# Basic Algebra (only a draft)

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1 Basic Algebra (only a draft) Ali Nesin Mathematics Department Istanbul Bilgi University Kuştepe Şişli Istanbul Turkey February 12, 2004

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3 Contents I Basic Group Theory 7 1 Definition and Examples of Groups Definition and Basics Example: Sym(X) Example: Automorphism Groups of Graphs Automorphisms of Binary Relational Structures Graphs and Their Automorphisms Binary Trees and Their Automorphism Groups Subgroups Definition and Examples Generators Cosets and Coset Spaces Order of an Element Fundamental Concepts Morphisms Quotient Group Subgroups of G/H Induced Homomorphisms Fundamental Theorem Cyclic Groups Classification Subgroups and Quotients Morphisms Decomposition Abelian Groups Generalities Decomposition Divisible Abelian Groups

4 4 CONTENTS II Basic Ring Theory 53 6 Definition and Examples 55 7 Fundamental Notions Subring Ring Homomorphisms Ideals Ideal Generated by a Set Quotient of a Ring and Fundamental Theorems Domains, Division Rings and Fields Some Facts About Ideals Field of Fractions of a Domain Ring of Polynomials Definition Euclidean Division Ideals of K[X] Irreducible Polynomials Ideals of K[[X]] Ideals of K[X 1,..., X n ] Euclidean Domains and Principal Ideal Domains Modules and Vector Spaces Local Rings Introduction Completion of a Ring Discrete Valuation Rings Introduction Discrete Valuation Rings p-adic Integers Exams Basic Algebra I, Midterm, November 2003 and Its Correction Basic Algebra I, Final, January 2004 and Its Correction Basic Algebra II First Midterm May Basic Algebra II Final, May Rings of Matrices 95

5 CONTENTS 5 III Basic Field Theory 97 IV Basic Module Theory Finitely Generated Torsion Modules over PIDs 103 V Basic Linear Algebra 105 VI Intermediate Group Theory Commutator Subgroups Cauchy s Theorem Sylow Theory Semidirect Products Solvable Groups Nilpotent Groups p-groups Sym(X) Revisited Alt(n) Conjugacy Classes Sylow p-subgroups Classification of Finite Abelian Groups Divisible Groups Generalities Divisible Abelian Groups Divisible Nilpotent Groups Free Groups Definition Free Abelian Groups General Linear Groups Automorphism Groups of Abelian Groups 141

6 6 CONTENTS 28 Permutation Groups Frobenius Groups Sharply 2-Transitive Groups Miscellaneous Problems in Group Theory 149 VII Intermediate Field Theory Field Extensions Algebraic Field Extensions Transcendence Basis 157 VIII Intermediate Ring Theory Dedekind Domains 161 IX Galois Theory 163 X Exams First Semester Fall 2002 Midterm Fall 2003 Resit PhD Exams

7 Part I Basic Group Theory 7

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9 Chapter 1 Definition and Examples of Groups 1.1 Definition and Basics A binary operation or a multiplication on a set G is just a map from the cartesian product G G into G. The binary operations are usually denoted by such symbols as,,, +,,,... The image of a pair (x, y) G G is then denoted by x y, x y, x y, x + y, x y, x y,... A group is a set G together with a binary operation and a constant e satisfying the following properties: G1. Associativity. For all x, y, z G, (x y) z = x (y z). G2. Identity Element. For all x G, x e = e x = x. G3. Inverse Element. For all x G, there is a y G such that x y = y x = e. Thus a group is a triple (G,, e) satisfying the properties G1, G2 and G3. Remarks. 1. On the same set G we may have several different binary operations that turn G into a group. These are considered to be different groups. In other words, a group is more than just a set. 2. G3 does not say that x y = y x for all x, y G; it only says that, given x, the equality x y = y x holds for at least one y, but not necessarily for all y. 3. G1 says that parentheses are useless. For example, instead of (x y) (z t) we can just write x y z t. 4. We will see that the element e of a group satisfying G2 is unique. This element is called the identity element of the group. 9

10 10 CHAPTER 1. DEFINITION AND EXAMPLES OF GROUPS Examples. 1. The following are groups: (Z, +, 0), (Q, +, 0), (R, +, 0). We denote these groups by Z +, Q + and R + or even by Z, Q and R simply if there is no room for confusion. 2. The following are groups: ({1, 1},, 1), (Q \ {0},, 1), (R \ {0},, 1). We denote the last two groups by Q and R respectively. 3. The following are groups: ({q Q : q > 0},, 1), ({r R : r > 0},, 1). We denote these groups by Q >0 and R >0 respectively. 4. Let X be any set and G = Sym(X), the set of all bijections from X into X. Consider the composition operation on Sym(X). The triple (Sym(X),, Id X ) is a group. We denote this group by Sym(X) simply and call it the symmetric group on X. If X = {1,..., n}, the group Sym(X) is denoted by Sym(n) and is called the symmetric group on n letters. The group Sym(n) has n! many elements. At Section 1.2 we will have a closer look at this group. 5. Let I be a set and (G,, e) a group. The set of all functions I G from I into G is a group via the following operation: For f, g I G, define f g I G by the rule (f g)(i) = f(i) g(i). The identity element of this group is the function that sends all the elements of I to the identity element of G. For f I G and i I, let us denote f(i) by f i. We can represent the function f by its values (f i ) i I. With this representation, and I G = {(f i ) i I : f i G} (f i ) i I (g i ) i I = (f i g i ) i I (the componentwise multiplication). When this notation is used, the group I G is denoted by by i I G and we call it the direct product of the group G over the index set I. If I has just two elements we denote the group by G G or by G 2. Similarly, if I has n elements we denote the group by G n or by G... G or by G... G. 6. The set of all n times differentiable functions from R into R is a group under the addition of functions (see the above example), more precisely, given f and g, two n times differentiable functions from R into R, we define f + g as in the example above: for all x R. (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) The set of all integrable functions from R into R is a group under the addition of functions.

11 1.1. DEFINITION AND BASICS 11 Given a R, the set of all functions f from R into R such that f is differentiable n times and f (n) (a) = 0 is a group under the addition of functions. The set of all functions f from R into R such that lim x f(x) = 0 is a group under the addition of functions. 7. Let I be any set and (G,, e) be a group. The set of all functions I G from I into G such that {i I : f(i) = e} is cofinite in I is a group called direct sum of the family (G i ) i. This group is denoted by I G. Thus, with the notation introduced above, I G = {(g i ) i I : g i = e except for finitely many i I}. Clearly I G is a subset of I G and they are equal only when I is finite. 8. Let I be any set and for each i I let (G i, i, e i ) be a group. The set of all functions g from I into i I G i such that g(i) G i is a group under the following operation: If g and h are two such functions, define their product g h by the rule (g h)(i) = g(i) i h(i). This group is called the direct product of the family (G i ) i. This group is denoted by i I G i. As above we let g i = g(i) and set g = (g i ) i. Clearly (e i ) i I is the identity element of this group. Also the subset {(g i ) i I i I G i : g i = e i for all i except for finitely many} of i I G i is a group under the same operation. This group is called the direct sum of the family (G i ) i and is denoted by i I G i. 9. Let X be a set. Let φ : R n X be a function. The set of bijections f : R R such that φ(r 1,..., r n ) = φ(r 1,..., r n ) = φ(f(r 1 ),..., f(r n )) for all r 1,..., r n R is a group under composition. 10. Let X and Y be two sets. Let φ : X Y be a function. Consider the set of bijections f : X X such that φ fφ. This set is a group under composition. In particular, the set of bijections of R n that preserve the distance on R n is a group, called the group of isometries of R n. 11. Let (G,, e) be a group. Let X G be a subset. Then the set is a group under. C G (X) := {g G : g x = x g for all x X} From now on (G,, e) stands for a group. We start by proving the most basic facts about groups. Lemma (Simplification) For x, y, z G, if x z = y z then x = y. Similarly, if z x = z y then x = y.

12 12 CHAPTER 1. DEFINITION AND EXAMPLES OF GROUPS Proof: By G3 there is an element t G such that z t = e. Now, x G2 = x e = x (z t) G1 = (x z) t = (y z) t G1 = y (z t) = y e G2 = y. Lemma The element e satisfying G2 is unique. In fact if f G is such that x f = x for some x G, then f = e. Proof: Since, x f = x G2 = x e, by Lemma 1.1.1, f = e. The unique element e is called the identity element of the group. Since the identity element is unique, a group may be written as (G, ) instead of (G,, e). Very often one writes xy instead of x y. Also, one replaces the symbol e by 1. This is what we will do from now on. If there are several groups G, H etc., to distinguish, we will sometimes denote their identity elements by 1 G, 1 H etc. Lemma Given x G, the element y that satisfies G3 is unique; in fact if xz = 1, then y = z. Proof: Since xz = 1 = xy, by Lemma 1.1.1, z = y. Given x the unique element y that satisfies G3 depends on x. We denote it by the symbol x 1. Thus xx 1 = x 1 x = 1. Note that for all x, y G, (xy) 1 = y 1 x 1. Be aware that we do not necessarily have (xy) 1 = x 1 y 1. Note also that (x 1 ) 1 = x. (It is clear from G3 that if y is the inverse of x, then x is the inverse of y. Or: since xx 1 = 1 for all x G, applying this equality to x 1 instead of x we get x 1 (x 1 ) 1 = 1 = x 1 x, thus by Lemma x = (x 1 ) 1 ). Property G1 says that when multiplying the elements of a group, the parentheses are unnecessary. From now on we will omit them. For x G and n N we denote the product of n many x s by x n. Thus x 1 = x, x 2 = xx, x 3 = xxx etc. We let x 0 = 1 and x n = (x n ) 1. More formally, we should have defined x n for n N by induction on n as follows: x 0 = 1 and x n+1 = x n x. As usual, we call x 2 the square of x, x 3 the cube or the third power of x etc. Lemma For any x G and n, m Z, x n x m = x m x n = x m+n and (x n ) m = x nm. Proof: Left as an exercise. (The formal proof using the inductive definition may not be so trivial). A group G is called abelian or commutative if xy = yx for all x, y G. Unless X 2, the group Sym(X) is not abelian. When the group is abelian, one sometimes uses the additive notation x + y instead of xy. In this case the identity element is denoted as 0, the inverse of x is denoted as x and instead of x n, one writes nx. Thus the lemma above becomes: nx + mx = (n + m)x and n(mx) = (nm)x.

13 1.1. DEFINITION AND BASICS 13 Exercise. 1. On Z which of the following binary operations is associative, i.e. satisfies G1? a) x y = x y. b) x y = x. c) x y = xy. d) x y = x Let G = R and define the binary relation as x y = 0. Show that (G,, 0) satisfies G1 and G3 but not G2. 3. Prove or disprove: a. {f Sym(N) : {x N : f(x) x} is finite } is a group under composition. b. {f Sym(N) : {x N : f(x) x} is an even integer } is a group under composition. c. {q Q >0 : q = a/b and b is square-free} is a group under the usual multiplication. 4. Show that the set of functions f : R R is a group under the usual product of functions: (f g)(x) = f(x)g(x). What is the identity element and the inverse of an element? 5. a) Let n N. Show that the set nz = {nx : x Z} is a group under addition. b) Show that any subset of Z which is a group under addition is of the form nz for some unique n N. 6. Show that any nonempty subset of R closed under substraction is a group under addition. 7. Show that the set {a/2 n : a Z, n Z} is a group under addition. 8. Let r R. Show that the set {r n : n Z} is a group under multiplication. 9. Let Q[ 2] = {a + b 2 : a, b Q} and Q[ 2] = Q[ 2] \ {0}. Show that (Q[ 2],, 1) is a group. 10. Let Z[ 2] = {a + b 2 : a, b Z} and let Z[ 2] := {α Z[ 2] : there is a β Z[ 2] such that αβ = 1}. Show that (Z[ 2],, 1) is a group. 11. Let G be a group such that g 2 = 1 for all g G. Show that G is abelian.

14 14 CHAPTER 1. DEFINITION AND EXAMPLES OF GROUPS 12. Let G be a group. Show that the set Aut(G) := {φ Sym(G) : φ(xy) = φ(x)φ(y) for all x, y G} is a group under composition. 13. Let G be a group. For x, y G, set x y = y 1 xy. Show that (xy) z = x z y z and that (x y ) z = x yz. 14. Let G be a group. For x, y G, define [x, y] = x 1 y 1 xy. Show that for x, y, z G, a) [x, yz] = [x, z][x, y] z and [xy, z] = [x, z] y [y, z]. b) (Philip Hall.) [[x, y 1 ], z] y [[y, z 1 ], x] z [[z, x 1 ], y] x = Let G be a group. Show that for x, y G and n a positive integer, [x n, y] = [x, y] xn 1 [x, y] xn 2... [x, y] x [x, y]. 16. Let G be a group, X a set and f : G X a bijection. On X define the binary operation xy = f(f 1 (x)f 1 (y)). Show that X becomes a group under this operation. 17. Let G be a group. The center of G is defined to be the set Z(G) := {z G : zg = gz for all g G}. Show that Z(G) is a group under the multiplication of G. 18. Let G be a set together with a binary operation and an element e G satisfying the properties G1, G3 and Show that (G,, e) is a group. G2. For all x G, x e = x. 19. Let G be a set together with a binary operation and an element e G satisfying the following properties G1, G2 (see the above exercise) and G3 For all x G, there is a y G such that x y = e. Is (G,, e) a group? 20. Let G be a set together with a binary operation and a constant e satisfying the following properties G1, G2 (the above exercise) and G3 For all x G, there is a y G such that y x = e. Is (G,, e) a group?

15 1.2. EXAMPLE: SYM(X) Let G be a set together with an associative binary operation (x, y) xy. a. Assume that for all a, b G there are unique x, y G such that ax = ya = b. Show that G is a group under this binary operation. b. Assume that for all a, b G there is a unique x G such that ax = b. Is G necessarily a group under this binary operation? 22. Let (G,, e) and (H,, e ) be two groups. Let f : G H be a map such that f(x y) = f(x) f(y) for all x, y G. Such a function is called a group homomorphism from the group G into the group H. a) Show that f(e) = e. b) Show that f(x 1 ) = f(x) 1 for all x G. c) Show that f(x n ) = f(x) n for all x G and n N. d) Show that f 1 (e ) is a group under. e) Suppose f is a bijection. Show that f 1 (u v) = f 1 (u) f 1 (v) for all u, v H. 23. Let G be a group. Let Aut(G) = {f : G G : f is a bijection and f(xy) = f(x)f(y) for all x, ying}. a. Show that Aut(G) is closed under composition. b. Show that Id G Aut(G). c. Show that if f Aut(G), then f 1 Aut(G). d. Conclude that Aut(G) is a group. Elements of Aut(G) are called automorphisms of the group G. 1.2 Example: Sym(X) We first study the group Sym(n) for n N. Let us for example consider the following element g of Sym(7): g(1) = 2 g(2) = 5 g(3) = 3 g(4) = 7 g(5) = 1 g(6) = 6 g(7) = 4 We can represent this element as ( ) g =

16 16 CHAPTER 1. DEFINITION AND EXAMPLES OF GROUPS or as (1, 2, 5)(3)(4, 7)(6) or as (1, 2, 5)(4, 7). We will prefer the last representation. The last representation can be read as follows: 1 goes to 2, 2 goes to 5, 5 goes back to 1; 4 goes to 7, 7 goes back to 4; the rest of the numbers (3 and 6) are fixed. Written this way, the element g = (1, 2, 5)(4, 7) may be seen as an element of Sym(7) as well as an element of Sym(8). If one is careful enough when needed, this never causes a problem. It is impossible to represent Id Sym(6) with the representation we adopted, so we will write simply Id Sym(6) or just 1 (with abuse of language). Such a representation is called the cyclic representation of the element. The elements such as (1, 2, 5), (3) and (4, 7) of the cyclic representation (1, 2, 5)(4, 7) are called cycles. The cycle (1, 2, 3) is a 3-cycle. The cycle (4, 7) is a 2-cycle. The element (1, 2, 5)(4, 7) of Sym(7) has four cycles, namely (1, 2, 5), (3), (4, 7) and (6). On the other hand, the element (1, 2, 5)(4, 7) of Sym(8) has five cycles, namely (1, 2, 5), (3), (4, 7), (6) and (8). The element Id Sym(6) or 1 of Sym(6) has six cycles. But the element 1 of Sym(8) has eight cycles. Clearly (1, 2, 3) = (2, 3, 1) = (3, 1, 2) (1, 3, 2). Also (1, 2, 5)(4, 7) = (4, 7)(1, 2, 5) = (7, 4)(5, 2, 1). The multiplication (more precisely, the composition) of disjoint cycles is very simple: One just juxtaposes them, e.g. the multiplication of (1, 2, 5) and (4, 7) is just (1, 2, 5)(4, 7), or (4, 7)(1, 2, 5). Similarly, the product of the two elements (1, 5, 7)(3, 4) and (2, 6)(8, 9) is just (1, 5, 7)(2, 6)(3, 4)(8, 9). If the cycles are not disjoint, then the multiplication of elements is slightly more complicated. For example to compute (1, 2, 3)(1, 2, 4, 3, 5) we start from the right and see where 1 goes to: 1 first goes to 2 (the right cycle) and the left cycle takes 2 to 3. Thus the product starts as (1, 3,.... Now we restart the same procedure with 3. As a result we obtain (1, 2, 3)(1, 2, 4, 3, 5) = (1, 3, 5, 2, 4). As an exercise the reader should check that (1, 2, 3, 4)(3, 5, 4) = (1, 2, 3, 5) (1, 3, 2, 4)(1, 4)(3, 5, 4) = (2, 4)(3, 5) The inverse of an element is easy to find. For example (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) 1 = (1, 5, 4, 3, 2) and ((1, 2, 3, 4)(5, 6, 7)) 1 = (1, 4, 3, 2)(5, 7, 6). On the other hand, ((1, 2, 3, 5)(5, 6, 7)) 1 = (5, 6, 7) 1 (1, 2, 3, 5) 1 = (5, 7, 6)(1, 5, 3, 2) = (1, 7, 6, 5, 3, 2). We can use the same notation for Sym(N). For example the element g := (0, 1)(2, 3)(4, 5)(6, 7)... is in Sym(N) and g 2 = Id N. On the other hand the element (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,...) is not in Sym(N) because the number 0 is not in the image and this function is not onto, hence not a bijection. An infinite cycle in Sym(N) cannot have a beginning. For example the element (..., 7, 5, 3, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8,...) is in Sym(N). The reader should not that, for the moment, we do not see the element (0, 1)(2, 3)(4, 5)(6, 7)... as the product of infinitely many elements (0, 1), (2, 3), (4, 5) etc. We can only multiply finitely many elements of a group 1. 1 Unless there is a concept of limit in the group.

17 1.2. EXAMPLE: SYM(X) 17 The cycle type of the element g of Sym(n) is a sequence of n natural numbers a 1 a 2... a n where a i is the number of i-cycles in the cyclic representation of g. For example the cycle type of (1, 2, 5)(4, 7) Sym(8) is 3 1 1, the cycle type of (1, 2, 5)(4, 7) Sym(9) is 4 1 1, the cycle type of (1, 2, 3)(4, 5, 6) Sym(6) is The following formalism is more convenient and expressive: We will say that (1, 2, 5)(4, 7) Sym(8) is of cycle type (1)(2)(3, 4)(5, 6, 7), or even of type (1, 2)(3, 4, 5) if there is no possible confusion. For example the elements of Sym(5) of cycle type (1, 2, 3)(4, 5) are: (1, 2, 3)(4, 5), (1, 3, 2)(4, 5), (1, 2, 4)(3, 5), (1, 4, 2)(3, 5), (1, 2, 5)(3, 4), (1, 5, 2)(3, 4), (1, 3, 4)(2, 5), (1, 4, 3)(2, 5), (1, 3, 5)(2, 4), (1, 5, 3)(2, 4), (1, 4, 5)(2, 3), (1, 5, 4)(2, 3), (2, 3, 4)(1, 5), (2, 4, 3)(1, 5), (2, 3, 5)(1, 4), (2, 5, 3)(1, 4), (2, 4, 5)(1, 3), (2, 5, 4)(1, 3), (3, 4, 5)(1, 2), (3, 5, 4)(1, 2). Exercises. 1. Write the elements of Sym(n) for n = 1, 2, 3, 4. Draw the multiplication table of these groups. Show that Sym(n) has n! elements. 2. Find elements of each cycle type of Sym(n) for n = 2, 3, 4, 5, How many cycle types of elements are there in Sym(9) whose square is 1? 4. Find the number of elements of type (1, 2, 3)(4, 5, 6)(7, 8, 9)(10, 11, 12, 13) of Sym(15). 5. Let g := (..., 7, 5, 3, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8,...) Sym(N). Show that g n 1 for any n Z \ {0}. 6. Let a := (0, 1) Sym(N). Show that C Sym(N) (a) := {g Sym(N) : ga = ag} = {g Sym(N) : g({0, 1}) = {0, 1}}. 7. Multiply the elements (0, 1)(1, 2)(3, 4)... and (1, 2)(3, 4)(5, 6)... of Sym(n). How many cycles does the product have? 8. For a group G and an element g G, define o(g), the order of g, to be the least positive natural number m such that g m = 1 if there is such an m, otherwise define o(g) =. Thus o(g) = 1 if and only if g = 1. Let G = Sym(N). Show that o(1, 2, 3) = 3, o(1, 2, 3, 4) = 4, o((1, 2, 3)(4, 5)) = 6, o(..., 7, 5, 3, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8,...) =. For each n = 1, 2,..., 12, find max{o(g) : g Sym(n)}. 9. The exponent exp(g) of a group G is the minimum natural number n > 0 such that g n = 1 for all g G if there is such a natural number, otherwise the exponent of a group is said to be infinite. Show that exp(sym(3)) = 6. Find exp(sym(n)) for n = 4,..., Show that if exp(g) = n and exp(h) = m, then exp(g H) = lcm(m, n). 11. Is it true that every element of Sym(N) is a product of finitely many squares?

18 18 CHAPTER 1. DEFINITION AND EXAMPLES OF GROUPS 12. Is it true that every element of Sym(N) is a product of finitely many p-th powers? 1.3 Example: Automorphism Groups of Graphs Automorphisms of Binary Relational Structures A binary relation on a set X is just a subset R of X X. Instead of (x, y) R, we prefer to write xry. A binary relational structure Γ is a set X together with a binary relation R. Thus a binary relational structure Γ is a pair (X, R) where X is a set and R is a binary relation Γ. An isomorphism of a binary relational structure (X, R) into another binary relational structure (Y, S) is a bijection f : X Y such that for any x 1, x 2 X, x 1 Rx 2 if and only if f(x 1 )Rf(x 2 ). An isomorphism from a binary relational structure onto itself is called an automorphism of the binary relational structure. The set of all automorphisms of a binary relational structure Γ is a group and is called the automorphism group of Γ and is denoted by Aut(Γ). Two relational structures Γ and Γ 1 among which there is an isomorphism are called isomorphic. We then write Γ Γ 1. The dual of a binary relational structure (X, R) is the binary relational structure (X, S) defined as follows: Exercises. xsy if and only if xry does not hold. 1. Show that the set Aut(Γ) of all automorphisms of a binary relational structure Γ is a group under composition. 2. Let Γ, Γ 1 and Γ 3 be binary relational structures. Show that a) Γ Γ. b) If Γ Γ 1 then Γ 1 Γ c) If Γ Γ 1 and Γ 1 Γ 2 then Γ Γ Show that the automorphism groups of a binary relational structure and its dual are equal. 4. Let (X, R) and (Y, S) be two binary relational structure. Let φ be an isomorphism from (X, R) onto (Y, S). Show that Aut(Y, S) = φ Aut(X, R)φ Let X be a set. On the set (X) of all subsets of X consider the binary relation. For any f Sym(X), define φ f : (X) (X) by φ f (A) = f(a). Show that φ f Aut( (X), ). Show that Aut( (X), ) = {φ f : f Sym(X)}. Show that, for f, g Sym(X), φ f φ g = φ f g.

19 1.3. EXAMPLE: AUTOMORPHISM GROUPS OF GRAPHS Let (X, R) be a relational structure. We will call a bijection φ : X X a soft automorphism if for all x, y X, if xry then φ(x)rφ(y). Is the set of all soft automorphism necessarily a group? Let now X be any set. Find the set of soft automorphisms of ( (X), ) Graphs and Their Automorphisms A binary relation R on a set X is called symmetric if xry implies yrx for all x, y X; it is called reflexive if xrx for all x X; it is called irreflexive if xrx does not hold for any x X. A graph Γ is a set X together with a symmetric and irreflexive binary relation X. Thus a graph Γ is a pair (X, R) where X is a set and R is a symmetric and irreflexive binary relation on X. If (X, R) is a graph and x, y X are such that xry then we say that x and y are connected or that they are of distance 1. We often write x y instead of xry. In that case, we also say that x and y are related and that x y is an edge. The elements of a graph are called vertices. A chain of the form x = x 0 x 1... x n 1 x n = y is called a path. If all the vertices x i are distinct, the path is called a reduced path. If x and y are two vertices of a graph such that x = x 0 x 1... x n 1 x n = y for some x 1,..., x n 1 and if n is minimal such number, we say that n is the distance between x and y. In that case the path x = x 0 x 1... x n 1 x n = y is called a minimal path. Otherwise the distance is said to be infinite. A minimal path is necessarily reduced. A graph whose vertices are all connected to each other by a path is called a connected graph. The maximum of the distances of vertices of a graph is called diameter of the graph. A cycle in a graph is a closed reduced path, i.e. a reduced path of the form x = x 0 x 1... x n 1 x n = x. A triangle-free graph is a graph without cycles of length three. A square-free graph is a graph without cycles of length four. In a cycle-free graph, all minimal paths are unique. Exercises. 1. Let us find all graph structures on the set X = {1, 2, 3}. For any two distinct points x and y we know that if x y then y x, so to shorten our writing, we will write only one of the two relations (or edges). Γ : no relations at all Γ 3 : only 1 2 (and 2 1 of course) Γ 2 : only 1 3 Γ 1 : only 2 3 Γ 13 : only 1 2 and 2 3 Γ 12 : only 1 3 and 2 3 Γ 23 : only 1 2 and 1 3 Γ 123 : all possible relations 1 2, 2 3 and 1 3

20 20 CHAPTER 1. DEFINITION AND EXAMPLES OF GROUPS Show that Γ 1, Γ 2 and Γ 3 are isomorphic. Show that Γ 13, Γ 12 and Γ 23 are isomorphic. Show that G 1 and G 23 are not isomorphic, but duals of each other. Thus on X there are only fundamentally different (i.e. nonisomorphic) graph structures: Γ, Γ 1, Γ 23 and Γ 123. Show that Aut(Γ ) = Aut(Γ 123 ) = Sym(3) and Aut(Γ 1 ) = Aut(Γ 23 ) = {1, (2, 3)}. 2. The complete graph on a set X is the graph where any two distinct x, y X are related. Show that the automorphism group of a complete graph on a set X is Sym(X). 3. Consider the following graphs on X := {1, 2, 3, 4}: Show that Γ : no relations at all Γ 12 : only 1 2 (and 2 1 of course) Γ 123 : only 1 2 and 2 3 Γ : only 1 2 and 3 4 Γ 1234 : only 1 2, 2 3 and 3 4 Γ : only 1 2, 1 3 and 1 4 Aut(Γ ) = Sym(4) Aut(Γ 12 ) = Aut(Γ ) = {1, (1, 2), (3, 4), (1, 2)(3, 4)} Aut(Γ 123 ) = {1, (1, 3)} Aut(Γ ) = {1, (12), (34), (12)(34), (13)(24), (23)(14), (1324), (1223)} Aut(Γ 1234 ) = {1, (14)(23)} Aut(Γ ) = {1, (12), (13), (23), (123), (132)} Show that the automorphism group of a graph Γ on X = {1, 2, 3, 4} is the automorphism group of one of the above graphs. Draw the multiplication table of Aut(Γ ) 4. Find a graph Γ on six points such that Aut(Γ) = Find a finite graph Γ such that Aut(Γ) = 3. Find one with 10 vertices. 6. Let X be a set. Let Γ be the set of subsets of X with two elements. On Γ define the relation αrβ if and only if α β =. Then Γ becomes a graph with this relation. a) Calculate Aut(Γ) when X = 4. b) Draw the graph Γ when X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. c) Show that Sym(5) imbeds in Aut(Γ) naturally. (You have to show that each element σ of Sym(5) gives rise to an automorphism σ of Γ in such

21 1.3. EXAMPLE: AUTOMORPHISM GROUPS OF GRAPHS 21 a way that the map σ σ is an injection from Sym(5) into Aut(Γ) and that σ 1 σ 2 = σ 1 σ 2 ). d) Show that Aut(Γ) Sym(5). Solution: (a) The graph Γ is just six vertices joined two by two. A group isomorphic to (Z/2Z) 3 preserves the edges. And Sym(3) permutes the edges. Thus the group has 8 3! = 48 elements. More formally, one can prove this as follows. Let the points be {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and the edges be v 1 = (1, 4), v 2 = (2, 5) and v 3 = (3, 6). We can embed Sym(3) in Aut(Γ) Sym(6) via Id 3 Id 6 (12) (12)(45) (13) (13)(46) (23) (23)(56) (123) (123)(456) (132) (132)(465) For any φ Aut(Γ) there is an element α in the image of Sym(3) such that α 1 φ preserves the three edges v 1 = (1, 4), v 2 = (2, 5) and v 3 = (3, 6). Thus α 1 φ Sym{1, 4} Sym{2, 5} Sym{3, 6} (Z/2Z) 3. It follows that Aut(Γ) (Z/2Z) 3 Sym(3) (to be explained next year). (b) There are ten points. Draw two pentagons one inside the other. Label the outside points as {1, 2}, {3, 4}, {5, 1}, {2, 3}, {4, 5}. Complete the graph. (c and d) Clearly any element of σ Sym(5) gives rise to an automorphism σ of Γ via σ{a, b} = {σ(a), σ(b)}. The fact that this map preserves the incidence relation is clear. This map is one to one because if σ = τ, then for all distinct a, b, c, we have {σ(b)} = {σ(a), σ(b)} {σ(b), σ(c)} = σ{a, b} σ{b, c} = τ{a, b} τ{b, c} = {τ(a), τ(b)} {τ(b), τ(c)} = {τ(b)} and hence σ(b) = τ(b). Let φ Aut(Γ). We will compose φ by elements of Sym(5) to obtain the identity map. There is an σ Sym(5) such that φ{1, 2} = σ{1, 2} and φ{3, 4} = σ{3, 4}. Thus, replacing φ by σ 1 φ, we may assume that φ fixes the vertices {1, 2} and {3, 4}. Now φ must preserve or exchange the vertices {3, 5} and {4, 5}. By applying the element (34) of Sym(5) we may assume that these two vertices are fixed as well. Now φ must preserve or exchange the vertices {1, 3} and {2, 3}. By applying the element (12) of Sym(5) we may assume that these two vertices are fixed as well. Now all the vertices must be fixed. 7. Let n 3 and let Γ be the cyclic graph on {1, 2,..., n}, i.e. the only relations are (n 1) n 1. Show that ρ := (1, 2,..., n) Aut(Γ). Show that τ = (2, n)(3, n 1)... Aut(Γ). (For example if n = 6 then τ = (2, 6)(3, 5), if n = 7 then τ = (2, 7)(3, 6)(4, 5)). Show that Aut(Γ) = {ρ i τ j : i = 0, 1,..., n 1 and j = 0, 1}

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