ENVIRONMENTALLY-SOUND ADAPTABLE TILLAGE

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1 Márta Birkás ENVIRONMENTALLY-SOUND ADAPTABLE TILLAGE A AKADÉMIAI KIADÓ, BUDAPEST

2 This book is published with the financial assistance of Agroszen Kft. Albert Agro Egyéni Cég Hungarian Branch of ISTRO IKR Termelésfejlesztési és Kereskedelmi Zrt. Kverneland Group Hungária Kft. Mezôhegyesi Ménesbirtok Zrt. Mezôhír Média Kft. Mikó & Mikó Kft. Szilas Farm Kft. Tótkomlósi Agrár Zrt. Väderstad Kft. Varga Farm Kft. Vertikum Kft. Co-authors: András Szemôk Chapters 2.4, 5 Gábor Antos Chapter 3.1 Miklós Neményi Chapter 3.2 Readers of the Hungarian edition: Géza Búvár Széchenyi Award laureate CEO Péter Pepó DSc László Bottlik PhD student Readers of the English edition: Zoltán Gyôri DSc Márton Jolánkai DSc Translated by Balázs Breznay ISBN M. Birkás, 2008 Akadémiai Kiadó, 2008 Published by Akadémiai Kiadó Member of Wolters Kluwer Group P.O.Box 245, H-1519 Budapest, Hungary All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, or transmitted, or translated into machine language without the written permission of the publisher. Printed in Hungary

3 Contents Dedication to the English edition (György Várallyay) Dedication to the Hungarian edition (Géza Búvár) Preface (Márta Birkás) Soil condition assessment Good and bad soil condition Soil tillage deficiencies Causes, consequences, and alleviation Defect difference from specifications and/or requirements Soil compaction Tillage-induced soil compaction Traffic-induced soil compaction Some practical aspects of factors affecting soil compaction Clod and dust formation on soils Soil moisture loss Organic matter loss Dead furrows and open furrows Expedient methods for assessing soil condition Soil layer probe Spade probe Soil profile assessment Soil condition assessment according to M. BIRKÁS et al Penetration resistance measurement Assessment of soil workability (according to M. BIRKÁS) Checking the effectiveness of loosening Assessment of the soil structure by dry sieve analysis Description of biological soil condition in terms of earthworm activity Aims of soil tillage traditions and new directions Aims of soil tillage Development of tillage in the Pannonian region Effects of conventional tillage on soil condition Features of conventional tillage The impacts of conventional tillage on soil and environment Phases in a conventional tillage system (Márta Birkás András Szemôk) Stubble tillage Primary tillage Surface preparation after primary tillage Seedbed preparation Surface forming after sowing

4 3. Tillage energy requirement and soil damage Technical and operational factors (Gábor Antos) The tractor Soil conserving running gears reduced traffic-induced soil damage 72 Other options for reducing traffic-induced soil damage Working speed Energetic harmonisation between tractor and tillage tools The weight of the tillage implement The working width of the farming implement The state and shape of the tilling elements The suitability of a tillage implement for a given task Tillage aspects of precision agriculture (Miklós Neményi) Site-specific precision cropping Relationships between soil compaction and yields Effects of site factors how to reduce damage Slope field The size of the field The soil clay content and its texture The effects of soil moisture Advice on tillage and sowing in wet soil Mitigation of tillage-induced waterlogging damage Over-dried soil alleviation of drought damage Advice for dry seasons and for dry soils From stubble to seedbed Soil affected by traffic and compacted in the tillage layer Cropping losses on compacted soils Amount of stubble residues Weed-infested arable land The state of the soil, fertilisation and precipitation The influence of biological factors (Márta Birkás András Szemôk) Regulating the soil biological activity Preserving soil structure and organic material Stimulating earthworm activity in the soil Soil coverage Growing soil loosening plants and catch crops Improving the biological impacts of the cropping sequence Reasonably applied methods for letting the soil rest Adaptable, environmentally-focused tillage Energy saving tillage minimising the number of tillage passes Classical authors endeavours Minimising tillage in accordance with the soil condition Analysis of multiple-pass and reduced tillage systems Soil condition improvement and maintenance Improving the soil state by tillage

5 Alleviating and remedying soil compaction Issues relating to loosening the soil Loosening interventions produce clods and are highly energy-intensive Alleviating soil pulverisation, improving the soil structure Periodical deep tillage Environmentally-focused soil tillage Environmental impacts of tillage in the case of different soil moisture levels Assessment of the environmentally-focused requirements Preventing and remedying environmental damage by tillage Practical applicability of environment conserving and energy saving tillage Rationalising tillage systems based on ploughing Advantages and risks of ploughing Ploughing defects Good ploughing Rationalising tillage systems based on ploughing Rationalising ploughless tillage systems Tillage systems based on mid-deep loosening The benefits of applying the technique of mid-deep loosening and things to be taken into consideration Tillage systems based on mid-deep loosening Tillage with cultivator The benefits of applying tillage based on the cultivator and things to be taken into consideration Things to be taken into consideration when using a cultivator Tillage systems based on the use of cultivators Disk tillage The benefits of disk tilling and the things to be taken into consideration The benefits and risks of disking as a primary tillage technique Tillage system relying on the use of the disk Rotary tilling Tillage systems based on the rotavator Sowing methods Sowing methods Conventional mode of sowing Combined seedbed preparation and sowing Till and plant in a single pass Ridge tillage and plant Direct drilling Applicability of different sowing methods in dry and in wet soils The applicability of sowing methods in dry soils The applicability of sowing methods in wet soils The environmental impacts of the various sowing methods

6 Seedbed preparation and sowing in one pass Tillage and plant in a single pass Ridge tillage and plant Direct drilling Environmental impacts of direct drilling Environment conservation adaptable land use A description of land use systems Land use and cropping Adaptable tillage and land use Tillage adapted to modern intensive land use Tillage adapted to modern low intensity land use Tillage adapted to integrated land use Tillage adapted to ecological land use Lessons drawn from the history of tillage Ploughing Loosening the soil Deep grubbing with the aid of animal draught power Subsoil grubbing and loosening with the aid of mechanical power ( ) Views taken of the necessity of crumbling deeper layers, between 1880 and Views taken of loosening the soil, in the 1950s and 1960s Soil loosening during the years of energy-saving tillage ( ) Improving the soil condition with the aid of mid-deep loosening implements combined with surface forming elements Loosening, surface levelling and planting in one pass Tillage based on the use of the cultivator Cultivators in tillage systems between the 1860s and the 1930s Assessment and treatment of cultivators in technical literature Cultivators in tillage demonstrations Disk tillage The impact of the Campbell boom on the spreading of the disk Experience, lessons and warnings from the first decades of the use of the disk Disking as one of the energy-saving tillage methods Rotavating and other special techniques Special tillage machines Károly KÔSZEGI s power tiller Tillage and sowing in one pass Direct drilling Direct drilling in the Pannonian region References Authors of the book

7 Dedication to the English edition The most important criteria of the quality of human life include the availability of healthy and high quality food, clean water and a pleasant environment. All three are closely related to rational land use and sustainable soil management. A multifunctional part of the environment, soil is a conditionally renewable natural resource; the most important medium for multipurpose biomass production; the integrator and reactor of other natural resources; a natural repository of water, heat and plant nutrients; a substance with a huge buffering and detoxicating capacity for natural and humaninduced stresses; a habitat for soil-dependent organisms; a factor of biodiversity. Soil resources may be used and conserved at the same time, but the preconditions of soil resilience must be ensured: constant attention and special care are needed to preserve the unique ability of soil resources. Tillage is an important part of these land use and soil care actions. The necessity of tillage has never been questioned in history. Its desirable functions, rational technologies, however, have changed considerably from time to time. Even now these differ greatly, and there are many theoretical responses to this evergreen question. As the natural conditions (climate, relief, and hydrological and soil conditions), land use practices and traditions change slowly and the development of technology is so variable, it is only natural that there are so many forms of soil management, including tillage operations. The problem is that some people try to generalise or even standardise certain technologies, which have proved optimal under optimal conditions, and spread them to areas with entirely different natural, economic, technical and social conditions. The priority among the various functions of soil tillage (loosening, mixing, water conservation, creating an optimum environment for various crops during the whole vegetation season from sowing to harvest, weed control, etc.) are greatly dependent on the natural conditions, the importance of agricultural (especially food) production, the level and efficiency of the technology that is used, and the costs of energy and other inputs. The sustainability concept should be kept in mind: creating good living conditions for the present generation, but ensuring a chance for further generations to do the same. The present book was written with this sustainability concept in mind, as is clearly expressed by the title: Environmentally-sound adaptable tillage. Prof. Birkás and the other authors provide a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of up-to-date soil tillage and offer guidance to practical land users, decision makers, scientists, teachers, students and all readers interested in sustainable soil management and rational, site-specific tillage operations. What are the main dedication arguments? 9

8 Logical structure. The book begins with the natural (especially soil and site) conditions, gives a historical analysis of the priority tasks of soil tillage, and evaluates benefits as well as advantages and disadvantages up to the scientifically based practical recommendations for environment-friendly tillage technologies. Definitions, even for occasionally controversial and questionable terms, such as reduced or energy-saving tillage, environment capable soil tillage, bad ploughing and beneficial ploughing. Detailed analysis of various tillage operations, touching on their potential positive and negative impact on crops; soil, especially soil structure, moisture regime, organic matter and biotic activities; plant residue management; and weed and pest control. Easily readable and readily intelligible text; many new Hungarian and international scientific results and their clear and correct interpretation; convincing arguments. Properly selected and documented material (expressive tables and figures). Natural conditions in the region are relatively and generally favourable for rain-fed biomass production. These conditions, however, show very high spatial variability, often are irregular and not very predictable. Under such circumstances it is an important fact that soil is the largest potential natural water reservoir. This water storage potential, however, often is not (or only partly) used because of limited infiltration and water retention. Soil tillage, therefore, can be effective in preventing and moderating these limitations, facilitating infiltration and increasing the available moisture range. Which is the best water conservation tillage system: deep loosening? good ploughing? reduced tillage with rational plant residue management? These questions remain unanswered because there are no universally applicable answers. The answers are, to a great degree, site-specific. This book also addresses water-conservation issues. The Hungarian version of the book has become a real bestseller among a great number of agronomists, soil scientists, agricultural engineers and economists. It has proved to be a popular guideline for teachers and students. The extended English version is also expected to be a bestseller for a wider range of readers, especially in the Central European region. At the same time, it serves as a good example for those people waging war against over-generalization! Read it, and use it! Prof. Dr. György VÁRALLYAY Member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Széchenyi Prize laureate Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (RISSAC) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 10

9 Dedication to the Hungarian edition This book is a follow-up on the volume entitled Környezetkímélô Energiatakarékos Talajmûvelés (Environment Conservation and Energy Saving Tillage) published in In this sense, it is not without a forerunner, yet it is a gap-filling book which is highly worthy of studying or just browsing through. Environment has come to be a critical issue. This volume reviews this theme from a variety of angles, in a level headed way, taking a professional approach, proving that soil conservation, meeting crops requirements, energy saving and cost efficiency are not mutually exclusive expectations, indeed, they reinforce one another in good tillage. In other words, what is good for the soil, will also benefit crops and will be the economically most efficient on the whole. When feasible scientific results and related instruments are discussed, the practical issue to be faced is that tillage solutions, techniques and means have both favourable and adverse impacts at the same time. One of the outstanding merits of this piece of work is that it contains recommendations on how to apply different techniques and instruments in a way as will enhance their benefits while ensuring that their drawbacks do not lead to degrading our soils. Nádudvar, June, 2006 Géza BÚVÁR Széchenyi Award laureate CEO 11

10 Preface A good farmer is known for: a) sound reason b) diligence c) orderliness d) thrift and e) sparing (resources) János NAGYVÁTHY, 1821 Environmentally-sound adaptable tillage is recommended to colleagues teaching at universities and to professionals helping farmers improve their cropping practices in the Pannonian region by giving advice or providing extension services. We present findings from our research on the pages of this volume, and the References section provides a complete list of the concerned literature. We hope that this volume will be of interest for scientists who put their findings and results to the test in practice, as well as for other researchers in general. Undergraduate, graduate and PhD students alike may also find this a useful piece of work. We put this book together with a view to farmers, and other readers in Central European countries and elsewhere may also find useful information and practical solutions in this volume. Those engaged in manufacturing or selling tillage implements will find detailed information on the strengths and weaknesses of their products. Adaptable tillage means improving the quality of the soil, conserving its values in line with site, mechanisation and farming conditions. The chapters present the causes and the consequences of soil defects, as well as technical and site factors affecting damage caused to the soil and the energy intensity of tillage. Ideas are offered for assessing the soil condition. Tillage practices entailing moisture and carbon losses have no future under extreme climate conditions. A number of tillage and sowing methods and practical tricks that are worth trying and introducing are described on the pages of this book to help mitigating climate damage. Cultivating the soil and maintaining a well-kept agricultural landscape are a common goal for farmers, for those educating and training farmers as well as for nations, an objective that requires and, indeed, deserves daily attention and care. Gödöllô, March, 2008 Márta BIRKÁS 13

11 References ANTOS, G Recommendations for tillage and sowing machine investment (Talajmûvelô és vetôgépek beszerzésének szempontjai). In: Földmûvelés és földhasználat (Ed. BIRKÁS, M.) (In Hungarian). Mezôgazda Kiadó, Budapest, pp ARVIDSSON, J. TRAUTNER, A, Van den AKKER, J. J. H Subsoil compaction Risk assessment and economic consequences. Advances in GeoEcology 32, Catena Verlag, Reiskirchen, Germany, pp BADALÍKOVÁ, B., HRUBY J Influence of minimum soil tillage on development of soil structure. In: Soil Management for Sustainability, Advances in GeoEcology 38: BADALÍKOVÁ, B., HRUBY J Influence of minimum soil tillage on development of soil structure. Proc. of ISTRO 17th Conference on Soil Management for Sustainability. Aug 28th Sept 3rd, 2006, Christian Albrechts Univ. zu Kiel, Germany ISBN CD (Eds. VOGT. B. et al.), pp BALASSA, I History of the plough and the ploughing in Hungary (Az eke és a szántás története Magyarországon) (In Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. BALÁZS, J. et al Experiences in catch crop growth in Sweden (A tápanyagvisszatartó növények alkalmazásának tapasztalatai Svédországban) (In Hungarian). Manuscript, Keszthely. BÁNHÁZI, J., FÜLÖP, G Methods of energy saving tillage (Energiatakarékos talajmûvelési módszerek) (In Hungarian). Mezôgazdasági Kiadó, Budapest. BARTALOS, T., LAL, R., NÉMETH, T Conservation tillage for sustaining soil and water quality. Akaprint, Budapest. BASIC, F Land degradation in Croatia. In: Land degradation (Eds. JONES, R. J. A., MON- TANARELLA, L.), EC JRC, pp BASIC, F., BOGUNOVIC, M., BOZIC, M., HUSNJAK, S., JURIC, I., KISIC, I., MESIC, M., MIROSEVIC, N., ROMIC, D., ZUGEC, I Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 72, 1: BATEY, T Direct field assessment of soil physical conditions. Proc. of ISTRO 16th Conference on Soil Management for Sustainability, July 2003, Brisbane, Australia, CD ISBN , (Ed. Hoogmoed, W.), pp BAVEC, M., BAVEC, F Development of sustainable agriculture based on integrated and organic guidelines and terminological barriers (the case of Slovenia). Proc. of 42nd and 2nd Internat. Symposium on Agriculture, 13 16, Febr., 2007, Opatija (Ed. Pospisil, M.) pp BEKE, D., KISMÁNYOKY, T., SCHMIDT, R., SZAKÁL, P Yield and soil condition studies in organic fertilisation experiments. Cereal Res. Comm. 34, 1: BENCSIK, K., UJJ, A., STINGLI, A., PERCZE, A Determining various soil tillage and nutrient loss in soil protection methodology. Cereal Res. Comm., 34, 1: BENNIE, A. T. P., Van ANTWERPEN, R An evaluation of empirical root growth models to describe root distribution in compacted sandy soils. Proc. of 11th Conf. of ISTRO, July 1988, Edinburgh, 1. pp

12 BIELEK, P Code of Good Agricultural Practice in Slovakian Republic. Soil Protection. Ministry of Slovakian Republic, 54 pp. BIELEK, P. et al New assessment of agricultural soils in Slovakia. (In Slovakian). VÚPOP, 30 pp. BIELEK, P Soils and soil degradation in the Slovak Republic. In: Land degradation (Eds. JONES, R. J. A., MONTANARELLA, L.), EC JRC, pp BIRKÁS M Soil compaction situation in Hungary; Consequences and possibilities of the alleviation (A talajtömörödés helyzete Magyarországon; Következményei és enyhítésének lehetôségei) (In Hungarian). DSc Dissertation, Gödöllô. BIRKÁS M. (Ed.) Soil Tillage in Sustainable Farming (Talajmûvelés a fenntartható gazdálkodásban) (In Hungarian, with English summaries). Akaprint Kiadó, Budapest, 294 pp. BIRKÁS M. (Ed.) Soil Management and Land Use (Földmûvelés és földhasználat) (In Hungarian). Mezôgazda Kiadó, Budapest, 413 pp. BIRKÁS M., ANTAL, J., DOROGI, I Conventional and reduced tillage in Hungary A review. Soil & Tillage Research, 13, 3: BIRKÁS M., GYURICZA, CS., PERCZE, A., SZALAI, T Experiments with ridge tillage for maize in a brown forest soil (Kísérletek a kukorica bakhátas termesztésével barna erdôtalajon) (In Hungarian). Növénytermelés, 47, 5: BIRKÁS M., ANTOS, G., CSÍK, L., SZEMÔK, A Environment Conservation Energy Saving tillage (Környezetkímélô, energiatakarékos talajmûvelés) (In Hungarian, with English summaries). Akaprint Kiadó, Budapest, 345 pp. BIRKÁS M., SZALAI, T., GYURICZA, C., GECSE, M., BORDÁS, K Effects of the disk tillage on soil condition, crop yield and weed infestation. Rostlinná Vyroba, 48, 1: BIRKÁS M., GYURICZA Cs. (Eds.) Land Use Tillage effects Soil moisture (Talajhasználat-Mûveléshatás-Talajnedvesség) (In Hungarian). Quality Press Kiadó, Budapest, 177 pp. BIRKÁS M., JOLÁNKAI, M., GYURICZA, C., PERCZE, A Tillage effects on compaction, earthworms and other soil quality indicators in Hungary. Soil & Tillage Research, 78, 2: BIRKÁS M., BENCSIK, K., STINGLI, A., PERCZE, A Correlation between moisture and organic matter conservation in soil tillage. Cereal Res. Commun., 33, 1: BIRKÁS M., CSÍK, L Quality assurance in crop production (A növénytermesztés minôségbiztosítása). In: Növénytermesztéstan 1. (Ed. ANTAL, J.) (In Hungarian). Mezôgazda Kiadó, Budapest, pp BIRKÁS M., DEXTER, A. R., KALMÁR, T. BOTTLIK, L Soil quality soil condition production stability. Cereal Research Comm. 34, 1: 135,138. BIRKÁS M., ANTOS, G., NEMÉNYI, M., SZEMÔK, A Environment Conservation Adaptable Tillage (Környezetkímélô alkalmazkodó talajmûvelés) (In Hungarian). Akaprint Kiadó Budapest, 367 pp. BIRKÁS M., KALMÁR T., BOTTLIK L., TAKÁCS T Importance of soil quality in environment protection. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, Zagreb, 71, 1: BIRKÁS M., KALMÁR, T., FENYVESI, L., FÖLDESI, P Realities and beliefs in sustainable soil tillage. Cereal Research Comm., 35, 2: BLASKÓ, L A talajjavítás szerepe a környezet és tájvédelemben (Role of land improvement in environment and landscape conservation). In: Földmûvelés és földhasználat (Ed. BIRKÁS, M.) (In Hungarian). Mezôgazda Kiadó, Budapest, pp BLUM, W. E. H Soil quality indicators based on soil functions. In: RUBIO, J. L. MORGAN, R. P. C. et al. (Eds.) Man and Soil at the third Millennium, I. Geoforma Edic. Logrono, Spain, pp BLUM, W. E. H Soil and international conventions. Soils under Global Change A Challenge for the 21st Century. (Eds. CANARACHE, A., De la ROSA, D. et al.) Editura Estfalia, Bucuresti, pp

13 BONDAREV, A. G Soil and subsoil compaction as the most important factor of physical degradation of soils in Russia. Proc. of 2nd Workshop and Internat. Conf. on Subsoil Compaction, May, 2000, Gödöllô (Eds. BIRKÁS, M., GYURICZA, C. et al.), pp BUTORAC, A Conservation Tillage in Eastern Europe. In: Conservation Tillage in Temperate Agroecosystems (Ed. CARTER, M. R.) Lewis Publ. CRC Press Boca Raton, FLO, USA. pp CANARACHE, A Romanian experience with land classification related to soil tillage. Soil & Tillage Research, 10: CANARACHE, A Factors and indices regarding excessive compactness of agricultural soils. Soil & Tillage Research, 19: CANARACHE, A Possible methodology for estimation of soil limiting factors and degradation processes in Romania. In: Soils under Global Change A Challenge for the 21st Century. (Eds. CANARACHE, A., De la ROSA, D., et al.) Editura Estfalia, Bucuresti, pp CHAMEN, W. T. C., SPOOR, G Subsoil compaction in England and Wales. In: Experiences with the impact and prevention of subsoil compaction in Europe (Eds. Van den AKKER, J. J. H., ARVIDSSON, J., HORN, R.) DLO-Staring Centre, Wageningen, pp CHAMEN, T Controlled traffic farming Its history, global context and future prospects. Proc. of ISTRO 16th Conference on Soil Management for Sustainability, July 2003, Brisbane, Australia, CD ISBN , (Ed. HOOGMOED, W.), pp CHAMEN, W. C. T Controlled traffic farming on a field scale in the UK. Proc. of ISTRO 17th Conference on Soil management for Sustainability. Aug 28th Sept 3rd, 2006, Christian Albrechts Universität zu Kiel, Germany ISBN CD (Eds. Vogt. B. et al.), pp CZYZ, E Effects of management practices on soil physical quality. Proc. of ISTRO 17th Conference on Soil Management for Sustainability. Aug 28th Sept 3rd, 2006, Christian Albrechts Univ. zu Kiel, Germany ISBN CD (Eds. Vogt. B. et al.), pp DARÓCZI, S Instrument for soil compaction measuring (Talajtömörség-mérô mûszer). (In Hungarian). Manuscript, Szarvas, 4 pp. DARÓCZI, S Use of FIELD SCOUT TDR 300 (A TDR 300 nedvesség-mérô mûszer) (In Hungarian). Manuscript, Szarvas, 8 pp. DEMO, M., BIELEK, P. et al Regulačné technológie (Regulation technology). SPU, v Nitre. DEMO, M., HRICOVSKY, I. et al Trvalo udržatel né technológie v záhradníctve (Sustainable technologies in gardening). SPU, v Nitre. DESBIOLLES, J., KLEEMANN, S Seeding system factors influence no-till coring results. Proc. of ISTRO 16th Conference on Soil Management for Sustainability, July, 2003, Brisbane, Australia, CD ISBN , (Ed. HOOGMOED, W.), pp DEXTER, A. R., BIRKÁS, M Prediction of the soil structures produced by tillage Soil & Tillage Research, 79, 2: DUMITRU, E., CANARACHE, A., DUMITRU, S Research on soil compaction on arable land in Romania. A review. Proc. of 2nd Workshop and Internat. Conf. on Subsoil Compaction, May, 2000, Gödöllô (Eds. BIRKÁS, M., GYURICZA, C. et al.) pp DUMITRU, M., CIOBANU, C., MANEA, A., CARSTEA, ST Land and land quality monitoring in Romania. Soils under Global Change A Challenge for the 21st Century. (Eds. Canarache, A., De la Rosa, D., et al.) Editura Estfalia, Bucuresti, pp DUMITRU, E., NICOLAESCU, M., ENACHE, R., CALCIU, I., BULICA, I The influence of reduced tillage on soil and crop yield in Romania. Case study on Vermic Chernozem located at S-E Romania. Supplement of 2nd Workshop and Internat. Conf. on Subsoil Compaction, May, 2000, Gödöllô (Eds. BIRKÁS, M., GYURICZA, C. et al.), pp ECAF Conservation Agriculture in Europe: Environmental, economic and EU policy perspectives. European Conservation Agricultural Federation, Brussels. 343

14 FRIEDRICH, T Engineering for conservation agriculture Trends, concepts and challenges in a global perspective. Proc. of ISTRO 16th Conference on Soil Management for Sustainability, July 2003, Brisbane, Australia, CD ISBN , (Ed. HOOGMOED, W.), pp FULAJTAR, E Values of soil physical characteristics for identification of compacted soils. Report for subsoil compaction research. Proc. of 2nd Workshop and Internat. Conf. on Subsoil Compaction, May, 2000, Gödöllô (Eds. BIRKÁS, M., GYURICZA, C. et al.) pp FÜLEKY, GY. (Ed.) Nutrient management (Tápanyag-gazdálkodás) (In Hungarian). Mezôgazda Kiadó, Budapest. GYÔRFFY, B Effects of organic and inorganic fertiliser use in long-term experiments at Martonvásár In: Soil, plant and environment relationships (Ed. NAGY, J.), Agr. Univ. Debrecen, pp GYURICZA, CS Evaluation of some physical and biological effects in sustainable and conventional tillage (Az értékôrzô és hagyományos talajmûvelés egyes fizikai és biológiai hatásainak értékelése) (In Hungarian). PhD Dissertation, Gödöllô. GYURICZA, C., MIKÓ, P., FÖLDESI, P., UJJ A., KALMÁR, T Investigation of green manuring plants as secondary crop improving unfavourable field conditions to efficient food production. Cereal Res. Comm., 34, 1: HAKANSSON, I A method for characterizing the state of compactness of the plough layer. Soil & Tillage Res. 16: HAKANSSON, I Machinery-induced compaction of arable soils. Incidence consequences counter-measures. Reports from the Div. of Soil Management. SLU, Uppsala, Sweden, 153 pp. HORN, R Mechanical processes and ecological consequences in structured arable soils. Proc. of 2nd Workshop and Internat. Conference on Subsoil Compaction, May, 2000, Gödöllô (Eds. BIRKÁS, M., GYURICZA, C. et al.), pp HORN, R., Van den AKKER, J. J. H., ARVIDSSON, J. (Eds.) Subsoil compaction. Advances in GeoEcology 32: Catena Verlag, Reiskirchen, Germany. HOUSKOVÁ, B Causalities of soil compaction spreading in Slovakia and methods of investigation. Proc. of 2nd Workshop and Internat. Conf. on Subsoil Compaction, May, 2000, Gödöllô (Eds. BIRKÁS, M., GYURICZA, C. et al.) pp HOUSKOVÁ, B Influence of some degradation processes on production potential of agricultural soils in Slovakia. Soils under Global Change A Challenge for the 21st Century. (Eds. CANARACHE, A., De la ROSA, D. et al.) Editura Estfalia, Bucuresti, pp HUISZ, A., SLEUTEL, S., TÓTH, T., HOFMAN, G., DE NEVE, S., NÉMETH, T Effect of cultivation systems on the distribution of soil organic matter in different fractions. Cereal Res. Commun., 34, 1: HUSKA, D. (Ed.) Systems and technologies of environmental improvement and protection. TEMPUS Joint European Project. JEP No l3. European Cooperation for Environmental Education (ECEE). University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovakia. HUSNJAK, S., MESIC, M., KISIC, I Contribution to assessment suitability of land for no-till in Croatia. Proc. of ISTRO 16th Conference on Soil Management for Sustainability, July 2003, Brisbane, Australia, CD ISBN , (Ed. HOOGMOED, W.), pp HUSTI I Actual tasks in technical development of Hungarian Agriculture. Hungarian Agricultural Research, 4: JAVUREK, M The possibilities of reduction soil compaction by use of soil protection cropping. Proceedings of International Conference on Current trends in the Research of Soil Environment (Eds. PROCHÁZKA, J. et al.), pp JAVUREK M., VACH, M The influence of soil protection technology on grain yield of spring barley in year with deficit of precipitation. Proceedings of VIII ESA Congress: European Agriculture in a Global Context, July, 2004, Denmark, pp

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20 VARGA-HASZONITS, Z., SCHMIDT, R., M. HEGEDÛS, F Az éghajlati változékonyság és a kukorica termesztése (Climate variability and maize production) (In Hungarian). Növénytermelés, 43, 6: ZSEMBELI J A felszínalakítás és takarás hatása a talaj vízmérlegére és hômérsékletére liziméterekben (Effect of surface forming and mulch on soil water balance and temperature) (In Hungarian). PhD. Thesis, Debrecen. YULE, D. F On-Farm R & D for Controlled Traffic Farming. Proc. of ISTRO 17th Conference on Soil Management for Sustainability. Aug 28th Sept 3rd, 2006, Christian Albrechts Universitat zu Kiel, Germany ISBN CD (Eds. VOGT, B. et al.) pp Papers for soil tillage history published in Agricultural Engineering (Mezôgazdasági Technika, MT. ) BIRKÁS M Subsoiling I. Development of subsoiling in Hungary (Talajlazítás. A talajlazítás fejlôdése Magyarországon). MT., BIRKÁS M Subsoiling II. Practice of subsoiling in Hungary (A talajlazítás gyakorlata Magyarországon). MT., BIRKÁS M Subsoiling III. Special subsoilers and combined tools (Különleges lazítók és lazító kombinációk). MT., BIRKÁS M Soil conservation tillage by heavy-duty cultivator I. (Talajkímélô mûvelés nehézkultivátorral). MT., BIRKÁS M Soil conservation tillage by heavy-duty cultivator. II. History in use of cultivator in Hungary (A kultivátoros mûvelés története Magyarországon). MT., BIRKÁS M Soil conservation tillage by heavy-duty cultivator. III. Cultivators in national literature and tillage events (A kultivátor a szakirodalomban és a bemutatókon). MT., BIRKÁS M Disk tillage I. (A tárcsás mûvelés). MT., BIRKÁS M Disk tillage. II. History of disk tillage in Hungary (A tárcsázás története Magyarországon). MT., BIRKÁS M Unique tillage tools (Különleges talajmûvelôgépek). MT., BIRKÁS M History of roto-tillering in Hungary (A talajmarás története Magyarországon). MT., BIRKÁS M Soil compaction in national literature (A talajtömörödés a hazai szakirodalomban). MT., BIRKÁS M The no-till history in Hungary (A direktvetés Magyarországon). MT., BIRKÁS M Till and plant practice in Hungary (A kombinált mûvelés és vetés). MT., BIRKÁS M Timely or forgettable? The Dry farming and Campbell (Idôszerû vagy túlhaladott? A Dry farming és Campbell). MT., BIRKÁS M Campbell boom in Hungary ( ) I. Reports from North America (A Campbell-láz Magyarországon. Riportok Észak-Amerikából). MT., BIRKÁS M Campbell boom in Hungary ( ) II. Hungarian farmers and the Dry farming. (A Campbell-láz Magyarországon. A magyar gazdák és a dry farming) MT., BIRKÁS M Lessons drawn from the anti-ploughing movement ( ) I. (Az ekeellenes mozgalom tanulságai). MT., BIRKÁS M Lessons drawn from the anti-ploughing movement ( ) II. (Az ekeellenes mozgalom tanulságai). MT.,

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