Modeling Cloud Federations

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1 ICT COST Action IC1304 Autonomous Control for a Reliable Internet of Services (ACROSS) Modeling Cloud Federations Wojciech Burakowski Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

2 Activity TF4: Cloud Federations inside ACROSS Partners: University of Szeged and MTA SZTAKI, Hungary University of Antwerp-iMINDS, Belgium University of Zurich, Switzerland Deutsche Telekom AG, Germany Warsaw University of Technology, Poland 2

3 Agenda: Introduction to Cloud Federation Multi-level traffic model for Cloud Federation Level 5: Strategy for handling demand some numerical results Level 4: Cloud Federation setting Level 3: Handling Installation Service requests and Service Provision Level 2: Handling Execution Service requests Level 1: Sharing Resources Planed evaluation methods Simulation Experimental capabilities In European testbeds In PL-Lab (Polish) testbed Conclusions and future plans 3

4 Introduction to Cloud Federation (1) New elements comparing to the separated Cloud : CF network Resources in many Clouds Potentiality of Cloud Federations vs. Separated Clouds: Better resource utilization More offered services Exemplary Cloud Federation with 5 Clouds Problem: More complicated traffic management 4

5 Introduction (2) Reference Federated Cloud Management Architecture interoperability is achieved by high-level brokering instead of bilateral resource renting 5

6 Multi-level traffic model for Cloud Federation Level 5 Strategies for handing demands Distribution of demands between Clouds OFF-LINE Level 4 Cloud Federation Setting Resources in Cloud Federation types of resources number of resources Network connecting Clouds network topology network provision OFF-LINE Installing Service (IS) Requests Level 3 Service of IS requests Service specification - specification of task sequence Service provision -alocating resources to execute particular task OFF-LINE Execution Service (ES) Requests Level 2 Service of ES requests Service of appropriate task sequence Allocating tasks to the resources (if more than one resource can serve the task) ON-LINE Level 1 Task service in cloud resources Task scheduling Fairness ON-LINE 6

7 Level 5: Strategies for handling requests in Cloud Federation a) Centralized approach Request submitted by customers b) With Home Clouds Request submitted by particular Home Clouds Request submitted by particular Clouds if no resources Centralized request handling Centralized request handling Cloud #1 Cloud Federation Cloud #2 Home Cloud #1 Cloud Federation Home Cloud #2 Cloud #5 Home Cloud #5 Cloud #4 Cloud #3 Home Cloud #4 Home Cloud #3 All demans are submitted to Cloud Federation Cloud Federation is managed as one Cloud All resources belong to Cloud Federation Home Clouds have its own users The requests are submitted to Home Clouds If no resources in Home Cloud then they are submitted to Cloud Federation 7

8 Level 5: Strategies for handling requests Considered systems: Separated cloud : SC Cloud Federation with Home Clouds : CF-HC Cloud Federation with centralized management: CF-C System description (simple assumptions just for comparison): N number of Clouds in CF Ci number of resources in the i-th Cloud (ass. all resources are the same) αi - arrival rate of requests for each cloud acc. to Poisson distibution (ass. each request demands one resource, resource is not shared) hi service rate of requests in each resource (ass. negative exponential distribution) Pure loss system for CF and SC 8

9 Loss rate Loss rate Level 5: Startegies for handling requests Considered system ( cloud sizes and request arrival rate to each Cloud are the same): N=5,10; Ci=10,20; αi=5(10)-9.5(19); hi=1 Loss rate - 10 resources in each cloud Loss rate - 20 resources in each cloud 1,00E+00 1,00E-01 Offered Load per cloud ,00E+00 1,00E-01 Offered Load per cloud ,00E-02 1,00E-02 1,00E-03 SC 1,00E-03 SC 1,00E-04 1,00E-05 1,00E-06 1,00E-07 1,00E-08 1,00E-09 1,00E-10 CF-HC and CF-C: 5 Clouds CF-HC and CF-C: 10 Clouds 1,00E-04 1,00E-05 1,00E-06 1,00E-07 1,00E-08 1,00E-09 1,00E-10 Conclusions: If capacity of the CF is growing (greater number of resources) then loss rate is going less CF has more resources than SC so lost rate From the point of loss rate the FC-HC has the same characteristics as CF-C Final conclusion CF has better performances than SC CF-HC and CF-C: 5 Clouds CF-HC and CF-C: 10 Clouds 9

10 Level 5: Strategies for handling Demands Considered system ( Cloud sizes are identical but arrival rates to each Cloud are different): N=5 ; Ci=10;hi=1;α1=2, ; α2=4, ; α3=6, ; α4=8, ; α5=10 Conclusions: All Couds in FC-HC have better resource utilization comparing to SC FC-C vs. FC-HC : Loss rate for each Home Cloud is the same Home Cloud with greater request rate in the FC-HC scheme utilizes more resources comparing to FC-C scheme Home Cloud with less request rate utilizes less resources comparing to FC-C scheme Final conclusion: choice between FC-HC and FC-C depends on business model for FC 10

11 Level 4: Cloud Federation setting Network level: new element in CF comparing to SC Exemplary two approaches User SLA NaaS Cloud E Cloud federation management Network Operator Cloud D Virtual Network Infrastructure Cloud A Cloud B Cloud C SDN enabled device CF using independent SLAs CF using Virtual Network Infrastructure Network design aspects: Profile and volume of traffic submitted to the network Requirements for QoS quarantees, Which Classes of Services are needed, if needed Methods for network dimension and adaptation to current needs (when traffic is changed in time) Which technology: SDN? Remark: if some clouds will have worst connections when their resources can be not choosen 11

12 Level 3: Handling Service Installation requests Requests for installing and provision of a new service, named IS requests that are send by service providers to Cloud Federation owners Service specification Service provision 12

13 Level 3: Handling Service Installation requests Service specification (acc. to SoA- Software Oriented Architecture): The specification of a service has a form of specification (in the simplest case) of task sequence, that should be executed in a priori defined order More complicated task sequence with tasks executed in paralell Task description: service number, sequence number, ES requests for service#1 Tasks (1,2,1), (1,2,2) and (1,2,3) are executed in parallel in different resources Task (1,1) Task (1,2) Task (1,3) Task (1,4) ES requests for service#2 Task (2,1) Task (2,2) Task (1,2,1) ES requests for service#1 ES requests for service#3 Task (1,1) Task (1,2,2) Task (1,3) Task (1,4) Task (3,1) Task (3,2) Task (3,3) Different task requences corresponding to different services Task (1,2,3) Example of task requence with tasks executed in parallel 13

14 Level 3: Handling Service Installation requests Service provision responsible for chosing a number of resources to execute paricular tasks Execution of specific task could be possible done by more that one resource (not necessary belonging to the same cloud) Service provision process should be updated depending on service requests rate of given service Cloud A Remark: For service provitio we dedicate a subset of all resources Task1 Task2 Task3 Cloud B 14

15 Level 2: Handling service execution requests Requests for service execution are send by users to Cloud Federation (CF-C) or Home Clouds (CF-HC) Service execution demands execution of task sequence The issue is (possible dynamic) task allocation taking into account load conditions in resources Cloud A Which resource we allocate? Task1 Task2 Task3 Cloud B 15

16 Comparing requests for service setting and service execution IS requests ES requests Requirements for time execution off line on line Arrival rate hours, days seconds, minutes Issues to be solved How to allocate resources, how to provision how to do re-provision How to allocate execution of tasks? Remark: Provision and execusion processes are dependent: the quality of service execution depends on service provision 16

17 Level 4: Cloud Federation setting Cloud Federation resources (compte resources) Detail knowledge about resources in all Clouds We should take into account that compute resources are packed in racks and organized in clusters (high bandwidth access) are often connected to shared storage infrastructure ( databases) Data centers consume energy 17

18 Dependences between levels Try to improve Level 5 Strategies for handing demands Try to improve Level 4 Cloud Federation Setting Try to improve Level 3 Service of IS requests Final assesment of offered quality Try to improve Level 2 Service of ES requests Level 1 Task service in cloud resources 18

19 Planed evaluation strategy To define use cases The best solution - to take use cases currently studied by European projects To use CloudSim or to develop simulation tool It looks that CloudSim is not suited Try to do some experiments in one of European testbeds Under study in PL-LAB that will be connected to European testbed infrastructure by Fed4Fire at the end of this year 19

20 PL-Lab PL-LAB finished at the and of this year we are thinking about designing testbed for CF SDN net (about 30 switches) Many servers generator./analyser Poznań Supercomputing and Networking Center 16 SDN switches 19 servers Gdańsk University of Technology 6 servers Poznań GÉANT, FED4FIRE, XIFI, FIWARE Gdańsk Warszawa National Institute of Telecommunications 18 SDN switches 24 servers Warsaw University of Technology Wrocław University of Technology 2 SDN switches 25 servers Wrocław Gliwice 6 SDN switches 15 Servers Silesian University of Technology 6 SDN switches 4 servers 20

21 Conclusions The presented multi-level approach for traffic management in Cloud Federation environment looks to be completed We distinguish between 5 levels that are essentially different For level 5, 3,2 and 1 we have some approaches Only few for level 4 (CF network) So, the problem is how to merge all levels (to take into account all pieces together ) Closs-levels traffic management? The evaluation approaches by simulation In testbed environment 21

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