Innovation and new land monitoring services for climate change, forests and agroforestry

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1 Innovation and new land monitoring services for climate change, forests and agroforestry Martin Herold Wageningen University Center for Geoinformation

2 Current distribution of aboveground biomass

3 Terrestrial carbon lost through human activities

4 Key driving forces for land remote sensing United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): Reduce uncertainties in monitoring the global climate system through observing essential climate variables (ECV) Capacity building for stronger role of developing countries in post 2012 agreement Reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) Provide societal benefits through evolving land observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Long term European effort to deliver Earth Observation services Scientific developments and technological progress

5 Country capacities for forest carbon monitoring (REDD) Capacity gap Capacity gap: Consideration of factors: 1.Requirements for monitoring forest carbon on national level (IPCC GPG) 2.Existing national capacities for national forest monitoring 3.Progress in national GHG inventory and engagement in REDD 4.REDD particular characteristics: importance of forest fires, soil carbon, deforestation rate etc. 5.Specific technical challenges (remote sensing): cloud cover, seasonality, topography, remote sensing data availability and access procedures Source: Herold, 2009

6 Reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD) Stronger role for developing countries in post Kyoto agreement Compensation for stabilizing forest carbon reservoir Need for monitoring, reporting and verification Remote sensing as unique data source to track forest change Shift to more climate friendly land use systems: Evolving compensation schemes Links with bio energy, food production, biodiversity and other functions Pilot implementation has started (Norway, Worldbank, UN REDD) Frontier interdisciplinary research: Low carbon development strategies in land sector Land use policy, forest monitoring, carbon accounting, governance, economics, biodiversity

7 National level examples Annual deforestation rates estimated for the Brazilian Amazon Deforestion sqkm/yr Brazil /88 * 88/89 89/90 90/91 91/92 92/94 ** 94/95 95/96 96/97 97/98 98/99 99/00 00/01 "01/02" "02/03" "03/04" "04/05" Year India Forest assessments completed by the Forest Service of India

8 Landsat 30 Years of Earth Observations Landsat-1 (ERTS) Landsat-2 Landsat-3 Landsat-4 Landsat-5 MSS (79 m, 4 band) TM (30/120 m, 7 band) ETM+ (15/30/60 m, 8 band) LDCM Sensor (15/30/90 m, 9 band Landsat-6 Landsat-7 LDCM Commercial operations Government operations Page 8

9 NASA/USGS Landsat-7 Global Acquisitions The first truly global archive

10 A Potential Real Prototype Land Surface Imaging Constellation TERRA LANDSAT IRS RESOURCESAT ALOS SAC-C SPOT CBERS

11 Open access data policy: a qualified success 1 million images ( ) 1 million images (Jan-Aug-2009) CBERS image of Manaus LANDSAT image of Guiné-Bissau GMES Data will be open access (Sep 2009) Sentinel-2

12 Some technical challenges for remote sensing Mean annual cloud cover Country coverage of Landsat 5 receiving stations Percent Variability in cloud cover (%) Seasonality Mean annual cloud free country coverage with SPOT data Topography Average internet download speed Area with steep slopes (%) Source: Herold,

13 European EO Heritage Poseidon-1 Jason-1 WSOA / OSTM Jason-2 CryoSat ALT OCEAN ERS- 1/2 RA-1 SAR, ATSR RA-2 ASAR GOMOS, MIPAS, SCIA Radarsat SAR GMES S-1 SPOT SCAT GOME MERIS AATSR Vegetation VIRI GMES S-3 LANDSAT, AIRBORNE LAND SUPER GMES S-2 ATMOS-GEO GMES S-4 ATMOS-LEO GMES S-5 METOP 13

14 GLOBCOVER (2005/6)

15 Observing land cover as ECV s 1. Building upon coordinated observations 2. Standardized and integrated mapping 3. Independent accuracy assessment 4. Synergy among datasets and different ECV products 5. User engagement Herold et al., 2009

16 Percent gross forest cover loss per 20x20 km sample block Hansen et al., 2010

17 Global active fire observations

18 FAO FRA 2010 remote sensing survey ~ 13,500 monitoring sites

19 Overview of available approaches for estimating carbon stocks Source: Alessandro Baccini Woods Hole Research Center

20 Terrestrial LIDAR for remote sensing Credit: H. Bartolomaeus WU/CGI

21 Individual Tree RGB Height Reflectance Woody biomass Foliage 3D Model

22 Remarks Issues on forest/land use and climate high up on the political agenda and land monitoring community Common information and observations (and gaps): Global efforts, databases and assessments National: monitoring and reporting systems REDD+ (Monitoring, Reporting and Verification) Availability of earth observing data global, historically and for the future (a significant amount for free) Key information on land cover, use, change and dynamics, fire, biophysical variables (incl. biomass) Role of remote sensing as part of integrated observation system and for verification purposes

23 GOFC-GOLD REDD Sourcebook A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals caused by deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation Latest version published for COP15 in Copenhagen

24 Web resources GOFC-GOLD: GOLD: GOFC-GOLD GOLD REDD sourcebook: IPCC background paper on use of remote sensing in LULUCF sector (GOFC-GOLD GOLD 33): UNFCCC/SBSTA technical paper on costs of monitoring for REDD

25 Gross versus net emission impacts Kurz et al., 2010

Technical paper. Summary

Technical paper. Summary UNITED NATIONS Distr. GENERAL FCCC/TP/2009/1 31 May 2009 ENGLISH ONLY Cost of implementing methodologies and monitoring systems relating to estimates of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation,

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