Race disproportionality in stops and searches under Section 60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Race disproportionality in stops and searches under Section 60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994"

Transcription

1 Equality and Human Rights Commission Briefing paper 5 Race disproportionality in stops and searches under Section 60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994

2

3 Race disproportionality in stops and searches under Section 60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 Research briefing paper 5 1

4 Equality and Human Rights Commission 2012 First published Summer 2012 ISBN Equality and Human Rights Commission Research The Equality and Human Rights Commission publishes research carried out for the Commission by commissioned researchers and by the Research Team. The views expressed in this report do not necessarily represent the views of the Commission. The Commission is publishing the report as a contribution to discussion and debate. Please contact the Research Team for further information about other Commission research reports, or visit our website: Research Team Equality and Human Rights Commission Arndale House The Arndale Centre Manchester M4 3AQ Website: You can download a copy of this report as a PDF from our website: If you require this publication in an alternative format, please contact the Communications Team to discuss your needs at: 2

5 Executive summary The Equality and Human Rights Commission s Stop and think report looked at police use of stop and search using the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1994 (PACE). It highlighted that the police carry out a disproportionate number of stops and searches on black and Asian people compared to white people relative to the ethnic profile of the population. New government data shows that people who are black, Asian or of a mixed ethnicity are also disproportionately stopped and searched when the police use the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act Section 60 of this Act gives the police the power to stop and search any pedestrians or vehicles for offensive weapons or dangerous instruments within a specified area and during a specified period of time. The Commission asked all 40 police forces in England to disclose the for s using this power from 1 April 2008 to 31 March It asked for data on the number of s made, the time, place and rationale for those s, the number of stops and searches and effectiveness in terms of weapons found and arrests. The response to these questions showed that police forces do not have the data easily available. It found discrepancies between the data provided to the Commission and information published annually by the government. This suggests that police forces could improve their processes for recording and reporting the use of this power to Government. The Commission found evidence that people from some ethnicities are stopped significantly more often than other people. The Metropolitan, Merseyside, Lancashire, Greater Manchester, West Midlands and British Transport Police forces each carried out more than 2,000 Section 60 stops and searches in Of these six forces, Greater Manchester, West Midlands and the British Transport Police had the highest black/white and mixed/white disproportionality ratios. The West Midlands also had the highest Asian/white disproportionality ratio. Cumbria Police found the most weapons (26 during ) and Warwickshire found the most weapons on average per (5.25). The Metropolitan Police reported the most arrests for weapons (20 during August September 2010 alone). Some of the s were directed specifically at criminal activity involving particular minorities. However, the s did not always say if or why a particular ethnic group was to be targeted. This lack of transparency makes it more difficult for the police to justify the disproportionate number of black, Asian and mixed ethnicity people they stop and search. Any activity that creates a disproportionate 3

6 and unfavourable effect on any ethnic minority (or any other ground protected by the Equality Act 2010) must have a legitimate justification to be lawful. Improving the transparency of their decisions should protect the police from allegations of race discrimination if the reasons for stopping and searching people with a specific ethnic background is legitimate. It will help England s police forces to meet their pledge to improve in this area. 4

7 1 Introduction 1.1 Stop and search work The Equality and Human Rights Commission (the Commission) has undertaken extensive work on stop and search under Section 1 (s.1) of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1994 (PACE) and Section 44 (s.44) of the Terrorism Act Stop and think, 1 published in 2010, scrutinised stop and search under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act. This power requires the police to have a reasonable suspicion that the person they are searching is committing or intending to commit an unlawful activity. It highlighted the disproportionality in its use against black and ethnic minority people compared to white people. The Commission engaged in discussions with the police forces with disproportionate stop and search patterns. In November 2010, the Commission initiated a programme of work on action these forces would take during the next 18 months. Thames Valley and Leicestershire police forces entered into binding agreements with the Commission. The Commission has also closely monitored the progress of Dorset Police, West Midlands Police and Metropolitan Police as these forces applied the National Police Improvement Agency s Next Steps improvement programmes. 2 The Commission has been a significant voice in the parliamentary debates about the stop and search powers in s.44 of the Terrorism Act These powers have been repealed in the Protection of Freedoms Act The process of change on this has been a lengthy endeavour, involving the House of Lords consideration of the Gillan case in 2006, 3 followed by the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) decision in The ECtHR ruled that this stop and search power was unlawful as there was no need for any reasonable suspicion on the part of the police. The Commission has more recently turned its attention to the stop and search power set out in Section 60 (s.60) of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (CJPOA). This legislation was originally introduced to tackle football hooliganism and the threat of serious violence at football games, but it is now used for a wider range of purposes. Like s.44 of the Terrorism Act, this type of stop and search does not 1 Stop and think can be found on the Equality and Human Rights Commission's website at: 2 The NPIA Next Steps Improvement programme involves the development of a toolkit to help forces identify and tackle disproportionality in stop and search which is currently being trialled by three forces. 3 R. (on the application of Gillan (FC) and another (FC)) v. Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis and another [2006] UKHL Gillan and Quinton v. The United Kingdom Application no. 4158/05 12 January

8 require the officer in the street to have any reasonable suspicion that an individual is about to commit a crime or is carrying a weapon. It gives the police the power to stop and search any pedestrians or vehicles for offensive weapons or dangerous instruments within a specified area and during a specified period of time, as follows. Section 60 5 states that: If a police officer of or above the rank of inspector reasonably believes (a) that incidents involving serious violence may take place in any locality in his police area, and that it is expedient to give an under this section to prevent their occurrence, or (b) that persons are carrying dangerous instruments or offensive weapons in any locality in his police area without good reason, he may give an that the powers conferred by this section are to be exercisable at any place within that locality for a specified period not exceeding 24 hours. Further that this period may be extended: If it appears to an officer of or above the rank of superintendent that it is expedient to do so, having regard to offences which have, or are reasonably suspected to have, been committed in connection with any falling within the, he may direct that the shall continue in being for a further 24 hours. The available data on the frequency, race profile and outcomes of s.60 stop and searches published by the Ministry of Justice shows a high disproportionality of black and Asian communities amongst those stopped and searched. 6 The Commission has held productive discussions with the Home Office to clarify the Home Secretary's approach to addressing the concerns raised about the way in which the s.60 power is being used and monitored. On 14 December 2011, the Home Secretary announced that she had asked the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) to identify stop and search best practice in order to ensure the proper use of stop and search and its associated powers. ACPO confirmed that it will work with the Home Office to identify lessons learned. 5 Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 at: Accessed 24 January 'Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System', published annually by the Ministry of Justice under s.95 of the Criminal Justice Act

9 The Commission has also met with Deputy Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, Craig Mackey, to discuss its concerns with the implementation of s.60 stop and searches. It plans to continue those discussions to help the Metropolitan Police with its monitoring procedures. On 12 January 2012, the Metropolitan Police announced new measures that are intended to make stop and search more effective. The review of the Metropolitan Police s policy and practice, approved by Commissioner Bernard Hogan-Howe, has led to a series of new objectives. These include a renewed focus on reducing violence and for the power to be used in a more intelligence-led and targeted way. The police intend to set up a new dedicated central team to lead this work, with the aim of reducing the number of s.60 s, while increasing the number of arrests. 1.2 The legal framework Equality Act 2006 The Commission, as a National Human Rights Institution, has a duty under Section 3 of the Equality Act 2006 to encourage and support the development of a society without prejudice or discrimination, where people's human rights are respected and protected and where each individual has an equal opportunity to participate fully in society. Section 8 of this legislation sets out specific duties for the Commission in relation to equality and diversity, which include promoting understanding of, and encouraging good practice in relation to, equality and diversity. Section 9 gives the Commission various duties in relation to the promotion of human rights, including in particular those rights protected under the Human Rights Act These duties include encouraging public authorities to comply with Section 6 of the Human Rights Act. European Convention on Human Rights Articles 8, 5 and 14 Stop and search powers under s.60 are compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights only if any interference with those rights is lawful. The three rights which come into play are the right to privacy, the right to liberty and security and the prohibition of discrimination. The right to privacy, set out in Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, applies because police officers are permitted to conduct any search as they see fit. If an individual fails to stop when required to do so, they could be imprisoned if convicted. The European Court of Human Rights found in the case of Gillan v. the United Kingdom that the use of the coercive powers conferred by the legislation to require an individual to submit to a detailed search of his person, his clothing and his 7

10 personal belongings amounts to a clear interference with the right to respect for private life (at 63). The case was about the use of s.44 counter-terrorism stop and search powers but may apply in principle to the use of s.60 powers. Section 60 may also engage Article 5 in relevant cases - a person s right to liberty and security. In Gillan, the relevant stop and search processes lasted no longer than 30 minutes. The European Court noted that during this period the applicants were entirely deprived of any freedom of movement. They were obliged to remain where they were and submit to the search and if they had refused they would have been liable to arrest, detention at a police station and criminal charges. This element of coercion is indicative of a deprivation of liberty within the meaning of Art. 5(1) (at 57). Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights prohibits discrimination: The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status. This applies in circumstances where there is discrimination on of a relevant status, which includes race or ethnicity. This protection extends to indirect discrimination as well as direct discrimination on of status. Any unjustified direct or indirect discrimination in the use of stop and search powers under s.60 would violate this right read in conjunction with Article 8 and/or Article 5. Discrimination under the Equality Act 2010 The practice of exercising stop and search powers under s.60 must not be discriminatory. A racially discriminatory practice may exist even where there is no intent. Discrimination on of race can occur unconsciously as well as consciously. Direct discrimination occurs if a person is treated less favourably than others because of his race under the Equality Act 2010 (see Sections 4, 9 and 13.1). Indirect discrimination occurs if a provision, criterion or practice puts people of a particular race at a disadvantage unless it can be shown to be a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim (see Equality Act 2010 Sections 4, 9 and 19). A legitimate aim might be to catch a criminal who is black or to reduce knife crime in an area where the majority of the residents are Asian. 8

11 Public sector equality duty Police forces and the Home Office are public authorities that must adhere to the public sector equality duty (Equality Act 2010 Section149) in the exercise of their functions. This includes stops and searches under s.60 CJPOA. The public sector equality duty requires the police to have due regard to the need to eliminate discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity between persons who share a relevant protected characteristic and persons who do not share it and to foster good relations between persons who share a relevant protected characteristic and persons who do not share it (Section 149(1)). In particular, it includes having due regard to the need to remove or minimise disadvantages suffered by persons who share a relevant protected characteristic that are connected to that characteristic (Section 149(3)(a)), and having due regard to the need to tackle prejudice and promote understanding (Section 149(5)). The relevant protected characteristics include race, see Section 149(7). Any continuing and serious disproportionate use of these powers against ethnic minorities may indicate that the police and Home Office are not complying with their public sector duties obligations. 9

12 2 Police data on s given under s.60 On 25 October 2011, the Commission wrote to 40 police forces in England seeking information about their use of s.60, specifically relating to the frequency of, and rationale for, the making of s that sanction s.60 stops and searches in particular geographical areas and for set periods of time. Information was also sought to determine to what extent the stops and searches result in effective outcomes i.e. arrests and charges resulting from each. The Commission received responses from 39 of the 40 forces. A number of forces explained that the information requested was not systematically collected or centrally recorded and that retrieving it, if indeed it was retrievable, would be too resource intensive or stated that the task of collecting it was prohibitive. A small number of the forces claimed an exemption under Section 12 of the Freedom of Information Act as the cost of locating and retrieving the information exceeded the appropriate level as stated in the Freedom of Information (Fees and Appropriate Limit) Regulations Follow-up letters were written to the police forces that claimed an exemption requesting a smaller sample, if possible. Other forces provided, to a certain extent, the information sought or provided partial information. A separate but similar exercise was undertaken by the Equality and Human Rights Commission in Scotland in relation to the use of s.60 by Scottish police forces. This report deals only with the responses from English police forces. 2.1 Data requested from police forces Ten pieces of information were asked for on each given under s.60 during the three-year period from 1 April 2008 to 31 March These were: (a) The date on which the initial commenced. (b) The number of, if any, relating to this. (c) The date on which the latest extension ended (or on which the initial ended if there were no ). (d) Total time in hours covered by the initial and any. (e) Description of the area to which the and any relate, e.g. using postcodes or other area classifications. (f) The for giving the initial and any extension. Please give brief details of the for believing that: serious violence may take place, 10

13 people are carrying dangerous objects or offensive weapons, or an incident involving serious violence has taken place and a weapon used is being carried in the area. (g) The number of resultant stops and searches under s.60 carried out in the complete period identified above. (h) persons found to be carrying offensive weapons or dangerous instruments. (i) stops and searches resulting in an arrest for offensive weapons. (j) stops and searches resulting in an arrest for other reasons. 2.2 Data received from police forces The majority of police forces provided data on some or all of the s given under s.60 over the period specified, including the number of stops and searches associated with each. The following police forces were unable to provide the information requested for the reasons stated: No information provided or exemption claimed under the Freedom of Information Act: Avon & Somerset, Cleveland, Essex, Nottinghamshire, Staffordshire, Sussex, West Yorkshire, Wiltshire. Annual totals only provided: Greater Manchester, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire. searches not linked to s: Kent, South Yorkshire. Data provided for a later time period: Merseyside, 7 Thames Valley. 8 The following analysis is thus based predominantly on the 24 police forces that returned -level data linked to stops and searches. This includes the Metropolitan Police, which provided a list of 5,641 s but linked stops and searches to a sample of only 121 of these. Summaries of all responses from police forces that provided data are in the annex. 7 Data provided for March December 2011 on s. Separate data provided on stops and searches. 8 Data provided for 2011, number of s resulting in one or more stops and searches, plus total number of stops and searches. 11

14 Table 1 searches carried out under s.60 comparing published figures with force returns, /09, 2009/10 and 2010/ /9 published /10 published 2010/11 published 2008/9 returns 2009/10 returns 2010/11 returns Bedfordshire n/a Cambridgeshire Cheshire Cumbria Derbyshire Devon & Cornwall Dorset Durham Gloucestershire Hampshire Hertfordshire Humberside Lancashire 1,752 3, , London, City of Norfolk Northumbria North Yorkshire Suffolk Surrey Warwickshire West Mercia West Midlands 1, British Transport n/a 1, ,552 2,675 1,257 9 The Metropolitan Police are omitted from this table since data linking stops and searches to s are only available for 121 s. 10 Vehicle only searches not included in 2008/09 data. 12

15 Table 2 s.60 s, April 2008 March 2011 Police force Authorisations Extensions Bedfordshire 8 1 Cambridgeshire 4 1 Cheshire 9 0 Cumbria 9 N/K Derbyshire 11 1 Devon & Cornwall 23 0 Dorset 3 0 Durham 2 0 Gloucestershire 9 16 Hampshire 11 0 Hertfordshire 36 N/K Humberside 4 0 Lancashire London, City of 10 0 Metropolitan 5, Norfolk 7 0 Northumbria 17 0 North Yorkshire 1 0 Suffolk 1 0 Surrey 13 4 Warwickshire 4 5 West Mercia 15 1 West Midlands British Transport Police Lancashire provided detailed data for 19 s, plus 18 records containing summary information for an unknown number of s. 13

16 2.3 Statistical analysis of responses First, to assess the completeness of the data provided, Table 1 shows published data 12 on stops and searches by 23 forces under s.60 for 2008/09 to 2010/11 alongside the calculated totals from -level data provided in response to the Commission's letters. The Metropolitan Police is omitted from this table since data linking stops and searches to s are only available for 121 s. For more than half of these forces, the number of stops and searches was substantially higher in the published figures. This may be the result of incomplete identification of s and/or undercounting of stops and searches relating to some or all s. In several cases, e.g. Durham and Hampshire, no s were reported for one or more years, although figures had previously been published showing the number of stops and searches under s.60 for the same period. However in other cases there was simply a shortfall, with the highest shortfalls seen for Hampshire, Lancashire, Northumbria, Warwickshire and West Mercia. That s appear not to have been routinely recorded in a central location by many forces, nor linked to related stop and search records, may explain these shortfalls. The converse also appears, some forces appear to have provided data not included in the published figures: Devon & Cornwall, Dorset and Gloucestershire. British Transport Police also report much higher numbers of stops and searches than have previously been published. 2.4 Authorisations and The extent to which s.60 is made use of by different police forces is shown in Table 2. This shows that the number of s varies greatly between forces. The Metropolitan Police had by far the most s over the three-year period with more than 5,600. Merseyside had the second highest number of stops and searches, but it was unable to provide data on s for the three-year period requested. However information that it provided for 5 March to 16 December 2011 (not included in Table 2) shows over 300 s during that period. This is equivalent to around 1,200 s during a three-year period. Several forces had small numbers of s during the three years: one each in Suffolk and North Yorkshire, two in Durham, three in Dorset and four each in Warwickshire and Humberside. 12 Ministry of Justice, Statistics on race and the criminal justice system 2010; Home Office, Police powers and procedures England and Wales, 2009/10 and 2010/11. 14

17 Extensions appeared to be used infrequently, although not all forces provided this information. Only 2 per cent of the Metropolitan Police's s were extended and less than 4 per cent of the West Midlands'. When were used it was mostly only once per. Some forces used a series of s where might have been used or used more extensively. 2.5 Table 3 brings together stop and search data with the number of s. This shows how many stops and searches are carried out on average per by each of 24 forces and the maximum number carried out under a single. Note that the missing stops and searches identified above may affect these results. Many s result in no stops and searches or very few, but at the other end of the distribution a single can lead to hundreds of stops and searches. The British Transport Police recorded the highest number of stops and searches under one at 1,752, while other forces which carried out more than 100 stops and searches under one were: Metropolitan Police (604), Warwickshire (507), Cumbria (295), Lancashire (190) and Surrey (132). Although reporting only four s, Warwickshire recorded the highest average number of stops and at 170.5, followed by British Transport Police (49.9), Metropolitan Police (38.8) and Cumbria (36.4). 15

18 Table 3 Average and maximum stops and, 2008/ /11 Police force Authorisations searches Average stops and Maximum stops and Bedfordshire Cambridgeshire Cheshire Cumbria Derbyshire Devon & Cornwall Dorset Durham N/A Gloucestershire Hampshire Hertfordshire Humberside Lancashire , London, City of Metropolitan 14 4, Norfolk Northumbria North Yorkshire Suffolk Surrey Warwickshire West Mercia West Midlands 809 2, British Transport 150 7, , Lancashire provided detailed data for 19 s, plus 18 records containing summary information for an unknown number of s. The average and maximum figures relate to the 19 s only. 14 The Metropolitan Police's data in this table show data linking stops and searches to s for 121 s. The total number of s over the three years was 5,

19 2.6 Further analysis of -level data The following tables look in more detail at the returns by the three forces recording high numbers of s: British Transport, the Metropolitan and West Midlands Police. Table 4 shows the distribution of s across the calendar year. This shows that s were generally spread fairly evenly across the year, but with some peaks and troughs. For example, the West Midlands had more s than average in April, July and December and fewer in January, February and August, and both the Metropolitan and British Transport Police gave fewest s in December. Based on a later period (March December 2011), Merseyside gave most s in August (the time of the 2011 riots), followed by March and May. Records show low numbers for October and December (although the latter relates to part of the month). Each is given for a specified time period. It can be up to 24 hours initially, but may then be extended. The distribution of time periods covered by s is shown in Table 5. Authorisations by most police forces were for 6-12 hours. For the Metropolitan Police, the most common periods covered by were in the range hours, and most were between 6 and 24 hours. In contrast, the West Midlands mainly gave s covering shorter periods, up to 12 hours. Information is unavailable for most of the British Transport Police s. Table 6 shows how the number of stops and searches varies per. While nearly half of the Metropolitan Police's s resulted in 21 or more stops and searches, the majority (63 per cent) of West Midlands' s resulted in no stops and searches. 17

20 Table 4 Months in which s were given Police force Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Metropolitan 8% 8% 9% 7% 9% 9% 9% 8% 8% 9% 9% 6% West Midlands 4% 6% 8% 13% 7% 7% 12% 6% 8% 9% 8% 13% British Transport 8% 5% 9% 11% 9% 11% 9% 7% 11% 9% 8% 3% Table 5 Length of time for which s related Police force Up to 6 hours Over 6, up to 12 hours Over 12, up to 18 hours Over 18, up to 24 hours Over 24 hours Not known Metropolitan 5% 24% 27% 39% 5% 0% West Midlands 19% 62% 8% 8% 3% 0% British Transport 1% 13% 2% 0% 0% 84% Table 6 Distribution of number of stops and Police force None and higher Metropolitan* 8% 13% 13% 19% 48% West Midlands 63% 21% 8% 5% 3% British Transport 21% 18% 13% 19% 29% * based on 121 s August September

21 2.7 of stops and searches To provide information on the outcomes of s.60 s, and the resulting stops and searches, forces were asked to provide information on the number of people found to be carrying weapons, the number arrested for carrying weapons and the number arrested for other reasons. The following statistics relate to the three years 2008/09 to 2010/11 unless stated otherwise: There are small numbers for each of the outcomes relating to weapons with the highest number of persons found with weapons in Cumbria (26), Warwickshire (21) and West Mercia (16). The highest average number of persons with weapons per were: Warwickshire (5.25), Cumbria (2.89) and West Mercia (1.07). The Metropolitan Police made the most arrests for weapons, 20 over the period August September Next highest were West Midlands and British Transport Police with 6 arrests each. Per the highest arrest rates were: Warwickshire (0.5), Cumbria (0.44), Gloucestershire and West Mercia (0.33 each). Other arrests were more numerous. Again the Metropolitan Police carried out a large number (73 in August September 2010). The British Transport Police combined figures for arrests and reported 91 arrests in total. 19

22 3 Analysis 3.1 Race disproportionality The extent to which different ethnic groups are stopped and searched over and above their representation in the population is referred to as 'race disproportionality'. This analysis compares stop and search data with the composition of the resident population aged 10 or older. While the population at risk of being stopped and searched under s.60 may have a different ethnic profile from this population, the Commission uses this analysis to show how the stops and searches affect different ethnic groups within a police force area. See Section 4.1 for further discussion of this issue and Chapter 5 for suggestions as to how this analysis may be refined. 3.2 Published data on s.60 stops and searches The following data are analysed in this chapter: searches carried out under s.60 for the financial years 2008/09 and 2009/10 as reported by the Ministry of Justice in Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2010, and for 2010/11 as reported by the Home Office in Police Powers and Procedures England and Wales 2010/11. The definition of ethnicity used is self-defined ethnicity. Population estimates are from the Population Estimates by Ethnic Group (PEEG) series 15 for mid-2008 and mid A breakdown by age was obtained from the Office for National Statistics so that population estimates for the 10+ age group in each police force area could be calculated. Mid-2009 estimates are used to calculate rates for both 2009/10 and 2010/11, since 2010 estimates have not been produced. Please note that the population estimates provided by the Office for National Statistics are an experimental series and new estimates will be available once 2011 Census results are published later this year. That data could change the results of the following analysis. 15 Office for National Statistics, Population estimates by ethnic group , Available at: 20

23 3.3 Stop and search under s.60 During the three years considered, the Metropolitan Police carried out the highest number of stops and searches with over 258,000 in total. Its annual total has declined from 114,234 in 2008/09 to 53,509 in 2010/11. It carried out more than three-quarters of the s.60 stops and searches in England in these years, including 89 per cent of those carried out in 2010/11. Merseyside Police carried out the second highest number of stops and searches (40,940). These two police forces combined accounted for at least 90 per cent in each year of all the s.60 stops and searches in England. Other police forces carrying out high numbers of s.60 stops and searches during this period were Lancashire (5,912), Greater Manchester (5,740) and the West Midlands (2,165). Data for the British Transport Police, only available from 2009/10, show that it carried out 2,310 s.60 stops and searches during the latest two years. In England the percentage of stops and searches for all four non-white groups combined has increased from 51 per cent of the total in 2008/09 to 64 per cent in 2010/ Stop and search relative to ethnic groups in the population The population differs greatly across England, both in size overall and in the size of different ethnic groups. In order to compare different ethnic groups and different police force areas, stop and search rates are calculated by dividing the number of stops and searches for each ethnic group by the population in thousands for the same area and ethnic group. Due to the fall in the number of stops and searches, the overall s.60 stop and search rate has declined since 2008/09. In England, it was 3.3 stops and 1,000 population aged 10+ in 2008/09, falling to 2.6 per 1,000 in 2009/10 and 1.3 per 1,000 in 2010/11. Excluding the Metropolitan Police s figures for stops and searches and the population in its area from the calculation reduced the rate for the rest of England to 0.9 per 1,000 in 2008/09 falling to 0.7 per 1,000 in 2009/10 and 0.2 per 1,000 in 2010/11. This reflects the much higher stop and search rate in Greater London: 17.1 per 1,000 in 2008/09, 13.5 per 1,000 in 2009/10 and 7.9 per 1,000 in 2010/11. The highest stop and search rate each year was for the black ethnic group. For England, this decreased from 37.2 per 1,000 in 2008/09 to 29.8 per 1,000 in 2009/10 and 17.2 per 1,000 in 2010/11. These rates were again lower for the rest of England 21

24 if the Metropolitan Police s figures are excluded: 3.4 per 1,000, 2.8 per 1,000 and 1.2 per 1,000 respectively in the three years 2008/09 to 2010/11. The Metropolitan Police s black stop and search rates were 68.3 per 1,000, 56.0 per 1,000 and 32.8 per 1,000 respectively in the same three years. For each year, Greater Manchester, Merseyside and the Metropolitan Police had relatively high rates (5.0 per 1,000 or higher) for at least one of the minority groups (see Figure 1 below). Figure 1: Stop and search rates per 1,000 population, 2010/11 selected police forces 3.5 Stop and search disproportionality ratios To compare stops and searches between white and ethnic minority people, the disproportionality ratio is calculated from the stop and search rates (as defined above) for white, mixed race, Asian and black. For example, if there are 20 stops and 1,000 for the black population but only two stops and 1,000 for the White population the black/white disproportionality ratio is 20 divided by two, that is 10. A disproportionality ratio of one means that the stop and search rates are the same for the two groups. A disproportionality ratio below one indicates that stops and searches are experienced disproportionately by the white group, which has a higher stop and search rate than the group with which it is being compared. The following analysis concentrates on the five police force areas which carried out more than 2,000 s.60 stops and searches each in total over the three years

25 These are: the Metropolitan, Merseyside, Lancashire, Greater Manchester and the West Midlands police forces. The British Transport Police also carried out more than 2,000 s.60 stops and searches in Out of the six, the police forces with the highest black/white and mixed/white disproportionality ratios in all three years were: Greater Manchester, West Midlands and the British Transport Police. The West Midlands Police also had the highest Asian/white disproportionality ratios (see Table 7). Lower black/white disproportionality is seen for the Metropolitan Police but this has still been consistently in the region of over the three years. In contrast, Merseyside has relatively low disproportionality ratios with a maximum of 3.3 for black white disproportionality in 2010/11. Figure 2: Race disproportionality ratios, 2010/11 selected police forces 23

26 Table 7 Disproportionality ratios for s.60 stops and searches Police force mixed/white disproportionality Asian/white disproportionality black/white disproportionality 2008/ / / / / / / / /11 Metropolitan Merseyside *1.0 * Lancashire *0.9 *1.1 * *2.1 Gt Manchester West Midlands England exc. Met * England total British Transport Police n/a n/a n/a *not significantly different from 1.0 based on 95 per cent significance British Transport Police is not included in the England totals Table 8 'Excesses' for s.60 stops and searches Police force mixed / white disproportionality Asian /white disproportionality black/white disproportionality 2008/ / / / / / / / /11 Metropolitan 3,582 3,400 1,785 13,824 13,141 9,166 40,699 33,678 19,756 Merseyside Lancashire Gt Manchester West Midlands England exc. Met ,550 1, England total 4,751 4,353 2,324 17,236 15,871 10,975 45,427 37,373 21,880 British Transport Police British Transport Police is not included in the England totals 24

27 3.6 Excess stops and searches Following the methodology in Stop and think, 16 excess stops and searches are calculated as the difference between the actual number of stops and searches and the number there would have been if an ethnic minority group had experienced the same rate as the white population. Following on from the example above, the black population were stopped and searched at a rate of 20 per 1,000 and the white population at a rate of 2 per 1,000. If there are 2,000 black people in the population, then at 20 stops and 1,000 there will be 40 stops and searches of black people. However, at a rate of 2 stops and 1,000 there would be only 4 stops and searches of black people. The excess is the difference between 40 and 4 which equals 36 stops and searches. Excess stops and searches for six police forces are shown in Table 8. Unsurprisingly, given the concentration of s.60 stops and searches in the Metropolitan Police area, it has by far the highest excesses for mixed, Asian and black groups: 19,756 excess black stops and searches, 9,166 excess Asian stops and searches and 1,785 excess mixed ethnicity stops and searches in 2010/ Arrest rates A minority of stops and searches under s.60 result in arrests for offensive weapons or dangerous instruments being found or for other reasons. There were 4,230 arrests in 2008/09, of which only 527 were for offensive weapons. This fell to 1,364 in 2010/11, of which 220 were for offensive weapons. The total arrest rates for England are shown in Table 9. These are generally low and have decreased over the three years shown. Table 9 Rates for arrests arising from s.60 stops and searches in England Year White Mixed Asian Black Chinese and other Total 2008/ / / Equality and Human Rights Commission, Stop and think: A critical review of the use of stop and search powers in England and Wales,

28 4 Issues affecting the measurement of race disproportionality The preceding chapter presents an analysis of race disproportionality calculated for police force areas and based on Office for National Statistics estimates of the resident population aged 10 or over. This choice of measure was questioned by the four police forces who received letters from the Commission about their use of s.60. Other approaches are also possible which are discussed in Section 4.1. The responses from the police also linked stop and search to crime statistics and suggested various factors which could influence the level of race disproportionality. These are discussed in Sections 4.2 and 4.3 respectively. Finally, there is discussion of measuring the effectiveness of stop and search in Section Choice of population data for comparison The analysis in Chapter 3 makes use of resident population data from Office for National Statistics to calculate disproportionality for entire police force areas, that is, considering the overall impact on the population of an area. This choice has been questioned by some police forces for several reasons: The resident population estimates used may not accurately reflect the ethnic profile of the population. Use of stop and search will vary in different parts of a police force area. It may be very different in urban, suburban and rural areas. Different people are not equally likely to be in an area covered by an and so not equally at risk of being stopped and searched. While the resident population of an area may not reflect those at risk of being stopped and searched under s.60, the Commission takes the view that the analysis in Chapter 3 provides a good indication of the overall impact of s.60 in an area. Stop and think (p. 53) considered this issue in relation to PACE stops and searches, which also applies in this situation: The key point is that per capita rates provide, by definition, an estimate of the population group experience of police stop and search powers. So in a large geographical context such as a police force area (or taking England and Wales as a whole), statistics based on resident populations provide an important indicator of how often members of different ethnic communities are actually stopped or searched within that area. An example of how stop and search varies within a police force area is given by Lancashire Police. 17 In 2010/11, 80 per cent of s.60 stops and searches were carried 17 Lancashire Constabulary Legal Department, Letter dated 23 January

29 out in the Central Division, which includes Preston. In the three previous years this percentage was higher, between 88 per cent and 93 per cent. In the same years, only three out of 279 stops and searches of black individuals were carried out outside of the Central Division. The disproportionality ratios for Preston are lower than for Lancashire, for example the black/white ratio for Preston in 2009/10 was 3.0 compared with 5.9 for Lancashire. A similar analysis for other police forces would be informative and would add to the understanding of factors influencing disproportionality. However, local level data would also be more sensitive to the assumptions made in producing population estimates by ethnic group. At present there are various estimates, including the experimental series produced by Office for National Statistics and used for the analysis in Chapter 3, providing different estimates for ethnic minority groups. For example, the Metropolitan Police sent supporting data to the Commission showing a comparison of race disproportionality using population data from the 2001 Census and alternative population estimates produced by the Greater London Assembly analytical group. The latter dataset reduces estimates of disproportionality compared with 2001 data, although they remain high. The population estimates by ethnic group published by the Office for National Statistics is what is known as an 'experimental' series and some disparities have been found between the series and other data sources, such as the Annual Population Survey. However, at present no single source can be considered definitive and the actual composition of the population by ethnic group is not known. The latest information paper 18 from the Office for National Statistics concludes, The reliability of the population estimates by ethnic group cannot be fully assessed until the results of the 2011 Census are available. This would apply equally to other sources, such as those in the Metropolitan Police s supporting data. Comparing searches with the 'street population', that is people available on the street to be stopped and searched during the period of an, would be particularly difficult since population data of this type are not currently available. The street availability theory to explain race disproportionality has been consistently raised by the police and was addressed in the Commission's Stop and think report on s.1 PACE. The basis of this theory posits that, instead of considering the resident population per area, the comparison should be with the number of stops and searches among the population available to be stopped and searched. In this way, it is argued, the measure recognises that some demographic groups depending on

30 their age, ethnic origin, gender, etc are more likely than others to spend time at home, at work or otherwise in private spaces where they are unavailable to be stopped and searched by the police. Conversely, people who are more often out and about in public spaces are available to be searched. This theory is one of the most frequently cited explanations for the existing ratios and excess stop and search numbers. The Commission's view is that this theory does not hold up to scrutiny as it is self-fulfilling. Street availability is influenced by police decisions where and when to do stops and searches and these decisions heavily influence the people that are available to be stopped and searched. Policing that is geared toward street visibility compounds this. A better way to investigate race disproportionality would be to divide s into different types, for example relating to gang violence, football matches, specific events etc. searches could then be collated by ethnic group and compared with the race profiles of appropriate populations for each type of. This would start to identify the sources of race disproportionality in the overall data. However, this would require improvements to the data recorded on s.60 s, including processes to link stops and searches back to particular s. It would also require the development of new data sources on the ethnic profile of different populations. 4.2 Other crime statistics One factor to explain race disproportionality referred to by the police forces in their responses to the Commission is the high knife-inflicted homicide rates in the black community and a high proportion of suspects from the same ethnic group as the victim. This links to higher use of s.60 powers in urban areas with both higher homicide rates and higher proportions of people from ethnic minority back. Similarly, the Metropolitan Police s analysis suggests that the majority of gang members in London are from the black community, and West Midlands Police quote high percentages of black victims and offenders in cases of gang-related murder or attempted murder. The police forces also state that intelligence regularly contains information about appearance and ethnicity and black individuals feature disproportionately frequently. A comparison between the ethnic profiles of crime suspects and stops and searches (PACE and s.60) in a joint letter from four police forces 19 shows that both exhibit disproportionate percentages with black ethnicity. 19 Lancashire Constabulary, Greater Manchester Police, West Midlands Police and the Metropolitan Police ( the four forces ), Letter dated 23 January

31 While these statistics are related to race disproportionality, the figures do not tell the whole story. For example, homicides will only reflect a small proportion of weapons being carried by individuals and so may not be representative of the ethnic profile of those individuals carrying weapons. Conversely not all s will be given following a homicide or other crime where an offender profile points towards a black or Asian offender. In addition, homicide rates or other crime statistics cannot be used as sole for giving under s.60. This argument could only be used where an has an associated offender profile and not as a general justification for any race disproportionality. However with sufficient information, stops and searches carried out based on an offender profile could be analysed separately from other stops and searches. It would be expected that disproportionality would be higher in the former data. 4.3 Other factors affecting race disproportionality Several other factors may influence the ethnic profile of people stopped and searched under s.60: High visitor numbers can mean that the population subject to stop and search bears only a limited resemblance to the resident population. Lancashire names transient criminal population as one influence on black stops and searches in Preston and also gives an example for Blackpool. Multiple stops and searches of the same people can inflate the measures of disproportionality. Where self-defined ethnicity is unknown or different from that recorded by the officer and small numbers are involved, this can affect disproportionality. Police forces should investigate all these factors to assess the potential influence of each on overall disproportionality, as follows: Visitors may be removed from the stop and search figures to check if disproportionality is still present when residents only are considered. An analysis could be carried out where each individual stopped is counted only once and the likelihood of being stopped and searched compared on that basis. Missing values will increase disproportionality only if they relate to stops and searches of white people. This would probably not have a large effect on disproportionality unless a large percentage are missing, since the number of 29

RACIST AND RELIGIOUS INCIDENT MONITORING ANNUAL REPORT 2006 2007

RACIST AND RELIGIOUS INCIDENT MONITORING ANNUAL REPORT 2006 2007 RACIST AND RELIGIOUS INCIDENT MONITORING ANNUAL REPORT 26 27 Management Information Branch December 27 LIST OF CONTENTS Racist Incident Monitoring Scheme Page No. Introduction 2 Part 1: Racist Incidents

More information

Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2008/09. A Ministry of Justice publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991

Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2008/09. A Ministry of Justice publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2008/09 A Ministry of Justice publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 June 2010 Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System

More information

Police Use of ANPR. A Big Brother Watch Report

Police Use of ANPR. A Big Brother Watch Report Use of ANPR A Big Brother Watch Report Contents Key Findings... 3 Executive Summary... 4 Policy Recommendations... 6 About ANPR... 7 Table 1: Data Number of Cameras and the Cost of their Installation10

More information

Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2010 A Ministry of Justice publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991

Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2010 A Ministry of Justice publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2010 A Ministry of Justice publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 October 2011 Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System

More information

The Hardship Fund An applicant s guide

The Hardship Fund An applicant s guide The Hardship Fund An applicant s guide Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority November 26, 2012 Crown Copyright 2012 You may re-use this information (excluding logos) free of charge in any format or

More information

Social Media Strategy 2015-16

Social Media Strategy 2015-16 Social Media Strategy 2015-16 We don t have a choice whether we do social media, the question is how well we do it [Erik Qualman, 2010, Socialnomics] Introduction The CRC has previously been active on

More information

Anti-social behaviour order statistics

Anti-social behaviour order statistics Anti-social behaviour order statistics Standard Note: SN/SG/3112 Last updated: 30 October 2009 Author: Gavin Berman Social and General Statistics Section This note collates the available anti-social behaviour

More information

Public confidence in the Criminal Justice System: findings from the British Crime Survey 2002/03 to 2007/08. Dominic Smith

Public confidence in the Criminal Justice System: findings from the British Crime Survey 2002/03 to 2007/08. Dominic Smith Public confidence in the Criminal Justice System: findings from the British Crime Survey 2002/03 to 2007/08 Dominic Smith Ministry of Justice Research Series 16/10 July 2010 Public confidence in the Criminal

More information

Changes in crime recording practices

Changes in crime recording practices Changes in crime recording practices Standard Note: SN/SG/2607 Last updated: 31 October 2008 Author: Gavin Berman Social and General Statistics The purpose of this note is to explain the effect on the

More information

Policing and the criminal justice system public confidence and perceptions: findings from the 2004/05 British Crime Survey

Policing and the criminal justice system public confidence and perceptions: findings from the 2004/05 British Crime Survey Policing and the criminal justice system public confidence and perceptions: findings from the 2004/05 British Crime Survey Jonathan Allen Suzanne Edmonds Alison Patterson Dominic Smith Edited by Jonathan

More information

Police Force Address Phone Fax Email Mouchel Business Services penmail@mouchel.com 01642 727333 01642 727989 Middlesbrough TS1 9EE

Police Force Address Phone Fax Email Mouchel Business Services penmail@mouchel.com 01642 727333 01642 727989 Middlesbrough TS1 9EE Police Force Address Phone Fax Email National Crime Agency Avon and Somerset Devon County Council, Peninsula Pensions, Great Moor House, Bittern Road, Sowton Industrial Estate, Exeter EX2 7NL 01392 383000

More information

Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2006/7. A Ministry of Justice Publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991

Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2006/7. A Ministry of Justice Publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2006/7 A Ministry of Justice Publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 July 2008 Criminal Justice Act 1991 Section 95 (1) The Secretary

More information

Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2007/8. A Ministry of Justice publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991

Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2007/8. A Ministry of Justice publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 Statistics on Race the Criminal Justice System 2007/8 A Ministry of Justice publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 April 2009 Criminal Justice Act 1991 Section 95 (1) The Secretary

More information

5th-6th September 2015 28th-29th November 2015 5th-6th March 2016

5th-6th September 2015 28th-29th November 2015 5th-6th March 2016 PREMIER DIVISION FIXTURES (amended 19/07/2015) Hampshire v Essex Cambridgeshire v Cornwall Cornwall v Lincolnshire Devon v Cornwall Cheshire v Devon Essex v Cambridgeshire Lancashire v Cheshire Lancashire

More information

Equality and Human Rights Commission. Stop and think. A critical review of the use of stop and search powers in England and Wales

Equality and Human Rights Commission. Stop and think. A critical review of the use of stop and search powers in England and Wales Equality and Human Rights Commission Stop and think A critical review of the use of stop and search powers in England and Wales Stop and think Contents Foreword Acknowledgements 3 4 Section 4: Emerging

More information

5th-6th September 2015 28th-29th November 2015 5th-6th March 2016

5th-6th September 2015 28th-29th November 2015 5th-6th March 2016 PREMIER DIVISION FIXTURES (amended 07/02/2016) 5th-6th September 2015 28th-29th November 2015 Hampshire v Essex Cambridgeshire v Cornwall Cornwall v Lincolnshire Devon v Cornwall Cheshire v Devon Essex

More information

National Police Collaboration Agreement in relation to the setting up of a Co-ordinating Body known as the National Police Chiefs Council ( NPCC )

National Police Collaboration Agreement in relation to the setting up of a Co-ordinating Body known as the National Police Chiefs Council ( NPCC ) National Police Collaboration Agreement in relation to the setting up of a Co-ordinating Body known as the National Police Chiefs Council ( NPCC ) Eversheds LLP Bridgewater Place Water Lane Leeds LS11

More information

The NDNAD Strategy Board Policy for Access and Use of DNA Samples, Profiles and Associated Data

The NDNAD Strategy Board Policy for Access and Use of DNA Samples, Profiles and Associated Data NDNAD Delivery Unit (NDU): The NDNAD Strategy Board Policy for Access and Use of DNA Samples, Profiles and Associated Data Shaded areas denote changes from previous version. Please note that the content

More information

Policing in austerity: One year on

Policing in austerity: One year on Policing in austerity: One year on July 2012 HMIC 2012 www.hmic.gov.uk ISBN: 978-1-84987-856-2 Contents Executive summary 3 Introduction 12 1. The financial challenge: Balancing the books 13 How wide is

More information

RoSPA believes that areas where children play should be as safe as necessary not as safe as possible

RoSPA believes that areas where children play should be as safe as necessary not as safe as possible INSPECTION OF AREAS WHERE CHILDREN PLAY For Parish, Town & Community Councils, Schools and Voluntary groups, from the world s premier Play Safety organisation RoSPA believes that areas where children play

More information

The Best Use of Stop and Search Scheme was announced by the Home Secretary in her statement to Parliament on 30th April 2014.

The Best Use of Stop and Search Scheme was announced by the Home Secretary in her statement to Parliament on 30th April 2014. Summary The Best Use of Stop and Search Scheme was announced by the Home Secretary in her statement to Parliament on 30th April 2014. The principal aims of the Scheme are to achieve greater transparency,

More information

Workforce Management Plan (April 2014-15)

Workforce Management Plan (April 2014-15) Workforce Management Plan (April 2014-15) Date: 12 March 2014 Version: Final www.archerygb.org/coach Our aim Our aim is to support archers better by improving their access to support from coaches and judges.

More information

SPVS SALARIES SURVEY

SPVS SALARIES SURVEY SPVS SALARIES SURVEY In all 861 responses were received, slightly fewer than last year. Of these, 5 were directors in a corporate practice, although only 3 said that they received a dividend. 28 (3.3%)

More information

Business Magazines Circulation Certificate January to December 2014

Business Magazines Circulation Certificate January to December 2014 Business Magazines Circulation Certificate January to December 2014 Plumbing Heating & Air Movement News Setting the standard Key information Certificate type Print Metric type Circulation ABC total 28,751

More information

List of approved programmes approved mental health professionals

List of approved programmes approved mental health professionals Education and Training Committee 12 June 2012 List of approved programmes approved mental health professionals Executive summary and recommendations This paper provides Committee with an update on the

More information

Section 95 Criminal Justice Act Race and the Criminal Justice System: An overview to the complete statistics

Section 95 Criminal Justice Act Race and the Criminal Justice System: An overview to the complete statistics Section 95 Criminal Justice Act 1991 Race and the Criminal Justice System: An overview to the complete statistics 2004 2005 November 2006 Section 95 Criminal Justice Act 1991 Race and the Criminal Justice

More information

THE DIRECTOR S GUIDANCE ON CHARGING. 2. Key Provisions and Principles of this Guidance

THE DIRECTOR S GUIDANCE ON CHARGING. 2. Key Provisions and Principles of this Guidance THE DIRECTOR S GUIDANCE ON CHARGING Guidance to Police Officers and Crown Prosecutors Issued by the Director of Public Prosecutions under S37A of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 Third Edition:

More information

Amendments to the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders (LASPO) Bill Equality Impact Assessment

Amendments to the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders (LASPO) Bill Equality Impact Assessment Amendments to the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders (LASPO) Bill Equality Impact Assessment Introduction This Equality Impact Assessment (EIA) relates to amendments to the Legal Aid, Sentencing

More information

HEALTHCARE SALARY SURVEY MARCH 2010

HEALTHCARE SALARY SURVEY MARCH 2010 HEALTHCARE SALARY SURVEY MARCH 21 Contents Introduction 2 An Overview of the Respondents to the Salary Survey 3 Nursing Home Managers 6 Residential Home Managers 7 Staff Nurses (including RGN, RMN and

More information

United Kingdom Human Trafficking Centre National Referral Mechanism Statistics 2013

United Kingdom Human Trafficking Centre National Referral Mechanism Statistics 2013 United Kingdom Human Trafficking Centre National Referral Mechanism Statistics 2013 Date 20/01/2014 Version number V1.0 NRM Statistics 2013 1 NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED In 2013 the UK National Referral Mechanism

More information

National Strategy for the Recruitment of Lay Magistrates

National Strategy for the Recruitment of Lay Magistrates National Strategy for the Recruitment of Lay Magistrates CONTENTS Page Foreword by the Lord Chancellor 2 1. Background Review 3 2. Issues Affecting the Magistracy 6 3. Current Initiatives 9 4. Strategic

More information

National Firefighter Selection Process Firefighter PQA Interview

National Firefighter Selection Process Firefighter PQA Interview National Firefighter Selection Process Firefighter PQA Interview Technical Manual www.communities.gov.uk community, opportunity, prosperity National Firefighter Selection Process Firefighter PQA Interview

More information

Proven Re-offending Statistics Quarterly Bulletin July 2010 to June 2011, England and Wales

Proven Re-offending Statistics Quarterly Bulletin July 2010 to June 2011, England and Wales Proven Re-offending Statistics Quarterly Bulletin July 2010 to June 2011, England and Wales Ministry of Justice Statistics Bulletin 25 April 2013 Contents Contents...2 Introduction...3 Executive summary...7

More information

Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2006. A Ministry of Justice Publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991

Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2006. A Ministry of Justice Publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2006 A Ministry of Justice Publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 October 2007 Criminal Justice Act 1991 Section 95 (1) The Secretary

More information

Help to Buy Buyer s Guide

Help to Buy Buyer s Guide Help to Buy Buyer s Guide Homes and Communities Agency August 2013 http://www.homesandcommunities.co.uk/help-to-buy Page 1 of 21 What is Help to Buy? Help to Buy is equity loan assistance to home buyers

More information

Guidance on Rents for Social Housing

Guidance on Rents for Social Housing Guidance on Rents for Social Housing May 2014 Department for Communities and Local Government Crown copyright, 2014 Copyright in the typographical arrangement rests with the Crown. You may re-use this

More information

Liverpool Hope University. Equality and Diversity Policy. Date approved: 14.04.2011 Revised (statutory. 18.02.2012 changes)

Liverpool Hope University. Equality and Diversity Policy. Date approved: 14.04.2011 Revised (statutory. 18.02.2012 changes) Liverpool Hope University Equality and Diversity Policy Approved by: University Council Date approved: 14.04.2011 Revised (statutory 18.02.2012 changes) Consistent with its Mission, Liverpool Hope strives

More information

Number of participants engaged Year 1 (2013-14) 560 96,400 Year 2 (2014-15) 1250 131,866 Year 3 (2015-16) 1250 75,033 Year 4 (2016-17) N/A N/A Total

Number of participants engaged Year 1 (2013-14) 560 96,400 Year 2 (2014-15) 1250 131,866 Year 3 (2015-16) 1250 75,033 Year 4 (2016-17) N/A N/A Total Satellite clubs NGB Delivery information template NGB NGB Satellite clubs lead contact Cricket - Chance to Shine Steve Peyman, 07920 477040, steve.peyman@chancetoshine.org 2013-17 Whole Sport Plan satellite

More information

Help to Buy Buyer s Guide

Help to Buy Buyer s Guide Help to Buy Help to Buy Buyer s Guide May 2013 www.taylorwimpey.co.uk/helptobuy What is Help to Buy? Help to Buy is an equity loan assistance scheme for home buyers from the Homes and Communities Agency

More information

Pre-registration nursing

Pre-registration nursing Pre-registration nursing A work-based learning route to registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council 2011 INSPIRING LEARNING 2 Introduction Contents Why choose The Open University for pre-registration

More information

Claiming redundancy and insolvency payments

Claiming redundancy and insolvency payments Claiming redundancy and insolvency payments We provide help to former employees of insolvent companies who are owed wages and other money. Former employees may also claim a redundancy payment if the employer

More information

Safe in Police hands? How Police Forces suffer 10 data breaches every week and still want more of your data.

Safe in Police hands? How Police Forces suffer 10 data breaches every week and still want more of your data. Safe in hands? How Forces suffer 0 data breaches every week and still want more of your data. A Big Brother Watch Report July 206 Contents Executive Summary... 3 Key Findings... 4 table Incidents... 5

More information

Derbyshire Constabulary Stop & Search Action Plan

Derbyshire Constabulary Stop & Search Action Plan Derbyshire Constabulary Stop & Search Plan January 2016 This action plan sets out the recommendations made in four reports. They are designed to improve our stop and search encounters, creating greater

More information

Disclosable under FOIA 2000: Yes Author: T/CI Nick Barker Force / Organisation: BTP Date Created: May 2009 Telephone: 0207 830 8930

Disclosable under FOIA 2000: Yes Author: T/CI Nick Barker Force / Organisation: BTP Date Created: May 2009 Telephone: 0207 830 8930 Security Classification: NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED Disclosable under FOIA 2000: Yes Author: T/CI Nick Barker Force / Organisation: BTP Date Created: May 2009 Telephone: 0207 830 8930 Association of Chief

More information

NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED

NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED Force Template NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED Title Policing Cannabis Possession CCMT Sponsor ACC Local Policing Department/Area Local Policing Section/Sector Drugs Co-ordination 1.0 Rationale 1.1 The purpose

More information

2016 No. 390 HOUSING, ENGLAND. The Social Housing Rents (Exceptions and Miscellaneous Provisions) Regulations 2016

2016 No. 390 HOUSING, ENGLAND. The Social Housing Rents (Exceptions and Miscellaneous Provisions) Regulations 2016 S T A T U T O R Y I N S T R U M E N T S 2016 No. 390 HOUSING, ENGLAND The Social Housing Rents (Exceptions and Miscellaneous Provisions) Regulations 2016 Made - - - - 17th March 2016 Laid before Parliament

More information

Evidencing domestic violence: reviewing the amended regulations

Evidencing domestic violence: reviewing the amended regulations Evidencing domestic violence: reviewing the amended regulations Six months after the amendment of the domestic violence evidence criteria in April 2014, our continuing research shows that the legal aid

More information

Report on the use of section 60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 by the police

Report on the use of section 60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 by the police Report on the use of section 60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 by the police Dr. Michael Shiner, Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics For Bhatt Murphy Solicitors February

More information

ACHIEVING EQUALITY, IMPROVING CONFIDENCE MPS DIVERSITY AND EQUALITY STRATEGY 2009-2013

ACHIEVING EQUALITY, IMPROVING CONFIDENCE MPS DIVERSITY AND EQUALITY STRATEGY 2009-2013 ACHIEVING EQUALITY, IMPROVING CONFIDENCE MPS DIVERSITY AND EQUALITY STRATEGY 2009-2013 1 INTRODUCTION Diversity and equality are not just words: they are critical to our ability to police London effectively

More information

FirstBuy Buyers Guide

FirstBuy Buyers Guide FirstBuy Buyers Guide Homes and Communities Agency August 2011 http://www.homesandcommunities.co.uk/firstbuy Page 1 of 21 What is FirstBuy? FirstBuy is an affordable housing deposit assistance equity loan

More information

EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES & DIVERSITY POLICY

EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES & DIVERSITY POLICY 1. General dh Recruitment Hereford & Worcester embraces diversity and will seek to promote the benefits of diversity in all of our business activities. We will seek to develop a business culture that reflects

More information

Freedom of information guidance Exemptions guidance Section 41 Information provided in confidence

Freedom of information guidance Exemptions guidance Section 41 Information provided in confidence Freedom of information guidance Exemptions guidance Section 41 Information provided in confidence 14 May 2008 Contents Introduction 2 What information may be covered by this exemption? 3 Was the information

More information

Retention of fingerprints and DNA data

Retention of fingerprints and DNA data Retention of fingerprints and DNA data Standard Note: SN/HA/4049 Last updated: 14 November 2013 Author: Jacqueline Beard and Sally Lipscombe Section: Home Affairs A new regime governing the retention of

More information

Equality Impact assessment Process

Equality Impact assessment Process You should begin this process as soon as you begin to develop or review, a Strategy, Policy, Procedure or Service Plan, to help assess the impact it may have on any minority group or section of society.

More information

The lawful monitoring and recording of communications conveyed on the Thames Valley Police telecommunications systems.

The lawful monitoring and recording of communications conveyed on the Thames Valley Police telecommunications systems. Title Lawful Business Practice (Interception of Communications) Regulations CCMT Sponsor Deputy Chief Constable Department/Area Professional Standards Section/Sector Headquarters 1.0 Rationale This policy

More information

Freedom of Information Request Reference No: I note you seek access to the following information:

Freedom of Information Request Reference No: I note you seek access to the following information: Freedom of Information Request Reference No: I note you seek access to the following information: 1. How many incidents in the UK have the police been called to because of people being drug and disorderly

More information

The national safety camera programme. Four-year evaluation report December 2005

The national safety camera programme. Four-year evaluation report December 2005 The national safety camera programme Four-year evaluation report December 2005 PA Consulting Group is a leading management, systems and technology consulting firm. Operating worldwide in more than 35 countries,

More information

Violent Crime in Ohio s Primary and Secondary Schools

Violent Crime in Ohio s Primary and Secondary Schools State of Ohio Office of Criminal Justice Services Violent Crime in Ohio s Primary and Secondary Schools Ohio Office of Criminal Justice Services 1970 W. Broad Street, 4th Floor Columbus, Ohio 43223 Toll-Free:

More information

A CRIME SCENE EXAMINATION

A CRIME SCENE EXAMINATION GOVERNMENT CUTS TO POLICE SCIENTIFIC SERVICES: A CRIME SCENE EXAMINATION 2 1. Introduction When a crime is committed (murder, assault, or burglary) some of the first police personnel on the scene will

More information

Increasing the Magistrates Court fine limit Equality Impact Assessment

Increasing the Magistrates Court fine limit Equality Impact Assessment Increasing the Magistrates Court fine limit Equality Impact Assessment Introduction The Ministry of Justice tabled Government amendments at the Commons Report stage of the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment

More information

Median and Average Sales Prices of New Homes Sold in United States

Median and Average Sales Prices of New Homes Sold in United States Jan 1963 $17,200 (NA) Feb 1963 $17,700 (NA) Mar 1963 $18,200 (NA) Apr 1963 $18,200 (NA) May 1963 $17,500 (NA) Jun 1963 $18,000 (NA) Jul 1963 $18,400 (NA) Aug 1963 $17,800 (NA) Sep 1963 $17,900 (NA) Oct

More information

FEATURES LIST 2012. Simon Quantrill Sharon Quantrill m: 07825 186873 m: 07825 290418 e: simon@q2design.co.uk e: sharon@q2design.co.uk.

FEATURES LIST 2012. Simon Quantrill Sharon Quantrill m: 07825 186873 m: 07825 290418 e: simon@q2design.co.uk e: sharon@q2design.co.uk. FEATURES LIST 2012 Simon Quantrill Sharon Quantrill m: 07825 186873 m: 07825 290418 e: simon@q2design.co.uk e: sharon@q2design.co.uk t: 01789 730833 www.q2design.co.uk FEATURES: january 2012 Midlands Business

More information

Police use of Firearms

Police use of Firearms CODE OF PRACTICE ON Police use of Firearms and Less Lethal Weapons Contents 1. Introduction 1.1 Purpose of the code 1 1.2 Statutory basis of the code 1 1.3 Weapons covered by this code 2 1.4 Armed support

More information

Police Powers of Stop and Search Summary of Consultation Responses and Conclusions. April 2014

Police Powers of Stop and Search Summary of Consultation Responses and Conclusions. April 2014 Police Powers of Stop and Search Summary of Consultation Responses and Conclusions April 2014 Contents Executive Summary... 3 1. Consultation activities and summary of responses... 5 2. Effectiveness...

More information

NON - INJURY ROAD TRAFFIC COLLISIONS REPORTING, RECORDING, ATTENDANCE & INVESTIGATION

NON - INJURY ROAD TRAFFIC COLLISIONS REPORTING, RECORDING, ATTENDANCE & INVESTIGATION 04-06-2007 NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED Policy Title CCMT Sponsor NON - INJURY ROAD TRAFFIC COLLISIONS REPORTING, RECORDING, ATTENDANCE & INVESTIGATION ACC Specialist Operations Department/Area Roads Policing

More information

REPORT OF: DIRECTOR OF DEMOCRATIC AND LEGAL SERVICES 13/358 WARDS AFFECTED: ALL

REPORT OF: DIRECTOR OF DEMOCRATIC AND LEGAL SERVICES 13/358 WARDS AFFECTED: ALL REPORT TO CABINET TO BE HELD ON 15 OCTOBER 2013 A ITEM Key Decision YES or NO Forward Plan Ref No Corporate Priority All Cabinet Portfolio Holder Cllr Jane Kenyon REPORT OF: DIRECTOR OF DEMOCRATIC AND

More information

Professional Training in Complaints Handling and Investigations

Professional Training in Complaints Handling and Investigations Professional Training in Complaints Handling and Investigations A range of one-day courses and a nationally recognised qualification equipping staff with the essential skills and knowledge to undertake

More information

Leicestershire Police Incident Response Policy

Leicestershire Police Incident Response Policy Leicestershire Police Incident Response Policy Policy Owner: Department Responsible: Chief Officer Approval: Superintendent, Contact Management Tasking Directorate ACC Operations Date of Next Review: October

More information

Code of practice for employers Avoiding unlawful discrimination while preventing illegal working

Code of practice for employers Avoiding unlawful discrimination while preventing illegal working Code of practice for employers Avoiding unlawful discrimination while preventing illegal working [xx] April 2014 Presented to Parliament pursuant to section 23(1) of the Immigration, Asylum and Nationality

More information

Treatment data RDMD and NDTMS

Treatment data RDMD and NDTMS Treatment data RDMD and NDTMS The Regional Drugs Misuse Database, a "public health surveillance system for monitoring trends in problem drug users presenting for treatment has been in operation since 1990.

More information

NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED FORCE PROCEDURES. Using the Off-Site Storage Facility for Physical Records - v03. Records Manager

NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED FORCE PROCEDURES. Using the Off-Site Storage Facility for Physical Records - v03. Records Manager FORCE PROCEDURES Using the Off-Site Storage Facility for Physical Records - v03 Procedure Reference Number: 2010.07 Procedure Author: Samantha Hampson Records Manager Procedure Review Date: February 2013

More information

Statutory Disclosure Guidance. Second edition August 2015

Statutory Disclosure Guidance. Second edition August 2015 Statutory Disclosure Guidance Second edition August 2015 Statutory guidance to chief officers of police on providing information for inclusion in enhanced criminal record certificates PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDANCE

More information

HOSPIRA (HSP US) HISTORICAL COMMON STOCK PRICE INFORMATION

HOSPIRA (HSP US) HISTORICAL COMMON STOCK PRICE INFORMATION 30-Apr-2004 28.35 29.00 28.20 28.46 28.55 03-May-2004 28.50 28.70 26.80 27.04 27.21 04-May-2004 26.90 26.99 26.00 26.00 26.38 05-May-2004 26.05 26.69 26.00 26.35 26.34 06-May-2004 26.31 26.35 26.05 26.26

More information

Can the criminal justice system be made to operate equitably in relation to race?

Can the criminal justice system be made to operate equitably in relation to race? Can the criminal justice system be made to operate equitably in relation to race? Conceptions of race within the criminal justice system have always been a controversial issue. Indeed, there is no denying

More information

NIERC REPORT SERIES NO 19 SOFTWARE AND COMPUTER SERVICES EMPLOYMENT IN THE UK REGIONS AND IRELAND, 1995-99

NIERC REPORT SERIES NO 19 SOFTWARE AND COMPUTER SERVICES EMPLOYMENT IN THE UK REGIONS AND IRELAND, 1995-99 NIERC REPORT SERIES NO 19 SOFTWARE AND COMPUTER SERVICES EMPLOYMENT IN THE UK REGIONS AND IRELAND, 1995-99 A Review of the New Annual Business Inquiry Data for Great Britain and Equivalent Data for Northern

More information

Future Control Room Services Scheme. Fire and Rescue Authorities Summaries

Future Control Room Services Scheme. Fire and Rescue Authorities Summaries Future Control Room Services Scheme Fire and Rescue Authorities Summaries Future Control Room Services Scheme Fire and Rescue Authorities Summaries March 2012 Department for Communities and Local Government

More information

EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES AND DIVERSITY POLICY 1. GENERAL

EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES AND DIVERSITY POLICY 1. GENERAL EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES AND DIVERSITY POLICY 1. GENERAL 1.1 Juice Resource Solutions Limited embraces diversity and will seek to promote the benefits of diversity in all of our business activities. We will

More information

The Start of a Criminal Career: Does the Type of Debut Offence Predict Future Offending? Research Report 77. Natalie Owen & Christine Cooper

The Start of a Criminal Career: Does the Type of Debut Offence Predict Future Offending? Research Report 77. Natalie Owen & Christine Cooper The Start of a Criminal Career: Does the Type of Debut Offence Predict Future Offending? Research Report 77 Natalie Owen & Christine Cooper November 2013 Contents Executive Summary... 3 Introduction...

More information

235.1. Federal Act on Data Protection (FADP) Aim, Scope and Definitions

235.1. Federal Act on Data Protection (FADP) Aim, Scope and Definitions English is not an official language of the Swiss Confederation. This translation is provided for information purposes only and has no legal force. Federal Act on Data Protection (FADP) 235.1 of 19 June

More information

Analysis of cases of alleged electoral fraud in the UK in 2015

Analysis of cases of alleged electoral fraud in the UK in 2015 Analysis of cases of alleged electoral fraud in the UK in 2015 Summary of data recorded by police forces March 2016 1 Introduction and summary 1.1 The Electoral Commission s core principles for free elections

More information

Trends in Hate Crime charges reported, 2003-04 to 2014-15

Trends in Hate Crime charges reported, 2003-04 to 2014-15 Hate Crime in Scotland 2014-15 Introduction This publication provides details of hate crime reported to the Procurator Fiscal in Scotland in 2014-15, and earlier years. It also provides details of charges

More information

2. Incidence, prevalence and duration of breastfeeding

2. Incidence, prevalence and duration of breastfeeding 2. Incidence, prevalence and duration of breastfeeding Key Findings Mothers in the UK are breastfeeding their babies for longer with one in three mothers still breastfeeding at six months in 2010 compared

More information

EQUALITY ACT 2010: The public sector Equality Duty: reducing bureaucracy. Policy review paper

EQUALITY ACT 2010: The public sector Equality Duty: reducing bureaucracy. Policy review paper EQUALITY ACT 2010: The public sector Equality Duty: reducing bureaucracy 17 March 2011 Contents Introduction 1 Page Reducing bureaucracy and delivering equality improvements 2 Background 3 Details of the

More information

Thank you for your request for information regarding ACPO UAS Steering Group which has now been considered.

Thank you for your request for information regarding ACPO UAS Steering Group which has now been considered. c/o PO BOX 481 Fareham Hampshire PO14 9FS Tel: 02380 674255 Email: acpo.request@foi.pnn.police.uk 29/08/2013 Dear Mr Jones FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REQUEST REFERENCE NUMBER: 000113/13 Thank you for your

More information

Ramblers report on the reduction of funding for rights of way in England. October 2012

Ramblers report on the reduction of funding for rights of way in England. October 2012 Ramblers report on the reduction of funding for rights of way in England October 2012 0 Summary The Ramblers is increasingly concerned that cuts to funding for rights of way are damaging people s ability

More information

Consultation on the introduction of diversity succession planning for board appointments and the lowering of the 150 employees threshold for

Consultation on the introduction of diversity succession planning for board appointments and the lowering of the 150 employees threshold for Consultation on the introduction of diversity succession planning for board appointments and the lowering of the 150 employees threshold for publishing gender pay gap and equal pay statements etc. October

More information

Justice Sub-Committee on Policing. Armed police officers. Letter from HM Inspector of Constabulary in Scotland to the Convener

Justice Sub-Committee on Policing. Armed police officers. Letter from HM Inspector of Constabulary in Scotland to the Convener Justice Sub-Committee on Policing Armed police officers Letter from HM Inspector of Constabulary in Scotland to the Convener Terms of Reference for HMICS Assurance Review Police Scotland Standing Firearms

More information

Qualifying Award Mode of study Validating body (if different from

Qualifying Award Mode of study Validating body (if different from Social work applicants must have the following to be able to Register Name of education provider of Name of programme (including different historical programme award levels e.g. MSc and Pg Dip) Anglia

More information

Referrals to Local Authority Adoption Agencies from First4Adoption by region. Q4 January-March 2015

Referrals to Local Authority Adoption Agencies from First4Adoption by region. Q4 January-March 2015 Referrals to Local Authority Adoption Agencies from FirstAdoption by region Q January-March 0 Yorkshire & The Humber LA Adoption Agencies North East LA Adoption Agencies Leeds City Council Barnsley Adoption

More information

2012 No. 1204 POLICE, ENGLAND AND WALES. The Police (Complaints and Misconduct) Regulations 2012

2012 No. 1204 POLICE, ENGLAND AND WALES. The Police (Complaints and Misconduct) Regulations 2012 STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 2012 No. 1204 POLICE, ENGLAND AND WALES The Police (Complaints and Misconduct) Regulations 2012 Made - - - - 1st May 2012 Laid before Parliament 3rd May 2012 Coming into force - -

More information

(Chapter No. not allocated yet) COMMISSION FOR EQUALITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS ORDINANCE

(Chapter No. not allocated yet) COMMISSION FOR EQUALITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS ORDINANCE ST HELENA (Chapter No. not allocated yet) COMMISSION FOR EQUALITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS ORDINANCE Non-authoritative Consolidated Text This is not an authoritative revised edition for the purposes of the Revised

More information

NOT PROTECTVELY MARKED

NOT PROTECTVELY MARKED Force Template NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED Policy Title: DNA Policy, Procedure and Guidance CCMT Sponsor ACC Specialist Operations Department/Area: Crime Support Section/Sector: Forensic Investigations Unit

More information

Bail and Remand The Scottish Executive Action Plan

Bail and Remand The Scottish Executive Action Plan Bail and Remand The Scottish Executive Action Plan The Scottish Executive Action Plan Crown copyright 2005 ISBN: 0-7559-4852-1 Scottish Executive St Andrew's House Edinburgh EH1 3DG Produced for the Scottish

More information

Abuse of Vulnerable Adults in England. 2011-12, Final Report, Experimental Statistics

Abuse of Vulnerable Adults in England. 2011-12, Final Report, Experimental Statistics Abuse of Vulnerable Adults in England 2011-12, Final Report, Experimental Statistics Published: 6 March 2013 We are England s national source of health and social care information www.ic.nhs.uk enquiries@ic.nhs.uk

More information

The heroin epidemic of the 1980s and 1990s and its effect on crime trends - then and now: Technical Report. Nick Morgan

The heroin epidemic of the 1980s and 1990s and its effect on crime trends - then and now: Technical Report. Nick Morgan The heroin epidemic of the 1980s and 1990s and its effect on crime trends - then and now: Technical Report Nick Morgan July 2014 Contents Summary 3 Chapter 1: Introduction and methodology 6 Chapter 2:

More information

Equality Impact assessment Process

Equality Impact assessment Process You should begin this process as soon as you begin to develop or review, a Strategy, Policy, Procedure or Service Plan, to help assess the impact it may have on any minority group or section of society.

More information

Disability Discrimination Act 2005

Disability Discrimination Act 2005 Disability Discrimination Act 2005 CHAPTER 13 Explanatory Notes have been produced to assist in the understanding of this Act and are available separately 7 50 Disability Discrimination Act 2005 CHAPTER

More information

The Association of Chief Police Officers Submission to the. Senior Salaries Review Body. January 2015

The Association of Chief Police Officers Submission to the. Senior Salaries Review Body. January 2015 The Association of Chief Police Officers Submission to the Senior Salaries Review Body January 2015 1 Contents Table of Contents Contents... 2 Executive Summary... 5 CHAPTER 1... 8 Introduction... 8 1.2

More information

Benchmarking Local Innovation

Benchmarking Local Innovation Benchmarking Local Innovation The innovation geography of the UK By Stephen Roper, Jim Love, Karen Bonner About ERC The Enterprise Research Centre is an independent research centre which focusses on SME

More information

EQUALITY SCHEME - FUNCTION REVIEWS IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT (Template) FUNCTION Post Implementation review of Essex Police Street Intervention Policy

EQUALITY SCHEME - FUNCTION REVIEWS IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT (Template) FUNCTION Post Implementation review of Essex Police Street Intervention Policy EQUALITY SCHEME - FUNCTION REVIEWS IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT (Template) FUNCTION Post Implementation review of Essex Police Street Intervention Policy DATE ASSESSED Between June 2006 and November 2006;

More information