1 Knowledge Partner RESEARCH REPORT Innovation outside the lab: STRATEGIC INNOVATION AS THE ALTERNATIVE Marion Debruyne and Marie Schoovaerts October 2006
3 FLANDERS DISTRICT OF CREATIVITY Flanders District of Creativity is the Flemish organization for business creativity. It was founded by the Flemish Government as a non-profi t organization and enjoys broad support. Flemish businesses, academia, and public institutions use Flanders DC as a platform for cooperation in the pursuit of a more creative region. Creativity is the key ingredient to make companies more successful and to help regional governments ensure a healthy economy with more jobs. Flanders DC inspires creativity and innovation: 1. by learning from the most creative regions in the world, 2. by igniting creative sparks in everyday life and business, and 3. through research, practical business tools and business training, provided in cooperation with the Flanders DC Knowledge Center. 1. DISTRICTS OF CREATIVITY: INSPIRATION FROM THE MOST CREATIVE REGIONS Responses to global challenges are best found within an international network of excellence. Flanders DC aims to unite the most dynamic regions in the world within the Districts of Creativity network, with the single aim of learning from the very best. Every two years, Flanders DC convenes the Creativity World Forum, bringing together government leaders, entrepreneurs, and knowledge institutions to exchange ideas about how to tackle pressing economic problems and make their regions hotbeds for innovation and creativity. Maryland Quebec Scotland Flanders Baden-Württemberg Nord-Pas-de-Calais Karnataka Catalonia Lombardy *: associate member region Rhône-Alpes* Shanghai 3 2. RAISING AWARENESS: THE BEST WAY TO PREDICT THE FUTURE IS TO INVENT IT Flanders DC encourages entrepreneurs and citizens to look ahead and fi nd creative solutions today to tomorrow s problems. Flanders DC has developed an idea generation tool to encourage people and organizations to take the fi rst step toward innovation. In addition, Flanders DC runs a general awareness-raising campaign entitled Flanders Future.
4 3. THE FLANDERS DC KNOWLEDGE CENTRE: ACADEMIC SUPPORT The Flanders DC Knowledge Center entails a cooperation between Flanders DC and the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. Each year, the Flanders DC Knowledge Centre publishes several reports and develops various tools, case studies and courses. All these projects focus on the role of creativity in a business environment and identify obstacles to and accelerators of competitive growth. Below is a list of some of the fi nished projects and a number of forthcoming projects (for an overview of current projects and available downloads, please consult andersdc.be or see andersdc): Research projects and tools: 4 THE FLEMISH ECONOMY IN 2015: Challenges for the Future The Need for a Creative Growth Model. Published in Dutch in September BUSINESS CREATIVITY AS A MOTOR FOR GROWTH IN FLEMISH CITIES AND BRUSSELS. Published in Dutch in November THE CREATIVE ECONOMY: Challenges and Opportunities for DC regions. Published in English in April PLAYERS IN THE TV SECTOR BEAR WITNESS. An exploratory Study in the Creative Industry. Published in Dutch in June HOW TO MOBILIZE AND STIMULATE OUR ELDERLY WORKFORCE. Published in Dutch in June THE CREATIVE INDUSTRY IN FLANDERS. Due to be published in Dutch in November DEVELOPMENT OF A REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS INDEX. Due to be published in English in November INNOVATION OUTSIDE THE LAB: Strategic Innovation as the Alternative. Published in English in October AN ANALYSIS OF THE NATURE AND THE STRUCTURE OF KNOWLEDGE NETWORKS IN INDUSTRY SCIENCE-RELATIONS. Due to be published in English in December HOW DO ENTREPRENEURS IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITIES IN FLANDERS AND ABROAD. Due to be published in Dutch in December NETWORKING AND INNOVATION CAPACITY IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN FLAN- DERS. Due to be published in English in December INNOVATION PROCESSES IN LARGE AND SMALL COMPANIES. Due to be published in Dutch in December 2006.
5 FLANDERS DISTRICT OF CREATIVITY ARTECONOMY. How Artists Infl uence Transformation Processes. Due to be published in Dutch in February 2007 CREATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Due to be published in Dutch in March ONLINE LEARNING PLATFORM ON CREATIEVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Due to be online in April HOW INNOVATIVE ARE WE REALLY? Due to be published in English in May OPEN INNOVATION IN EUROPE. Due to be published in English in July FLANDERS' ATTRACTIVENESS FOR FOREIGN INVESTMENT. Due to be published in English in November Knowledge Sharing FLANDERS DC & VACATURE WINTER ACADEMY. From 16 through 19 February A VISITING PROFESSOR FROM AUCKLAND ON CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING. September SCHOLARSHIPS FOR GOVERNMENT AND CREATIVE SECTOR - Master Class in Entrepreneurship and Innovation. 5 FLANDERS DC FELLOWS. Creative entrepreneurs serving as role models for innovation. First batch in December CREATIVITY TALKS. Monthly sessions on business creativity and innovation from September 2006 through May The partners and members of the Board of Directors of Flanders DC are:
7 TABLE OF CONTENTS FLANDERS DISTRICT OF CREATIVITY...3 TABLE OF CONTENTS...7 PAGE LIST OF TABLES...8 LIST OF FIGURES BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION RESEARCH QUESTIONS RESEARCH METHOD CASE STUDY RESEARCH Methodology Eurinpro and Weekendesk: A case description Weekendesk Who, what, how? A strategic innovator? Eurinpro Who, what, how? A strategic innovator? Learning points SURVEY RESEARCH Sample What are the key elements of strategic innovation? To what extent do Flemish fi rms implement the principles of strategic innovation? Does strategic innovation lead to performance? Theoretical foundations for the relationship between strategic innovation and performance Empirical support for the relationship between strategic innovation and performance How do fi rms that innovate strategically differ from others? Environmental predictors of strategic innovation Organizational predictors of strategic innovation Sense-and-respond capabilities Empirical evidence of the effect of sense-and-respond capabilities on strategic innovation IMPLICATIONS REFERENCES...38
8 LIST OF TABLES 1 Overview of Eurinpro and Weekendesk interviewees Mean scores for strategic innovation factors Mean scores for strategic innovation factors for Flemish and Dutch fi rms Regression results of strategic innovation on performance Regression coeffi cients of environmental predictors on strategic innovation An overview of proactive and reactive sense-and-response capabilities Regression coeffi cients of organizational and environmental predictors on strategic innovation
9 LIST OF FIGURES 1 Distribution of companies according to their number of employees
11 0 BACKGROUND This report discusses a study commissioned by Flanders District of Creativity on Flemish companies strategic innovation. The study was conducted between December 2005 and August The main researchers involved in the project were Professor Marion Debruyne, an associate professor, and junior researcher Marie Schoovaerts, both being staff at the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. 11
12 1 INTRODUCTION There is mounting recognition that if companies escape from cutthroat competition, they need to move away from established industry recipes. The business press coined the term strategic innovation to refer to companies that radically change the rules of the game in an industry by competing in a fundamentally different way. There is no shortage of examples: Amazon in book retailing, Dell in personal computers, Southwest Airlines in the airline industry, IKEA in furniture retailing, and so on. The common thread running through all these success stories is that the companies in question did not innovate in the traditional sense by investing in R&D and then launching next-generation products, but instead challenged conventional thinking within their respective sector (Markides, 1997). They reshaped the way business is done, all the while focusing fi rmly on delivering customer value to the mass market (Govindarajan and Gupta, 2001; Kim and Mauborgne, 1996; Markides, 1998). This entailed rethinking their target markets, rethinking customer needs and wants, and rethinking the entire value delivery process. Past literature has primarily offered case-based descriptions of what constitutes the primary source of the competitive advantage derived from such an approach. Many questions remain unanswered. Are these really examples of one and the same phenomenon, or are they rather onetime exceptions? Did they come about through sheer good fortune, or are they the fruits of deliberate management practices? Finally, are the characteristics of the approach also drivers of success, or does success hinge on other factors? 12 Strategic innovation means competing within an existing industry in a fundamentally different way that redefi nes and enhances customer value. Unlike traditional innovation, this different way of competing does not entail product innovation as such. Rather, superior value for customers is derived from innovations in organization. Such innovation may relate to the product concept, production, service provision, or the marketing of the respective product or service. For strategic innovation to occur, activities and capabilities are leveraged in such a way as to offer customer value that breaks with established industry recipes.
13 2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The objective of the study was to investigate the following research questions: 1. What are the key elements of strategic innovation? 2. Does strategic innovation lead to performance? 3. To what extent do Flemish fi rms implement the principles of strategic innovation? 4. How do fi rms that innovate strategically differ from those that don t? 13
14 3 RESEARCH METHOD A two-pronged approach was adopted, with the study consisting of a qualitative and a quantitative stage. The qualitative stage involved two case studies, each of which scrutinized a specifi c company. The objective of the case studies was to gain deeper insights into the phenomenon of strategic innovation. The case studies also provided valuable learning material 1. Section 4 of this report discusses the case studies in further detail. The quantitative stage of the study comprised a large-scale survey of Flemish fi rms. All fi rms with more than 50 employees and located in Flanders were sent the survey and an accompanying letter. We targeted general managers and vice presidents of the selected fi rms strategic business unit (SBU). For fi rms without such a management structure usually the CEO was selected to fi ll out the questionnaire. We sent out the questionnaire together with a personalized letter and reply envelope. The letter introduced the research and gave a hyperlink to a website, enabling the respondents to fi ll out the questionnaire on the Internet if they so desired. Two weeks later, the respondents were sent an reminder, which was followed up two weeks later. In all, 187 questionnaires were fi lled out, yielding a 7% response rate. Section 5 contains a report on the results of the research. A fellow research team at the Research Center for Strategy & Innovation at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VUA) conducted a similar survey in the Netherlands. Section 5.3 compares the Flemish data with the Dutch data The case studies will be submitted to the European Case Clearing House after being cleared by the participating companies.
15 4 CASE STUDY RESEARCH To gain a greater insight into the concept of strategic innovation, we conducted two case studies focusing on two distinctly innovative companies: Weekendesk and Eurinpro. These companies fi t the defi nition of strategic innovation that we described in the introduction, and as such offer valuable insights into the key elements that defi ne a strategic innovator. The case studies are useful in two ways: they confi rm the fi ndings of the quantitative study and they also provide additional information that affords new insights into those fi ndings Methodology To fi nd two strategic innovators, we kept a close eye on the business press and selected companies that demonstrated features of strategic innovation. Desk research was conducted to fi nd out whether these companies matched our defi nition of strategic innovation. Initially, six companies were selected: Carry Flor, Woestijnvis, Accent, Ormit, Weekendesk, and Eurinpro. After careful consideration, Weekendesk and Eurinpro turned out to be the most relevant companies for this research project. In addition, they complement each other, since Weekendesk is a start-up company, while Eurinpro is an incumbent company. For both case studies, we set up initial meetings to gain an understanding of the respective company s business and confi rm that it constituted a valid instance of strategic innovation. After evaluating the information retrieved from these interviews, we drew up a list of all the information that was still needed and then scheduled second and third interviews. Table 1 identifi es the interviewees. The topics covered during these interviews were based on the available literature and looked specifi cally at the company s business model and the skills required to sustain it. The next phase is still ongoing: we are currently writing up the case studies and will then present them to the companies for approval. 15 Table 1 Interviewees at Eurinpro and Weekendesk FIRST ROUND OF INTERVIEWS Marc Verhagen Weekendesk CEO Karoline Neujens Weekendesk Marketing Manager Geert Vanhees Eurinpro Marketing Manager SECOND ROUND OF INTERVIEWS Bart Verhaeghe Eurinpro CEO THIRD ROUND OF INTERVIEWS Marc Verhagen Weekendesk CEO Karoline Neujens Weekendesk Marketing Manager Danny Peeters Eurinpro Chief Operations Offi cer Eddy Huysman Eurinpro Chief Technical Offi cer Jan Van Lancker Eurinpro General Counsel
16 CASE STUDY RESEARCH / Eurinpro and Weekendesk: A case description Weekendesk Who, what, how? Weekendesk is an Antwerp-based company that is active in Belgium, the Netherlands and France. The company has two product lines: hotel packages and gift boxes. The customers books his hotel package on the Internet, without any involvement on the part of the hotel or any third party. The focus is on weekend stays within a 200-mile radius. The gift boxes are cardboard boxes that focus on a given theme, and offer a range of experiences to the gift s recipient. Examples of such experiences are a helicopter fl ight, a wellness weekend, a stay at a holiday park, a sauna visit, and so on. Recipients can book the experience of their choice on the website. Central to Weekendesk s business model is the Internet. Customers can only book their hotel packages over the Internet. However, (only) 50% of gift box sales are generated via the Internet; the remaining 50% are generated through selected complementary sales channels, such as Dreamland, AS Adventure, and Connections. Weekendesk targets specifi c customers: for the hotel business it targets people who are willing to use the Internet to book a hotel, instead of going to a traditional travel agent. For its gift boxes, Weekendesk targets customers who fi nd the idea of giving an experience as a gift appealing. Such people are open to new experiences and want to share them with the recipient of their gift. The choice of sales channels is geared toward these kinds of customers: the Internet as an increasingly popular channel that is being used more and more by consumers to effect purchases of all kinds; AS Adventure as an outdoor action store; Connections as a travel agent for adventurous tourists; and Dreamland as a gift store A strategic innovator? Weekendesk combines features of both the travel industry and the gift sector, but implements a business model that is distinctly different from both. Although Weekendesk s products are somewhat innovative, the company went further than mere product innovation: its entire organization was organized in such a way as to deliver superior customer value, offering an innovative product to a new set of customers through a new channel. No other company offers the same as Weekendesk, combining a hotel business and a gift box business. A number of support activities and capabilities are established to maintain the company s business model: the use of the Internet as a sales channel, a telephone helpdesk, sales and contracting skills needed to conclude deals with hotels and the organizers of the experiences it offers, and the key value of what you see is what you get. Thus, Weekendesk employs a team of photographers and copywriters to make sure that all the information supplied to customers by the company is as accurate as possible.
17 CASE STUDY RESEARCH / Eurinpro Who, what, how? Eurinpro is a pan-european provider of customer-centric, tailor-made logistic real estate. The company covers the entire process involved in building warehouses, placing its customers fi rst. Depending on its customers requirements, Eurinpro seeks the best solution at various levels. e.g. in terms of the warehouse s location, quality, and price. Eurinpro concludes a rental agreement with the customer, then sells the whole project, including that rental agreement to an investor, often even before the tenant occupies the building. Thus, Eurinpro serves two kinds of customers: customers with logistic needs and institutional investors. Accordingly, Eurinpro needs to offer an adequate value proposition to both parties: the customer with a logistic need gets to rent a tailor-made warehouse, and the investor gets to buy a warehouse that is also partially standardized to guarantee its ongoing value. Eurinpro is faster and less expensive than other providers of logistics real estate. Over time, Eurinpro developed the resources and capabilities it needs to offer such superior value. First of all, the company streamlined the handling of incoming requests for proposals and project management. Its technical department can draw up a proposal within 24 hours. Then it fi xes the price, timing of delivery, and quality of the warehouse. The technical department enjoys Eurinpro s full backing, comprising an international matrix structure plus a range of carefully selected employees active in different areas to make sure that Eurinpro operates as a one-stop-shop. In addition, Eurinpro controls a full network of its own (sub)contractors, who channel the knowledge they have acquired over the years by following guidelines governing their work processes. Every division of Eurinpro drafts, follows, and passes on these guidelines to other employees within the company A strategic innovator? Unlike Weekendesk, Eurinpro does not combine two business models to create a new one. Rather, Eurinpro has broken with the established recipe followed in its sector by traditional logistics real estate providers and created a new, independent business model. Instead of working along tailormade, customer-centric lines, traditional real-estate providers follow an on-risk, top-down approach: fi rst they secure a location, then they build the warehouse, and only at the very end of the process does the customer come onto the scene. By contrast, Eurinpro starts with the customer s desires and then builds the appropriate warehouse. Under the guidance of CEO Bart Verhaeghe, this strategy has created superior customer value for both types of Eurinpro customers, delivering tailor-made warehouses faster and less expensively than the company s rivals.
18 CASE STUDY RESEARCH / Learning points Eurinpro and Weekendesk operate in completely different environments and offer totally different products, but one thing they have in common is that they have both been strategically innovative at least once. Since Eurinpro and Weekendesk are so different (incumbent versus start-up, pan-european versus a presence in just three European countries, logistics real estate versus the gift business, and so on), it is interesting to see where they converge and where they differ. To start with, Weekendesk and Eurinpro share a refusal to follow the dominant recipe in their industry, steering clear of the strategies pursued by other players in their respective industries. For Eurinpro, this is very clear: the dominant approach in its sector is an on-risk, top-down approach, whereas Eurinpro adopts a diametric, on-demand, customer-centric approach. Weekendesk on the other hand, does not even belong within a single sector, opting instead to combine the features of two businesses (travel and gifts), and add new features to complete its business model. 18 Furthermore, while rejecting the conventional approach taken within their respective industry, Weekendesk and Eurinpro have both created new markets, serving customers who either were not served before, or were unhappy with the manner in which they were being served. Weekendesk appeals to customers who want to use the Internet to control the whole process of selecting, buying, and booking a hotel package or a gift box, and to consumers who are looking for a packaged experience rather than just a stay in a hotel. By contrast, Eurinpro targets two groups of customers: customers with a logistic need and institutional investors who integrate the company s real estate projects into their property portfolio. The fi rst group of customers comprises a growing number of fi rms that value a logistics real estate provider who follows them around the world providing tailor-made warehouses, and that are open to outsourcing their logistics real estate needs. The second group of customers comprises real estate investors. Hence, both companies gear their services to a new set of customers who were not (well) served before and who now receive superior customer value and have their requirements met in a way that the industry s incumbents are unable to match. But how can two companies deliver such superior customer value to the markets they opened up? As the two case studies show, Weekendesk and Eurinpro share some characteristics that enabled them to become strategic innovators.
19 CASE STUDY RESEARCH / 4 To begin with, leadership plays a crucial role in determining the path a company will follow. At Eurinpro, it was CEO Bart Verhaeghe who fi nalized Eurinpro s business model by narrowing down the strategic focus of the company. At Weekendesk, founders Marc Verhagen and Bruno Spaas decided they wanted to do something new on the Internet, so they founded Weekendesk. In both cases, the CEO s had a distinct vision of where they wanted their company to go and didn t care what others in their sector were doing. One striking factor is that in both cases the strategic innovator was an outsider, i.e. not from the industry in question, and developed a completely fresh perspective compared with the prevailing business model. A second characteristic that enabled Eurinpro and Weekendesk to become strategic innovators was their specifi c market orientation. Both fi rms are continually experimenting in their markets, and the establishment of their business model entailed continuous learning and adaptation. Especially when it started out, Weekendesk experimented until it found the right, profi table business model, not merely setting up an online booking site, but also introducing the innovative idea of gift boxes. Eurinpro takes this approach even further: after a few turbulent years, all its businesses (offi ce, residential and retail, real estate) were phased out, leaving it with just its logistics real estate business. The current business model was developed, but not taken for granted, and in the wake of the recent acquisition by Macquarie Goodman, Eurinpro is again questioning its current modus operandi and considering the inclusion of fresh elements in its business model. Eurinpro in particular is adopting a proactive market orientation in the running of its business: the company focuses on the latent needs of (future) customers, instead of reacting to expressed needs by existing customers. For example: Eurinpro exited the highly lucrative offi ce real estate market to focus on the logistics real estate market, thereby leaving a lot of money on the table while turning toward a new customer segment. Weekendesk on the other hand initially adopted a proactive market orientation approach, addressing a new kind of customer, but now it wants to continue further down that path and adopt a more reactive approach. From this difference we can conclude that it is one thing being a onetime strategic innovator, and quite another being a company that continuously keeps looking for new ways to adapt its business model. 19
20 SURVEY RESEARCH / 5 Thirdly, Weekendesk and Eurinpro have been successful strategic innovators because they developed unique skills to sustain their business model. This makes it very diffi cult to copy the company s business model: an imitator would also have to replicate the new skills underlying it, turning their whole organization upside down. For example, Weekendesk focuses on its key value of what you see is what you get, employing a whole team of in-house copywriters and photographers. If a traditional travel agency wanted to do the same, it would have to completely change its organizational structure. Eurinpro is even more extreme in developing unique skills, with the whole fi rm being geared toward delivering tailor-made warehouses. To this end the company has its own technical department, it operates an international matrix structure, and it has in-house skills to deliver a one-stop-shop to its customers. 20 In short, both companies refuse to follow the predominant recipe in their industry and are thereby creating new markets. They can only innovate strategically because they share some characteristics: they have a visionary CEO, are primarily adopting a proactive approach, and have cultivated unique skills to sustain their business model. In addition, we can say that Weekendesk and Eurinpro are different kinds of strategic innovators, the main difference being that Eurinpro has an engrained culture of innovation, whereas Weekendesk innovated once and is now continuing down its chosen path. Further research is needed to establish whether strategic innovation is a one-time event involving the defi nition of the right set of skills to sustain an innovative business model or whether it is a continuous process that feeds on dynamism.
21 5 SURVEY RESEARCH Apart from our in-depth investigation of two companies in case studies, a large sample of companies was contacted and asked to participate in a survey on strategic innovation. The following sections discuss the fi ndings of that survey. We begin by presenting the sample of fi rms. Next, we set out the elements of strategic innovation and assess the extent to which Flemish fi rms appear to be innovating strategically. We then continue the discussion by providing theoretical and empirical proof of the relationship between strategic innovation and performance. Finally, the drivers of strategic innovation are discussed Sample The total sample comprised 187 fi rms and almost perfectly represents the range of Flemish fi rms with more than 50 employees. Fig. 1 shows the distribution of companies based on their number of employees, as determined from three sources: (1) the social security service (RSZ) table, (2) the Arvato database from which the addresses were obtained and (3) the sample from the survey. The fi gure shows that there are no signifi cant discrepancies between the population and the sample. Fig. 1 Distribution of companies according to their number of employees 60% 21 50% 40% Percentage 30% 20% 10% 0% >999 Number of employees RSZ population Arvato database Sample Out of the companies in the sample, 36% are service providers and 64% deliver products. 20% of the fi rms are business-to-consumer fi rms, and 80% are business-to-business outfi ts. On average, our respondents responsible for running their business were 39 years old and employed 280 people.
22 SURVEY RESEARCH / What are the key elements of strategic innovation? Based on our review of the literature, our investigation of the material in the case studies, and our analysis of the quantitative data, we concluded that strategic innovation comprises four factors. 1. Value innovation 22 This dimension of strategic innovation entails strategic innovators offering both superior and at the same time innovative customer value. Providing superior customer value is essential for achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Although the conceptualization in the literature of what constitutes customer value is rather fragmented, there is a consensus: namely, that customers perceptions of what suppliers have to offer are a core element of the concept. Woodruff (1997, p. 142) defi nes customer value as a customer s perceived preference for and evaluation of those product attributes, attribute performances, and consequences arising from use that facilitate (or block) achieving the customer s goals and purposes in use situations. Value innovation is defi ned as offering customer value that customers perceive as valuable and new. Value innovation is often confused with strategic innovation. Value innovation, while certainly an element of strategic innovation, is not all-encompassing (Kim and Mauborgne, 1996). So from our analysis, we conclude that value innovation is a necessary component of strategic innovation, but does not cover the entire concept. Value innovation refers to the component of strategic innovation that specifi cally defi nes the customer value that the strategic innovator delivers to its customers. 2. New market creation Strategic innovation entails creating a new market. Strategic innovators do not focus on the same market segments as their competitors, but instead attract new types of customers. In other words, instead of following accepted defi nitions of market boundaries and segmentation, they develop their own market. New markets can be created within existing industries by identifying unserved customer segments, targeting new combinations of existing customer segments, or redefi ning how the market is segmented (Markides, 1997). This component of strategic innovation helps fi rms to avoid direct competition, because it focuses on customers other than incumbent rivals. For this reason, strategic innovators may not be recognized as direct competitors by existing fi rms in their sector. Combining value innovation with new market creation entails strategic innovators redefi ning existing industry boundaries and creating a unique competitive position.
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