A43. Modern Hacking Techniques and IP Security. By Shawn Mullen. Las Vegas, NV IBM TRAINING. IBM Corporation 2006

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1 IBM TRAINING A43 Modern Hacking Techniques and IP Security By Shawn Mullen Las Vegas, NV

2 2005 CSI/FBI US Computer Crime and Computer Security Survey 9 out of 10 experienced computer security incident in a years time 20% experienced 20 or more attacks 1 in 5 experienced port scans or data sabotage Total losses in 2005 over $130 Million

3 Internet Protocol Security Solutions Beyond IPSec proper Use of filtering Use of common sense other available software

4 IPSec Overview Internet Security Protocol has three major components: 1. Network Packet Filtering 2. Encryption or Tunneling 3. Configuration and Management

5 IPSec Overview - Filtering Network Packet filtering Classic Firewall model enforce encryption IPSec gateway/firewall 1. Allow mail port 25/tcp 2. Deny telnet port 23/tcp 3. Allow remote branch office only within secure tunnel

6 IPSec Overview - Encryption Virtual Private Network model Authentication Encapsulation Secure Connection Negotiation IP Header Data IP Header Data 1. Clear text pkt 2. Encryption 3. Encapsulation

7 IPSec Overview Configuration and Management IKE/ISAKMP AIX uses Websm (java based gui) XML interface Wizard Documentation examples

8 Shameless AIX IPSec Plug AIX IPSec (free, like all good things in life) Conforms to Internet RFCs ICSA Cryptography Certified Annually tested for industry compatibility First line of defense Intruder Within Defense Stateful Filtering Pattern Matching Timed Shun Filter Rules

9 IPSec/VPN Classic Model Tunnel between offices protects/encrypts data across the Internet Data within the offices is clear text VPN IPSec Gateway Internet VPN IPSec Gateway Branch Office Corporate Office

10 Cyber Attacks Cover statistically common attacks Discuss high profile attacks Attacks that warrant a solution that can be applied to a wider range of attacks.

11 Hacker Modus Operandi 1. Information gathering (finding vulnerability) 2. Gain Access 3. Privileged Access 4. Cover tracks 5. Trojan Horse IPSec

12 Port Scan Port Scans 80% of all network attacks preceded by a port scan Internet Assigned Ports Best known port scan program nmap Command netstat a will show local listen ports

13 netstat command local port information

14 Remove Unnecessary Services Shun Scanning Hosts Comment out or remove unused services Set Shun rule on the unused service genfilt -v4 -n 2 -a H -s m d <my_ip_address> -M O eq -P <unused Port number> -w I -D shun host for 300 seconds" -e 300

15 Smurf IP Denial-of-service Amazon/CNN DOS Attack CERT Reference CA Forged ping packets (ICMP echo request) Broadcast ping request Attacker Intermediary Victim Src IP: Victim Dst IP: Intermediary ICMP echo request

16 Smurf IP Denial-of-service Details CERT documentation html

17 Smurf Attack Solution Do not allow your site to be an accomplice Add filter rule to deny source IP addresses to leave your subnet with a source IP address not within our subnet Do not allow ICMP [broadcast] packets into your site

18 Back Door Attacks IPSec cannot prevent initial attacks SubSeven 4/15/2001 attack on Windows PCs Once the attack is recognized, IPSec can be used to quarantine while anti-virus is updated on the client systems.

19 Use IPSec to Quarantine 1. Filter allow traffic to site mail server 2. Filter to exclude all packets destined for Port 25 In coming Dest: mail gateway Port: 25 In coming Dest: client machine Port: 25h IPSec Filter rules (firewall & clients)

20 Use IPSec to Quarantine Filter Rules Rule 1. If destination address == my_mail_server AND destination port == 25, then ALLOW network traffic Rule 2. If destination port == 25, then DENY network traffic First Rule 1 is applied, if there is not a match, then Rule 2 is applied

21 AIX IPsec Pattern Matching Feature Most Viruses Target Microsoft OS AIX IPsec can consume some versions of Clam Anti-Virus database patterns ( Network packets containing virus patterns are denied.

22 Microsoft Corporate Server Break-in Cracker breaks in twice. Second time after security hole patch.

23 Microsoft Corp Server Break-in Solution Multi tier security recommended

24 IPSec/VPN Classic Model Tunnel between offices protects/encrypts data across the Internet Data within the offices is clear text VPN IPSec Gateway Internet VPN IPSec Gateway Branch Office Corporate Office

25 IPSec Emerging Model V P N Gate way Internet Branch Office VPN IPSec Gateway VPN Internal network Corporate Office

26 IPSec Emerging Model Multi Tier Solution Protecting Personnel Information Queries s Protecting confidential designs, code, data on fileservers. Protect against second impact attacks. Example

27 IPSec Emerging Model Multi Tier Solution Multi tier security recommended internet Firewall Data snooping Port 25 password Port 23/512 passwords Etc Host1 Host2 telnet passwords confidential data.rhosts Host N

28 BIND Vulnerabilities Recursive Lookup Vulnerability Poisoned cache when querying authoritative nameserver of alternate domain Buffer overflow in TSIG transaction signature Buffer overflow possible in ISC 8.2.x TSIG code Example, malicious substitution of IP address of a malicious host setup to capture login ID and password. IPSec tunnel with remote host requires authentication.

29 BIND Vulnerabilities Solution Recursive Lookup Vulnerability Solution IPSec session between nameserver client DNS local DNS remote Recursive Lookup protected (authenticated by IPSec)

30 DNS (TSIG)? Why not use RFC2845 Secret Key Transaction Authentication for DNS (TSIG)? Short answer, you should use TSIG, but there is a buffer overflow vulnerability in TSIG

31 Solution to Buffer Overflow in TSIG each application or protocol rewriting authentication / security code leave open chance of vulnerability definite advantages to TSIG trend in internet drafts is to address security issues with IPSec

32 BIND Vulnerabilities Solution Cont SANS org recommendation is to shut off unnecessary DNS (disable BIND daemon). Filter out DNS traffic

33 IPSec Bind/DNS Filtering Solution If you filter it on your firewall, consider filtering it on your clients. Desktop 1 IPSec on client 1. Deny DNS src port 53/tcp/udp ; src my_machine

34 Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities Program control flow is altered 1. Some input variable populated with user data 1. User data can be input parameter to program 2. User data can be input/read from a network connection 2. User data is larger than expected and overflows strcpy() target variable on the program stack (end of string 00) 3. Overflow data is executable to native CPU

35 Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities Running Program Altered Program String growth Return addr Local vars Buffer Next frame Next frame Stack growth overflow executable Code Program Text strcpy()

36 Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities Complex attack Exploitation of strcpy() most common a string ends with 00 the smaller the attack code the better Attack code wants to execute existing code

37 Hacker Modus Operandi 1. Information gathering (finding vulnerability) 2. Gain Access 3. Privileged Access 4. Cover tracks 5. Trojan Horse IPSec

38 Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities Solutions AIX SED (Stack Execution Disable) buffer overflow protection mechanism IPSec can detect known buffer overflow patterns.

39 Stack Execution Disable sedmgr Command Purpose Displays and sets Stack Execution Disable flag of the system or executable files. Syntax sedmgr [-m {off all select setidfiles}] [-o {on off}] [-c {system request exempt} {file_name file_group}] [-d {file_name directory_name}] [- h]

40 Website Takeover Site Registration Changes allowed via CERT warns against any security by

41 Solution Website Takeover IPSec Authentication with members ssh or ssl applications

42 NFS and Other File and Information Sharing CERT has advisories on: NFS 2049, NetBIOS, Window NT ports 135>139, AppleShare/IP ports 80, 427, 548 There is an inherent openness with these protocols which falls into the information gathering phase of the attacker.

43 Solution NFS and Other File and Information Sharing pre NFSv4 is not secure all data in clear block inbound NetBIOS 139 block unauthorized ports at firewall and gateways and servers

44 Conclusion IPsec is a powerful tool to be used beyond the firewall and gateway IPsec can provide a broader range security implemented on broader range of computers IPsec free with AIX AIX/IPsec You have it, turn it on

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