1 USING SIMULATED WIND DATA FROM A MESOSCALE MODEL IN MCP M. Taylor J. Freedman K. Waight M. Brower
2 Page 2 ABSTRACT Since field measurement campaigns for proposed wind projects typically last no more than a few years, the observed meteorological data collected on site often deviate from the long term climatology. To reduce the uncertainty associated with climate variability, a statistical relationship is typically established between a monitoring site and one or more reference stations using a technique known as Measure Correlate Predict (MCP). Proper use of MCP requires reference stations with long data records collected at the same location and height, with the same equipment, and in relatively unchanging surroundings. Identifying reference stations meeting these stringent criteria is becoming increasingly difficult, especially considering that the National Weather Service (NWS) is replacing cup anemometers with ice free ultrasonic anemometers at its Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) stations. One approach that offers promise of mitigating these problems is to drive a mesoscale model with a consistent set of observational data. Though the concept is similar to reanalysis, the combination of higher model resolution and care in the selection of stations used in the simulations should improve on those data. Towards this end, we have created windtrends, a modeled dataset covering North America at 2 km resolution from 1997 to the present, and have conducted a thorough evaluation of its suitability for MCP and other applications. This study summarizes our findings. INTRODUCTION Predicting the future requires insight into the past. Until recently, most resource assessments for wind energy projects have relied on standard meteorological towers to establish historical climate conditions. But with intermittent changes in surroundings, locations, and equipment, the continuity and representativeness of these reference data is a growing concern. Other commonly used reference sources include rawinsonde (instrumented balloon) and reanalysis data, but these sources also have potentially significant shortcomings as well. The relatively few rawinsonde stations often exhibit poor correlations with wind project sites, whereas reanalysis data are vulnerable to inconsistencies caused by changes in the observational data used to drive the models. One approach that may overcome these problems is to drive a mesoscale model with a consistent set of observational data. We have created such a data series, known as windtrends. This report details our validation of windtrends against ASOS, rawinsonde, NCEP/NCAR Global Reanalysis (NNGR)  and North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR)  with respect to its consistency over time and its viability as a long term reference for wind resource assessment. BACKGROUND AND METHODS Interannual Variability and Measure Correlate Predict (MCP) Most wind resource assessment programs span roughly one to two years. When examining the annual mean wind speeds from reference sites with long periods of record, we find that they vary considerably from year to year. Figure 1 shows a time series of the annual mean wind speeds at the Chicago Midway (KMDW) Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS)  station between 1998 and 27. The annual mean speed was within 1% of the ten year average in only four of the ten years and deviated by as much as 4.%. Given such variability, it is prudent to adjust observed data at a short term resource assessment site to long term conditions.
3 Page 3 Wind Speed (m/s) Figure 1. Annual Mean Wind Speeds at Chicago Midway ASOS Station The MCP method of estimating long term wind speeds correlates short term data from a site with concurrent data from a long term reference station (Figure 2). A regression or other relationship between the two stations is derived, and the long term mean speed or speed distribution at the reference station is applied to estimate the long term speed or speed distribution at the site. The accuracy of the long term projections is directly tied to the consistency of the reference data and the quality of the correlation between the target mast and reference site. Problems such as a limited period of reference data, poor correlation with on site measurements, and changing observational methods and platforms can cause significant errors in energy production estimates. Wind Speed (m/s) Year Speed Deviation (m/s) From Normal % % % % % % % % % % Mean 4.47 Year Annual Mean Overall Mean 2 1 Monitoring Mast Reference Site Jan 98 Jan 99 Jan Jan 1 Jan 2 Jan 3 Jan 4 Jan 5 Jan 6 Jan 7 Jan 8 Month Figure 2. Comparison of Typical Monitoring Mast and Reference Site Periods of Record Common Reference Data Sources Surface Stations The most widely used source of reference data is surface weather stations. They offer several advantages. Surface stations are relatively numerous and collect frequent (usually hourly) observations.
4 Page 4 Additionally, in some countries, such as the United States, site histories, data collection protocols, and equipment maintenance records are well documented. Unfortunately, weather stations are often located far from wind project sites or in different wind regimes, and therefore can exhibit unsatisfactory correlations with onsite measurements. The wind monitoring heights at surface reference stations are also usually low (1 m is the ASOS and international standard); the result is that the measurements are very sensitive to changes in the surroundings, such as tree growth or building construction. Finally, as has been the case with the ASOS network, instrumentation and data collection protocols change occasionally, often introducing shifts in the observed wind speeds that may jeopardize the site s viability as a long term reference. One such change occurred in the United States when the ASOS standard was implemented at weather stations starting in the mid 199s and rendered prior measurements useless for MCP. Very recently, ASOS cup anemometers were replaced with ultrasonic ice free wind (IFW) sensors. Test data indicate a small but measurable difference in wind speeds recorded by IFW, which adds uncertainty to the MCP process.  Rawinsonde Stations Rawinsonde data are acquired using instrumented balloons to sample the vertical profile of the atmosphere.  Compared to surface stations, this measurement technique has changed relatively little in the past two or three decades, resulting in a long data record that is typically quite consistent and reliable as well as for heights well above ground free of impacts from changing surface conditions. However, rawinsonde stations are far less numerous than surface stations, and they generally collect soundings only once every 12 hours. 1 In addition, the lowest useful height of measurement (defined by standard pressure levels) is often above the planetary boundary layer. For these reasons, rawinsonde data often do not correlate as well as surface weather data with measurements taken at wind project sites. Reanalysis Data The term reanalysis data refers to a gridded data base of weather observations that have been assimilated at a later time into a global or regional weather model. NNGR and NARR, two publicly available reanalysis data sets, are the focus of our discussion; others include a global data set developed by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts . Observational data sources assimilated into the reanalysis models include surface, rawinsonde, satellite and aircraft. The main advantage of reanalysis data is that they provide a convenient source of weather data extending back several decades (to 1948, in the case of NNGR). However, the quantity and sources of weather observations used to drive the reanalysis model have varied greatly over the past several decades, leading to false trends and variations in some regions.  In addition, due to the coarse model resolution (21 km for NNGR), there is often a poor correlation with wind monitoring sites. windtrends: Controlled Regional Reanalysis windtrends is a controlled regional reanalysis dataset developed by AWS Truewind. Though conceptually similar to reanalysis, the process differs in two key ways: the grid resolution is finer and the source of observational data rawinsonde only has been kept fixed throughout the simulation period. These modifications should allow for a more consistent data set that correlates better with onsite observations than standard reanalysis data. 1 According to the NWS rawinsonde fact sheet posted at there are 69 operational rawinsonde stations in the conterminous United States. Observations are usually collected twice daily.
5 Page 5 The windtrends data were produced from Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS)  model simulations on a grid covering the conterminous United States and southern Canada starting in January The simulations were made on a 6 km outer grid and a 2 km nested grid, with NNGR data supplying the initial and lateral boundary conditions. Rawinsonde data from the Integrated Global Rawinsonde Archive (IGRA) were also used in the objective analyses of the initial fields. For each month, two series of runs were made, beginning with a cold start 12 hours before the first of the month and 12 hours before either the 15 th or 16 th of the month, followed by two weeks of simulations with rawinsonde observations assimilated at and 12 UTC. This simulation strategy was designed to minimize the influence of the initial conditions from NNGR. Validation Trend Verification The selection of validation stations for this part of the analysis began with a list of 371 high quality stations used by the Goddard Institute of Space Studies in their analysis of long term surface temperature trends.  Stations outside the conterminous United States were eliminated. Next, the availability of surface data for each station was verified. Stations were retained if they had 95% availability for each of 1 years ( ), resulting in a list of about 185 stations. Plotting those stations on a map, there were some areas with sparse station coverage: New York, Vermont, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, coastal North and South Carolina, coastal Louisiana, and central and southern California. Fifteen stations in those areas with almost 95% coverage were selected and added to the list, resulting in 198 stations, of which 3 were rawinsonde stations. Using these sites, we compared the long term wind speed trends and anomalies from the NNGR, NARR, and windtrends with concurrent observed data at each of the selected stations on hourly, monthly, and annual temporal periods. MCP Verification In earlier work, Taylor et al.  developed a method whereby the accuracy of MCP was tested for wind resource assessment sites having periods of record spanning at least four years. The onsite (target) data were divided into a sequence of shorter periods typical of what would be available for MCP. A regression with a reference data set was performed for each sub period and the mean speed for the entire period was predicted. The error margin of the procedure was derived from the biases between the predicted and actual mean speeds for all the sub periods. For this assessment, we selected the entire ASOS network as target sites and repeated the same MCP analysis using, as reference, the nearest ASOS site and nearest windtrends grid point with the strongest correlations. The ASOS network yielded 629 sites that, until the installation of the IFW sensors, operated using the same wind measurement system for several years. We focused on the results with a 12 month sub period. We also identified ten wind resource assessment sites that have high data recovery and fit the established criteria, and repeated the same analysis using direct observations (ASOS and rawinsonde) and modeled windtrends and NNGR data as references. For an additional 12 sites with less than four years of data, we compared only the coefficient of determination or square of the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) values of the regressions. For ASOS reference sites that were converted to IFW sensors, we used a preliminary correction to the data developed by AWS Truewind from side by side test data provided by the NWS.
6 Page 6 RESULTS Trend Verification Figure 3 contains a time series comparing the annual mean wind speed anomalies (deviations from the average) for NNGR, NARR, and windtrends with the observed anomalies. windtrends and NNGR data both correlate well with the observations. However, the NNGR data exhibit a downward trend that deviates from windtrends and the observed data. The NARR data show a noticeable discontinuity starting in 22, which may be related to a change in procedures for assimilating rawinsonde data Wind Speed Anomaly (m/s) ASOS windtrends NNGR NARR Year Figure 3. Comparison of Annual Mean Wind Speed Anomalies for 198 Surface Based Monitoring Stations Time series of the annual mean wind speeds from windtrends interpolated to several mast locations and compared with nearby ASOS or rawinsonde data suggest good agreement. Two examples of these comparisons are contained in Figure Wind Speed (m/s) windtrends 1I windtrends 5I Elkins, WV Dulles, VA Blacksburg, VA Pittsburgh, PA Year Wind Speed (m/s) Year windtrends 1I windtrends 5I Ellensburg, WA Yakima, WA Figure 4. Annual Mean Wind Speeds from windtrends and Nearby Reference Stations for an Eastern Ridgetop (left) and Central Washington (right) Figure 5 contains a time series comparing the monthly mean wind speed anomalies from NNGR and windtrends with the observed anomalies at the 198 surface and rawinsonde stations. windtrends correlates very well with the observed data; the NNGR anomalies also correlate well, but are systematically larger, likely because they were calculated at 25 m height above ground. Of importance is that a close examination of both datasets reveals periods in the NNGR dataset that deviate
7 Page 7 substantially from the observed values. Those discrepancies do not appear in windtrends, or are much smaller..8.6 Wind Speed Anomaly (m/s) ASOS NNGR.8 Jan 97 Jan 98 Jan 99 Jan Jan 1 Jan 2 Jan 3 Jan 4 Jan 5 Jan 6 Month.8.6 Wind Speed Anomaly (m/s) ASOS windtrends.8 Jan 97 Jan 98 Jan 99 Jan Jan 1 Jan 2 Jan 3 Jan 4 Jan 5 Jan 6 Month Figure 5. Comparison of Monthly Mean Wind Speed Anomalies for 198 Surface Based Monitoring Stations MCP Verification For the 629 ASOS sites, the ASOS to ASOS regressions had a stronger correlation in about 8% of cases; the average r 2 value was.71 between ASOS sites, while it was.65 between the ASOS target site and the best windtrends grid point. Figure 6 shows the geographic distribution of the differences in r 2 between the ASOS to ASOS and ASOS to windtrends correlations. Green contours on this map indicate the windtrends grid point has the superior r 2, whereas red indicates the ASOS station does. windtrends generally does better in the complex terrain of the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. Conversely, in coastal regions and the southeastern United States, ASOS data provide the stronger correlation. Throughout much of the Great Plains, the two are roughly equivalent.
8 Page 8 ASOS-to-wT r 2 > ASOS-to-ASOS r 2 ASOS-to-ASOS r 2 > ASOS-to-wT r 2 Mean wt r 2 :.65 Mean ASOS r 2 :.71 Higher r 2 wt: 122 Sites Mean ASOS r 2 : 56 Sites Equal: 1 Site Figure 6. Geographic Distribution of Relative ASOS to ASOS and ASOS to windtrends Correlation In contrast to the ASOS target sites, the wind resource assessment sites generally have stronger correlations with the windtrends data than with the ASOS reference data. Figure 7 contains a scatterplot of the r 2 values for 22 target sites and their correlations with ASOS and windtrends reference data. In 16 cases, the windtrends correlation is higher. This pattern may reflect the fact that most wind project sites are better exposed to synoptic scale winds, which are captured well by the windtrends simulations, whereas ASOS stations are often in sheltered locations, such as valleys. ASOS r squared windtrends r squared Figure 7. Scatterplot of Mast to ASOS and Mast to windtrends r 2 values for 22 Sites As shown in Figure 8, the distributions of MCP standard errors for ASOS and windtrends are virtually identical. For ASOS to windtrends regressions, the mean standard error is.96 m/s; for ASOS to ASOS regressions, it is.95 m/s.
9 Page 9 35% 3% wt Avg Dist: 13.2 km ASOS Avg Dist: 75.2 km wt Std Err:.96 ASOS Std Err:.95 Percent of Occurrence 25% 2% 15% 1% Lower Std Err wt: 315 Sites ASOS: 314 Sites 5% ASOS to windtrends ASOS to ASOS % Standard Error (m/s) Figure 8. Frequency Distributions of ASOS to ASOS and ASOS to windtrends Standard Errors For the ten wind resource assessment masts with periods of record of at least four years, windtrends performed slightly better than ASOS and significantly better than NNGR for MCP. The respective average r 2 values were.75 (mast to windtrends),.72 (mast to ASOS), and.55 (mast to NNGR), while the standard errors were.12 (windtrends),.13 (ASOS), and.16 (NNGR). The results are summarized in Figure 9..4 Standard Error (m/s) windtrends ASOS NNGR Mean r 2 windtrends:.75 ASOS:.72 NNGR: Mean Mast Number Figure 9. Standard Errors of MCP Analyses for 1 Monitoring Mast Using windtrends, ASOS, and NNGR Data as References In most individual cases, the windtrends standard errors are comparable to or lower than those derived using the ASOS or NNGR reference data. The only location where windtrends performs substantially worse than ASOS is at Mast 6, which is located in a California mountain pass where the wind climate is highly localized and therefore not resolved by the 2 km windtrends simulations.
10 Page 1 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS AWS Truewind developed windtrends in hopes of providing a consistent set of reference data for performing MCP studies that are well correlated to wind project sites in the conterminous United States and southern Canada. The validation work reported here shows that windtrends is generally superior to global reanalysis (NNGR) and comparable to ASOS stations for this purpose. Whether ASOS or windtrends should be used in a particular MCP analysis can be decided on a case bycase basis. Where the correlations are similar and there are no evident consistency problems in the ASOS data, either data set (or both) can be used. Where one exhibits a much stronger correlation than the other, that data set is likely to be the better choice. The consistency problems we have observed in both NNGR and its regional counterpart, NARR, suggest that they are not suitable in most situations for MCP. ONGOING AND FUTURE WORK Validation work continues. One goal is to identify and assess additional wind resource assessment masts with sufficiently long periods of record to provide a more extensive test of windtrends in MCP. The present sample of 1 such masts is fairly small. Another goal is to gauge the impact of the IFW correction on the accuracy of MCP using ASOS stations. We are also working to improve the windtrends data set. Since the current 2 km resolution is insufficient to resolve highly localized wind climates such as mountain passes, we are planning to increase the grid resolution to 5 km. This should increase the quality of the correlations and decrease the standard errors in the long term predictions. The windtrends approach is also being extended to the rest of Canada, India, and other countries. References:  Kistler, R. et al., 21: The NCEP/NCAR 5 Year Reanalysis: Monthly Means CD ROM and Documentation. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 82, No. 2,  Mesinger, F. et al., 26: North American Regional Reanalysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 87, No. 3,  NOAA, 1998: ASOS user s guide. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, 61 pp. [Available online at  Lewis, R. and J. Dover, 24: Field and Operational Tests of a Sonic Anemometer for the Automated Surface Observing System, Eighth Symposium on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Ocean, and Land Surface, American Meteorological. Society, Seattle, WA.  Imke Durre, Russell S. Vose and David B. Wuertz. 26: Overview of the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive. Journal of Climate: Vol. 19, No. 1, pp Brower, M. C., 26: The Use of Reanalysis Data for Climate Adjustments. AWS Truewind Research Note #1.  Uppala, et al., 26: The ERA 4 re analysis. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society., 131,  Brower, M. C., 26: The Use of Reanalysis Data for Climate Adjustments. AWS Truewind Research Note #1.  Manobianco, J., J. W. Zack and G.E. Taylor, 1996: Workstation based Real time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77, No. 4,  Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, J. Glascoe, and M. Sato, 1999: GISS analysis of surface temperature change. Journal of Geophysical Research. 14,  Taylor, Mark, et al., 24: An Analysis of Wind Resource Uncertainty in Energy Production Estimates, Proceedings of the European Wind Energy Conference.
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THE STRATEGIC PLAN OF THE HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL PREDICTION CENTER FISCAL YEARS 2012 2016 INTRODUCTION Over the next ten years, the National Weather Service (NWS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Procedure No: SOP-018 Revision No: 0 (new document) Page No.: 1 of 8 1. INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE To obtain timely data for the purpose of air quality assessment, meteorological and climate trend reporting
[ Climate Data Collection and Forecasting Element ] An Advanced Monitoring Network In Support of the FloodER Program December 2010 1 Introduction Extreme precipitation and the resulting flooding events
AMS 2009 Summer Community Meeting Renewable Energy Topic The 2009 American Meteorological Society s Summer Community Meeting addressed the roles of academia, industry and government in supporting the development
Global Seasonal Phase Lag between Solar Heating and Surface Temperature Summer REU Program Professor Tom Witten By Abstract There is a seasonal phase lag between solar heating from the sun and the surface
Diurnal and Semi-diurnal Variations of Rainfall in Southeast China Judy Huang and Johnny Chan Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre School of Energy and Environment City University of Hong Kong
Changes in weather storm events over the Hudson Bay area (Canada) in links with regional sea-ice state Philippe Gachon 1,2, Rabah Aider 2, Philippe Martin 3, Milka Radojevic 2, Christian Saad 2,3, Guillaume
BASIC APPROACH TO CLIMATE MONITORING PRODUCTS AND CLIMATE MONITORING PRODUCTS IN WMO RA VI Mesut DEMIRCAN Geodesy and Photogrametry Engineer Turkish State Meteorological Service Agrometeorology and Climatological
APPENDIX N Data Validation Using Data Descriptors Data validation is often defined by six data descriptors: 1) reports to decision maker 2) documentation 3) data sources 4) analytical method and detection
Verification of Summer Thundestorm Forecasts over the Pyrenees Introduction Météo-France have conducted a study of summer thunderstorm forecasts in the Pyrenees in order to evaluate the performance, the