The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture

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1 The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture

2

3 The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture The papers published in this volume were originally presented at a conference with the title The Europe of Regions Literature, Media, Culture organised by the Budapest Forum in Komárno, Slovakia, on 22 nd October Kodolányi János University College 2007

4 A kiadvány megjelenését a Kodolányi János Főiskola támogatta EDITED BY: Glavanovics Andrea Szele Bálint Ph.D. PUBLISHER: Szabó Péter Ph.D. Rector Kodolányi János University College Fürdő utca 1. Székesfehérvár 8000 Hungary TECHNICAL EDITOR AND LANGUAGE ADVISOR: Szele Bálint Ph.D. LANGUAGE ADVISOR: Mezei László COVER PHOTOGRAPH: Simon Erika ISBN Visit us on the World Wide Web at: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a database or retrieval system, or published in any form or in any way, electronically, mechanically, by print, photoprint, microfilm or any other means without prior written permission from the publishers. Kodolányi University College, 2007 DESIGN BY: Quadrat 64 PRINTED BY: Regia Rex Nyomda, Székesfehérvár

5 Contents Sándor ALBERT 7 Selye János University and the Training of Hungarian Intellectuals in the South of Slovakia 1. Education and Culture in a Multidimensional World 11 Zsuzsanna FORRÓ 12 The Development of Abilities in the School of the 21 st Century Balázs KOTOSZ 15 Websites of the Departments of Statistics in Hungarian Economic Higher Education Dóra MÓCZ: 26 The Importance of Life-long Learning in the light of the Lisbon Process Terézia STREDL 37 The Impact of the Media on Children s Mental Development Edit SZABÓ 40 The Effects of the Media on the Spiritual World of the Children Mária SZOKOLY: 45 The Bequest of Culture and Dance László Tamás VIZI 53 The Role of Civilisation and Cultural Studies in the Education System of the International Relations / International Studies Majors 2. Literature in the Age of Globalisation 59 Andrea BOGÁR 60 Feminist Adaptations of Shakespeare Shakespeare and Frightening Feminism Margit ERDÉLYI 68 Alterations of Values in Literature Gyöngyvér HERVAI SZABÓ 74 New Historicism and Poetics of Culture József KESERŰ 81 When the Face Speaks Krisztina KODÓ 86 Past within the Present? Cyberculture versus the Traditional Heritage Imre KURDI 92 Kodolányi House of Literature and Research Centre as a Scientific and Literature Project The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture 5

6 Contents Attila MÉSZÁROS 95 Literature in the Net Net Literature? Imre PERES 101 The Role of the Bible In Strengthening Literature and Culture 3. International and Interregional Connections in Europe 109 Andrea GLAVANOVICS 110 Magyar Magic, Hungary in Focus Gyula H. VARGA 120 The Linguistic Map of the EU Endre KISS 131 About Meso-Level Dimensions of Globalization Ilona KÓNYA 138 The Dutch-Hungarian Cultural Connections Edit LŐRINCZ BENCZE 143 Croatia s Cultural Policy Andrea SZÉKELY 157 The Cultural Situation of National Minorities of Neighbouring Countries Living in Hungary Gábor UJVÁRY 169 Foreign Sentinels of Hungarian Culture 4. Media in the Europe of Regions 189 Mónika ANDOK 190 News as a Text Type vs. Genre Alternation in the Age of Information Society Lajos Mihály DARAI 199 The Hungarian Principles of Programme Making and Broadcasting Supplement to the New Media Law 6 The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture

7 Sándor ALBERT Selye János University and the Training of Hungarian Intellectuals in the South of Slovakia F ollowing the Treaty of Trianon, Hungarian intellectuals in Slovakia figuratively were beheaded. They were deported or expelled from their native country. They were even deprived of their schools. According to a government edict in 1919, Elizabeth University in Pozsony was to be abolished. This was followed by the Academy of Law in Kassa in Another Academy of Law in Eperjes moved to Miskolc and the College of Mining and Forestry in Selmecbánya moved to Sopron. What is more, in 1928, the Ministry of Education in Prague forbade having Hungarian diplomas registered. After World War II, all public schools teaching in the Hungarian language were closed. Up to now we still suffer from the consequences of these orders. The proportion of people of Hungarian nationality in Slovakia having certificates of final examination in secondary schools and university diplomas is less than 50% out of the countrywide average. The higher unemployment and bigger poverty in regions inhabited by Hungarians in the south of Slovakia is the effect of this low level of education. In 1950 the Hungarian elementary and secondary schools were re-opened. However, in higher education we had to wait for more than 8 decades until the first independent institution educating in Hungarian Selye János University was established. On 23 rd October 2003 the Slovak Parliament accepted the draft bill for the foundation of the university and on 14th September 2004 the educational process started at Selye János University. At last we have got the chance to form the intellectual layer that should serve as supporting-pillars of our national community. The mission of Selye János University is to open a free scope for higher education in the Hungarian language in Slovakia hoping that more and more Hungarians living in this country will graduate from universities, increasing their educational level. Having a higher qualification means having equal opportunities in finding a job, decreases unemployment and brings an upswing in economy in the regions where there are Hungarians. In this way Selye János University wants to slow down the involuntary assimilation of Hungarians living in Slovakia. We have to keep in our minds that the world has started off towards a knowledge-based society, towards a society where the source The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture 7

8 of development and driving force is information. Being qualified or skilled in this society is going to mean power. High amounts of money and wealth will not have a decisive importance compared to knowledge. This is another reason why we need Selye János University, for this institution must become a regional academic centre. One more thing: this University has to care for the language, it has to study, refine and develop the Hungarian language. What do I mean? Let me cite Sándor Márai: People and country, still not a nation Language is the nation For language holds together the nation. Just with its mere existence Selye János University can support foreign capital import to our country. This helps expansion and economic growth to people living here. This means families can make their living in their homeland. During the past decades the surrounding countries together with Slovakia have given lots of qualified intellectuals to the mother country. This is good for Hungary but not for us. Hungarian speaking teachers, doctors and priests are also needed in the south of Slovakia if we want to survive. Having an intellectual layer of people speaking and feeling in Hungarian is essential. Thus for the Hungarians in Slovakia it is a matter of life and death to be a part of knowledge-based society. With all our strength we are determined to join the blood circulation of Slovak and European universities. The first year of our university was more or less about construction, however, we have organized a few domestic and international conferences, and we have published a few university lecture notes and other materials. We have organized the Selye Evenings and University Days. We took part in some home and international projects and we had a meaningful marketing activity. Thanks to these, in the school year 2005/2006 the number of students applying to our university doubled. In September there were more than a thousand students starting their studies at our university and after Királyhelmec we opened our classes in Losonc for external students. For now I cannot talk about considerable results in academic research but we already have graduates. On 18 th September twenty students of the Faculty of Reformed Theology received their diplomas and could start their job as pastors. However, the university is not finished! Developing the infrastructure, creating a fighting-fit staff, reaching considerable results in research, arranging post-graduate studies most probably will take years, even decades. To all these just as to fight wars only three things are needed: money, money and money. 8 The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture

9 The problem is that we have the least of this. In spite of this fact although, slower than expected our lecture rooms are being built and our library is growing. We like the fact that people in the south of Slovakia and also in the mother country are interested in our institution. There is a certain right for believing that Komárom as it was formulated by György Klapka will be Mecca for Hungarians. So it be. The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture 9

10 10 The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture

11 1. Education and Culture in a Multidimensional World The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture 11

12 Zsuzsanna FORRÓ 1. Education and Culture in a Multidimensional World The Development of Abilities in the School of the 21 st Century 1 The world is passing through a historically essential turning point, which is bringing basic changes. We live in an epoch that changes our studies, our ways of thinking, our communication, and our chances for success. Nowadays in our schools the emphasis is placed on the basic abilities instead of expanding learner cognition. We should reemphasize these things. It is an old recognition that by developing children s elemental skills, they have serious problems with intensifying their abilities. These problems are serious especially when they become general in the education, in our schools and kindergartens. Our world is changing quickly. We go through revolutionary changes with our children and our pupils. There are many children who need twice as much care for vital development as we give them. The schoolrooms are becoming rehabilitation centres. The teachers slowly lose their motivation by the change of their place in society. And what happened to the families? In the past fifteen years many families got defeated. Many of them lost their material and social stability. Others only lost their spiritual intellectual steadiness. They fight for their well-being. Our children live in a vibrating atmosphere, which though has a lack of inspiration. Schools are becoming the scenes, where we are fighting for the spiritual intellectual welfare, and the parents cannot be left out of it. In this world we individually have to face problems that differ with our age and our roles in our lives. They mean a challenge for every one of us. Because we have to match the high requirements in our whole lives, we have to study through a lifetime. We learn many things, we are being taught several things, and we gain experience. We hear on different forums that the school of today is too knowledge-centred and does only develop one s talent in a slight degree. In the pedagogical program of the school the development of ability plays a central position, which is the achievement of acquiring knowledge. On account of this, we do not pay extra attention to developing appropriate abilities and their expansion. In schools cognitive abilities and memory development come into prominence. They do not pay attention to non cognitive capacities, like communication or the ability of cooperative work. In 1986, researches of the Milan University (Viasalberghi) showed that the structure of intelligence had changed. The memory and attention were injured, but the searching-finding ease and 1 Translated by Szabolcs Dudás. 12 The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture

13 1. Education and Culture in a Multidimensional World creativity had grown. If we analyse the curriculum of education we see it builds on attention and memorization. Another research that was made in Salzburg had shown that the EQ, the imagination, and the power of conception of children who watch television (that can be entitled to call it an electric shepherd ) an average 25 hours a week is palling. The consulting rooms of speech therapists and remedial teachers are filled with small patients every day. In the 1970 s 4% of the children struggled from some speech defect. In the 1990 s this number increased to 25%. This scaring rate is surmounted by children who suffer from some perceptional disorder. An Austrian research has shown that the Austrian children read mostly cell phone messages, advertisements and billboard texts. Attention is dispersed by the influence of television, and children need a new motivational inducement every 5 minutes. This means that the education of schools does not keep this level of attention, which is essential for effective learning. For effective learning different cognitive abilities are essential which are defined by the vital maturity of the central nervous system in childhood. Within these abilities there are some which are inborn and some which we develop during our lives. Researchers are undoubtedly sure that 50% of our learning abilities develop within our first 4 years, and another 30% until the next 4 years. That does not mean our knowledge and our wisdom is developed until we become 8 years old. It only means that the nervous paths we need for learning are developed during these first years. A newborn baby has the 25% of the weight of an adult s brain. When 6 months old, s/he has the 50% of it and in 5 years of time s/he has the 90% of it. This fact proves that the education in children s life is crucial for the development of his/her abilities. That is why we need to pay extra attention to the education of the younger ones. Let s see some examples of what factors determine their abilities: 1. children s talent; 2. the social, material situation of the family, their way of bringing up their children, their values; 3. knowledge centurial educational system-lexical information; 4. if the children are restricted by their marks; 5. personalities of the teachers, their professional efficiency; 6. the motivational impact of the society on the children. The practice, experience, spiritual experience, spiritual impacts are essential for the development of their abilities. These abilities only develop by activities that are needed for the abilities. They learn to walk by walking, to talk by talking. That means, by these activities they experience them again, and that makes them proud of themselves. By praising the children, we make their self-confidence grow and they bravely try new things. That is how their separateness develops. Playing is a source of happiness for us. It makes us more creative. Playing is an important part of The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture 13

14 1. Education and Culture in a Multidimensional World our activities. A life without fun is too boring. The drama of our lives is easier with humour and fun. It also makes better children s school life. In those schools where they do not have fun, life is boring. Different games educate, teach, form communities and press us to be creative. If we want to stand on the ground in the world, we have to keep up with the technical innovations, we have to be capable of receiving new information. This means two qualities: adaptability and creativity. If someone thinks about new things but is not adaptable, he creates things nobody needs. That is true vice versa. A versatile person has both qualities. We can ask the question here: Are the schools at present able to assure time for games and exercising and with these things for development of abilities? Between the development of children there are individual differences, because the time of development changes. In the nervous progress of children and the development of ability there is disproportion (e.g. a 5-year-old child can use the computer, but cannot tie his shoes). Underachievement in school may be because of learning or efficiency abashment. Researchers show that every 10 th child suffers from some kind of this abashment. It was shown, that these children jumped over some steps, mostly in voluntary movement. Ayres claims that this development has certain stages that affect the development of the next stairs. The perfect functioning of lower structures (e.g. movement and cognition) affects the abilities of more complicated nervous actions, for example behaviour, or reading and writing. The partial abashment of an ability is demonstrable in different areas and the cause of one symptom can be found in more ability abashments. How can we improve, correct or anticipate these abashments? There are various methods to achieve this. There is another question that shows up, though: are the teachers prepared to solve this not so small problem? What possibilities do we have in education to solve them? Do the audiovisual inducements, drama in teaching, and these methods have future in education? The different stages of our lives differ in the inner material and chances of development of ability. From primary school on to high school the acquirable cognition grows on. Ranschburg claims that between the age of six and ten we get to know much about the child s chances in his/her life. There are small cheetahs among them, who run fast and achieve what they want, but there are also bears, who reach their goals slowly. The number of students in a class and time can help the teachers in their work. Having time to do and try things is important, because we cannot help in a too fast way. The schools does not have time to love their students, they only want to teach them. Only the performance is important. The brains of tomorrow are working in the brains of the present children. That is what people should keep in mind. Our duty is to keep an eye on our children, pay attention to them, listen to what they say and help them deal with their problems. They have to be happy and satisfied in the society they are building. 14 The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture

15 1. Education and Culture in a Multidimensional World Balázs KOTOSZ Websites of the Departments of Statistics in Hungarian Economic Higher Education Abstract Nowadays, the quickest and the widest medium is the Internet. For the participants of higher education this information channel is easily accessible. However, the content of the homepages is frequently incomplete and out-of-date. My survey during the summer holiday of 2005 was about the informative function of the homepages of the Departments of Statistics of various higher educations institutions in Hungary. Totally, 11 universities and 18 colleges have been investigated based on many aspects. The general picture is coloured, but slightly poor, in some cases, even the taught subjects are not accessible, the list of necessary books and other materials is missing almost everywhere. 1. Introduction The main aim of this survey was to discover the information content of the web pages of the Departments of Statistics (or departments teaching statistics) in economic higher education institutions in Hungary. The first part of the paper propounds the survey procession, the second part shows the characteristics of the colleges, then, in the third part, the university web pages are expounded, and finally I summarize the main findings in the light of the Bologna process, and build up an optimal web page content model on the base of my experiences. 2. The Survey First, the list of institutions covered has been made. The National Higher Education Entrance Office s (Országos Felsőoktatási Felvételi Iroda) list was the base to find all colleges and universities where some type of economic education is available. Totally, 18 colleges (General Business College Általános Vállalkozási Főiskola, Budapest Business School Budapesti Gazdasági Főiskola, Budapest Communication College Budapesti Kommunikációs Főiskola, Budapest Technical College Budapesti Műszaki Főiskola, Dunaújváros College Dunaújvárosi Főiskola, Eszterházy Károly College Eszterházy Károly Főiskola, Gábor Dénes College Gábor Dénes Főiskola, Heller Farkas College of Economic and Touristic Services Heller Farkas Gazdasági és Turisztikai The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture 15

16 1. Education and Culture in a Multidimensional World Szolgáltatások Főiskolája, Harsányi János College Harsányi János Főiskola, Kodolányi János College Kodolányi János Főiskola, Károly Róbert College Károly Róbert Főiskola, Modern Business Studies College Modern Üzleti Tudományok Főiskolája, International Business School Nemzetközi Üzleti Főiskola, Nyíregyháza College Nyíregyházi Főiskola, Szolnok College Szolnoki Főiskola, Tessedik Sámuel College Tessedik Sámuel Főiskola, King Zsigmond College Zsigmond Király Főiskola) and 11 universities (Corvinus University of Budapest Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem, Budapest University of Technology and Economics Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem, University of Debrecen Debreceni Egyetem, University of Kaposvár Kaposvári Egyetem, University of Miskolc Miskolci Egyetem, West-Pannon University Nyugat-Magyarországi Egyetem, University of Pécs Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Széchenyi István University Széchenyi István Egyetem, St. István University Szent István Egyetem, University of Szeged Szegedi Tudományegyetem, University of Veszprém Veszprémi Egyetem) have been found. The next step of the research was to find the adequate departments. If there is a department named in such a manner that its function is clear, the search is easy. Where there is not such a department, and the list of taught subjects of each department is not available, downloadable timetables can help in hunting for statistics education. In some institutions there exists a separate Department of Statistics, in others there is a Methodological Institute, in further ones the education of statistics is organized by special discipline groups, mainly in the framework of Business Economics Departments. In the detailed analysis, for the sake of simplicity, I will use the term lecturer or teacher for any professional level (assistant, lecturer, senior lecturer/associate professor, professor). The general overview of colleges and of universities can be found in a table format in the Appendix. Colleges At General Business College (Általános Vállalkozási Főiskola) there is a Department of Methodology, but the only information about this unit is the name of the Head of Department and his phone number. The Budapest Business School on all its three faculties has its own department structure (the integration of the three schools has been formal). Thereby, in the Faculty of Foreign Trade the so-called Institutional Department of Mathematics- Statistics is responsible for the teaching of statistics. The list of the subjects and a very general outline is available without any notice on literature, exams or lecturers. From the lecturer side the situation is better. The taught subjects, offices, and s are on the homepage. In the Faculty of Commerce, Catering, and Tourism of the Budapest Business School, the Institute of Methodology completes the task of statistics teaching. 16 The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture

17 1. Education and Culture in a Multidimensional World The subject descriptions are almost overall (not all staff is listed, only the teacher responsible for a subject), from our point of view, the only gap is the teachers CV. The Faculty of Finance and Accounting of the Budapest Business School has the best-accomplished home page of all institutions. The Department of Mathematics- Statistics gives all necessary information about the statistical subjects; the only missing point is the lecturers CV. The Budapest Communication College communicates its information in a very poor way. Even the department teaching statistics is not identifiable (the identification could be made only by the password protected Student Information System). The list of lecturers is the only useful public information. In the case of the Budapest Technical College (Keleti Károly Faculty of Business) the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences teaches statistics. The details are gloomed; the CV of the Head of Department (at the same time the President of the College) is available. In Dunaújváros, the obscurity is complete. The competent department cannot be found even by search engines, so there is not any identifiable information. Eszterházy Károly College offers statistics on its Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences. The joint department can be identified by the timetables, but the interested visitor cannot get any more information about the subject details. Gábor Dénes College has one of the best homepages, but it is not a surprise. In the Institute of Informatics Systems, the e-learning and distance learning programs are widespread, thereby all information about the subjects must be accessible (in some cases the whole store of learning can be downloaded). The Department of Business Sciences teaches statistics, in the downloadable prospectus all necessary information (including information about the lecturers) is included. The Heller Farkas College of Economic and Tourist Services keeps strictly its information about subjects and lecturers, all interesting data are password protected. At Harsányi János College, the Department of Mathematics-Informatics has the challenge of teaching statistics. The single handhold to get it known is the list of questions on the Methodological final exam, as this list is downloadable from the homepage of the department. Statistics teachers are unknown. At Kodolányi János College, there is a Department of Mathematics-Statistics. All requirements are half fulfilled, the website visitor can get information about the subjects and their exam conditions, but nothing about the main themes touched on and about the literature used. The list of lecturers with availability is available, but the connection between subjects and lecturers is back and forth unknown. On the Faculty of Business in Károly Róbert College, the homepage of the Department of Economic Mathematics is relatively rich in relevant information. Even if the staff and the subjects cannot be paired, the detailed program from 2002 is downloadable (the nature of statistics suggest that the main themes are inalterable). At the College of Modern Business Studies, teaching of statistics is organised by The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture 17

18 1. Education and Culture in a Multidimensional World the Department of Economic Sciences. On the website of the department, the list of subjects and lecturers is clear. A general outline of the subjects is available, but we do not know anything about the literature or the exam requirements. The lecturers teaching profile and their availability is on the web, with a short presentation of their past activities. The International Business School is the next guard of information on subjects and lecturers. The only recognizable point is the fact that statistics are taught. The Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences of the College of Nyíregyháza has found a strange structure to educate statistics. There is a Department of Economic Methodology, but the Department of Business Economics is responsible for statistics. Details about the subjects or lecturers are undiscoverable. At the Department of Mathematics-Statistics of the College of Szolnok the outline of statistics does not reach the level of the definition of statistics, all other data are obscure. Tomori Pál College is more enigmatic. The list of the departments and of the teachers can be seen on the homepage, but nothing more. On the Faculty of Business of Tessedik Sámuel College, the hunt for information about the education of statistics is not easy. By browsing the homepages of the departments, the list of taught subjects rests in secret. By the downloadable files of the Faculty, the Department of Business Economics (and not the Department of Economic Mathematics and Informatics) can be discovered as the base of statistics teaching. Unfortunately, outlines or exam requirements about statistics are not available. Last, but not least, Zsigmond Király College protects all the relevant information by a password. It is a pity; thereby we can only presume that the Department of Methodology and Informatics is the responsible unit. Universities The Corvinus University of Budapest has its separated Department of Statistics in the Faculty of Economics. The information about the actual subjects is rich, detailed outlines and syllabi can be downloaded. All seminars are paired to lecturers; the reverse relation is not available. Unfortunately, the visitor cannot know more about the teachers; to be informed about the contact details, the online telephone book of the university should be consulted. The Budapest University of Technology and Economics offers statistics by the Department of Industry Management and Business Economics. That department has a unit called Quality Management and Business Statistics Group that educates statistical subjects. We find a correct presentation of the subjects and have the contact information of the lecturers. The Faculty of Economics of the University of Debrecen has more specialization in Business and Economics, but there is no department teaching statistics on the faculty. 18 The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture

19 1. Education and Culture in a Multidimensional World Instead, the Department of Economic Analysis and Statistics of the Faculty of Rural Economics and Regional Development ensures this education for all the University. It suggests that the university integration is fulfilled in the field of statistics education. The website of the department has not too much information about the subjects, a little bit more about lecturers. The homepage of the Department of Accounting and Statistics on the Faculty of Economics at the University of Kaposvár is under construction. At the University of Miskolc the Department of Business Statistics and Forecasting has all necessary subject information on its website. From the other side, only the list of the lecturers is transparent. The Institute of Economic Mathematics, Economic Informatics and Statistics of the West-Pannon University would be one of the best homepages of the country if the links were not blind. Theoretically, subjects have a link to their descriptions, but all of them point to not found. Thereby the detailed subject outlines, just like teachers contact and other information rest unknown. The University of Pécs has its specialized Department of Demography and Statistics. The content of the webpage is the contrary of that of the University of Miskolc, the information about lecturers is fairly large, but the visitor cannot find anything about the subjects. At the Faculty of Law and Economics at Széchenyi István University (Győr) statistics is taught in the framework of the Department of Statistics. The homepage is deficient, the list of subjects and lecturers is available, but for the details of lecturers, there are blind links. The St. István University (Gödöllő) is just like the University of Kaposvár. There is an Institute of Economic Analysis and Methodology in the Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, but its website is under construction. In Szeged, the Faculty of Economics has a joint Department of Statistics and Demography with the Faculty of Law. All accessible reference is the availability of the lecturers. The Faculty of Economics of the University of Veszprém educates statistics by the Department of Applied Business Economics. The subject outlines from the school year 2003/04 and some downloadable (but otherwise copyright-protected) formula booklet are on the website. There is a list of the lecturers, but as the department is responsible for a series of subjects in the field of Business and Media Economics, the exact statistics lecturers cannot be identified. The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture 19

20 1. Education and Culture in a Multidimensional World 3. Summary and Proposals Ty p o l o g y The visitors of the homepages of the analysed departments face five types of websites. There are two strategies for not giving any information, the under construction way, and the more sophisticated one, when the website seems to be ready without any substantial information. The intermediate strategy results in ad hoc homepages with enough information for the identification, but with mixed content. The well-planned, content-based homepages can be clustered into three groups. Subject-based homepages have all necessary data about the taught subjects, but do not have relevant links to the staff details (CV, availability, etc.). Person-based homepages are constructed by the trace of the staff description, and subjects are linked to lecturers. It is not sure that these two types show the vision of the department (e.g. the content of the subjects is the most important point or the education is based on staff members disposition) or they are the result of the webmaster s general view. It has to be mentioned that some faculties apply the same design for all departments, in these cases the perspective of the Dean s Office is dominant. The third type of the content-based websites is the so-called intent on totality. This rare type tries to show both sides of the education, subjects and lecturers, as well. The full conception determines the duplication of some information (e.g. the links between subjects and lecturers), but helps the visitor to guide him/herself in the structure of the department. In summary, the six types of the homepages (in parentheses the frequencies): under construction (2) not identifiable/password protected (7) ad hoc (9) subject-based (7) person-based (2) intent on totality (4) At this point, I would like to accentuate some numerical facts. In the colleges, the most widespread information is the teachers availability (available on the 55% of the websites), followed by the subject list (45%). At the universities, the most popular news is the subject lists (64%), followed by the links from subjects to lecturers (45%). The poorest picture is shown by the CVs (10% in colleges and 9% at universities). The general outline of statistical subjects is in the midfield with its 35% (colleges) and 36% (universities). By the empirical experiences an optimal web page of a Department of Statistics 20 The Europe of Regions: Literature, Media, Culture

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