0.9) Panama 50.2 (0.8) 44.2 (1.1) 46.0 (1.1) Colombia 53.0 (0.7) 52.4 (0.9) 57.0 (0.8) Ecuador 37.1 (0.6) 32.2 (1.0) 36.0 (0.7) Bolivia 36.4 (0.8) 41.3 (0.7) 43.7 (0.6) Peru 35.1 (0.6) 36.2 (0.7) Paraguay 31.2 (0.9) 24.4 (0.8) Chile 49.8 (1.0) 52.8 (1.0) Uruguay 55.1 (1.2) 54.8 (0.8) Brazil 48.8 (1.2) 46.4 (1.2) Venezuela 42.5 (1.1) 39.8 (1.6) Argentina 38.2 (1.0) Dominican Republic 50.7 (0.9) Haiti 40.1 (1.1) 45.0 (1.0) Jamaica 47.6 (1.0) 49.2 (1.1) Guyana 53.2 (1.0) Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data.

14 Table 3: Approval of People Taking the Law into Their Own Hands by Country and Year Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mexico 30.0 (1.6) 21.5 (1.2) 23.9 (1.3) Guatemala 31.0 (1.1) 36.2 (1.3) 22.9 (1.1) El Salvador 36.2 (1.2) 35.4 (1.0) 37.4 (1.1) Honduras 34.0 (1.0) 47.4 (1.3) 34.1 (1.2) Nicaragua 35.0 (1.6) 31.5 (0.8) 33.4 (1.3) Costa Rica 28.7 (1.5) Panama 25.3 (1.3) 35.0 (1.5) 27.9 (1.2) Colombia 22.5 (1.3) 25.0 (1.3) 24.0 (1.1) Ecuador 36.9 (1.2) 40.2 (1.6) 36.9 (1.2) Bolivia 27.4 (1.0) 32.3 (1.3) 31.1 (1.2) Peru 39.7 (1.5) 35.9 (1.6) Paraguay 22.7 (1.0) 21.5 (1.2) Chile 32.1 (1.6) 33.0 (1.4) Uruguay 18.4 (1.1) 26.0 (1.3) Brazil 19.1 (1.2) 17.0 (1.1) Venezuela 25.1 (1.7) 20.7 (1.7) Argentina 30.0 (1.9) Dominican Republic 31.9 (1.1) Haiti 29.0 (1.8) 24.6 (1.1) Jamaica 24.5 (1.2) 26.5 (1.3) Guyana 27.5 (1.3) Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data.

15 Table 4: Respect for the Rule of Law by Country and Year Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mexico 67.8 (2.0) 58.1 (2.0) 69.3 (1.9) Guatemala 75.9 (1.4) 56.9 (1.8) 57.6 (1.9) El Salvador 65.3 (1.3) 56.0 (1.1) 55.4 (1.5) Honduras 63.2 (1.4) 44.4 (1.8) 47.8 (1.6) Nicaragua 71.1 (2.4) 52.1 (1.5) 46.7 (2.2) Costa Rica 56.6 (1.6) Panama 65.7 (1.8) 58.3 (1.7) 62.9 (1.6) Colombia 69.7 (1.8) 60.2 (1.5) 64.8 (1.7) Ecuador 59.6 (1.6) 50.2 (2.1) 55.2 (1.7) Bolivia 56.8 (1.7) 61.7 (1.6) Peru 53.2 (1.8) 56.3 (2.0) Paraguay 47.1 (1.8) 51.3 (2.1) Chile 49.5 (1.7) 51.4 (1.3) Uruguay 51.9 (1.9) 50.2 (1.7) Brazil 71.1 (2.0) Venezuela 68.6 (2.1) 68.0 (2.4) Argentina 62.7 (2.1) Dominican Republic 66.3 (1.4) Haiti 65.1 (2.2) 78.4 (2.1) Jamaica 69.8 (1.8) 86.5 (1.3) Guyana 62.1 (2.0) Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data.

16 Table 5: Effect of Victimization on Attitudes Towards Criminal Justice: Main Results Dependent variable: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Trust in Criminal Justice System Approval of People Taking the Law into Their Own Hands Belief That Authorities Should Always Uphold the Rule of Law Crime victim -4.84*** -3.63*** 4.97*** 4.11*** -7.21*** -6.48*** (0.28) (0.24) (0.44) (0.38) (0.61) (0.55) Female *** -1.65*** 1.36** 1.27** (0.20) (0.18) (0.29) (0.28) (0.43) (0.41) Nonwhite -2.64*** -0.86*** *** 3.50*** 0.86 (0.36) (0.25) (0.42) (0.39) (0.64) (0.57) Married *** -1.69*** -1.16* 0.34 (0.26) (0.21) (0.35) (0.32) (0.51) (0.48) Yrs education -0.35*** -0.07* -0.30*** -0.52*** (0.04) (0.03) (0.05) (0.04) (0.07) (0.06) Age -0.22*** -0.21*** -0.32*** -0.30*** 0.36*** 0.23*** (0.04) (0.03) (0.05) (0.05) (0.07) (0.07) Age squared 0.00*** 0.00*** 0.00** 0.00* -0.00* (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) Wealth index 0.66*** *** -0.75*** -0.91** -0.86** (0.18) (0.14) (0.24) (0.22) (0.34) (0.32) Constant 54.19*** 49.81*** 42.80*** 46.83*** 45.56*** 50.77*** (0.87) (0.72) (1.22) (1.11) (1.80) (1.62) Number of cluster dummies N/A 3009 N/A 3009 N/A 3009 Observations R-squared Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data. All regressions include dummy variables at the level of the sampling cluster. Dependent variables are indices with ranges from 0 to 100.

17 Table 6: Effect of Victimization on Attitudes Towards Criminal Justice: Alternative Specifications Dependent variable: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Trust in Criminal Justice System Approval of People Taking the Law into Their Own Hands Belief That Authorities Should Always Uphold the Rule of Law Crime victim -3.63*** -3.65*** 4.11*** 4.10*** -6.48*** -6.52*** (0.24) (0.24) (0.38) (0.38) (0.55) (0.55) Female *** -1.57*** 1.27** 1.32** (0.18) (0.18) (0.28) (0.28) (0.41) (0.41) Nonwhite -0.86*** -0.85*** -1.41*** -1.38*** (0.25) (0.25) (0.39) (0.39) (0.57) (0.57) Married *** -1.72*** (0.21) (0.21) (0.32) (0.32) (0.48) (0.48) Yrs education -0.07* -0.07** -0.52*** -0.52*** (0.03) (0.03) (0.04) (0.04) (0.06) (0.06) Age -0.21*** -0.22*** -0.30*** -0.30*** 0.23*** 0.23** (0.03) (0.03) (0.05) (0.05) (0.07) (0.07) Age squared 0.00*** 0.00*** 0.00* 0.00* (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) Wealth index *** -0.86** (0.14) (0.22) (0.32) Assets Television *** (0.39) (0.61) (0.89) Refrigerator -0.86** (0.29) (0.45) (0.66) Landline phone * 0.12 (0.24) (0.38) (0.55) Vehicle (0.25) (0.39) (0.57) Washing machine (0.28) (0.44) (0.65) Microwave (0.27) (0.42) (0.61) Motorcycle *** (0.31) (0.47) (0.69) Indoor plumbing (0.31) (0.48) (0.71) Indoor bathroom * (0.29) (0.45) (0.67) Computer * 0.37 (0.27) (0.42) (0.62) Constant 49.81*** 50.36*** 46.83*** 48.33*** 50.77*** 55.01*** (0.72) (0.78) (1.11) (1.21) (1.62) (1.78) Number of cluster dummies Observations R-squared Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data. All regressions include dummy variables at the level of the sampling cluster. Dependent variables are indices with ranges from 0 to 100.

18 Table 7: Effects of Victimization, by Country Trust in Criminal Justice System Approval of People Taking the Law into Their Own Hands Belief That Authorities Should Always Uphold the Rule of Law Estimated Effect SE Estimated Effect SE Estimated Effect SE Argentina -4.9 (1.3) 7.1 (2.0) -6.6 (3.1) Brazil -3.5 (1.6) -0.8 (2.1) -2.0 (3.4) Chile -2.2 (1.0) 2.2 (1.5) -7.7 (2.3) Colombia -2.0 (1.2) 5.1 (1.8) -5.6 (2.7) Costa Rica -4.1 (1.9) 4.6 (2.9) -5.9 (4.1) Dominican Re -5.5 (2.0) 3.2 (2.9) -5.8 (3.5) Ecuador -2.2 (0.7) 2.9 (1.2) -7.7 (1.7) El Salvador -5.7 (1.2) 7.0 (2.0) -9.2 (2.7) Guatemala -3.6 (1.1) 5.9 (1.7) (2.6) Haiti -3.7 (1.0) 3.5 (1.7) -4.9 (2.3) Honduras -2.2 (1.0) 6.3 (1.7) -6.9 (2.5) Jamaica -3.9 (1.4) 4.0 (2.0) -2.6 (2.5) Mexico -6.9 (1.1) 3.6 (1.5) (2.4) Nicaragua -5.4 (1.2) 1.6 (1.9) -5.1 (2.6) Panama -1.9 (1.5) 1.6 (2.1) -0.3 (3.5) Paraguay -8.1 (1.9) 5.4 (2.9) -0.9 (4.7) Peru -2.4 (0.9) 2.1 (1.5) -7.2 (2.2) Uruguay -5.5 (1.1) 5.9 (1.5) -2.0 (2.4) Venezuela -6.7 (1.1) 3.9 (1.4) -3.1 (2.1) Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data. All regressions include dummy variables at the level of the sampling cluster. Dependent variables are indices with rangs from 0 to 100.

19 Figure 2: Changes in Victimization Rates vs. Changes in Belief that Authorities Should Always Uphold the Law 5 Change in % of Who Believe Authorities Should Always Respect the Law Panama Mexico Colombia Ecuador El Salvador Honduras Guatemala Nicaragua Change in % Victimized by Crime in Previous 12 Months Source: Author s calculations using LAPOP data. All regressions include dummy variables at the level of the sampling cluster. Dependent variables are indices with rangs from 0 to 100.

20 Figure 3: Effect of Victimization on Trust in Criminal Justice System by Country Effect of Being a Crime Victim on Trust in Criminal Justice System Change in Index(Range: 0-100) Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela Source: Author s calculations. The plotted figures show coefficients on crime victimization from country-specific regressions of three different indices on crime victimization and other covariates. Regressions include fixed effects at the sampling cluster level. Dependent variables are indices with ranges from 0 to 100.

21 Figure 4: Effect of Victimization on Approval of People Taking the Law into Their Own Hands by Country Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela Effect of Being a Crime Victim on Approval of People Taking the Law into Their Own Hands Change in Index (Range: 0-100) Source: Author s calculations. The plotted figures show coefficients on crime victimization from country-specific regressions of three different indices on crime victimization and other covariates. Regressions include fixed effects at the sampling cluster level. Dependent variables are indices with ranges from 0 to 100.

22 Figure 5: Effect of Victimization on Belief that Authorities Should Always Respect the Rule of Law by Country Effect of Being a Crime Victim on Belief that Authorities Should Always Respect Rule of Law Change in Index (Range: 0-100) Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela Source: Author s calculations. The plotted figures show coefficients on crime victimization from country-specific regressions of three different indices on crime victimization and other covariates. Regressions include fixed effects at the sampling cluster level. Dependent variables are indices with ranges from 0 to 100.

Find us at: www.lapopsurveys.org Like us on: Latin American Public Opinion Project Follow us at: @Lapop_Barometro

Find us at: www.lapopsurveys.org Like us on: Latin American Public Opinion Project Follow us at: @Lapop_Barometro . Find us at: www.lapopsurveys.org Like us on: Latin American Public Opinion Project Follow us at: @Lapop_Barometro Citizen Insecurities and Democracy in the Americas: Looking Back over a Decade of the

More information

Avoiding Crime in Latin America and the Caribbean 1

Avoiding Crime in Latin America and the Caribbean 1 Avoiding Crime in Latin America and the Caribbean 1 WORLD BANK GROUP LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN SERIES NOTE NO. 7 REV. 8/2014 Basic Definitions Countries surveyed in 2010 and how they are grouped

More information

AmericasBarometer Insights: 2009(No.22) * Municipal Corruption Victimization 1

AmericasBarometer Insights: 2009(No.22) * Municipal Corruption Victimization 1 This is the third paper (I0803, I0813) in the AmericasBarometer Insight Series to analyze the sources of corruption victimization, focusing on another question included in the 2008 round of the Latin American

More information

Crime and Support for Coups in Latin America 1

Crime and Support for Coups in Latin America 1 developing world. Studies have shown that citizens view crime as one of the most pressing problems facing their nation (Quann and Kwing 2002) AmericasBarometer Insights: 2009 (No. 32) Crime and Support

More information

The remainder of this handbook is divided into the following sections: Getting Started (p. 2); Beginner Mode (pp. 3 5); Expert Mode (pp. 5 11).

The remainder of this handbook is divided into the following sections: Getting Started (p. 2); Beginner Mode (pp. 3 5); Expert Mode (pp. 5 11). User Guide to LAPOP s System for Online Data Analysis (v1) The following guide is designed to help users navigate through and use LAPOP s System for Online Data Analysis (SODA). The system allows individuals

More information

The Economic Impact of a U.S. Slowdown on the Americas

The Economic Impact of a U.S. Slowdown on the Americas Issue Brief March 2008 Center for Economic and Policy Research 1611 Connecticut Ave, NW Suite 400 Washington, DC 20009 tel: 202-293-5380 fax:: 202-588-1356 www.cepr.net The Economic Impact of a U.S. Slowdown

More information

Contents. Public policies on care. Poverty, income distribution, perceptions of distribution and social spending

Contents. Public policies on care. Poverty, income distribution, perceptions of distribution and social spending Contents Poverty, income distribution, perceptions of distribution and social spending - Changes in poverty and its determinants - Income distribution and perceptions of distribution - Trends in household

More information

AmericasBarometer Insights: 2015 Number 110

AmericasBarometer Insights: 2015 Number 110 AmericasBarometer Insights: 2015 Number 110 Public Health Services Use in Latin America and the Caribbean By emily.a.stewart@vanderbilt.edu Vanderbilt University Executive Summary. This Insights report

More information

Agrimonitor: PSE Agricultural Policy Monitoring System in LAC INE/RND

Agrimonitor: PSE Agricultural Policy Monitoring System in LAC INE/RND Agrimonitor: PSE Agricultural Policy Monitoring System in LAC INE/RND WHAT POLICY MONITORING IS,WHY IS IMPORTANT AND WHAT HAS ALREADY BEEN DONE IN OUR COUNTRIES? Monitor and evaluate developments in agricultural

More information

Public Insecurity in Central America and Mexico

Public Insecurity in Central America and Mexico characteristics may affect levels of public insecurity. All these conditions interact with crime and violence to generate more uncertainty and, in some cases, social unrest. AmericasBarometer Insights

More information

Obtaining Finance in Latin America and the Caribbean 1

Obtaining Finance in Latin America and the Caribbean 1 Obtaining Finance in Latin America and the Caribbean 1 World Bank Group latin America and the Caribbean Series Note No. REV. 8/14 Basic Definitions Countries surveyed in and how they are grouped for analysis:

More information

BRAIN DRAIN IN LATIN AMERICA*

BRAIN DRAIN IN LATIN AMERICA* UN/POP/EGM-MIG/2005/10 5 February 2006 EXPERT GROUP MEETING ON INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Population Division Department of Economic and Social Affairs United

More information

UPDATED AND EXPANDED VERSION

UPDATED AND EXPANDED VERSION RACE/ETHNICITY EDUCATION GDP GROWTH WOMEN S RIGHTS FINANCIAL INCLUSION UPDATED AND EXPANDED VERSION SOCIAL PROGRAMS CIVIL RIGHTS LGBT In its second year, AQ s Index adds three new variables, expands to

More information

Preventing through education

Preventing through education Ministerial Declaration Preventing through education The Ministerial Declaration Preventing through Education, was approved in Mexico City in the framework of the 1st Meeting of Ministers of Health and

More information

2 In Colombia, a same sex couples bill was defeated by the

2 In Colombia, a same sex couples bill was defeated by the AmericasBarometer Insights: 2010 (No.44) Support for Same Sex Marriage in Latin America 1 Germán Lodola, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, University of Pittsburgh glodola@utdt.edu Margarita Corral, Vanderbilt

More information

Accounting Education in Latin America and the Caribbean

Accounting Education in Latin America and the Caribbean REPARIS A REGIONAL PROGRAM Accounting Education in Latin America and the Caribbean Henri Fortin, Program Manager, CFRR THE ROAD TO EUROPE: PROGRAM OF ACCOUNTING REFORM AND INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING (REPARIS)

More information

Susanne Karstedt School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith University, Australia.

Susanne Karstedt School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith University, Australia. Susanne Karstedt School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith University, Australia. Global Hotspots of Violence: Intervention and Prevention in the Top most Violent Countries Global Violence Reduction

More information

INTERNATIONAL FACTORING

INTERNATIONAL FACTORING INTERNATIONAL FACTORING November 3, 2011 1 L. Gabriel Segura President and founding officer of CVCredit Inc, a Miami-based company which focuses in USA-domestic and international factoring services. Nine

More information

Health Care Expenditure and Financing in Latin America and the Caribbean [Fact sheet]

Health Care Expenditure and Financing in Latin America and the Caribbean [Fact sheet] Health Care Expenditure and Financing in Latin America and the Caribbean [Fact sheet] December 2012 Overview of Health Expenditure and Financing Current Situation and Trends In 2011, the national or total

More information

Open access policies: What can we learn from Latin America? Roxana Barrantes Instituto de Estudios Peruanos

Open access policies: What can we learn from Latin America? Roxana Barrantes Instituto de Estudios Peruanos Open access policies: What can we learn from Latin America? Roxana Barrantes Instituto de Estudios Peruanos 8.00 GDP growth 1999 2009 (percetual variation) 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00-2.00-4.00-6.00 1999 2000

More information

research brief A Profile of the Middle Class in Latin American Countries 2001 2011 by Leopoldo Tornarolli

research brief A Profile of the Middle Class in Latin American Countries 2001 2011 by Leopoldo Tornarolli research brief The International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth is jointly supported by the United Nations Development Programme and the Government of Brazil. August/2014no. 47 A Profile of the Middle

More information

Evolution of EU exports and imports of goods with CELAC, 2004-2014 (in billion)

Evolution of EU exports and imports of goods with CELAC, 2004-2014 (in billion) 100/2015-9 June 2015 EU Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) summit CELAC represents the fifth most important trading partner of the EU More than 200 bn total trade The 28 Member States

More information

Survey of LAC agricultural research institutes on technical information management.

Survey of LAC agricultural research institutes on technical information management. Survey of LAC agricultural research institutes on technical information management. FORAGRO Technical Secretariat Area of Technology and Innovation Directorate of Technical Leadership and Knowledge Management,

More information

SOUTHERN EXPOSURE PERFORMING ARTS OF LATIN AMERICA

SOUTHERN EXPOSURE PERFORMING ARTS OF LATIN AMERICA APPLICATION RECEIPT DEADLINE February 28, 2014 PROJECT PERIOD September 1, 2014 August 31, 2015 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Southern Exposure: Performing Arts of Latin America is a national initiative that supports

More information

Human Resources Development and Training in Comprehensive Evaluation

Human Resources Development and Training in Comprehensive Evaluation Human Resources Development and Training in Comprehensive Evaluation Cuarto Foro Global de los Centros para el Aprendizaje en Evaluación y Resultados (CLEAR) November 19, 2013 Conduct evaluations Train

More information

Idle Youth in Latin America: A Persistent Problem in a Decade of Prosperity

Idle Youth in Latin America: A Persistent Problem in a Decade of Prosperity Idle Youth in Latin America: A Persistent Problem in a Decade of Prosperity By Mauricio Cárdenas, Rafael de Hoyos and Miguel Székely 1 August 2011 1 Correspondence to: mszekely@prodigy.net.mx. Cárdenas

More information

Education and Training

Education and Training Education and Training Education The William J. Harrington Medical Training Programs for Latin America and the Caribbean 1967 August 2011 Total 3939 Residency Program for Internal Medicine 397 Elective

More information

Crime and Violence in Central America: A Development Challenge

Crime and Violence in Central America: A Development Challenge Crime and Violence in Central America: A Development Challenge 2011 Sustainable Development Department and Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit Latin America and the Caribbean Region Document

More information

Information for applicants from Latin America and the Caribbean for study commencing in 2014

Information for applicants from Latin America and the Caribbean for study commencing in 2014 Information for applicants from Latin America and the Caribbean for study commencing in 2014 Development Scholarships The Development Scholarships (NZDS) scheme offers the opportunity to people from targeted

More information

Tourism Statistical Yearly Report 2012

Tourism Statistical Yearly Report 2012 Tourism Statistical Yearly Report 2012 The Costa Rica Tourism Board is pleased to present the Tourism Statistical Yearly Report 2012. The information has been collected and organized by officers of Subproceso

More information

Latin America s s Foreign Debt

Latin America s s Foreign Debt Latin America s s Foreign Debt Causes and Effects Internal Causes of the Debt Overvalued currency associated with ISI Returns on projects in future, but payments now: Debt trap Populist economic policies:

More information

AmericasBarometer Insights: 2009(No.8) * Should Government Own Big Businesses and Industries? Views from the Americas

AmericasBarometer Insights: 2009(No.8) * Should Government Own Big Businesses and Industries? Views from the Americas AmericasBarometer Insights: 2009(No.8) * Should Government Own Big Businesses and Industries? Views from the Americas By Margarita Corral Margarita.corral@vanderbilt.edu Vanderbilt University P rivatization

More information

Goal 4. Reduce child mortality

Goal 4. Reduce child mortality Goal 4. Reduce child mortality 4.1. Introduction Target 4.A of MDG 4 reads: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate. Monitoring of this Goal consists of three indicators

More information

Education Goals in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Compiled by Lorecia Roland LAC Education and Human Resources Technical Services Project

Education Goals in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Compiled by Lorecia Roland LAC Education and Human Resources Technical Services Project Education Goals in the Latin American and Caribbean Region Compiled by Lorecia Roland LAC Education and Human Resources Technical Services Project 1994 Acknowledgements In preparation for the December

More information

Recommendations for implementing sustainable energy activities in the regions: LAC

Recommendations for implementing sustainable energy activities in the regions: LAC Recommendations for implementing sustainable energy activities in the regions: LAC NESTOR LUNA DIRECTOR OF STUDIES AND PROJECTS ICSU: GLOBAL REGIONAL INTEGRATION WORSHOP ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY April 9th,

More information

Receivables Management Solutions

Receivables Management Solutions Receivables Management Solutions Unlock trapped liquidity, reduce costs and make collections more predictable Citi Transaction Services Latin America and Mexico Citi Transaction Services Latin America

More information

SIGNATURES AND CURRENT STATUS OF RATIFICATIONS AMERICAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS "PACT OF SAN JOSE, COSTA RICA"

SIGNATURES AND CURRENT STATUS OF RATIFICATIONS AMERICAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS PACT OF SAN JOSE, COSTA RICA SIGNATURES AND CURRENT STATUS OF RATIFICATIONS AMERICAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS "PACT OF SAN JOSE, COSTA RICA" (Signed at San José, Costa Rica, 22 November 1969, at the Inter-American Specialized Conference

More information

Chapter3. Human Opportunities in a Global Context: Benchmarking LAC to Other Regions of the World

Chapter3. Human Opportunities in a Global Context: Benchmarking LAC to Other Regions of the World Chapter3 73 Human Opportunities in a Global Context: Benchmarking LAC to Other Regions of the World 74 Chapter 3 Human Opportunities in a Global Context: Benchmarking LAC to Other Regions of the World

More information

Social Pensions for the Elderly or Social Assistance for Poor Households? Margaret Grosh Pensions Core Course March 3, 2014 World Bank, Washington DC

Social Pensions for the Elderly or Social Assistance for Poor Households? Margaret Grosh Pensions Core Course March 3, 2014 World Bank, Washington DC Social Pensions for the Elderly or Social Assistance for Poor Households? Margaret Grosh Pensions Core Course March 3, 2014 World Bank, Washington DC 1 The Elderly are Not all Poor In fact, many studies

More information

STANTON A. WARREN. Niagara University

STANTON A. WARREN. Niagara University Review of Income and Wealth Series 36, No. 2, June 1990 A BALANCE OF PAYMENTS ANALYSIS OF THE LATIN AMERICAN DEBT CRISIS BY J. THOMAS ROMANS SUNY Buffalo AND STANTON A. WARREN Niagara University In this

More information

Recognition of Judgments 2016

Recognition of Judgments 2016 The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Sin Fronteras, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, and the Asociación Mexicana de Impartidores de Justicia A.C. CALL FOR PROPOSALS Recognition

More information

The Pharmaceutical & Healthcare Industry in Latin America

The Pharmaceutical & Healthcare Industry in Latin America Citi s Online Academy Presents: The Pharmaceutical & Healthcare Industry in Latin America Jamie Davies Head of Pharmaceuticals & Healthcare Business Monitor International Oscar Mazza Consumer & Healthcare

More information

Trends, News and Events that are Shaping the AML Arena in Latin America

Trends, News and Events that are Shaping the AML Arena in Latin America Trends, News and Events that are Shaping the AML Arena in Latin America Presented by: Octavio Betancourt- Managing Director 1 MoneyLaundering.com 15 th Annual International Anti-MoneyLaundering Conference

More information

Table 1. Growth of Latin American and Caribbean Medical Schools

Table 1. Growth of Latin American and Caribbean Medical Schools Table 1. Growth of Latin American and Caribbean Medical Schools Country 1969 1975 1988 1992 2004 Argentina 9 9 9 13 24 Antigua and Barbuda 1 Bolivia 3 3 3 7 10 Belize 2 Brazil 30 75 78 80 112 Chile 4 10

More information

Coordinating national investment promotion with subnational investment promotion

Coordinating national investment promotion with subnational investment promotion . Coordinating national investment promotion with subnational investment promotion Investment climate, World Bank Global Market Access from an International Economy Spain: your partner in Europe Business

More information

REPORT OF THE KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER NETWORK*

REPORT OF THE KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER NETWORK* Distr. LIMITED LC/L.3379(CEA.6/7) 19 October 2011 ENGLISH ORIGINAL: SPANISH Sixth meeting of the Statistical Conference of the Americas of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean Bávaro,

More information

The big pay turnaround: Eurozone recovering, emerging markets falter in 2015

The big pay turnaround: Eurozone recovering, emerging markets falter in 2015 The big pay turnaround: Eurozone recovering, emerging markets falter in 2015 Global salary rises up compared to last year But workers in key emerging markets will experience real wage cuts Increase in

More information

Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings

Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings Below please find the complete rankings of all 75 markets considered in the analysis. Rankings are broken into overall rankings and subsector rankings. Overall Renewable

More information

FCPA and Anti-Corruption in Latin America

FCPA and Anti-Corruption in Latin America FCPA and Anti-Corruption in Latin America May 2011 FCPA Enforcement "FCPA enforcement is stronger than it's ever been and getting stronger. We are in a new era of FCPA enforcement; and we are here to stay."

More information

352 UNHCR Global Report 2010

352 UNHCR Global Report 2010 352 UNHCR Global Report 2010 Argentina Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela

More information

Senate Committee: Education and Employment. QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016

Senate Committee: Education and Employment. QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016 Senate Committee: Education and Employment QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016 Outcome: Higher Education Research and International Department of Education and Training Question No. SQ15-000549

More information

MOBILE ADS. HUNT Mobile Ads Traffic Q2-2011

MOBILE ADS. HUNT Mobile Ads Traffic Q2-2011 HUNT Mobile Ads Traffic Q2-2011 Report #2-2011 Intro Continuing with the quarterly reports from HUNT Mobile Ads, the leading mobile advertising network in Latin America and the Spanish speaking markets,

More information

Public confidence in the NSW Criminal Justice System: what contribution does knowledge make?

Public confidence in the NSW Criminal Justice System: what contribution does knowledge make? NSW Sentencing Council NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research Public confidence in the NSW Criminal Justice System: what contribution does knowledge make? Craig Jones, Don Weatherburn & Katherine

More information

An Asset-Based Approach to the Analysis of Poverty in Latin America

An Asset-Based Approach to the Analysis of Poverty in Latin America nter-american Development Bank Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo Latin American Research Network Red de Centros de Investigación Office of the Chief Economist Working paper #R-376 An Asset-Based Approach

More information

Sub- Regional Workshop and Consulta;ons on Capacity- Building in Travel Document Security: Colombia, 2013

Sub- Regional Workshop and Consulta;ons on Capacity- Building in Travel Document Security: Colombia, 2013 Sub- Regional Workshop and Consulta;ons on Capacity- Building in Travel Document Security: Colombia, 2013 Carlos Gómez Head of R&D and Innova.on, FNMT- RCM, Spain ICAO TRIP: Building Trust in Travel Document

More information

What explains modes of engagement in international trade? Conference paper for Kiel International Economics Papers 2011. Current Version: June 2011

What explains modes of engagement in international trade? Conference paper for Kiel International Economics Papers 2011. Current Version: June 2011 What explains modes of engagement in international trade? Conference paper for Kiel International Economics Papers 2011 Current Version: June 2011 Natalia Trofimenko Kiel Institute for World Economy Hindenburgufer

More information

More than two-thirds (68%) of Hispanics are Roman Catholics. The next largest category, at 15%, is made

More than two-thirds (68%) of Hispanics are Roman Catholics. The next largest category, at 15%, is made Chapter 1 Religion and Demography More than two-thirds (68%) of Hispanics are Roman Catholics. The next largest category, at 15%, is made up of born-again or evangelical Protestants. Although their numbers

More information

Energy Briefing: Global Crude Oil Demand & Supply

Energy Briefing: Global Crude Oil Demand & Supply Energy Briefing: Global Crude Oil Demand & Supply November 6, 215 Dr. Edward Yardeni 516-972-7683 eyardeni@ Debbie Johnson 48-664-1333 djohnson@ Please visit our sites at www. blog. thinking outside the

More information

Brazilian firms are more integrated into their country's financial system than other firms in the

Brazilian firms are more integrated into their country's financial system than other firms in the Enterprise Surveys Country Note Series Brazil World Bank Group Country note no. 12 11 Running a Business in Brazil Brazilian firms are more integrated into their country's financial system than other firms

More information

Admission to UNICAMP. 1. The Undergraduate Program. 1.1. Regular students. 1.1.1 The vestibular examination. 1.1.2.

Admission to UNICAMP. 1. The Undergraduate Program. 1.1. Regular students. 1.1.1 The vestibular examination. 1.1.2. Admission to UNICAMP 1. The Undergraduate Program 1.1. Regular students To enroll as a regular student in one of UNICAMP's undergraduate courses, foreign students have to pass the entrance examination

More information

CLARA: Security in Latin American Academic Networks

CLARA: Security in Latin American Academic Networks Jornadas sobre Seguridad Informática Buenos Aires, 1-7 Octubre, 2005 Liliana Velásquez Solha CAIS/RNP - Brazil Juan Carlos López Guel UNAM-CERT Mexico (on behalf of CLARA Latin American Cooperation of

More information

ECON 4311: The Economy of Latin America. Debt Relief. Part 1: Early Initiatives

ECON 4311: The Economy of Latin America. Debt Relief. Part 1: Early Initiatives ECON 4311: The Economy of Latin America Debt Relief Part 1: Early Initiatives The Debt Crisis of 1982 severely hit the Latin American economies for many years to come. Balance of payments deficits and

More information

Are higher education students registering and participating in MOOCs? The case of MiríadaX

Are higher education students registering and participating in MOOCs? The case of MiríadaX Please cite as: Albó, L., Hernández-Leo, D., Oliver, M. (2016) Are higher education students registering and participanting in MOOCs? The case of MiríadaX. EMOOCs 2016 conference, Graz, Austria. Are higher

More information

OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL WORKING GROUP ON THE MULTILATERAL EVALUATION MECHANISM (MEM)

OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL WORKING GROUP ON THE MULTILATERAL EVALUATION MECHANISM (MEM) THIRD MEETING OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL OEA/Ser.L./XIV.4.3 WORKING GROUP ON THE MULTILATERAL CICAD/MEM/doc.14/98 rev. 1 EVALUATION MECHANISM (MEM) 4 December 1998 October 26-28, 1998 Original: Spanish Tegucigalpa,

More information

Resolution. Background to the support of the Ombudsman Offices for women s human rights

Resolution. Background to the support of the Ombudsman Offices for women s human rights Resolution Seminar-Workshop The Promotion and Protection of Reproductive Rights through the Work of the National Human Rights Institutions for Latin America, the Caribbean and Canada. Representatives of

More information

Public Policy and Development Masters Programme

Public Policy and Development Masters Programme Public Policy and Development Masters Programme Paris School of Economics Course on Social Policies in Developing Countries Lecture 3: Policy objectives, constraints and domains. Francisco H. G. Ferreira

More information

Solution paper summary

Solution paper summary Violence and Crime in Latin America Mark A Cohen (Vanderbilt University) and Mauricio Rubio (Universidad Externado de Colombia) CHALLENGES Background Crime and violence is a major concern in Latin America.

More information

DATA ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN. Invited Paper. Submitted by ECLAC 1

DATA ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN. Invited Paper. Submitted by ECLAC 1 Working Paper 5 4 October 2007 ENGLISH ONLY UNITED NATIONS STATISTICAL COMMISSION and ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE CONFERENCE OF EUROPEAN STATISTICIANS UNITED NATIONS DIVISION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF

More information

IPv6 in Latin America

IPv6 in Latin America IPv6 World Congress Meeting Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S. Azael Fernández Alcántara February 2006 CONTENTS 1. Introduction. 2. (6Bone) 3. IPv6 in Mexico 4. IPv6 in CLARA Network 5. IPv6 current status in Latin

More information

Company Presentation. Corporate Motor Show

Company Presentation. Corporate Motor Show Company Presentation Corporate Motor Show 1 Company Overview 1. Company Overview Technology & Service Provider Network Operator 2 FY 2010 Financial Highlights 1. Company Overview Revenues Ebitda 60.9 19.2

More information

COSTA RICA: LINKING TRADE AND INVESTMENT FOR INCLUSIVE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

COSTA RICA: LINKING TRADE AND INVESTMENT FOR INCLUSIVE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT COSTA RICA: LINKING TRADE AND INVESTMENT FOR INCLUSIVE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT GETTING TO KNOW COSTA RICA o A small country of 51,100 km2 o With 4.7 million inhabitants o Strategically located in the middle

More information

POVERTY WITHIN CONTINENTS

POVERTY WITHIN CONTINENTS POVERTY WITHIN CONTINENTS The poverty maps we used to identify hunger hotspots throughout Africa were the main source of data for identifying the Millennium Villages. The maps acted as an organizing principle

More information

Telephone and Cell Phone Adoptions in Latin American and Caribbean Nations

Telephone and Cell Phone Adoptions in Latin American and Caribbean Nations Telephone and Cell Phone Adoptions in Latin American and Caribbean Nations Kallol K. Bagchi The University of Texas at El Paso kbagchi@utep.edu Adriano O. Solis The University of Texas at El Paso solis@utep.edu

More information

Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers with Web 2.0 Tools and 21st Century Skills 1

Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers with Web 2.0 Tools and 21st Century Skills 1 Professional Development Scholarship Program Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers with Web 2.0 Tools and 21st Century Skills 1 OAS/DHDEC/CIR.031/2012 1) Study venue: The course will be delivered entirely online

More information

SUBCOMMITTEE ON PLANNING AND PROGRAMMING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON PLANNING AND PROGRAMMING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION SUBCOMMITTEE ON PLANNING AND PROGRAMMING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 31st Session, 23-24 November 1998 Provisional Agenda Item 8 SPP31/8, Rev.1

More information

WHAT S NEXT FOR MOBILE PAYMENTS?

WHAT S NEXT FOR MOBILE PAYMENTS? WHAT S NEXT FOR MOBILE PAYMENTS? ? INSIGHT FROM LATIN AMERICA: WHAT S NEXT FOR MOBILE PAYMENTS? Mobile technology opens new opportunities for both financial institutions and merchants in Latin America.

More information

Latin America - Digital Media and Pay TV Market

Latin America - Digital Media and Pay TV Market Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/1937256/ Latin America - Digital Media and Pay TV Market Description: This market report provides a comprehensive overview of convergence,

More information

Making Spiritual Care part of Healthcare Worldwide

Making Spiritual Care part of Healthcare Worldwide Making Spiritual Care part of Healthcare Worldwide LILIANA DE LIMA, MHA EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR HOSPICE AND PALLIATIVE CARE Bearing in mind that palliative care is an approach

More information

Capacity building for non communicable disease prevention and control in Latin America and Caribbean

Capacity building for non communicable disease prevention and control in Latin America and Caribbean Capacity building for non communicable disease prevention and control in Latin America and Caribbean Advances and challenges Branka Legetic, Anselm Hennis Pan American Health Organization- World Health

More information

FedEx International Priority. FedEx International Economy 3

FedEx International Priority. FedEx International Economy 3 SERVICES AND RATES FedEx International Solutions for your business Whether you are shipping documents to meet a deadline, saving money on a regular shipment or moving freight, FedEx offers a suite of transportation

More information

Latin America. Working environment. Argentina. Belize. Bolivia. Brazil. Chile. Colombia. Costa Rica. Cuba. Ecuador. El Salvador. Guatemala.

Latin America. Working environment. Argentina. Belize. Bolivia. Brazil. Chile. Colombia. Costa Rica. Cuba. Ecuador. El Salvador. Guatemala. Latin America Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Working

More information

Achieve Universal primary education

Achieve Universal primary education Goal 2. Achieve Universal primary education 2.1. Introduction The second Goal proposed in the Millennium Summit reflects the commitment adopted by the international community to achieve universal primary

More information

UNITED KINGDOM/ BRITISH PASSPORT SERVICE for Adults Ages 16 & Over

UNITED KINGDOM/ BRITISH PASSPORT SERVICE for Adults Ages 16 & Over British, UK, United Kingdom Passport Renewal Call us for assistance Toll-free: (866) 378-1722 Local: (202) 684 7150 Fax: (866) 511-7599 1802 Vernon Street, NW Washington, DC 20009 Email: dc@travelvisapro.com

More information

Overview menu: ArminLabs - DHL Medical Express Online-Pickup: Access to the Online System

Overview menu: ArminLabs - DHL Medical Express Online-Pickup: Access to the Online System Access to the Online System Overview menu: Create shipment: Preselected - Here you can order your shipment including the Pickup 0049 821 78093150 ArminLabs DHL Medical Express Online-Pickup-Manual DHL

More information

News Media Consumption and Political Interest in Latin America

News Media Consumption and Political Interest in Latin America News Media Consumption and Political Interest in Latin America Ryan Salzman Northern Kentucky University ryanwsalzman@gmail.com Abstract For media communication researchers, a relationship between media

More information

Application Guideline. for Korea-LAC Scholarship Program (KLSP)

Application Guideline. for Korea-LAC Scholarship Program (KLSP) Application Guideline for Korea-LAC Scholarship Program (KLSP) CONTENTS 1. Admissions Overview 2. Admissions Schedule 3. Program Information 5. Requirements - Application Documents - Important Notices

More information

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Technological Innovation for Security in Latin America. Phase 1: Diagnosis in Latin America. With the support of:

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Technological Innovation for Security in Latin America. Phase 1: Diagnosis in Latin America. With the support of: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Technological Innovation for Security in Latin America Phase 1: Diagnosis in Latin America With the support of: I. Introduction Technology is a key element to increase the effectiveness

More information

Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment

Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment Prepared by The Office of International Affairs Nova Southeastern University Nova Southeastern University International Student Statistics Fall 2015 International

More information

Support period and budget frame, expenditures to date:

Support period and budget frame, expenditures to date: 1) Project Leaf - Law Enforcement Assistance for Forests 2) Project summary: Project Leaf (Law Enforcement Assistance for Forests) is a consortium forests and climate initiative on combating illegal logging

More information

Excerpt Sudan Fixed Telecommunications: Low Penetration Rates Get a Boost from Broadband Internet and VoIP Services

Excerpt Sudan Fixed Telecommunications: Low Penetration Rates Get a Boost from Broadband Internet and VoIP Services Excerpt Sudan Fixed Telecommunications: Low Penetration Rates Get a Boost from Broadband Internet and VoIP Services This report is part of Pyramid Research s series of Africa & Middle East Country Intelligence

More information

CITY OF MILWAUKEE POLICE SATISFACTION SURVEY

CITY OF MILWAUKEE POLICE SATISFACTION SURVEY RESEARCH BRIEF Joseph Cera, PhD Survey Center Director UW-Milwaukee Atiera Coleman, MA Project Assistant UW-Milwaukee CITY OF MILWAUKEE POLICE SATISFACTION SURVEY At the request of and in cooperation with

More information

Preventing violence against children: Attitudes, perceptions and priorities

Preventing violence against children: Attitudes, perceptions and priorities Preventing violence against children: Attitudes, perceptions and priorities Introduction As countries in every region of the world strive to meet the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),

More information

NZQA registered unit standard 26462 version 1 Page 1 of 6

NZQA registered unit standard 26462 version 1 Page 1 of 6 Page 1 of 6 Title Demonstrate knowledge of Central American and/or South American countries as tourist destinations Level 3 Credits 8 Purpose People credited with this unit standard are able to: locate

More information

Last reviewed: 04/21/2016 1

Last reviewed: 04/21/2016 1 Last reviewed: 04/21/2016 1 PAY-TV SIGNAL PIRACY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Pay-TV signal piracy is a multi-billion-dollar problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. It poses daunting challenges

More information

THE. moving. Your point of encounter Tu punto de encuentro Seu ponto de encontro. International Latino Cultural Center of Chicago

THE. moving. Your point of encounter Tu punto de encuentro Seu ponto de encontro. International Latino Cultural Center of Chicago THE Art of moving Forward International Latino Cultural Center of Chicago Your point of encounter Tu punto de encuentro Seu ponto de encontro Introduction The International Latino Cultural Center of Chicago

More information

Ontario Corporation Number 1881309 Business Number (Canada Revenue Agency) 83416 5045 PRESS RELEASE #5

Ontario Corporation Number 1881309 Business Number (Canada Revenue Agency) 83416 5045 PRESS RELEASE #5 December 27, 2013 PRESS RELEASE #5 For immediate release: Christmas is not a time nor a season, but a state of mind. To cherish peace and goodwill, to be plenteous in mercy, is to have the real spirit

More information

Trade Finance Services:

Trade Finance Services: Trade Finance Services: Current Environment & Recommendations: Wave 3 A Survey Among Banks Assessing the Current Trade Finance Environment Sponsored by The International Monetary Fund BAFT-IFSA April 2010

More information

Esteban Pérez Caldentey Development Studies Section Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

Esteban Pérez Caldentey Development Studies Section Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) The Challenge of Financing Business in Latin America and the Caribbean The Future of the Financial Services Industry after the Crisis 14th Caribbean Business Executive Seminar Port-of of-spain, Trinidad

More information

APEC Information Privacy Principles in the Development of Outsourcing Business: Contact Center in Peru

APEC Information Privacy Principles in the Development of Outsourcing Business: Contact Center in Peru 2008/SOM1/ECSG/SEM/018 APEC Information Privacy Principles in the Development of Outsourcing Business: Contact Center in Peru Submitted by: Peru Technical Assistance Seminar on International Implementation

More information

Strengthening of the medicines quality control laboratories in the region of the Americas and the support of AMI/RAVREDA

Strengthening of the medicines quality control laboratories in the region of the Americas and the support of AMI/RAVREDA Pan American Health Organization XI Annual Evaluation Meeting AMI/RAVREDA Antigua Guatemala, March 19-23, 2012 SESSION 5: Quality of the ANTIMALARIALS Strengthening of the medicines quality control laboratories

More information