Pittsburgh. Initiative. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory. Climate Protection

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Pittsburgh. Initiative. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory. Climate Protection"

Transcription

1 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

2 Acknowledgements The Heinz School Research Team would like to thank the many people who have dedicated their time and effort to helping compile this inventory. We would especially like to thank Paul Svoboda of Senator Jim Ferlo s office, Chet Malesky with the City of Pittsburgh, Ann Gerace of Conservation Consultants, Inc., Yarone Zober and Lauren Byrne of Mayor Ravenstahl s office, Dan Gilman from Councilman Peduto s office and all of the countless individuals who provided us with guidance, data, and other resources. We would also like to acknowledge the late Mayor Bob O Connor, whose early leadership was crucial in getting this initiative off the ground. Special thanks to The Heinz Endowments, Senator Jim Ferlo, the Roy A. Hunt Foundation, Carnegie Mellon University, and the Green Building Alliance for their financial and staff support of this inventory. The Green Government Task Force members and its co-chairs, Mayor Ravenstahl, Councilman Peduto and Senator Ferlo are to be commended for their civic leadership and collaboration on this important topic of climate change. We would especially like to thank Rebecca Flora, our project advisor and coordinator of the first stages of this initiative, for her thoughtful suggestions, her wealth of knowledge, and her many hours of work. We could not have done it without her. The Heinz School Research Team includes: William Bernstein Angela Gasparetti Miles Ingram Isabella Johnson Jessica Mooney MarDestinee Perez Shruti Vaidyanathan First published December 2006

3 Contents 1 Executive Summary 1 2 Background 2.1 Science of Global Warming 2.2 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative Methodology 3.1 Inventory Process Software Inputs Sources of Input Data Emissions Reduction Measures Data Reliability of the Inventory Process Findings Community Inventory Municipal Inventory Emissions Reduction Measures Forecast 5 Recommendations Recommendations for Further Analysis Recommendations to the Task Force 5.3 Final Remarks Appendices 1 2 Glossary Data and Output 3 Data Sources 35 4 Task Force Members

4 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative Executive Summary Global warming is a serious problem with major implications for both the global and local environment. Unless action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and prevent the projected 10 F increase in temperature over the next century, Pittsburgh may experience negative impacts of global warming. These impacts may include higher prices and shortages of basic goods, such as food and energy, increased public expenditures on relief and rebuilding due to extreme weather events, a higher susceptibility to flooding, and a higher rate of infectious diseases and heat-related illnesses and deaths. Pittsburgh already a national leader in environmentally responsible practices has undertaken an initiative to join hundreds of cities around the world to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and slow the effects of global warming. The Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative presents the city Unless action is taken... Pittsburgh may experience negative impacts of global warming. with great opportunities for improving the global climate, the local environment, the local economy, and will enhance Pittsburgh s reputation as an environmentally progressive city. The Climate Protection Initiative Process Two organizations, Clean Air - Cool Planet and ICLEI: Local Governments for Sustainability, are working with the City of Pittsburgh and the Green Government Task Force 1 to provide technical assistance and support throughout the course of the Climate Protection This inventory... should guide the city in reducing GHGs and cutting energy costs. Initiative. Pittsburgh s initiative is part of a larger network of ICLEI s Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) program, which requires completion of a five-milestone model to receive membership. This inventory, conducted by the Heinz School Research Team, represents the first milestone of CCP, and should guide the city as a whole in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and cutting energy costs. Methods Under the CCP/ICLEI model, Pittsburgh s greenhouse gas emissions inventory was conducted by collecting data on all energy consumption and solid waste within the city s geographic boundaries during 2003, as well as total energy consumption and solid waste generated by the city government for the same base year. With ICLEI s Clean Air and Climate 1 1 Please see appendix 4 for a complete list of Green Government Task Force members.

5 The Heinz School Research Team Protection software, these data were used to estimate total community-wide greenhouse gas emissions for the city of Pittsburgh, and total GHG emissions produced by the city government s buildings, vehicles, and operations. Findings The city of Pittsburgh generated more than 6.6 million tons of CO 2 equivalent greenhouse gases in Of these emissions, four percent were directly attributable to municipal Pittsburgh generated more than 6.6 million tons of greenhouse gases in sources city government and public authorities while the remaining 96 percent were attributable to residential, commercial, and industrial sources, and transportation in the rest of the community. Community-wide Emissions The majority of emissions (72 percent) are caused by the consumption of electricity. This is especially notable as electricity accounts for only 36 percent of total energy consumed by the city. This disparity is explained by the relatively high emissions of electricity generation when compared to natural gas, gasoline, and diesel fuel. As a result, the large commercial sector, which depends primarily on electric energy in comparison to other sectors, is responsible for the majority of Pittsburgh s GHG emissions. Municipal Emissions Although emissions from Municipal operations account for a small portion of total GHG emissions, municipal bodies particularly the city government have the opportunity to lead by example and demonstrate the benefits of reducing emissions and improving energy efficiency. The city government has the opportunity to lead by example. As is the case community-wide, natural gas and electricity represent the bulk of energy consumed, and are also responsible for the bulk of GHG emissions. Of the various public authorities, the Housing Authority accounts for 60 percent of total municipal energy consumption, and 38 percent of total municipal emissions, the largest amount of CO 2 emissions by any single municipal source. In contrast, the Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority, which only accounts for 13 percent of total municipal energy consumption, is responsible for 26 percent of total municipal GHG emissions. Street lights and traffic signals were also found to represent a substantial portion of the City s energy consumption and GHG emissions. 2

6 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative Recommendations Having conducted the inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, the Heinz School Research Team offers the following recommendations to ensure the success of the Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative. Recommendations for further analysis: Detailed analysis of large energy consumers Expanded inventory of municipal and community emissions reduction measures Comprehensive evaluation of Pittsburgh s steam loop Inventory of green space in Pittsburgh Expansion of inventory to Allegheny County Recommendations to the Green Government Task Force: Improved energy and information management for the City Government leadership in energy efficiency and emissions reductions Quantification of emissions reduction measures Proactive efforts toward public awareness Taking full advantage of opportunities for reductions in energy consumption and GHG emissions is an ongoing process that will require thoughtful planning, careful implementation, and time. Yet the potential rewards of this initiative are great, and by implementing a strong Local Action Plan, Pittsburgh stands to become a model of sustainability and environmental responsibility. 3

7 The Heinz School Research Team Science of Global Warming Background The world scientific community has reached a consensus about the dangers of global warming and its potential impact on human life. Although there is no single solution to the problem of global warming, there are many strategies which can reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and slow the effects of climate change. Natural Greenhouse Effect Process Sunlight enters the atmosphere. Some of it is reflected and leaves the atmosphere without turning into heat energy. Some of it is absorbed by the ground, which then emits thermal radiation. Enhanced Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring phenomenon. Specific gases in the atmosphere called greenhouse gases absorb the radiation from the ground. These gases then emit thermal radiation in both directions. The greenhouse effect creates more total heat energy, some of which stays inside the atmosphere and raises the earth s surface temperature enough to support human life. Global warming works through this same mechanism. Increased concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere mean that less thermal radiation is escaping into higher layers of the atmosphere. The earth s surface temperature gets warmer because of the increased amount of thermal energy that is retained in the atmosphere (NAS, 2001). Sources of Greenhouse Gases Of the eight major greenhouse gases that are generated by human activity, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) have the highest atmospheric concentrations. 4

8 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative Human Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: CO 2 : deforestation, transportation, energy generation CH 4 : livestock and agriculture, changes in land use, landfills Given the elevated concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere currently, and the projected increases in emissions of major GHGs over the next century, the global average temperature is expected to increase by up to five degrees Celsius, or almost 10 degrees Fahrenheit (IPCC, 2001) Expected Temperature Change, Multiple Scenarios Bars show the range in 2100 produced by several models Temp. Change in Celcius Adapted from IPCC Diagram TS22. This increase in global average temperature will have dramatic impacts on the physical environment and human life across the globe, and Pittsburgh is no exception. 5

9 The Heinz School Research Team Direct Effects Rising Sea Levels Increase in Extreme Weather Events Global Impacts National Impacts Local Impacts Loss of low-lying costlines à Mass relocation Saline contamination of fresh water sources à Water shortages, reduced agricultural output Increase in number and intensity of extreme weather events à Mass relocation Saline contamination of fresh water sources à Damage to low-lying costal ports à Reduced shipping capacity Shortages of and/or higher prices for common goods Increased public expenditures in relief and rebuilding efforts, Impact of storms on infrastructure can lead to higher prices Changes in Weather and Precipitation Patterns More floods, More droughts à Reduced agricultural output, Damage and loss of life Changes in geographic range of plantlife à Reduced agricultural output Pittsburgh is susceptible to flooding à More damage, higher food prices Health Effects Expanded geographic range for many infectious diseases à More cases, higher healthcare expenditures Increase in number of days with extreme temperatures à More heat-related illnesses and deaths (IPCC, 2001; EPA, Climate Change and Pennsylvania ; EPA, Climate Change Health and Environment ; EPA, Excessive Heat ) Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative Over the last 100 years, Pittsburgh has emerged as a leader in environmental transformation. By redeveloping brownfields, constructing riverfront trails and embracing green building practices, Pittsburgh has recreated itself as an environmentally progressive city. Through the Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative, the city will move forward with its environmentally responsible and energy efficient efforts and begin to directly address the city s greenhouse gas emissions. Pittsburgh has joined Cities for Climate Protection, an international campaign comprised of more than 700 local governments dedicated to addressing climate change by reducing their own greenhouse gas emissions. Cities for Climate Protection & ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) is the largest campaign run by ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI), an international association of local and regional governments and organizations devoted to addressing the world s sustainability issues at a local and regional level. CCP participants complete Five Milestones for Emissions Reductions: 6

10 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative Milestone 1: Conduct a baseline inventory and forecast of greenhouse gas emissions Milestone 2: Set an emissions reduction target Milestone 3: Develop a Local Action Plan of measures to meet the reduction target Milestone 4: Implement emissions reduction policies and measures Milestone 5: Monitor and verify the results of the Local Action Plan ICLEI provides technical assistance and general support throughout the Five Milestones process. In particular, ICLEI has designed specialized software which serves as the primary analytical tool for the inventory of GHG emissions. This software will be used throughout the Five Milestones as a tool for monitoring progress as well as a method for modeling and evaluating potential emissions reducing measures. Clean Air Cool Planet Clean Air Cool Planet (CA-CP) is a non-profit organization working to foster partnerships within the Northeastern U.S. to combat climate change. CA-CP frequently works with ICLEI and will provide additional assistance and support to Pittsburgh as we strive to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. Green Government Task Force Co-chaired by Mayor Luke Ravenstahl, City Councilman Bill Peduto, and Pennsylvania Senator Jim Ferlo, the task force is made up of more than 30 local leaders and experts from government, the non-profit community, community organizations, businesses and academia. The task force will complete the second and third milestones of the emissions reduction process: setting an emissions reduction target and developing a Local Action Plan. Heinz School Research Team The Heinz School Research Team is made up of seven second-year graduate students from the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management at Carnegie Mellon University. The Research Team completed the first milestone by collecting information about energy use and solid waste generation within the geographic boundaries of Pittsburgh and compiling an inventory of all greenhouse gas emissions generated by the city. Green Building Alliance The Green Building Alliance (GBA) is a Pittsburgh-based non-profit organization that promotes environmentally responsible design and building practices in the region. GBA was an important catalyst in organizing the Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative and convening the Green Government Task Force. 7

11 The Heinz School Research Team Methodology Inventory Process The CCP/ICLEI model for the inventory of greenhouse gas emissions is based on a city s energy and fuel use and solid waste disposal. For the purposes of setting emission reduction targets, these data are collected for a specified base year against which all future reductions are measured. The base year for Pittsburgh s inventory is Using software provided by ICLEI, energy and fuel consumption and solid waste data for 2003 are converted into C0 2 equivalent emissions 3, which is the primary measure of greenhouse gas emissions under the inventory. Emissions reduction measures undertaken since 2003 are also entered into the inventory software, and are counted toward emissions reduction goals. Inventory Structure The inventory itself has two main components: Community-wide Emissions, which include all greenhouse gas emissions generated within the geographic boundaries of Pittsburgh; and Municipal Emissions, which includes only those emissions generated as a result of municipal government operations. Municipal emissions are reported separately because it is important for local governments to understand the impact their operations have on greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, having a detailed account of municipal emissions allows the City to be proactive in addressing issues of energy efficiency and to provide leadership in climate protection efforts. ICLEI Inventory Software The Clean Air and Climate Protection (CACP) software used to compile this inventory was developed by ICLEI along with the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators (STAPPA) and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials (ALAPCO), national associations representing state and local air quality officials. Torrie Smith Associates, ICLEI s principal technical partner, designed and produced the software. The CACP software tracks emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and criteria air pollutants (nitrous oxide, sulfur oxide, carbon monoxide, vola- 2 Although many cities choose 1990 or 2000 as their designated base year, the earliest and most complete data available for the city of Pittsburgh are for Choosing an early year allows the inventory to count all reduction measures that have been implemented since that base year. 3 Because different greenhouse gases have different warming potentials, total emissions are converted to carbon dioxide equivalent to provide a standard unit of measurement. 8

12 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative -tile organic compounds and particulate matter) that result from the use of electricity, fuel, and waste disposal. The software contains emissions factors, or coefficients, that are used to convert energy and fuel use data into emissions data. These coefficients were obtained from the federal Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Transportation, and Energ Information Administration. The software also accommodates changes to these factors and entry of a broad range of fuel and energy types. The electricity coefficients are customized to reflect the fuel sources of electric energy in the Pittsburgh regional grid. 4 Software Inputs Community-wide emissions The data used to compute total emissions created in the city of Pittsburgh fall into five categories, which are as follows: Residential: total electricity and natural gas consumed by residential users in Pittsburgh during the base year. Commercial: total electricity, natural gas, and steam consumed by commercial users during the base year. The commercial sector, sometimes known as the occupational sector, includes: management, professional, and related occupations; service occupations; wholesale retail; information and communication; financial activities; leisure and hospitality; accommodation and food services; other sales and office occupations, and warehouses. 5 Industrial: total electricity and natural gas consumed by industrial users during the base year. The industrial sector includes: agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting; mining; construction; manufacturing, and utilities. Transportation: total vehicle-miles traveled within Pittsburgh during the base year. 6 Waste: total solid waste generated within Pittsburgh during the base year More detailed information regarding the mechanics of the software is available at org/public_pages/cacp_users_manual_4.pdf 5 Electricity and natural gas consumption by municipal buildings are included in the commercial sector within the community-wide inventory. 6 Community vehicle-miles traveled within Pittsburgh include those traveled by municipal vehicle fleet as well. 7 Solid waste disposed of outside of city boundaries was included in the inventory as long as it was generated within Pittsburgh city boundaries.

13 The Heinz School Research Team Municipal Emissions Municipal operations fall into two categories: operations of the central city government, funded by the city budget; and quasi-governmental public authorities (which include the Pennsylvania Water and Sewer Authority (PWSA), the Urban Redevelopment Authority, the Housing Authority, and the Parking Authority). 8 The data used to compute total emissions created by Pittsburgh municipal operations fall into five categories, which are as follows: Buildings: total electricity, natural gas, and steam consumed by municipally owned and operated buildings during the base year. Street & Traffic Lights: total electricity consumed by streetlights and traffic signals within the city during the base year. Vehicle Fleet: vehicle fuel consumed by municipally owned vehicles during the base year. Water & Sewer: total electricity and natural gas consumed by the Pennsylvania Water and Sewer Authority (PWSA) in the course of treating and distributing water to city customers during the base year. Waste: solid waste generated by municipal government buildings and operations during the base year. Sources of Input Data Community-wide Data Electricity: Total 2003 electricity consumption figures for the city of Pittsburgh, broken down into residential, commercial, and industrial sectors, were provided by the Duquesne Light Company. Natural Gas: Three companies supply Pittsburgh with natural gas: Dominion Peoples Gas, Equitable Gas, and Columbia Gas. Of these three, only Dominion Peoples provided exact usage data for the city of Pittsburgh. For the remaining natural gas consumption figures, 8 Complete data for the Sports and Exhibition Authority and Pittsburgh Public Schools were not available, and have not been included in the Municipal inventory. The emissions from these sources are, however, accounted for in the community-wide inventory. 10

14 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative totals across each sector were estimated using Allegheny County consumption figures provided by the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission (PUC). 9 Steam: Figures on steam consumption were provided by Allegheny County Thermal and NRG Energy Center. CO 2 equivalent emissions were calculated based on the amount of natural gas required for Allegheny County Thermal and NRG Energy Center to produce steam. 10 Bellefield Boiler Steam Plant also produced and distributed steam in Pittsburgh, mainly to universities, hospitals, the Board of Education, and the Phipps Conservatory. These data, however, could not be added to the inventory because numerical information on the amount of coal and natural gas used to produce the steam was unavailable. 11 Vehicle-Miles Traveled: Figures on transportation were provided by the Southwest Pennsylvania Commission. Because a complete estimate of total vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) in the city of Pittsburgh was not available for 2003, the 2002 figure was used instead. 12 Solid Waste: Figures on the tonnage of solid waste produced in the city were provided by the Pittsburgh Department of Environmental Services. City Government Data Utilities and Fuel: Utility and fuel billing information was provided by the department of general services. Included in this information were: Total electricity, natural gas and steam consumption by city government buildings. Total electricity consumed by city street and traffic lights. Total gallons of gasoline and diesel consumed by the city vehicle fleet. Waste: Precise figures on the volume of solid waste generated by municipal operations were not available. This figure was instead estimated by multiplying the total number of municipal employees by the average amount of solid waste generated by a municipal employee during the year For each sector, average customer natural gas consumption was calculated and multiplied by the number of electricity customers per sector as determined by Duquesne Light. 10 The same estimates and assumptions made for steam consumption under the community inventory were also made for the municipal inventory. 11 The Bellefield Boiler Plant produced approximately 1,400,000 Mlbs of steam in Although this number would increase total GHG emissions, the plant does not represent a significant portion of steam or natural gas consumption and would not significantly affect community-wide emissions calculations and projections. 12 Regional figures for composition of vehicle population were unavailable for Southwestern Pennsylvania. National averages were used instead. 13 Average daily waste per worker (1.7 lbs) from KAP, Number of municipal workers from McNulty, 2003.

15 The Heinz School Research Team Public Authorities Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority: The PWSA provided total consumption and spending for electricity and natural gas in Housing Authority: The Housing Authority provided total consumption and spending for electricity and natural gas in Parking Authority: The Parking Authority provided total cost of electricity and natural gas consumed in 2003, as well as total gallons of gasoline consumed by Parking Authority Vehicles. Because actual electricity and natural gas consumption figures were not available, these numbers were estimated using average costs per kwh of electricity and MCF of natural gas. 14 Urban Redevelopment Authority: The URA provided total cost of electricity and steam consumed in Because actual electricity and steam consumption figures were not available, these numbers were estimated using average costs per kwh of electricity and Mlb of steam. 15 Emissions Reduction Measures Data In addition to calculating current greenhouse gas emissions generated in Pittsburgh, the ICLEI software also takes into account emission reduction measures implemented since 2003 both within the municipal government and within the community at large. These measures can be counted toward Pittsburgh s overall reduction targets. To date, a limited number of emissions reduction measures have been collected and quantified. Municipal Measures The Department of Public Works provided information about the conversion of traffic signals to LED fixtures, which are a more energy efficient type of lighting. The city has converted 3,668 traffic signals thus far and they have been taken into account in future emission projections. 14 Approximately $0.08/kWh and $8.00/MCF 15 Approximately $19.83/Mlb 12

16 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative Community Measures Abitibi Consolidated, Inc. provided information about Pittsburgh s community recycling program Carnegie Mellon University provided information about: Installation of a solar array on the computer science building on Craig Street The University s new green residence hall The Sleep is Good campaign, whereby 1,000 computers had a sleep-mode installed Energy efficient vending machines Pittsburgh Public Schools provided information about their Energy Star program, years 2004 and 2005 Conversation Consultants, Inc. provided information about the weatherization of low-income homes, years 2003, 2004, 2005, and Waste Methodology One aspect of the CCP/ICLEI methodology which may cause concerns is the assessment of solid waste in calculating greenhouse gas emissions. ICLEI bases its treatment of solid waste on EPA calculations of carbon sequestration in landfills. Under this methodology, landfilled waste acts, to a certain degree, as a sink for greenhouse gases. As a result, in cases where landfills flare or recover landfill methane, the actual net effect of landfilled waste on GHG emissions may be negative. While EPA supports this methodology, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) does not. Based on the City s preference of methodology, the carbon sequestration effect of landfills can be eliminated by changing the sequestration coefficients in the ICLEI software. This alternate approach is addressed briefly in the results section of the inventory. Reliability of the Inventory Process The inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh was, as a result of time constraints and practical limitations, conducted using certain assumptions and estimates, as documented above. Although this means that the inventory does not provide an exact account of GHG emissions in Pittsburgh, it does not diminish the value of the inventory as a tool for policy makers. The purpose of the inventory is to provide the basic information needed to develop policies and strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and to create a baseline by which to assess future progress toward emissions reduction targets. In this context, the inventory presents a reliable tool for taking action toward a more efficient and environmentally responsible Pittsburgh. 13

17 The Heinz School Research Team Findings The results from the inventory of 2003 emissions and energy use in Pittsburgh are found below. Data for the community-wide inventory are presented first, followed by disaggregated municipal emissions and energy data Inventory Results Figure 1: 2003 Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions (CO 2 -eq) In 2003, the city of Pittsburgh emitted more than 6.6 million tons of CO 2 equivalent greenhouse gases. Figure 1 shows the portion of total emissions contributed by the broader community in comparison to those contributed by municipal operations. Community Inventory Energy Source Analysis Figure 2 shows the distribution of total community emissions by source of energy. In 2003, electricity was the lead contributor to overall CO 2 emissions; 72 percent of the city s total emissions resulted from electricity use. However, of Pittsburgh s total energy consumption, which is displayed in Figure 3, only 36 percent is attributed to electricity use. Pittsburgh residents consume nearly as much energy from gasoline as electricity; however gasoline only contributes 16 percent of total CO 2 emissions. In addition, the city obtains nearly 22 percent of its energy from natural gas, which contributes only eight percent of total emissions. Figure 2: 2003 Community Greenhouse Gas Emissions (CO 2 -eq) Figure 3: 2003 Energy Consumption by Source (MMBtu) 14

18 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative Comparing the above pie charts, it is clear that consumption is not equivalent to emissions across the various energy sources. Table 1 shows the average emissions efficiency of each energy source as measured by pounds of equivalent CO 2 emissions per million British Thermal Units (MMBtu) of energy consumed. In Pittsburgh, electricity generation produces four to five times as much CO 2 per MMBtu consumed as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel. Note that steam was not included in the following table, as steam consumption is measured in thousand pounds (Mlbs) and a direct conversion is not available. Table 1: Average Emissions Efficiency Source lbs CO 2 per Electricity Natural Gas Gasoline Diesel Sector Analysis Total community emissions and energy use are divided by sector in Figures 4 and 5. The commercial sector is responsible for over half of total CO 2 equivalent emissions, which is a far greater portion than any other sector. However, the commercial sector uses only 36 percent of the total amount of energy consumed by the community. This discrepancy is due to the commercial sector s predominant use of electricity; 73 percent of its total energy consumed comes from electricity. In comparison the residential sector gets only 40 percent of its energy from electricity, while the industrial sector gets even less. In terms of energy use, the transportation sector consumes the largest portion of the city s energy, at just under 40%. The emissions resulting from the transportation sector are substantial as well, however as a portion of city-wide emissions, their relative size is smaller due to the large contribution to emissions by the commercial sector. Figure 4: 2003 Community Emissions by Sector (CO 2 -eq) Figure 5: 2003 Energy Consumption by Sector (MMBtu) 15

19 The Heinz School Research Team Criteria Air Pollutants Criteria air pollutants are other polluting gases which have health and environmental impacts but which are not greenhouse gases. Carbon Monoxide (CO) is by far the largest contributor to criteria air pollutants. In 2003 alone, over 70 million pounds of CO were emitted into the atmosphere. The largest contributor to CO emissions is gasoline. As shown in Figure 2, gasoline use in Pittsburgh does not contribute a large share of greenhouse gases, which speaks to the relatively high content of criteria air pollutants in gasoline. Sulfur oxides (SOx) are also a significant contributor to total criteria air pollutants, coming mainly from electricity generation. In Figure 6, total criteria air pollutants are displayed by energy source. Figure 6: 2003 Total Criteria Air Polutants by Source A note on community waste Data on emissions generated by waste in the Pittsburgh community was analyzed using two separate methods, as discussed in the methodology section. Under the assumption of the typical levels of carbon sequestration used by EPA and ICLEI, total community waste was found to be responsible for -82,617 tons of CO 2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year; that is the disposal of waste and flaring of the resulting methane gases actually removed greenhouse gases from the atmosphere that would otherwise have been emitted. Under the assumption of no carbon sequestration used by the IPCC, community-wide waste was responsible for 16,164 tons of CO 2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year. Because of the relative size of these numbers they were not included in the above graphs. Community-wide Waste data are available in appendix 2. 16

20 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative Municipal Inventory Energy Source Analysis Municipal energy use is displayed in Figure 7 by source of energy for each municipal division. The natural gas used by the Housing Authority to heat its 6,000-plus residential units is the single largest source of energy for any municipal entity. Electricity provides the bulk of the energy consumed to the other entities. The city government itself gets 45 percent of its energy from natural gas, which is used primarily to heat its buildings. The Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority, on the other hand, relies overwhelmingly (78 percent) on electricity to power its water supply and treatment system. Figure 7: 2003 Municipal Energy Use by Source 17 Sector Analysis Municipal emissions are divided by sector in Figure 8. The total municipal emissions in 2003 amounted to nearly 250,000 tons of equivalent CO 2. Approximately half of city government emissions are attributed to streetlights and traffic signals, while the other half are due to building energy consumption. The Housing Authority, while it is responsible for approximately 60 percent of total municipal energy use, is responsible for only 38 percent of all municipal emissions. The water and sewer authority consumes approximately 13 percent of all municipal energy; however, it is responsible for 26 percent of municipal emissions. The share of emissions due to city government also increases significantly in relation to its share of energy consumption, in large part due to emissions resulting from electric street and traffic lights as can be seen by comparing city government energy use by sector in Figure 9. Of the emissions from those lights, 88 percent are due to actual streetlights and the remaining 12 percent are due to traffic lights.

21 The Heinz School Research Team Figure 8: 2003 Municipal Emissions by Sector Figure 9: 2003 City Government Energy Use by Sector (MMBtu) Cost Analysis Energy costs are displayed in Figure 10 by municipal sector. The city government, not including public authorities, pays approximately $7.4 million annually for its energy, which accounts for about 42 percent of all municipal energy expenses. By comparison, it is only responsible for 24 percent of all municipal energy consumed. The Housing Authority pays the next largest share of municipal energy costs at nearly $6 million or 34 percent of total municipal costs, although the large majority of their energy expenses are covered by federal aid from the Department of Housing and Urban Development with the remainder being paid by Housing Authority residents. The PWSA pays just over $3 million annually for its energy. The main reason for the disparities between energy consumption and energy costs in 18

22 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative the various sectors is the average rates paid for energy by each entity. The city government pays on average 10 cents per kilowatt-hour of electricity, while the Housing Authority pays 7.5 cents and PWSA pays 5.4 cents. For natural gas the city government again pays the highest rate, at about double that of the Housing Authority. Figure 10: 2003 Municipal Cost by Sector Average rates also vary considerably across various energy sources. Table 3 below shows that energy as measured in million British Thermal Units (MMBtu) can cost as little as $3.72 on average for one MMBtu of diesel fuel and as much as $22.44 per MMBtu for electricity. Note that steam was not included in the following table, as steam consumption is measured in thousand pounds (Mlbs) and a direct conversion to MMBtus is not available. Table 2: Average Cost Efficiency by Source $ per MMBtu Electricity $22.44 Natural Gas $4.67 Gasoline $8.38 Diesel $ A note on municipal waste Data on emissions generated by solid waste from the Pittsburgh municipal government were analyzed using the two separate methods discussed in the methodology section. Under the assumption of the typical levels of carbon sequestration used by EPA and ICLEI, total municipal waste was found to be responsible for -847 tons of CO 2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year; that is the disposal of waste and flaring of the resulting methane gases actually removed greenhouse gases from the atmosphere that would otherwise have been emitted.

23 The Heinz School Research Team Under the assumption of no carbon sequestration used by the IPCC, municipal waste was responsible for 195 tons of CO 2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year. There were also costs to the city for haulage and tipping of $40,128 for disposal of this waste. Again, because of the relative size these numbers, they were not included in the graphs above. Municipal waste data are available in appendix 2. Emissions Reduction Measures Since 2003, the municipal government as well as individuals and organizations throughout the community have implemented many environmental initiatives to save energy, reduce waste, and cut costs. Collectively, these measures have made significant gains in reducing overall CO 2 emissions for the city of Pittsburgh. Municipal Measures Prior to 2003, the City of Pittsburgh implemented a number of measures to reduce energy consumption, including a major retrofit of all lighting in City owned buildings. These measures are not included in the inventory, however, because they occurred prior to the base year of Since the base year, only one city government measure has been quantified. Traffic Signals Upgraded to LED: Starting in 2006 the City began the process of updating all traffic signals to LED light fixtures. To date the City has updated 3,668 lights to LED fixtures resulting in 958,945 kwh of annual energy savings, and an equivalent CO 2 reduction of over 1,000 tons. By upgrading 15 percent of Pittsburgh s traffic signals, the City can expect to save $68,373 dollars annually. Community Measures Many local community groups and non-profit organizations have dedicated time, effort, and money to protecting the environment through implementing measures reducing overall emissions. Low-Income Home Weatherization: Conservation Consultants, Inc. (CCI) completes free home weatherization audits for elderly and low income residents of Pittsburgh. CCI partners with local utility companies to offer energy audits at no cost. Participants receive free upgrades such as new insulation and restricted-flow faucets to reduce energy and water consumption, and utility bills. Such upgrades have resulted in a total savings of 3,257 tons of equivalent CO 2 each year. It is predicted that CCI will audit over 6,000 homes between the base year 2003 and

24 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative Community Recycling: The City of Pittsburgh collected over 8,500 tons of curbside recycling, and nearly 5000 tons of recycling at the local drop off centers in the base year of Over 63,000 tons of CO 2 were saved in 2003 alone. Pittsburgh Public Schools: Through participation in the Energy Star program, Pittsburgh Public Schools have saved 22,375 tons of CO 2 in 2005, which increased their energy savings prior to full implementation of Energy Star in 2004 by 300 percent. Carnegie Mellon University: Carnegie Mellon has implemented a number of measures to reduce energy consumption since Using the EPA s Energy Harvest Grant, the university has installed solar panels on the School of Computer Science s Interactive Systems Lab Institute. In addition, the school has recently completed the New House Residence Hall, which received silver LEED certification and is the first green dormitory in the nation. Every computer in the school s computer labs is equipped with sleep mode features to save energy. Also, energy saving features have been installed on all refrigerated beverage vending machines, which use passive infrared sensors to power down the machines when not being used. Forecast Under the assumption of zero population growth and constant per capita emissions through the target year of 2015, projected emissions will remain at their 2003 base year levels without accounting for any reduction measures. If Pittsburgh does nothing else beyond the current measures to reduce CO 2 emissions, the City can expect to see an overall reduction of less than 2 percent by 2015 as shown in Figure 11. Figure 11: Forecast Emissions to

25 The Heinz School Research Team Recommendations for Further Analysis Recommendations This inventory is not intended to be simply a one-time snapshot of emissions and energy use in Pittsburgh. Rather, it will best serve the city as a dynamic tool that is continually updated and expanded to provide a current and comprehensive account of Pittsburgh s consumption and emissions. In fact, the fifth milestone of the Cities for Climate Protection process requires updating the inventory to evaluate the city s progress in reducing emissions. As such, there are several steps which can be taken to increase the effectiveness and scope of Pittsburgh s GHG emissions inventory. Detailed analysis of large energy consumers The inventory contained in this report, while it captures nearly all sources of emissions within the city, does not include disaggregated information for several of these sources. For example, Pittsburgh public schools, the Port Authority bus system, stadiums, hospitals, and universities are organizations that are a vital part of the city and consume a significant amount of energy. Although energy use and emissions for these organizations and their facilities are captured in the community portion of this inventory, they are not separated to allow detailed analysis. In the future, the inventory should be expanded to include disaggregated data on these sources. Expanded Inventory of Municipal and Community Emissions Reduction Measures Other potential additions to the inventory include a more thorough list of community measures that have been implemented since 2003 to reduce emissions. While this inventory does include several measures, the actual number of emission-reducing activities in the city since 2003 is much larger. Acknowledging the vast progress Pittsburgh has already made will further enhance the accuracy of this inventory and the projections of future emissions. In addition, cost data for community energy consumption should be included to allow community members, as well as city officials, to understand the amount of money that city residents and businesses spend on energy, and how best to maximize their costs savings. 22

26 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative Comprehensive Evaluation of Pittsburgh s Steam Loop Pittsburgh s unique steam loop also presented some difficulties in accurately measuring energy consumption, since the ICLEI software did not allow for direct entry of steam data. The only data included were based on estimated amounts of natural gas used to produce that steam, which overstated the efficiency of the steam heat. Inventory of Green Space Including data on the vast amount of green space in Pittsburgh would create a more accurate and exhaustive inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. Trees and other plant life act as a sink for CO 2 and thereby reduce overall emissions. Giving the city credit for such sinks would create greater incentives for preserving these assets that already contribute to the green image and reputation of Pittsburgh. 16 Verification of Natural Gas and Solid Waste Data Due to time and access constraints, the precise amount of natural gas consumption in Pittsburgh, and the precise destination of commercial solid waste (including methane recovery factors of destination landfills) have not been gathered. The collection of these data would provide a more accurate basis for policy changes, although the impact on the overall accuracy of the emissions inventory would likely be minimal. Expand the Scope of the Inventory Allegheny County, home to 1,235,841 people in 2005, has the opportunity to have a far greater impact on the global climate than the city of Pittsburgh alone. Expanding this inventory to the county would also allow for the inclusion of the Port Authority and the Airport Authority, two major sources of emissions in the region that were not captured in the current inventory See ICLEI Urban Forestry Toolkit for Local Governments, available to ICLEI members at iclei.org

27 The Heinz School Research Team Recommendations to the Task Force Achieving substantial reductions in greenhouse gases citywide will require significant steps to increase energy efficiency and use cleaner energy sources. These large-scale changes will vary city to city based on local conditions and opportunities. However, there are several basic strategies which can work in any city, and which can serve as a starting point for a comprehensive emissions reduction plan. Energy and Information Management In compiling data for the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory, the Heinz School Research Team found that municipal and community data were at times difficult to access, difficult to understand, and difficult to aggregate. As Pittsburgh moves forward with the Climate Protection Initiative, it is essential that the city be able to monitor its progress, and compile future emissions inventories easily. To facilitate this process, we recommend that the city (1) make all of its energy information electronically available to facilitate data access and data entry; (2) store energy and emissions information in a centralized database to facilitate consistency, completeness, and reliability of data; (3) maintain transparency of its data and encourage community businesses and organizations to also make energy data accessible for the purposes of research and policy analysis; and (4) collect annual data from utilities on total community-wide energy consumption to assess the progress of community efforts. Electronic Energy and Emissions Data Without the availability of electronic data, data collection and entry are inefficient, time consuming, and cumbersome. By making its energy and emissions data electronically available, the city would not only improve the process of data collection and data entry, but it would also have greater control over its own information: what is shared and how it is shared. In addition, electronic data would give the city the ability to conduct fast, systematic analysis of costs, consumption, and progress. Finally, electronic data will be a vital part of the implementation and monitoring stages of the Local Action Plan. Centralized Energy and Emissions Database Decentralization of data lends itself to inconsistencies in content and storage methods, which reduces data reliability and credibility. It is therefore important for the city to store data in a centralized location where it can be easily updated, monitored, and analyzed. By centralizing data, the city can maintain consistency across all departments and buildings. 24

28 Pittsburgh Climate Protection Initiative At present, the city does not have a central database for energy and fuel consumption and spending. This lack of a uniform system for recording and storing utility and fuel billing information proved to be a considerable obstacle during the inventory process. By implementing a centralized system for tracking and storing all greenhouse gas emissions-related activities, the city can make future inventories more efficient and more thorough. Centralizing the processing and storage of data will also allow the city to receive and pay bills, record payments, maintain archives, maintain accounts, conduct analysis, determine trends, and report information all from one single location. Ultimately, adopting a centralized process allows the city to make better, more informed, and more strategic decisions about its energy use and costs. Public Access to Energy and Emissions Data The Heinz School Research Team was very fortunate to have the help of Chet Malesky in the Department of General Services in accessing the 2003 municipal utility bills. It is important that future groups continue to have access to municipal energy and emissions data once it has been transferred to an electronic format. Though a certain level of caution is expected, extensive restrictions against access by community or student groups would have a negative impact on Pittsburgh s success in reducing emissions. Not only is easy access necessary for those performing the next major emissions inventory, but in the interim other groups may also wish to do smaller, progress-oriented inventories. Without a public understanding of the City s progress, the Government cannot act as a leader for the greater community. Creating an open and accessible source for Pittsburgh energy and emissions data will give the community evidence of the City s progress and its successes. Community-wide Energy and Emissions Data Municipal sources are ultimately only one portion of Pittsburgh s total GHG emissions. Though Government action is important and serves as a needed example for the community to follow, the only way to successfully reduce emissions is to make significant changes throughout the community. In order to assess Pittsburgh s true progress toward meeting its emission reduction goals, the city must gather data for the entire community. Coordinating an annual collection of utility, transportation and waste data would greatly enhance the ongoing efforts of the Climate Change Initiative. 25

PITTSBURGH GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSONS INVENTORY A 5 -YEAR BENCHMARK

PITTSBURGH GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSONS INVENTORY A 5 -YEAR BENCHMARK A 5 -YEAR BENCHMARK PITTSBURGH GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSONS INVENTORY A 5 -YEAR BENCHMARK Report & Inventory Performed by: Miriam Parson Climate Fellow Green Building Alliance & Student Conservation Association

More information

JACKSON HOLE ENERGY EFFICIENCY ACTION PLAN FALL 2007. Page 1 of 9

JACKSON HOLE ENERGY EFFICIENCY ACTION PLAN FALL 2007. Page 1 of 9 JACKSON HOLE ENERGY EFFICIENCY ACTION PLAN FALL 2007 Page 1 of 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. SUMMARY 1. Introduction 2. Purpose 3. Energy Use Snapshot 4. Strategies 5. Short-Term Recommendations 6. Long-Term

More information

TOWN OF CARRBORO NORTH CAROLINA

TOWN OF CARRBORO NORTH CAROLINA TOWN OF CARRBORO NORTH CAROLINA TRANSMITTAL PLANNING DEPARTMENT DELIVERED VIA: HAND MAIL FAX EMAIL To: From: Board of Aldermen David Andrews, Town Manager Department Directors Chris Lazinski, Consultant

More information

City of Atlanta CLIMATE ACTION PLAN

City of Atlanta CLIMATE ACTION PLAN City of Atlanta CLIMATE ACTION PLAN Jairo Garcia, Ed.D. Mayor s Office of Sustainability August 7, 2015 Agenda 1. Overview Office of Sustainability 2. Overview Climate Action Plan 3. Climate Impacts a.

More information

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Introduction to the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard provides

More information

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY The first step in developing a plan to reduce greenhouse gases was to identify sources and quantities of greenhouse gases emitted in Fort Collins. An emissions inventory

More information

Office of Climate Change, Energy Efficiency and Emissions Trading. Business Plan

Office of Climate Change, Energy Efficiency and Emissions Trading. Business Plan Office of Climate Change, Energy Efficiency and Emissions Trading Business Plan April 1, 2011 - March 31, 2014 Table of Contents Message from the Premier...3 1.0 OVERVIEW...4 2.0 MANDATE...5 3.0 LINES

More information

Climate Change Plan For Orange County Government

Climate Change Plan For Orange County Government Climate Change Plan For Orange County Government Mayor Richard T. Crotty and the Board of County Commissioners September 25, 2007 FINAL Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction... 1 2.0 Background... 1 3.0 Global

More information

Greenhouse Gas Inventory 2006-2008 Valencia Community College May 7 th 2010

Greenhouse Gas Inventory 2006-2008 Valencia Community College May 7 th 2010 Greenhouse Gas Inventory 2006-2008 Valencia Community College May 7 th 2010 Prepared by: 1 Principal Authors: EcoAsset Solutions, LLC David A. Palange Angela C. Gilbert Contributing Authors: EcoAsset Solutions,

More information

REPUBLIC OF TURKEY INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION

REPUBLIC OF TURKEY INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION REPUBLIC OF TURKEY INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION In accordance with decisions 1/CP.19 and 1/CP.20, the Republic of Turkey hereby presents its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)

More information

Gateway Technical College

Gateway Technical College Gateway Technical College 2009 Greenhouse Gas Inventory American College and University President s Climate Commitment Prepared by Chris Peters Sustainable Consultants, LLC 1 Executive Summary The following

More information

This fact sheet provides an overview of options for managing solid

This fact sheet provides an overview of options for managing solid What Is Integrated Solid Waste Management? This fact sheet provides an overview of options for managing solid waste, identifies the important issues you should consider when planning for solid waste management,

More information

Residential & Commercial Sectors Overview CLIMATE

Residential & Commercial Sectors Overview CLIMATE CLIMATE TECHBOOK Residential and Commercial Emissions in the United States Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data can be reported either by economic sector, which includes electric power generation as a separate

More information

PE9.4 Corrected Report

PE9.4 Corrected Report PE9.4 Corrected Report STAFF REPORT ACTION REQUIRED Toronto s 2013 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Date: December 17, 2015 To: From: Wards: Reference Number: Parks and Environment Committee Chief Corporate Officer

More information

How to Earn the LEED Green Power Credit

How to Earn the LEED Green Power Credit 3D EG REES WH ITE PAPER How to Earn the LEED Green Power Credit Using on-site and off-site renewable energy to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions associated with a LEED project s energy use

More information

Communicating Your Commitment: Your Guide to Clean Energy Messaging

Communicating Your Commitment: Your Guide to Clean Energy Messaging Communicating Your Commitment: Your Guide to Clean Energy Messaging Congratulations on your recent purchase of clean energy from Renewable Choice! Whether you ve purchased green power in the form of renewable

More information

Corporate Carbon Neutral Plan

Corporate Carbon Neutral Plan This Carbon Neutral Plan will guide the District of 100 Mile House decision making process in terms of reducing corporate energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and in achieving carbon neutrality.

More information

University of South Florida Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory FY 2010-2011

University of South Florida Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory FY 2010-2011 University of South Florida Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory FY 2010-2011 Table of Contents I. Executive Summary II. Background III. Institutional Data 1. Budget 2. Physical size 3. Population IV. Emissions

More information

Pittsburgh Climate Initiative PITTSBURGH CLIMATE VERSION 1.0 ACTION PLAN

Pittsburgh Climate Initiative PITTSBURGH CLIMATE VERSION 1.0 ACTION PLAN Pittsburgh Climate Initiative PITTSBURGH CLIMATE VERSION 1.0 ACTION PLAN Cover photo: 2008 Matt Robinson PITTSBURGH CLIMATE VERSION 1.0 ACTION PLAN Endorsed by the Green Government Task Force of Pittsburgh

More information

City of Traverse City Climate Action Plan

City of Traverse City Climate Action Plan City of Traverse City Climate Action Plan City Government Operations For People, Place, and Planet February 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements... 3 Executive Summary... 1 Introduction... 4 Step 1

More information

ClimatE leaders GrEENHOUsE Gas inventory PrOtOCOl COrE module GUidaNCE

ClimatE leaders GrEENHOUsE Gas inventory PrOtOCOl COrE module GUidaNCE United States Environmental Protection Agency may 2008 EPa430-r-08-006 www.epa.gov/climateleaders Office of air and radiation ClimatE leaders GrEENHOUsE Gas inventory PrOtOCOl COrE module GUidaNCE Optional

More information

Environmental Defense Fund NAFA Fleet Management Association

Environmental Defense Fund NAFA Fleet Management Association August 2009 Introduction About Our Organizations Highway Emissions Carbon Dioxide Methane and Nitrous Oxide Refrigerants (HFCs) Non-highway Emissions Sample Calculations Private light-duty fleet Private

More information

CLIMATE ACTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 2014 PROGRESS REPORT

CLIMATE ACTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 2014 PROGRESS REPORT CLIMATE ACTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 2014 PROGRESS REPORT B.C. is continuing to work towards an economy that is prepared for climate change, and helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a global scale.

More information

The Economic Impacts of Reducing. Natural Gas and Electricity Use in Ontario

The Economic Impacts of Reducing. Natural Gas and Electricity Use in Ontario The Economic Impacts of Reducing Natural Gas and Electricity Use in Ontario Prepared for Blue Green Canada July 2013 Table of Contents Executive Summary... i Key Findings... i Introduction...1 Secondary

More information

The California Environmental Protection Agency works to restore, protect,

The California Environmental Protection Agency works to restore, protect, Environmental Protection The California Environmental Protection Agency works to restore, protect, and enhance environmental quality. The Agency coordinates the state s environmental regulatory programs

More information

The City of Calgary 2003 Corporate Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

The City of Calgary 2003 Corporate Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory The City of Calgary 2003 Corporate Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory January 2005 Prepared for: The Federation of Canadian Municipalities & ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability Partners for Climate

More information

Richland County Administration 2020 Hampton Street Columbia, SC 29204 (803) 576-1364 Compiled by: Amanda F. Brennan

Richland County Administration 2020 Hampton Street Columbia, SC 29204 (803) 576-1364 Compiled by: Amanda F. Brennan This report details the methods used and findings of the Richland County internal government operations baseline emissions inventory. The inventory is designed to be used as a tool to measure the effectiveness

More information

Renewable Choice Energy

Renewable Choice Energy Catawba College Table of Contents About Renewable Choice The Problem: Electricity Production Today The Solutions: Renewable Energy Sources Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) Who can participate in Renewable

More information

Ozone Precursor and GHG Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles Comparing Electricity and Natural Gas as Transportation Fuels

Ozone Precursor and GHG Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles Comparing Electricity and Natural Gas as Transportation Fuels Ozone Precursor and GHG Emissions from Light Duty s Comparing Electricity and Natural Gas as Transportation Fuels Robert E. Yuhnke Director, Transportation Program and Mike Salisbury Energy Analyst and

More information

Birmingham City University / Students Union Aspects and Impacts Register. Waste. Impacts description

Birmingham City University / Students Union Aspects and Impacts Register. Waste. Impacts description Birmingham City University / Students Union and Impacts Register Waste Production of non - hazardous waste Production of hazardous waste Storage of non - hazardous waste Potential for waste to be disposed

More information

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE 1. What is climate change? Climate change is a long-term shift in the climate of a specific location, region or planet. The shift is measured by changes in features associated

More information

Summit County Energy Plan - Goals A. Explanation and Comparison: State and Summit County Goals B. Measurement and Verification

Summit County Energy Plan - Goals A. Explanation and Comparison: State and Summit County Goals B. Measurement and Verification Summit County Energy Plan - Goals A. Explanation and Comparison: State and Summit County Goals B. Measurement and Verification A. Explanation and Comparison: State and Summit County Goals In 2007, Colorado

More information

HOW AN ENERGY EFFICIENT HOME CAN HELP THE ENVIRONMENT

HOW AN ENERGY EFFICIENT HOME CAN HELP THE ENVIRONMENT HOW AN ENERGY EFFICIENT HOME CAN HELP THE ENVIRONMENT During the last century, concern about the environment increased, as issues such as global warming and the Greenhouse Effect convinced us that the

More information

Multiple sources of energy will be available, giving the consumer choices. A Higher Percentage of Energy will come from renewable energy sources

Multiple sources of energy will be available, giving the consumer choices. A Higher Percentage of Energy will come from renewable energy sources Editor s comments: Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of duplicate or extremely similar comments made. The headings are editor s best attempt to draft vision statements reflecting the participants

More information

Inventory of existing methodologies and tools

Inventory of existing methodologies and tools Project: RURENER Contract Number: EIE/07/547/SI2.499065 Inventory of existing methodologies and tools Task 2.1.3 & 2.1.4 Sioulas Konstantinos, MSc Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving (CRES)

More information

Energy Conservation and Demand Management Plan. From: 2014-07-01 to: 2018-12-31

Energy Conservation and Demand Management Plan. From: 2014-07-01 to: 2018-12-31 Commitment Management Plan Township of Douro-Dummer From: 2014-07-01 to: 2018-12-31 1. Declaration of Commitment: The Township of Douro-Dummer will use existing resources and will leverage outside agencies

More information

Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions GIIRS Emerging Market Assessment Resource Guide: What s in this Guide? I. Definition: What Are Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions? II. Why Calculate GHGs? III. How to Calculate Company-wide GHGs IV. Outsourcing

More information

City of Santa Ana Energy Savings Analysis. Prepared for Southern California Edison

City of Santa Ana Energy Savings Analysis. Prepared for Southern California Edison City of Santa Ana Energy Savings Analysis Prepared for Southern California Edison Prepared by ICLEI-USA and AECOM December 2012 1. Introduction The purpose of this report is to provide an energy savings

More information

Columbus State Community College. Climate Action Plan

Columbus State Community College. Climate Action Plan Columbus State Community College Climate Action Plan September 2009 Contents Introduction... 3 Commitment... 3 Community Education... 4 Carbon Footprint... 4 Accounting for Student and Employee Commuting...

More information

In 2013, the Spanish economy emits 316.9 million tonnes of greenhouse effect gases, 7.8% less than in 2012

In 2013, the Spanish economy emits 316.9 million tonnes of greenhouse effect gases, 7.8% less than in 2012 20 November 2015 Environmental accounts. Atmospheric Emission Accounts. Base 2010. Accounting series 2010-2013 In 2013, the Spanish economy emits 316.9 million tonnes of greenhouse effect gases, 7.8% less

More information

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Trouble Brewing or a Golden Opportunity? Texas Association of Clean Water Agencies April 3, 2009

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Trouble Brewing or a Golden Opportunity? Texas Association of Clean Water Agencies April 3, 2009 Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Trouble Brewing or a Golden Opportunity? Texas Association of Clean Water Agencies April 3, 2009 Agenda 1. Climate change and greenhouse gas emissions a. What it s all about b.

More information

Keeping below 2 degrees

Keeping below 2 degrees Keeping below 2 degrees Avoiding dangerous climate change It is widely recognised that if the worst impacts of climate change are to be avoided then the average rise in the surface temperature of the Earth

More information

University of Central Florida Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report

University of Central Florida Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report 2009 University of Central Florida Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report Sustainability & Energy Management University of Central Florida in Orlando, Florida Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 3 INTRODUCTION...

More information

IFC Definitions and Metrics for Climate-Related Activities

IFC Definitions and Metrics for Climate-Related Activities IFC Definitions and Metrics for Climate-Related Activities IFC CLIMATE BUSINESS DEPARTMENT VERSION: 2.2 UPDATED: JUNE 2015 Background Climate change is a developmental and business issue. Smart business

More information

FACTS THE. 2014 Methane Emissions Update

FACTS THE. 2014 Methane Emissions Update THE FACTS 2014 Methane Emissions Update AGL Resources primary business is natural gas distribution to residential, commercial and industrial customers through a vast pipeline network. For more than two

More information

Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon. fact SHEET

Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon. fact SHEET Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon fact SHEET Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon Coastal Blue Carbon - An Important Wetland Ecosystem Service Coastal Blue Carbon refers to the

More information

Carbon Management Plan

Carbon Management Plan E-2015-02-02 Addendum Carbon Management Plan Date: 14 May 2014 Owners: Approval: K.W.Bullimore & M.Sackett A.Burrell Executive Summary This document sets out the Carbon Management Plan (CMP) for The Open

More information

Los Angeles Regional Collaborative For Climate Action & Sustainability CHARTER PREAMBLE

Los Angeles Regional Collaborative For Climate Action & Sustainability CHARTER PREAMBLE CHARTER PREAMBLE The United Nations World Council on the Environment and Development defines sustainability as the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations

More information

LAW Nº 5.248 (JANUARY 27TH, 2011) MUNICIPAL LAW ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

LAW Nº 5.248 (JANUARY 27TH, 2011) MUNICIPAL LAW ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT LAW Nº 5.248 (JANUARY 27TH, 2011) MUNICIPAL LAW ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT States the Municipal Policy on Climate Change and Sustainable Development, regulates about the establishment

More information

Natural Gas and Greenhouse Gases. OLLI Lectures November 2014 Dennis Silverman Physics and Astronomy UC Irvine

Natural Gas and Greenhouse Gases. OLLI Lectures November 2014 Dennis Silverman Physics and Astronomy UC Irvine Natural Gas and Greenhouse Gases OLLI Lectures November 2014 Dennis Silverman Physics and Astronomy UC Irvine Replacing Coal With Natural Gas Greenhouse Gas Reduction by Switching from Coal to Natural

More information

Going Green: Installing Solar Panels around the Campus of Widener University

Going Green: Installing Solar Panels around the Campus of Widener University Going Green: Installing Solar Panels around the Campus of Widener University by Andrea Stickley Student at Widener University November 27, 2012 Abstract In recent years, it has come to light about the

More information

Economic Outcomes of a U.S. Carbon Tax. Executive Summary

Economic Outcomes of a U.S. Carbon Tax. Executive Summary Economic Outcomes of a U.S. Carbon Tax Executive Summary [ Overview [ During the ongoing debate on how to address our nation s fiscal challenges, some have suggested that imposing a carbon tax would improve

More information

Water & Energy Efficiency

Water & Energy Efficiency Water & Energy Efficiency Water and energy are vital to all communities and are intricately linked in terms of generation and supply. We can seek and develop new resources to increase supplies, but the

More information

Environmental Performance Data Calculation Standards

Environmental Performance Data Calculation Standards Environal Performance Data Calculation Standards Subject Period: April 1, 2012 March 31, 2013 Scope : Fujitsu and Fujitsu Group (For details, refer to the List of Companies Covered by the Report on Environal

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY AND TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT

ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY AND TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia POLICY STATEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY AND TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT I. COVERAGE This Policy Statement and its appended procedures

More information

Physical flow accounts: principles and general concepts

Physical flow accounts: principles and general concepts Physical flow accounts: principles and general concepts Julian Chow United Nations Statistics Division 1 st Sub-Regional Course on SEEA 23-27 September 2013 Malaysia SEEA Conceptual Framework Outside territory

More information

College of Saint Benedict St. Joseph, MN Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Report

College of Saint Benedict St. Joseph, MN Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Report College of Saint Benedict St. Joseph, MN Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Report 1992-2008 Report Issue Date: July 2008 Project Team: Marnie McInnis Melissa Gearman 1. Summary and Overview 2. Inventory

More information

Ecological, Carbon and Water Footprint

Ecological, Carbon and Water Footprint Ecological, Carbon and Water Footprint Part I: Ecological Footprint Ecological Footprint - Definition The Ecological Footprint, (EF) is a composite index that represents the amount of land and sea needed

More information

POLICY ACTIONS INVESTING IN INNOVATION

POLICY ACTIONS INVESTING IN INNOVATION The BC Energy Plan ALTERNATIVE ENERGY Government will work with other agencies to maximize opportunities to develop, deploy and export British Columbia clean and alternative energy technologies. POLICY

More information

Empowering Local Clean Energy Action FEDERAL POLICY AGENDA FOR 2011

Empowering Local Clean Energy Action FEDERAL POLICY AGENDA FOR 2011 Empowering Local Clean Energy Action FEDERAL POLICY AGENDA FOR 2011 L ocal government leadership is essential for America to achieve energy independence, renew economic prosperity and protect the environment.

More information

https://www.cdp.net/en-us/pages/search-for-the-file+-search.cdproject.net%2frespon...

https://www.cdp.net/en-us/pages/search-for-the-file+-search.cdproject.net%2frespon... Page 1 of 9 English Português Español 日 本 語 中 文 aparsons@anglogoldashanti.com Home What we do Members & signatories Reporting to CDP Reports & data Our partners News & events My CDP Search Results Respondent

More information

2015 CARIP Climate Action/Carbon Neutral Progress Survey

2015 CARIP Climate Action/Carbon Neutral Progress Survey 2015 CARIP Climate Action/Carbon Neutral Progress Survey Filled Monday, March 14, 2016 BROAD PLANNING ACTIONS Broad planning refers to high level planning that sets the stage for GHG emissions reductions,

More information

Revision to the approved baseline methodology AM0011

Revision to the approved baseline methodology AM0011 CDM Executive Board AM00011 / Version 02 Source Revision to the approved baseline methodology AM0011 Landfill gas recovery with electricity generation and no capture or destruction of methane in the baseline

More information

Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Pros:

Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Pros: P a g e 1 Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Generating Electrical Energy Using Moving Water: Hydro-Electric Generation

More information

Meet Clean Diesel. Improving Energy Security. Fueling Environmental Progress. Powering the Economy

Meet Clean Diesel. Improving Energy Security. Fueling Environmental Progress. Powering the Economy Meet Clean Diesel Improving Energy Security Fueling Environmental Progress Powering the Economy What is Clean Diesel? Diesel power is cleaner and more vital to the U.S. economy than ever before. The diesel

More information

GREEN FLEET STRATEGY AND PURE ELECTRIC VEHICLE FEASIBILITY PROGRAM

GREEN FLEET STRATEGY AND PURE ELECTRIC VEHICLE FEASIBILITY PROGRAM COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE OCTOBER 25, 2011 GREEN FLEET STRATEGY AND PURE ELECTRIC VEHICLE FEASIBILITY PROGRAM Recommendation The Manager of Environmental Sustainability and the Commissioner of Community Services,

More information

A Green Idea. Reclaiming Urban Wood Waste And Urban Forest Debris. For Fuel/Combustion & Renewable Energy

A Green Idea. Reclaiming Urban Wood Waste And Urban Forest Debris. For Fuel/Combustion & Renewable Energy A Green Idea Reclaiming Urban Wood Waste And Urban Forest Debris For Fuel/Combustion & Renewable Energy Presentation Edward Kalebich Chief Operating Officer Robbins Community Power Facility located Chicago

More information

GREEN BUILDING INCENTIVES GUIDE

GREEN BUILDING INCENTIVES GUIDE GREEN BUILDING INCENTIVES GUIDE AUGUST 2013 A Comprehensive Collection of the Latest Green Financial Incentives in Western Pennsylvania and Beyond. Do you want to build or retrofit a space to be healthy

More information

Smart Facilities Management with Oracle Applications. Statement of Direction August 2011

Smart Facilities Management with Oracle Applications. Statement of Direction August 2011 Smart Facilities Management with Oracle Applications Statement of Direction August 2011 Smart Facilities Management with Oracle Applications Introduction... 3 Basics of Carbon Accounting... 4 Carbon Accounting

More information

Mayor s Carbon Challenge for Multifamily Buildings Program Design for Property Management Firms

Mayor s Carbon Challenge for Multifamily Buildings Program Design for Property Management Firms Mayor s Carbon Challenge for Multifamily Buildings Program Design for Property Management Firms Overview Background In 2007, Mayor Bloomberg launched PlaNYC, a comprehensive set of strategies to create

More information

Green Guide for Businesses Strategy: Energy

Green Guide for Businesses Strategy: Energy Green Guide for Businesses Strategy: Energy Reduce Energy Use in New and Existing Businesses - In the United States buildings account for: o 72% of electricity consumption, o 39% of energy use, o 38% of

More information

Massachusetts Saving Electricity:

Massachusetts Saving Electricity: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Massachusetts Saving Electricity: A Summary of the Performance of Electric Efficiency Programs Funded by Ratepayers Between 2003 and 2005 Executive Office of Energy and Environmental

More information

First Release of Federal GHG Inventory: Key Observations

First Release of Federal GHG Inventory: Key Observations Introduction White Paper : Key Observations Daniel Waller & Evan Fago Project Performance Corporation and Eastern Research Group, Inc. June 2011 On October 5, 2009, President Obama signed Executive Order

More information

The Energy Savings and Emission Reduction Benefits Delivered by the State of Maryland Energy Performance Contracts

The Energy Savings and Emission Reduction Benefits Delivered by the State of Maryland Energy Performance Contracts The Energy Savings and Emission Reduction Benefits Delivered by the State of Maryland Energy Performance Contracts A Cleaner and Greener SM Environment Program Report by Leonardo Academy Inc. January 2002

More information

Overview of the Heavy-Duty National Program. Need to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles

Overview of the Heavy-Duty National Program. Need to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles Submitted by United States of America Informal document WP.29-155-11 (155 th WP.29, 15-18 November 2011, agenda item 14) United States of America Environmental Protection Agency and National Highway Traffic

More information

Energy: renewable sources of energy. Renewable Energy Sources

Energy: renewable sources of energy. Renewable Energy Sources Energy: renewable sources of energy Energy Sources 1 It is technically and economically feasible to phase out net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions almost entirely by 2050. A report by energy consulting firm

More information

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ACTION PLAN AND SOLAR PILOT PROJECTS

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ACTION PLAN AND SOLAR PILOT PROJECTS T&E AGENDA: 03 05 07 ITEM: 6 TO: TRANSPORTATION & ENVIRONMENT COMMITTEE FROM: John Stufflebean Peter Jensen SUBJECT: SEE BELOW DATE: 02 20 07 Approved Date SUBJECT: SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ACTION PLAN AND SOLAR

More information

INDIANA UNIVERSITY PURDUE UNIVERSITY - INDIANAPOLIS CARBON FOOTPRINT

INDIANA UNIVERSITY PURDUE UNIVERSITY - INDIANAPOLIS CARBON FOOTPRINT INDIANA UNIVERSITY PURDUE UNIVERSITY - INDIANAPOLIS CARBON FOOTPRINT 4/10/2009 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Report for IUPUI Campus This report provides the for the Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis

More information

The CarbonNeutral Company calculation methodology for the carbon calculator

The CarbonNeutral Company calculation methodology for the carbon calculator The CarbonNeutral Company calculation methodology for the carbon calculator The CarbonNeutral Company carbon calculator allows an individual to calculate carbon emissions for flights driving, household

More information

Understanding and Measuring School Electronics

Understanding and Measuring School Electronics Understanding and Measuring School Electronics MATERIALS NEEDED: 1. 6 energy monitoring devices (note: these can be obtained from a variety of sources, i.e., local hardware stores, internet [average cost

More information

Climate Action Revenue Incentive (CARIP) Public Report for 2013

Climate Action Revenue Incentive (CARIP) Public Report for 2013 March 6, 2013 Climate Revenue Incentive Plan (CARIP) Public Report Climate Revenue Incentive (CARIP) Public Report for 2013 City of Quesnel Reported by: Tanya Turner tturner@quesnel.ca Contents General

More information

Examples of Eligible Projects. Project Category Description Examples

Examples of Eligible Projects. Project Category Description Examples Examples of Eligible Projects Public Transit Local Roads, Bridges, and Active Transportation Regional and Local Airports which supports a shared passenger transport system which is available for public

More information

SEATTLE STEAM COMPANY FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

SEATTLE STEAM COMPANY FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS SEATTLE STEAM COMPANY FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS What products/services does Seattle Steam provide? The company provides thermal energy (heat) produced at two central heating plants in downtown Seattle.

More information

Greening Your Business

Greening Your Business ENVIRONMENTAL ASSISTANCE OFFICE NEWSLETTER In this Issue How to make your business green Greening Your Business September, 2011 Recycling Office Space upgrades Fleet management Employee Involvement Previous

More information

The Business Case for Cutting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Municipal Operations

The Business Case for Cutting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Municipal Operations The Business Case for Cutting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Municipal Operations Prepared for: Federation of Canadian Municipalities 24 Clarence Street Ottawa, Ontario K1N 5P3 Prepared by: ICLEI Energy

More information

Environmental Report Fiscal Year 2014

Environmental Report Fiscal Year 2014 Environmental Report Fiscal Year 2014 Executive summary Global climate change caused by increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide is one of the most significant concerns facing our world

More information

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of Development of Data Collection Tool and Calculation of Emissions

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of Development of Data Collection Tool and Calculation of Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of Development of Data Collection Tool and Calculation of Emissions Gaurav Shil Trinity Consultants, 3940 Olympic Boulevard, Suite 400, Erlanger, KY 41018 gshil@trinityconsultants.com

More information

Chicago Regional Energy Snapshot Profile and Strategy Analysis. Prepared for the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning

Chicago Regional Energy Snapshot Profile and Strategy Analysis. Prepared for the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning Chicago Regional Energy Snapshot Profile and Strategy Analysis Prepared for the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning Table of Contents Executive Summary...1 Regional Energy Profile...3 Introduction...3

More information

Greenhouse Gas Offsets and Renewable Energy Certificates: Distinct Commodities in an Evolving Market The Climate Trust

Greenhouse Gas Offsets and Renewable Energy Certificates: Distinct Commodities in an Evolving Market The Climate Trust Greenhouse Gas Offsets and Renewable Energy Certificates: Distinct Commodities in an Evolving Market The Climate Trust Introduction The framework for future climate policy is emerging in the United States

More information

Comparison of Select Materials and Energy Recycling Scenarios

Comparison of Select Materials and Energy Recycling Scenarios Final Report Comparison of Select Materials and Energy Recycling Scenarios City and County of Honolulu Department of Environmental Services April 2007 R. W. BECK, INC. COMPARISON OF SELECT MATERIALS AND

More information

WHAT CITIES NEED TO KNOW ABOUT CEQA AND CLIMATE CHANGE

WHAT CITIES NEED TO KNOW ABOUT CEQA AND CLIMATE CHANGE WHAT CITIES NEED TO KNOW ABOUT CEQA AND CLIMATE CHANGE Sandy Goldberg Deputy Attorney General California Attorney General s Office 510-622-2145 [sandra.goldberg@doj.ca.gov] May 28, 2008 CLIMATE CHANGE

More information

Measuring Electricity Class Activity

Measuring Electricity Class Activity Measuring Electricity Class Activity Objective: To understand what energy is, how it impacts our daily lives, and how one can become an energy steward. Learning Outcomes: Students will: 1. Understand where

More information

2015 -- S 0417 S T A T E O F R H O D E I S L A N D

2015 -- S 0417 S T A T E O F R H O D E I S L A N D LC001 01 -- S 01 S T A T E O F R H O D E I S L A N D IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY JANUARY SESSION, A.D. 01 A N A C T RELATING TO TAXATION -- CARBON PRICING AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENT ACT OF 01 Introduced

More information

Miami-Dade Attains Green Government Certification FGBC Designation Confirms Environmental Stewardship

Miami-Dade Attains Green Government Certification FGBC Designation Confirms Environmental Stewardship Date: November 7, 2012 For Immediate Release Contact: Suzanne B. Cook, CAE PH: 850-894-3422 Email: cooksb@nettally.com Miami-Dade Attains Green Government Certification FGBC Designation Confirms Environmental

More information

Technical Note: Glossary of terms

Technical Note: Glossary of terms Technical Note: Glossary of terms This glossary defines terms that may be unfamiliar to those responding to the Carbon Disclosure Project for the first time. Definitions have been sourced from the GHG

More information

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated

More information

Delivering Clean Energy

Delivering Clean Energy Delivering Clean Energy Meeting Energy Needs Homes and businesses across the country depend on energy to support the economy and sustain a high quality of life. Yet there s also a responsibility to provide

More information

Proposed San Antonio Sustainability Plan

Proposed San Antonio Sustainability Plan Department of Urban and Regional Planning Proposed San Antonio Sustainability Plan URP 5453 Urban and Regional Sustainability University of Texas at San Antonio Spring 2014 Part 1 Introduction Background

More information

CANADIAN WESTERN NATURAL GAS COMPANY LIMITED EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

CANADIAN WESTERN NATURAL GAS COMPANY LIMITED EXECUTIVE SUMMARY CANADIAN WESTERN NATURAL GAS COMPANY LIMITED ACCEPTING THE CHALLENGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In May of 1995, Canadian Western Natural Gas joined Canadian industry leaders in support of Canada's Voluntary Challenge

More information

Tim Facius Baltimore Aircoil

Tim Facius Baltimore Aircoil Presented By: Tim Facius Baltimore Aircoil Slide No.: 1 CTI Mission Statement To advocate and promote the use of environmentally responsible Evaporative Heat Transfer Systems (EHTS) for the benefit of

More information