PENNSYLVANIA ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA SYNTHESIS: The Raccoon Creek Watershed

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1 PENNSYLVANIA ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA SYNTHESIS: The Raccoon Creek Watershed (Watershed D of the Ohio River Subbasin 20) Bridge Replacement Project T-319 Beaver County Bridge No. 36 (Links Bridge) Independence Township, Beaver County, PA Prepared for Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Engineering District 11-0 Submitted by GAI Consultants, Inc. 570 Beatty Road Monroeville, PA GAI Project No DECEMBER 2003

2 PENNSYLVANIA ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA SYNTHESIS: The Raccoon Creek Watershed (Watershed D of the Ohio River Subbasin 20) Bridge Replacement Project T-319 Beaver County Bridge No. 36 (Links Bridge) Independence Township, Beaver County, PA Prepared for Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Engineering District 11-0 Written by Douglas H. MacDonald, Ph.D., RPA Lead Archaeologist With Contributions by Jonathan C. Lothrop, Ph.D, RPA David L. Cremeens, Ph.D., C.P.S.S. GAI Consultants, Inc. 570 Beatty Road Monroeville, PA GAI Project No DECEMBER 2003

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Figures...ii List of Photographs... v Acknowledgements...vii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND PROJECT SUMMARY... 1 A. INTRODUCTION...1 B. PROJECT SETTING...1 C. PREHISTORY OF THE RACCOON CREEK WATERSHED: AN INTRODUCTION...3 CHAPTER II PROJECT LOCATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING... 5 A. DRAINAGE...5 B. PHYSIOGRAPHY AND LANDFORMS (BY D.L. CREMEENS)...6 C. GEOLOGY (BY D.L. CREMEENS)...8 D. PREHISTORIC LITHIC SOURCES...9 E. PALEOENVIRONMENTS...12 CHAPTER III BACKGROUND AND KEY PROJECTS A. PASS FILES DATA...15 B. KEY PROJECTS...15 C. SUMMARY AND INTRODUCTION TO PREHISTORY CHAPTERS...19 CHAPTER IV PALEOINDIAN PERIOD A. PALEOINDIAN OVERVIEW...21 B. PALEOINDIAN MATERIAL CULTURE, CHRONOLOGY, AND SUBSISTENCE...21 C. PALEOINDIAN SITES...25 D. PALEOINDIAN SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND LITHIC RAW MATERIAL USE...31 E. RESEARCH ISSUES...32 CHAPTER V EARLY ARCHAIC PERIOD A. EARLY ARCHAIC MATERIAL CULTURE AND CHRONOLOGY...35 B. EARLY ARCHAIC ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES...36 C. EARLY ARCHAIC SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND LITHIC RAW MATERIAL USE...39 D. EARLY ARCHAIC: CONCLUSION AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS...39 CHAPTER VI MIDDLE ARCHAIC PERIOD A. MIDDLE ARCHAIC OVERVIEW...41 B. MIDDLE ARCHAIC MATERIAL CULTURE AND CHRONOLOGY...41 C. MIDDLE ARCHAIC ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE TYPES AND LOCATION TRENDS...42 D. MIDDLE ARCHAIC SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND LITHIC RAW MATERIAL USE...45 E. MIDDLE ARCHAIC: CONCLUSION AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS...47 PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed i

4 CHAPTER VII LATE ARCHAIC PERIOD A. LATE ARCHAIC OVERVIEW...49 B. LATE ARCHAIC MATERIAL CULTURE, SUBSISTENCE, AND CHRONOLOGY...49 C. LATE ARCHAIC SITE TYPES AND LOCATION TRENDS...53 D. LATE ARCHAIC SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND LITHIC RAW MATERIAL USE...64 E. LATE ARCHAIC: CONCLUSION AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS...66 CHAPTER VIII EARLY WOODLAND PERIOD A. EARLY WOODLAND OVERVIEW...69 B. EARLY WOODLAND MATERIAL CULTURE AND CHRONOLOGY...69 C. EARLY WOODLAND, SUBSISTENCE, SITE TYPES, AND LOCATION TRENDS...73 D. EARLY WOODLAND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS AND LITHIC RAW MATERIAL USE...83 E. EARLY WOODLAND: CONCLUSION AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS...84 CHAPTER IX MIDDLE WOODLAND PERIOD A. MIDDLE WOODLAND OVERVIEW...87 B. MIDDLE WOODLAND MATERIAL CULTURE AND CHRONOLOGY...87 C. MIDDLE WOODLAND SITE TYPES, LOCATIONS, AND SETTLEMENT...89 D. MIDDLE WOODLAND LITHIC RAW MATERIAL USE...93 E. MIDDLE WOODLAND: OVERVIEW AND RESEARCH ISSUES...93 CHAPTER X LATE WOODLAND PERIOD A. INTRODUCTION...95 B. LATE WOODLAND MATERIAL CULTURE, CHRONOLOGY, AND KEY REGIONAL SITES...95 C. LATE WOODLAND SITES IN WATERSHED D...98 D. LATE WOODLAND LITHICS AND SETTLEMENT E. LATE WOODLAND: SUMMARY AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS CHAPTER XI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION A. DEMOGRAPHY AND SETTLEMENT B. LITHIC RAW MATERIAL USE AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS C. CONCLUSION: FUTURE AVENUES OF RESEARCH IN WATERSHED D, SUBBASIN REFERENCES LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. West-Central Pennsylvania (gray) and Raccoon Creek...1 Figure 2. Map of the Raccoon Creek Watershed and Vicinity...2 Figure 3. Geomorphological Cross-Section of Raccoon Creek at Links Bridge, Independence Township...7 Figure Figure 4. Lithic Raw Materials in Southwestern Pennsylvania Map of Key Archaeological Sites & Projects in the Study Area and Vicinity...17 Figure 6. Miller Type Point from Stratum IIa. Point is Actual Size (from Boldurian 1985:284) Figure Figure 7. Comparison of the Miller Type Point from Meadowcroft (far right; Boldurian 1985:284) with Steubenville Points from the East Steubenville Site (46Br31). All Points at Same Scale. Steubenville Point images courtesy of the West Virginia Division of Highways Map of Paleoindian Sites...26

5 Figure 9. Possible Clovis Point Preform Fragment from Site 36Wh1312 (Scale: 1 in. equals 2.5 cm; 2000a) Figure 10. Early Archaic Kirk Corner-Notched (left) and Stemmed (right) Points, Actual Size (from Michels and Smith 1967:683; East and Beckman 1992:46)...35 Figure 11. Changing Site Counts in the Early Holocene: Comparison of Site Counts (top) and Site Density per Decade (bottom), Watershed D (PASS files)...41 Figure 12. Middle Archaic Bifurcate Point, Actual Size (from Custer et al. 1996:31)...42 Figure 13. Early Woodland/Adena Artifacts (from Dragoo 1963:179)...70 Figure 14. Location of Early Woodland Sites Discussed in Text Figure 15. Profiles of Cresap Mound (from Dragoo 1963:21) Figure 16. Profile and Planview of McKees Rocks Mound (from McMichael 1956:148)...78 Figure 17. Comparison of Late Archaic and Early Woodland Artifact Counts, Sites in Cross Creek Drainage (Vento and Donohue ) Figure 18. Comparison of Late Archaic and Early Woodland Lithic Raw Material Use at Meadowcroft Rockshelter (top) and Mungai Farm (bottom) (after Vento and Donahue (1982: )...86 Figure 19. Raccoon Notched Points (from Lantz 1989:9, 11)...87 Figure 20. Late Woodland Levanna Triangle Point (from Michels and Smith 1967:669) Figure 21. Quantity of Late Woodland Radiocarbon Dates Over Time in the Upper Ohio Valley (data from Nass and Hart 2000: )...97 Figure 22. Site Densities per Period from the End of the Late Archaic to the Late Woodland, Watershed D...98 Figure 23. Site Counts per Decade Per Period, Watershed D, Subbasin Figure 24. Variation in Site Location, Watershed D, Subbasin LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Archaeological Sites by Time Period in Watershed D, Subbasin Table 2. Lithic Raw Materials in Southwestern Pennsylvania Table 3. Comparison of Raw PASS File Data with Checked PASS File Data in Watershed D, Subbasin Table 4. Paleoindian Sites, Watershed D (PASS Files)...25 Table 5. Paleoindian Site Location Data, Watershed D (PASS Files)...27 Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Paleoindian Site Location Data, Watershed D (PASS files)...27 Site 36Wh1312: Projectile Point Data...30 Lithic Raw Material Use at Paleoindian Sites in the Raccoon Creek Watershed D and Vicinity Table 9. Site 36Wh1312: Cross-Tabulation of Chert Type by Artifact Type Table 10. Early Archaic Sites, Watershed D (PASS Files)...37 Table 11. Early Archaic Site Location Data, Raccoon Creek Watershed (PASS Files)...37 Table 12. Early Archaic Site Location Data, Raccoon Creek Watershed (PASS Files) Table 13. Lithic Raw Material Use at Single Component Early Archaic Sites, Watershed D (PASS Files)...39 PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed iii

6 Table 14. Cross-Tabulation of Cross Creek Site by Lithic Raw Material Type for Early Archaic Artifacts (Vento and Donohue 1982: ) Table 15. Middle Archaic Sites, Watershed D (PASS Files) Table 16. Middle Archaic Site Location Data, Watershed D (PASS Files)...44 Table 17. Middle Archaic Site Location Data, Watershed D (PASS Files)...46 Table 18. Table 19. Table 20. Cross-Tabulation of Single Component Middle Archaic Sites and Lithic Raw Materials, Watershed D (PASS Files)...47 Cross-Tabulation of Cross Creek Site by Lithic Raw Material Type for Middle Archaic Artifacts (Vento and Donohue 1982: ) Late Archaic Sites, Watershed D (PASS Files)...54 Table 21. Cross-Tabulation of Site Setting by Nearest Water, Watershed D Sites (PASS data) Table 22. Table 23. Table 24. Table 25. Table 26. Table 27. Cross-Tabulation of Site Setting by Diagnostic Artifact Type at Late Archaic Sites, Watershed D Sites (PASS data)...56 Cross-Tabulation of Nearest Water by Type of Diagnostic Artifact at Late Archaic Sites, Watershed D (PASS Files)...56 Late Archaic Site Location Data, Watershed D (PASS Files)...56 Late Archaic Site Location Data, Watershed D (PASS Files)...57 Cross-Tabulation of Site by Lithic Raw Material (Presence or Absence) at Single Component Late Archaic Sites (PASS Files; X=present; --=absent) Cross-Tabulation of Cross Creek Site by Lithic Raw Material Type for Late Archaic Artifacts (Vento and Donohue 1982: ) Table 28. Early Woodland Sites, Watershed D, Subbasin 20 (PASS Files)...81 Table 29. Early Woodland Site Location Data, Watershed D, Subbasin 20 (PASS Files) Table 30. Table 31. Table 32. Table 33. Table 34. Early Woodland Site Location Data, Watershed D (PASS Files)...82 Cross-Tabulation of Cross Creek Site by Lithic Raw Material for Early Woodland Artifacts...84 Middle Woodland Sites, Watershed D (PASS Files)...89 Middle Woodland Site Location Data, Watershed D (PASS Files)...90 Middle Woodland Site Location Data, Watershed D (PASS Files)...91 Table 35. Cross-Tabulation of Middle Woodland Site by Lithic Raw Material (Percent), Watershed D Table 36. Late Woodland Sites, Raccoon Creek Watershed (PASS Files)...99 Table 37. Late Woodland Site Location Data, Watershed D, Subbasin Table 38. Late Woodland Site Location Data, PASS Files (Watershed D) Table 39. Cross-Tabulation of Late Woodland Site by Lithic Raw Material (Percent), Watershed D Table 40. Site Location Data, All Periods, Watershed D, Subbasin Table 41. Lithic Raw Material Use over Time, Watershed D, Subbasin

7 LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS Photograph 1. Traverse Creek within Raccoon Creek State Park. View East....1 Photograph 2. Photograph 4. Photograph 5. The Confluence of Raccoon Creek and the Ohio River. View South across the Ohio River from Route Cross Creek near Site 36Wh298, Cross Creek Village, in the Southern Portion of Watershed D. View Southeast...6 Typical Upland Setting in Project Area. View South across Mungai Farm in the Southern Portion of Watershed D...6 Photograph 6. The Raccoon Creek Valley near Links Bridge, Independence Township. View South...6 Photograph 7. Photograph 8. Photograph 9. Photograph 10. Photograph 11. Photograph 12. Blades found in Association with the Miller Point, Stratum IIa, Meadowcroft Rockshelter ( /meadowcroft/.htm) View of Meadowcroft Rockshelter from above Cross Creek. View Northeast (photo courtesy of J. Herbstritt and J. Adovasio) Setting of Site 36Wh1312 within the Wolf Fun Valley. View North...30 Brewerton Points (Left; from York County, Pa); and Steubenville Points (Right; from East Steubenville Site, 46Br31). Steubenville Point Photo courtesy of West Virginia Division of Highways...49 Aerial Photograph of the Leetsdale Site. View Northeast ( Photograph courtesy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...61 Aerial Photograph of the East Steubenville Site. View North. Courtesy of West Virginia Division of Highways...62 Photograph 13. View of McKees Rocks Mound Prior to the 1896 Excavations (from Dragoo 1963:153)...78 Photograph 14. Photograph 15. Excavator holding Stone Bowl/Mortar from Leetsdale Site ( Photo Courtesy of the U.S. Corps of Engineers View Northwest toward the Georgetown Site (36Bv29) and the Ohio River...82 Photograph 16. View of Hill in the Former Location of Avella Mound. Excavations at the Site Removed Most of the Mound which was on top of the Hill. View Northwest...92 PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed v

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9 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Scope of Work for this data synthesis was coordinated by Patrick Roberts (Environmental Manager) and Joseph Verbka (Qualified Professional Archaeologist) of PennDOT District 11-0, Chan Funk of the Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission (PHMC) Bureau for Historic Preservation (BHP), and GAI s Ben Resnick, M.A., RPA, Jonathan C. Lothrop, Ph.D., RPA and Douglas H. MacDonald, Ph.D., RPA. Ben Resnick, M.A., RPA, was project manager, while Douglas H. MacDonald, Ph.D., RPA, was Principal Investigator and author of the technical report. Jonathan C. Lothrop contributed sections of this report as well. Lisa Dugas conducted background research at the State Museum in Harrisburg. David L. Cremeens, Ph.D., CPSS, conducted the geomorphological study for the Links Bridge project (MacDonald 2003b) which is included in Chapter II of this report. GAI would like to express its gratitude to the following individuals at the PHMC-BHP in Harrisburg who facilitated completion of the project in one way or another: Chan Funk, Pete Van Rossum, and Kurt Carr. Each of these individuals went out of their way to provide assistance during the course of this project. In addition, James Adovasio of Mercyhurst College and Conrad Weiser of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburgh Division, provided access to artifacts, reports, and unpublished documents from the Meadowcroft and Leetsdale projects, respectively. PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed vii

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11 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND PROJECT SUMMARY A. INTRODUCTION This document is a prehistoric archaeological data synthesis for the Raccoon Creek Watershed (Watershed D) of the Ohio River Subbasin 20, prepared by GAI Consultants, Inc. (GAI) for PennDOT District 11-0 (Figures 1 and 2). For comparative purposes, the report also includes research report information from areas peripheral to Watershed D, including the Upper Ohio Valley and southwestern Pennsylvania, in general. The report should prove useful for archaeologists or laypersons interested in the Native American prehistory of western Pennsylvania and the Upper Ohio River Valley. This document also provides contextual information and research questions for reviewers of archaeological projects at PennDOT and the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission s (PHMC) Bureau for Historic Preservation (BHP) for assessing the (National Register) significance of identified sites. Figure 1. West-Central Pennsylvania (gray) and Raccoon Creek (dot). ( ateparks/parks/racc.htm) B. PROJECT SETTING The Ohio River (PA Subbasin 20) encompasses 3,084 sq. miles of total drainage area in Pennsylvania and includes hundreds of watersheds along its 981 mile-long trajectory between Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Cairo, Illinois. The Raccoon Creek watershed (Photograph 1) (Watershed D of Ohio River Subbasin 20) comprises 327 square miles within the Pittsburgh Low Plateau Section of the unglaciated Appalachian Plateaus Province, including northern Washington County, southern Beaver County, and western Allegheny County. Raccoon Creek begins near Burgettstown, in northern Washington County, and gently meanders northward to its confluence with the Ohio River northwest of Pittsburgh near the Beaver and Allegheny County line (Figure 2). Traverse Creek (see Photograph 1), Little Traverse Creek, and Service Creek are its major tributaries in the watershed. South of Raccoon Creek, the watersheds of Harmon Creek and Cross Creek drain westward into the Ohio River, but are included in Watershed D. Photograph 1. Traverse Creek within Raccoon Creek State Park. View East. As noted above, the PHMC-BHP and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (2002) also include Cross Creek and Harmon Creek within the Raccoon Creek Watershed D, even though both of these creeks flow westward directly into the Ohio River; they are not feeder streams of Raccoon Creek. Nevertheless, to be consistent with the Pennsylvania Archaeological Site Survey (PASS) files (administered by the PHMC-BHP), we also include Cross Creek and Harmon Creek in Watershed D. The implications of this inclusion are great, as extensive research has been conducted within Cross Creek by the University of Pittsburgh at sites such as Meadowcroft Rockshelter (Carlisle and Adovasio 1982), providing a wealth of data by which to assess the history of the region. PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed 1

12 MAP OF WATERSHEDS D, E, AND F SUBBASIN 20 Figure 2. Map of the Raccoon Creek Watershed and Vicinity gaic0nsultants, INC. DRAWN DHM APPROVED jcl DATE 7/10/03 DWG. NO C-A2 A Shenango B Beaver D Raccoon E Buffalo/Wheeling Ohio River Subbasin 20 Ohio River Subbasin 20 C Slippery Rock G Ohio F Chartiers Shaded Area See Map at Right Ohio River Cross Creek Buffalo Creek WEST VIRGINIA To Ohio River D Beaver County Harmon Cr. PENNSYLVANIA Raccoon Creek E Wheeling Creek Allegheny County Washington County Pittsburgh Ohio River Chartiers Creek Scale F miles Pennsylvania Figure 2 Map of the Raccoon Creek Watershed and Vicinity 2 PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed

13 C. PREHISTORY OF THE RACCOON CREEK WATERSHED: AN INTRODUCTION The cultural historical chronology used in this report differs from the traditional Upper Ohio Valley sequence first defined by Mayer-Oakes (1955); namely, we do not include a Late Prehistoric period in the sequence, as is common in southwestern Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Instead, we use the traditional Pennsylvania chronology as established by Raber (1985) in the Comprehensive State Plan for the Conservation of Archaeological Resources. In this sequence, the Upper Ohio Valley Late Prehistoric Period is subsumed in the larger Late Woodland period. In so doing, the report maintains consistency with the chronology used in the Pennsylvania Archaeological Site Survey (PASS) files. For at least the last 12,000 years, Native Americans have occupied Watershed D of the Ohio River Subbasin. More than 200 prehistoric site components from seven different time periods have been identified at archaeological sites in Watershed D (Table 1). Prehistoric occupation was initiated during the Paleoindian period, at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, when small bands of Native Americans migrated into the previously uninhabited region. Meadowcroft Rockshelter (36Wh297), located in the Cross Creek drainage of Watershed D, is one of the most important Paleoindian archaeological sites in North America and may date to as early as 14,500 years ago. Table 1. Archaeological Sites by Time Period in Watershed D, Subbasin 20. PERIOD TIMEFRAME (YEARS BP) SITE COMPONENTS* IN WATERSHED D Paleoindian 16,000-10,000 8 Early Archaic 10, Middle Archaic Late Archaic Early Woodland Middle Woodland Late Woodland TOTAL *No. of Sites from PASS data with components for respective periods, based on type of diagnostic artifacts at sites. Subsequent to the occupations at Meadowcroft, Native Americans of the region used beautifully crafted fluted spear points and atlatls (spearthrowers) and traveled over a wide area. This mobile forager lifestyle continued through the end of the Early Archaic period until approximately 8,800 or so years ago. At this time, Native American populations steadily increased and there was a change in subsistence and settlement pattern. In contrast to the Paleoindian period, Native Americans of the Early and Middle Archaic (ca. 8,000 years ago) occasionally lived in base camps on terraces of rivers for a few months of the year. From these base camps, Native Americans traveled to uplands and low-mid-order tributaries to collect seasonally available resources. Travel in the local area increased at this time, as reflected by the use a wide variety of cherts from southwestern Pennsylvania, including Ten Mile, Uniontown and Monongahela cherts. The change in subsistence pattern led to a dramatic population increase during the initial portion of the Late Archaic period, approximately 5,200-4,000 years ago. Late Archaic Native Americans utilized Brewerton side- and corner-notched projectile points and traveled extensively within western Pennsylvania rivers and stream corridors. By the end of the Late Archaic period (ca. 4,000 to 3,000 years ago), evidence from Panhandle Archaic/Steubenville sites along the Ohio River and Raccoon Creek indicate increased nucleation of populations and increased riverine subsistence. In other parts of Pennsylvania, this transition to increased sedentism and riverine adaptations is called the Transitional or Terminal Archaic. However, typical artifacts of the Transitional Period, including steatite, pottery, horticultural remains, and broadspear projectile points, are not well represented at sites in western Pennsylvania. As such, this report does not include a chapter on the Transitional/Terminal Archaic Period. Instead, the Transitional is included in the Late Archaic. During the Early Woodland period (3,000 to 2,100 years ago), Native Americans of the Adena culture first produced pottery and incorporated small amounts of domesticated PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed 3

14 foods into their diets, including corn, beans, squash, and sunflower, as well as a variety of other wild seed crops. Meadowcroft Rockshelter on Cross Creek has yielded some of the earliest evidence of pottery use and plant domestication in the Upper Ohio Valley. Increased sedentism and ceremonialism is a hallmark of the Early Woodland Adena culture, as reflected in the large burial mounds with human burials and wealth items along the Ohio River and its major tributaries. During the Middle Woodland (2100 to 1200 BP/800 A.D.), the Adena culture gave way to the Hopewell, another mound-building culture thought to be either a cultural continuation of Adena or a population replacement. During the Middle Woodland, mound building continued, as did the reliance on agriculture and sedentism. Raccoon Notched projectile points are well represented at sites in the Raccoon Creek drainage and vicinity (Lantz 1989). These points are typically recovered with Watson Farm pottery at sites along the main stem of Raccoon Creek, as well as much of central and western Pennsylvania. By approximately 800 A.D. (1,200 years ago), Late Woodland site counts increased in southwestern Pennsylvania, especially to the south and east of Raccoon Creek in areas occupied by the Late Woodland Monongahela culture (see Figure 1). Some researchers in the Upper Ohio River Valley call this period the Late Prehistoric Period. For all intent and purposes, the Late Woodland discussed in this report and the Late Prehistoric are the same. The Late Woodland population increase was likely spurned by the increased availability of resources due to agriculture and the increasing use of semi-sedentary villages. Populations in the Raccoon Creek watershed, as well as in the nearby Ohio River and Monongahela River watersheds, relied extensively on agriculture and sedentism during the Late Woodland. The Raccoon Creek watershed contains fewer Late Woodland sites than the Monongahela River watershed and the Upper Ohio River in West Virginia. While several sites in Cross Creek yielded Late Woodland components, only a few sites along the Ohio River are true Late Woodland villages within Watershed D. No Late Woodland villages have been excavated along Raccoon Creek, suggesting that it may have been used primarily for hunting and gathering. At villages along the Upper Ohio River, Chartiers Creek and the Monongahela River, Native Americans used domesticated crops and abundant wild resources to subsist, including fish, shellfish, animals, and wild plants. This report provides a comprehensive overview of the prehistory of the Raccoon Creek watershed and is organized into 12 chapters, including four background/summary chapters and seven chapters that summarize prehistory by time period. Chapter II describes the project setting and provides information on the landscape and resources available to prehistoric Native Americans. A comprehensive overview of paleoenvironments and lithic raw materials is also provided in Chapter II. Chapter III provides an overview of methods utilized during the collection of data for the report and summarizes the key archaeological projects and sites in Watershed D of Subbasin 20. Chapters IV through X provide overviews of the Paleoindian, Early Archaic, Middle Archaic, Late Archaic, Early Woodland, Middle Woodland, and Late Woodland periods. The final chapter provides a summary overview of major cultural and demographic trends over time in the study area. The ultimate goal of this report is to provide a context for future research in the region. By using the information gathered in this report, future archaeologists will hopefully be able to better understand the important research issues and cultural historical milestones of the last 12,000 years of Native American lifeways in the study area. 4 PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed

15 CHAPTER II PROJECT LOCATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING This chapter provides an overview of the natural environment of the Raccoon Creek watershed and vicinity, including descriptions of the region s physiography, drainage, soils, bedrock, floral and faunal resources, as well as past and present environments. In addition, this chapter includes a detailed overview of lithic raw materials available to prehistoric Native Americans in the sub-basin. Analysis of the variety of cherts and other stones used by Native Americans provides insight into prehistoric use of the landscape. 10 km northwest of Canonsburg in northern Washington County. Raccoon Creek meanders northerly to its confluence with the westwardflowing Ohio River, 10 km northwest of Aliquippa in central Beaver County (see Photograph 2). A. DRAINAGE Ohio River Subbasin 20 begins in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as a result of the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers; it subsequently flows northwesterly past its confluence with the Beaver River north of Aliquippa and past the mouth of Raccoon Creek just east of Shippingport. Subbasin 20 encompasses seven watersheds in Pennsylvania (Watersheds A-G; DEP 2002): A) Shenango River; B) Beaver River; C) Slippery Rock Creek; D) Raccoon Creek; E) Wheeling and Buffalo Creeks; F) Chartiers Creek; and G) Upper Ohio River. The current project area encompasses Watershed D Raccoon Creek and Cross Creeks, among others but will also discuss pertinent archaeological sites from peripheral areas as well. Watershed D of the Ohio River Subbasin 20 encompasses a total drainage area of 327 sq. miles. The northern border of the watershed is the Ohio River between the mouth of Raccoon Creek (Photograph 2.) and the Ohio border (see Figure 2). The Ohio and West Virginia state lines form the western watershed boundary. The Cross Creek watershed is the most southern in Watershed D, while Raccoon Creek forms the watershed s eastern border. Raccoon Creek is the main stream within Watershed D; it forms at the confluence of Burgetts Fork and Cherry Run in Burgettstown, Photograph 2. The Confluence of Raccoon Creek and the Ohio River. View South across the Ohio River from Route 68. Several large tributaries, including Wingfield Run, Traverse Creek, Little Traverse Creek and Service Creek make it a relatively high-order stream by the time it reaches the Ohio River, approximately half-way between Shippingport and Beaver, Pennsylvania. The majority of the land located south and west of the Ohio River in Beaver County drains into Raccoon Creek. Raccoon Creek State Park in the center of the watershed is one of the largest state parks in Pennsylvania, encompassing a total acreage of 7,323 acres, including the 100-acre Raccoon Creek Lake, formed by the damming of Traverse Creek (see Photograph 1). The other major drainage in Watershed D is Cross Creek (Photograph 3), which forms the southern border of the watershed and flows westerly for ca. 32 km to the Ohio River (Carlisle et al. 1982:6). Cross Creek s major tributaries include the North, Middle, and South Forks of Cross Creek. Each of these creeks has its headwaters at springheads in the uplands of PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed 5

16 northern Washington County. Photograph 4 shows a typical upland setting at Mungai Farm on a ridge divide between the Cross Creek and Raccoon Creek watersheds southwest of Burgettstown. rolling interfluves separated by relatively narrow, steep-walled, moderately incised valleys (Figure 3; Briggs 1999). L a n d f o r m s As depicted in Figure 3, the general landform shape throughout the Raccoon Creek Valley is that of a maturely dissected plateau with relatively broad ridgetops (see Photograph 4) and narrow, deep valleys (Photograph 5). In general, slopes are relatively steep to very steep along the lower portions of the valley walls, and then become more moderate closer to the ridgetops (Ellyson et al. 1974). Photograph 3. Cross Creek near Site 36Wh298, Cross Creek Village, in the Southern Portion of Watershed D. View Southeast B. PHYSIOGRAPHY AND LANDFORMS (BY D.L. CREMEENS) Physiography Subbasin 20 occurs within the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province, specifically within the Unglaciated Appalachian Plateaus section. The Appalachian Plateaus province is characterized by relatively flat-lying, predominantly clastic rocks that are higher in elevation, and younger in age than surrounding provinces (Thornbury 1965). The plateau is bounded on all sides by outward facing escarpments, subtle to the south and west, and prominent to the north and east (Allegheny Front). The boundary or division between the Glaciated Appalachian Plateau and the Unglaciated Appalachian Plateau sections is the Late Wisconsin glacial boundary, approximately 20 km north of the Ohio River. The study area is entirely within the unglaciated Pittsburgh Low Plateau section. Within Pennsylvania, the Pittsburgh Low Plateau section is the lowest in the Appalachian Plateau province, and has a relatively narrow range of depth of dissection. The upland surface of the prototypical area forms a true plateau of broad, Photograph 4. Typical Upland Setting in Project Area. View South across Mungai Farm in the Southern Portion of Watershed D. Photograph 5. The Raccoon Creek Valley near Links Bridge, Independence Township. View South. 6 PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed

17 Scale miles Figure 3. Geomorphological Cross-Section of Raccoon Creek at Links Bridge, Independence Township West WEST-EAST CROSS-SECTION, RACCOON CREEK Upland Residuum East Pennsylvanian Bedrock Early Pleistocene Terrace Strath Historic Floodplain/Low Terrace Pennsylvanian Bedrock Historic/Late Holocene Alluvial Fan Natural Levee Raccoon Creek Silty Late Holocene/Historic Alluvium Natural Levee Abandoned Channel Late Holocene Low Terrace Silty Clay Late Holocene Alluvium Not to Scale Figure 3 Geomorphological Cross-Section of Raccoon Creek at Links Bridge, Independence Township PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed 7

18 With the exception of the Ohio River and a few of its large tributaries, the valley floors of most streams are very narrow with little to no flood plain development. The Raccoon Creek valley is approximately 150 to 300 meters wide with a relatively level valley floor easily distinguished from the valley wall (see Figure 3; see Photograph 5). Valley walls are near-vertical-to -vertical bedrock outcrops to the uplands or to terrace straths. Relief in the valley ranges from m from the upland ridgetops to the valley floor. The terrace straths are 9 to 27m above the valley floor, and approximately 60m below the ridgetops. Within the valley floor, Raccoon Creek meanders broadly across the valley floor with large cutbanks into the uplands and straths. Tributaries enter the Raccoon Creek valley floor in the form of alluvial fans. Many of these fans have pushed Raccoon Creek from one side of the valley to the other. The overall drainage pattern of Raccoon Creek with its tributaries is dendritic. Several large rectangular bends or meanders of the creek are present upstream and downstream of the project area (see Photograph 5). These large rectangular bends are associated with well-developed terrace straths. Independence Township in Beaver County has no documented glacial sediments, including outwash, associated with any of the Pleistocene glaciations. However, there are erosional landforms (terrace straths) associated with Pleistocene stream downcutting (see Figure 3). The uplands consist predominantly of residual Gilpin Series soils (Smith 1982). The terrace straths are mapped with the Monongahela, Tyler and Allegheny soils, all with well-developed profiles containing argillic Bt horizons and fragipan Bx horizons. Colluvial soils, represented by the Ernest Series, are mapped at the base of some slopes. The valley floor of Raccoon Creek is mapped with the weakly developed Pope, Philo and Atkins alluvial soils. C. GEOLOGY (by D.L. Cremeens) The rocks within the southern portion of Beaver County belong to the Middle Pennsylvanian Allegheny Group, as well as the Upper Pennsylvanian Conemaugh and Monongahela Groups. In general, the Middle Pennsylvanian represents upper delta plain facies, while the Upper Pennsylvanian Conemaugh Group and Monongahela Group represent a change back to lower delta facies (Wagner et al. 1970). The Monongahela Group, divided into the Pittsburgh and Uniontown Formations, is a sedimentary sequence that as a whole is dominated by limestones and dolomitic limestones, calcareous mudstones, shales, and thin-bedded siltstones and laminites (thin-bedded rocks). Rocks of the Monongahela Group are only present at the surface as isolated knobs or hills in adjacent south Hopewell Township, and in southern Hanover Township near Frankfort Springs. The Pittsburgh coal was stripmined out of the base of the Monongahela Group rocks in Hanover Township; the resultant strip-mined lands are contained in Raccoon Creek State Park and in Hillman State Park in Washington and Beaver Counties. The Conemaugh Group, which covers much of the study area, is divided into two formations, the stratigraphically higher Casselman Formation and the Glenshaw Formation. The Ames limestone separates the two formations. The Glenshaw Formation is distinguished by having several widespread marine units, both limestone and shale, in the stratigraphic succession (Edmunds et al. 1999). The Casselman Formation consists of shales, fluvial sandstones, marine limestones and thin coals formed in a lower delta plain environment (Vento 2001). The bedrock units at the bridge crossing have been ascribed to the Birmingham shale member of the Casselman Formation (Vento 2001). The only exposure of Allegheny Group rocks in Independence Township is in the northeast corner, north of the town of Independence, where the Allegheny Group is exposed in the Raccoon Creek valley. Structurally, the Pittsburgh Low Plateau prototypical area has a very gentle southwest dip into the Dunkard Basin, overprinted by gentle, northeast-trending folds that decrease in amplitude northwestward (Briggs 1999). In the pre-glacial (pre-pleistocene) landscape the major steams generally drained northwest to the Erie basin. Based on work done by Leverette 8 PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed

19 (1934), most geologists believe that the master stream for the southwestern Pennsylvania region was the pre-glacial Monongahela River (Wagner et al. 1970). The pre-glacial Monongahela River headed in central West Virginia, just as the modern stream does, and flowed north to present day Pittsburgh (Harper 1997; Wagner et al. 1970; Leverette 1934). From Pittsburgh, the river flowed northwest to near Beaver, Pennsylvania, along a course now followed by the modern Ohio River downstream from Pittsburgh. At Beaver, the pre-glacial Monongahela River continued to flow northward toward New Castle, Pennsylvania. North of New Castle, the river turned westward and flowed into Ohio near Youngstown where it finally turned northward again and flowed into the Erie Basin. The north-flowing Monongahela system existed for a long enough period of time that broad meanders developed in the streams in its drainage basin, and the streams were widening rather than deepening their valleys (Wagner et al. 1970). Sometime in the early Pleistocene, continental glaciers moved into northwest Pennsylvania and effectively blocked the northflowing streams. The blockage resulted in ponding, and in the establishment of a new drainage outlet to the south. The modern Ohio River was formed taking with it the drainage basin of the pre-glacial Monongahela River at Beaver, Pennsylvania. Work by Jacobson et al. (1988) place the timeframe for the flow direction reversal sometime between the early Pleistocene magnetic reversal at 772,000 years BP and the Illinoisan Stage (302,000 to 132,000 years BP). The new south-flowing Ohio system rapidly downcut the valley floor. The pre- or early- Pleistocene drainage is preserved in the modern Monongahela, Allegheny, and Ohio basins in a series of abandoned stream channels and cutoff meander bends (Kaktins and Delano 1999). These geomorphic features are partially preserved as a series of relatively highelevation, flat-topped terraces, often as great as 90-95m above the present stream levels. These remnant valleys are known as the Parker Strath, from a typical terrace near Parker, Pennsylvania, and from the Scottish word strath meaning a wide flat valley (Wagner et al. 1970; Kaktins and Delano 1999). A terrace strath implies a bedrock-cored valley floor, elevated and dissected, that may be mantled by alluvium or other deposits. A map by Marine (1997) shows the extent of glacial Lake Monongahela, based on elevation, as extending upstream in the Raccoon Creek Valley. This suggests that some of the terrace straths may have a mantle of fine-grained lacustrine deposits. The new base level of the reversed, south-flowing Ohio drainage, and the increased drainage area for the basin resulted in a deep stage erosion event that isolated the Parker Strath as much as 15-20m above the riverbed. The erosion event is believed to have occurred in the late portions of the Illinoisan Stage or in the Sangamon Interglacial Stage (approximately 132,000 to 79,000 years ago). Erosion and downcutting continued throughout the Wisconsin Stage until the Parker Strath was isolated as much as 90m above modern stream levels. Vento (2001) indicated that the terrace straths, described as a broad structural bench at a nominal elevation of 900 feet above mean sea level and 20-30m above the active stream channel (Raccoon Creek), likely correspond to the Parker/ Carmichaels strath terrace. D. PREHISTORIC LITHIC SOURCES A variety of primary (bedrock) and secondary (stream cobble) lithic toolstone sources were available to prehistoric Native American groups inhabiting the Raccoon Creek watershed and vicinity (Figure 4). Most primary sources of lithic raw materials were available in the southern portion of Watershed D, while secondary sources were available in the north. As such, Native Americans in the Raccoon Creek Valley likely curated high-quality stone from other regions and used local glacial cobble chert for expedient daily tasks. Regional sources of chert are described below. Western Pennsylvania Uniontown chert or flint occurs in Late Paleozoic Uniontown formation limestone PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed 9

20 deposits of southwestern Pennsylvania, distributed predominantly southwest of the project area near Canonsburg. Uniontown chert is the most prominent primary source chert in the Ohio River subbasin. Uniontown chert cobbles were recovered by Eisert (1974) in both Chartiers Creek and Little Chartiers Creek near Canonsburg in Watershed F of Subbasin 20. Uniontown is light-gray to light olive-gray (5Y6/1), very pale orange (10YR8/2), and yellowish-gray (5Y8/1) of medium to fine grain. The chert occurs in nodules ranging from 2.5 to 30.5cm in diameter (Eisert 1974). As with the Uniontown chert described above, Monongahela chert outcrops within the Uniontown member of the Pennsylvanian Monongahela Group. Vento and Donohue (1982:119) note its presence along Cross Creek within the current study area, while Eisert (1974) observed outcrops near Chartiers and Little Chartiers Creeks near Canonsburg. Monongahela chert is described as being dark to light gray with limonite staining on weathered surfaces and bedding planes (Vento and Donohue 1982: 120). The current author also observed Monongahela chert near the headwaters of Wolf Run, a tributary of Buffalo Creek, northwest of Washington, Pennsylvania in Watershed E. The chert was of a fairly low quality within limestone nodules eroding on the ground surface of a steep sideslope. Ten Mile chert occurs as thin lenses within the lower member of the Greene Formation and the upper member of the Washington Formation along the Ten Mile Creek drainage, Green County, southwestern Pennsylvania. Outcrops of Ten Mile chert have been observed along the Cross Creek drainage in the current study area. Ten Mile chert has dark, carbonaceous laminations within a dark grayish-brown, olivebrown or grayish-blue matrix. Weathering causes a patina rind of pale greenish-gray to grayish-white (Vento and Donahue 1982). the Racoon Creek study area, primary outcrops of Onondaga chert occur within the Lower- Middle Devonian Onondaga Formation across the glaciated region of New York, and discontinuously in the Ridge and Valley of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia (Luedtke 1992:129). Secondary cobbles of Onondaga chert are distributed much more widely, occurring across northwest Pennsylvania within the boundaries of the terminal Pleistocene glaciation, and was locally available to Native Americans in the northern portions of the Raccoon Creek drainage (Holland 1999). Scattered cobbles of Onondaga chert were likely distributed as secondary deposits within the Raccoon Creek and Upper Ohio River valleys. Gull River (Yellow Onondaga/Huronian) Chert is most typically dusky yellow (5Y 6/4) to moderate yellow (5Y 7/6) with an opaque, coarse grain. Gull River is also known as Huronian, or Yellow Onondaga (Fogelman 1983), and derives from Ordovician deposits in Ontario, Canada. Gull River was distributed widely as secondary cobbles across western New York, northeastern Ohio, and western Pennsylvania, within the boundaries of the terminal Pleistocene glacial advance (Holland 1999). Gull River chert is common at archaeological sites in western Pennsylvania. Scattered cobbles of Gull River chert are likely present as secondary cobbles within the Raccoon Creek Valley. Sewickley Chert is found within the Pittsburgh Formation of the Pennsylvanian Monongahela Group in southwestern Pennsylvania. This chert is gray to very dark-gray moderate quality chert with occasional freshwater ostracod fossils. Cortex typically is gray to tan (Vento and Donahue 1982). Onondaga Chert--a high-quality chert of dark to bluish-gray with microfossil striations of lighter colors (Vento and Donahue 1982). The stone has a medium texture, a shiny luster, and is moderately translucent. To the north and east of 10 PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed

21 Figure 4. Lithic Raw Materials in Southwestern Pennsylvania. PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed 11

22 Table 2. Lithic Raw Materials in Southwestern Pennsylvania. MATERIAL AGE GENERAL LOCATION REFERENCE Uniontown Chert Pennsylvanian Canonsburg, SW PA Eisert 1974 Monongahela Chert Pennsylvanian Canonsburg, SW PA Eisert 1974; Vento and Donohue Mile Chert Permian Southwest PA Holland 1999 Onondaga Chert Pleistocene cobbles Northwest PA Vento and Donohue 1982 Gull River Chert Pleistocene cobbles Northwest PA Holland 1999 Sewickley Chert Pennsylvanian Southwest PA Vento and Donohue 1982 Brush Creek Chert Pennsylvanian SE Ohio/NE Kent/SW PA Gatus 1985;Olafson 1964 Flint Ridge Chert Mid-Pennsylvanian East-central Ohio Lepper et al Upper Mercer Chert Lower Pennsylvanian East-central Ohio Luedtke 1992 Kanawha Chert Penns/Kanawha F. Central WV; SW Pa? Reger 1921; Reppert 1978 Northern West Virginia and Eastern Ohio Brush Creek Chert, or Hughes River chert, is a high-quality chert from the Brush Creek limestone member of the Pennsylvanian Conemaugh Group. Its primary source areas are southeastern Ohio, northeastern Kentucky, northwestern West Virginia, and far southwestern Pennsylvania (Gatus 1985; Olafson 1964; Vento and Donahue 1982). Brush Creek occurs within limestone as nodules and lenses up to 60cm (2 feet) in diameter. It is medium to fine grained with a translucency of 0.5mm (Luedtke 1992:118; Shott 1990; Vickery 1996: 74). Brush Creek is typically gray-brown (N3/ to N4/) to tan (10YR 5/1) with fine texture and moderate translucency. Kanawha chert is bluish-black to black to light gray and is of medium to fine grain (Reger 1921: ; Reppert 1978). This chert is a member of the Pennsylvanian Kanawha Formation (see Figure 4) and occurs in a basin approximately 42 km (70 miles) by 64 km (40 miles) in parts of Boone, Kanawha, Clay, Nicholas, Webster, and Fayette Counties, West Virginia (Reger 1921:227; Reppert 1978:3). Reppert (1978:4) identifies three Kanawha chert facies in the primary source area, with the quality of stone declining within secondary alluvial settings and as one progresses eastward from the central primary source basin. Flint Ridge/Vanport Formation Chert occurs within the Vanport Formation of the Middle Pennsylvanian System of east-central Ohio, approximately 100 km (93 miles) to the west of the Links Bridge project area. Flint Ridge is variably homogenous, mottled, laminated, or brecciated and often has small veins of chalcedony or quartz crystals. Color ranges from white to dark-gray, with yellow, pink, red, and blue not uncommon. This stone was widely distributed during prehistory, occurring at sites greater than 200 kilometers (124 miles) distant (Tankersley 1989:269). Upper Mercer/Coshocton Chert derives from the Upper Mercer Limestone member of the Lower Pennsylvanian System of east-central Ohio. Upper Mercer frequently has inclusions of white or blue chalcedony and typically is black to dark-gray (Luedtke 1992:136; Tankersley 1989:289). This stone was distributed widely along the Ohio River and its tributaries, extending well into northwestern Pennsylvania (Lantz 1984; Tankersley 1989:270). Several surface-collected Late Woodland sites in the project vicinity possessed triangle points produced from Upper Mercer/Coshocton chert. E. PALEOENVIRONMENTS The climate of southwestern Pennsylvania is classified as humid continental (Trewartha 1967). Winters are cold and snowy at high elevations, but thaws typically prohibit permanent snow pack in low elevation river valleys. Summers are occasionally warm at high elevations, but are frequently warm in valleys. Mean summer temperature for Beaver County is 20 C (70 F), with a January mean of 1.6 C 12 PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed

23 (30 F). The growing season in Beaver County ranges between 119 and 177 days. Annual precipitation averages 98cm (38 inches) per year, and is heaviest between May and August (Smith 1982). Between 21,000 and 17,000 BP, the Laurentide ice sheets reached their maximum extent in eastern North America, with the Kent Moraine of the Erie Lobe extending as far south as central Ohio and the Beaver/Lawrence County line in western Pennsylvania (Crowl and Sevon 1999:226). The southern boundary of the 304- meter- (1,000-foot-) thick ice sheets was located approximately 20 km (12 miles) north of Raccoon Creek s confluence with the Ohio River. Northeastern North America experienced relatively rapid warming between 14,000 and 11,000 years ago (Gates 1993:84; Stingelin 1965). The northward retreat of the glaciers and a steady succession of vegetative types in Greater Appalachia reflect this dynamic transition (Gates 1989; Gaudreau 1988:218; Watts 1979). During the late Glacial period, tundra was widespread at areas adjacent to glaciers and at higher elevations in Appalachia (Larabee 1986; Maxwell and Davis 1972:506; Whitehead 1973:625). By 12,000 BP, paleoenvironmental sites in Pennsylvania revealed pollen assemblages that suggested widespread boreal forest of spruce and pine. Data from New Paris No. 4, Bedford County, Pennsylvania (Guilday et al. 1964) and Hartstown Bog, Crawford County, Pennsylvania (Walker and Hartman 1960), suggest ameliorating boreal forest conditions at approximately 11,000 BP The pollen diagram at Mt. Davis Marsh, near Meyersdale in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, was dominated by spruce, pine, and fir (Stingelin 1965:50). By 11,500 BP, in southwestern Pennsylvania, Meadowcroft Rockshelter (Washington County) vertebrate remains (Adovasio et al. 1998:11) revealed a temperate Carolinian fauna, as well as oak, hickory, and pine, suggesting the initial emergence of the Mixed Mesophytic forest. Subsequently, white ash invaded the area, along with beech and chestnut (Castanea) (Watts 1979:452). Upland sites in northcentral Pennsylvania, such as Tannersville Bog (Monroe County) and Longswamp (Berks County), revealed deciduous forest by 10,000 BP (Davis 1984:172). These data suggest that lowland sites likely have supported a Mixed Mesophytic forest suite for at least 11-12,000 years. As climates ameliorated during the hypsithermal interval, between 10,000 and 5000 BP, cooladapted boreal forest species declined in importance in the upland Appalachian Plateau, including such paleoenvironmental sites as Mt. Davis Marsh, Tannersville Bog, and Potts Mountain Pond (Davis 1984:178; Joyce 1988:197). Glaciers completed their retreat northward to the Arctic and many of the species of flora and fauna of central Appalachia spread rapidly northward to colonize the once-glaciated portions of the Appalachia Plateau (Gates 1989; Gaudreau 1988:218; Watts 1979). Approximately 5,000 years ago, climates began to cool slightly across eastern North America (Gajewski 1988:259), resulting in an increase in red spruce at upland sites such as Tannersville Bog and Cranberry Glades. This transition marked the end of the middle Holocene hypsithermal warm episode (Davis 1984:178). Increases in charcoal are noted in pollen diagrams across eastern North America during the late Holocene (Davis 1984; Fredlund 1989). Between 4,000 to 2,200 years ago at Gallipolis Locks and Dam on the mid-ohio River in Mason County, West Virginia, charcoal flecking increases in sediments, likely due to increased fire disturbance related to human modification of the landscape for agriculture. Between 2200 years ago and the present, the dominating pollen type was Ambrosia, or ragweed, associated with the fluorescence of regional agricultural practices. Pollen from corn and other domesticates begins to appear in the paleoenvironmental record, while other regional sites show dramatic increases in grasses with the rise in agriculture (Davis 1984:178). PA Prehistoric Data Synthesis, Raccoon Creek Watershed 13

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