AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM GUIDE. Belleville Public Schools

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1 AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM GUIDE Belleville Public Schools

2 CURRICULUM COMMITTEE Joy Elaine Alfano, Ph.D Peter Blodnik 2

3 Mission Statement Belleville is, today, a township richly endowed with a dynamic, culturally diverse population. Our mission is to embrace that diversity and use it as a catalyst for the growth and development of all our students and to empower them with self-actualization through relevant services and comprehensive programs designed to facilitate their success and to ensure that all of our students become productive citizens and life-long learners who are active contributors to their communities, and well-prepared to succeed in their chosen careers. Belief Statement WE BELIEVE THAT: 1. Effective education prepares students for career opportunities consistent with their capabilities, aptitudes, and desires. 2. Understanding the rights and responsibilities of citizenship in a democratic society is an important educational goal. 3. Participation in diversified athletic, recreational and extra-curricular activities benefits all students and promotes good citizenship. 4. Developing and promoting the knowledge and skills necessary for the effective use of leisure time contributes to the success of the student. 5. Effective education provide opportunities for students to develop individual interests and aptitudes. 6. Educational and vocational goals of the students are the focal point of the curriculum. 7. Developing students abilities to think critically through experimentation, evaluation, interpretation, analysis, and synthesis promotes students growth. 8. Good health and safety habits and techniques improve students quality of life. 9. Neatness, care and pride in the quality of students work, helps to develop self-esteem. 10. Promoting and providing experiences that will help students prepare for advanced training, economic independence, and adult life is essential for life-long learning. 11. Positive understanding and communication in human interpersonal relationships is essential for society to flourish. 12. Effective education provides programs to prepare students to meet state proficiency requirements. 13. Developing basic skills in reading, writing, speaking, English, math, problem solving and critical thinking is essential to student success. 14. Providing programs for learning and physically disabled students to develop educational goals and vocational skills is the responsibility of an education system. 15. Understanding have and the ability to interact with people of diverse cultural characteristics is essential for society to flourish. 16. It is essential to develop an appreciation for learning as a lifelong process. 3

4 Science Philosophy The science program emphasizes the importance and application of science in the lives of our students. As a diverse community of learners, we believe that the primary goal of our science program is to address the developmental nature of each learner through an experiential program in which students are provided with opportunities to collect and analyze data retrieved from a variety of sources using critical thinking skills, problem-solving and communication skills through the scientific method. We believe in an active, student -centered learning environment that will expand and enhance our students prior knowledge, pre-existing assumptions, and curiosity about the world in which they live and prepare them to participate in a democratic and international society. Our curriculum exceeds The New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and is guided by the use of Big Ideas and Essential Questions. Using the knowledge, skills, and understanding of scientific inquiry, concepts and processes, it is our belief that our students will develop a lifelong appreciation of science in order that they become productive problem-solvers. 4

5 GOALS Our students will be able: 1. To recognize science as an integrated endeavor, influenced by human strengths and limitations that impacts humanity 2. To understand and implement the scientific method as a tool for problem solving and critical thinking 3. To apply safety principles in the laboratory and in daily activities 4. To recognize the importance of unbiased inquiry and skeptical review 5. To acknowledge problems as challenges and opportunities for discovery 6. To demonstrate an understanding of how people of various cultures have contributed to the advancement of science and technology Note: 1. All special education students will receive the same curriculum as their chronological peers. Students will receive modifications and accommodations as listed in their I.E.P. 2. All concepts and learning objectives are aligned to the New Jersey Core Content Curriculum Standards 3. Professional staff will differentiate instruction to ensure students achieve the stated goals and objectives. 4. Performance assessments are suggested activities. Teachers can use them as well as alternate assessments at their discretion. 5

6 Course Description is a problem-based, multidisciplinary course which integrates the physical sciences, life sciences, and social sciences. The essential themes of the course include: Land and its Uses, Soil, Water, Atmosphere and Weather, and Energy Needs and Production. is designed to provide students with the scientific principles, concepts and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmental problems, both natural and human-made, and to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems. Students will be taught how to analyze these problems, generate alternatives, and make responsible choices in order to encourage stewardship of the earth s natural resources. The following unifying concepts form the foundation of this course: (taken from Newark Public Schools, ) 1. Science is a process. Science is a method of learning more about the world. Science constantly changes the way we understand the world. 2. An Ecosystem is a system of interdependent living and non-living factors necessary for life. Ecosystems can be as large as the earth or as small as a puddle of water. The earth is a large ecosystem. 3. An ecosystem can continue perpetually; it is dynamic due to energy conversions. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. As energy flows through systems, at each stem more of it becomes unusable. 4. Humans alter natural systems. Humans have had an impact on the environment for millions of years. Technology and population growth have enabled humans to increase both the rate and scale of their impact on the environment. 5. Environmental problems have a cultural and social context. Understanding the role of cultural, social and economic factors is vital to the development of solutions. 6. Human Survival depends on developing practices that will achieve sustainable systems. 6

7 Scope and Sequence Defined by Academic Weeks Unit 1: Environmental Systems 1. Studying Our Environment 2. Ecological Footprint, Footprint Analysis 3. Global Resources and Human Impact 4. Climate, Biomes, and Environmental Systems 5. Atmosphere, Geosphere, and Earth Systems Unit 2: Energy Flow and Ecosystem Ecology 1. Ecosystems 2. Tropic Levels and Energy Flow 3. Biogeochemical Cycles 4. Evolution and Biodiversity 5. Community Ecology and Population Dynamics Unit 4: Water 1. The Hydrologic Cycle 2. Human Effects on the Water Cycle 3. Water Uses Unit 3: Land Use and Food production 1. Rock Cycle and Soil 2. Land Use and Management 3. Farming and Food Production 4. Feeding the World Unit 6: Human Population and Urbanization 1.) Population Characteristics 2.) Factors that influence Human Population Growth 3.) Demographic Transitions Unit 5: Air Topic 1: Atmosphere and Weather Topic 2: Atmospheric Pollution 1. Climate 1. Major Air Pollutants and Their Sources 2. Global Climate Change 2. Impacts of Air Pollutants 3. Response to Climate Change 3. Impacts of Air Pollutants on the Environment 4. Air Pollution Control and Mitigation 4. Depletion of Ozone Layer Unit 7 : Energy Needs and Production Topic 1: Energy from Fossil Fuels Topic 2: Renewable Energy Sources 1. Energy Sources and Uses 1. Direct and Indirect Solar Energy 2. Exploiting Crude Oil 2. Renewable Energy for Transportation 3. Other Fossil Fuels 3. Additional Renewable Energy Options 4. Fossil Fuels and Energy Security 4. Policy for a Sustainable Energy Future Unit 8: Environmental Policy, Decision Making, and Regulations 1. New Challenges in a new century 2. The Development of Environmental Policy I the US and World 3. Environmental Policy and Regulations 7

8 Title of Unit Environmental Systems Grade Level 11,12 Curriculum Area AP Time Frame 3-4 Weeks Developed By Alfano, Blodnik Desired Results (Stage 1) Established Goals/Standards NJ High School Core Content (2011) A.1- Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific explanations A.2- Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to pose theories A.3- Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls, and presenting evidence B.1- Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures of central tendencies, casual/correlational relationships, and anomalous data B.2- Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational tools B.3- Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories B.4- Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and reviewing explanations C.1- Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges C.2- Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations C.3- Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments D.1- Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, observations, and experiences D.2- Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and diagrams D.3- Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals with respect for their safety and welfare C.1- Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems by creating a flow chart C.2- Analyze the vertical structure of Earth s atmosphere, and account for the global, regional, and local variations of these characteristics and their impact on life F.2- Explain how the climate in regions throughout the world is affected by seasonal weather patterns, as well as other factors, such as the addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and proximity to mountain ranges and to the ocean G.2- Explain the unintended consequences of harvesting natural resources from an ecosystem G.3- Demonstrate, using models, how internal and external sources of energy drive the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles G.4- Compare over time the impact of human activity on the cycling of matter and energy trough ecosystems G.5- Assess (using maps, local planning documents, and historical records) how the natural environment has changed since humans have inhabited the region. 8

9 Primary Interdisciplinary Connections S.10.5 S.10.7 S.10.8 S.IC.5 6.SP.3 6.SP.5 8.SP.1 S.ID.9 Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data. Recognize possible associations and trends of the data Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to instigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association Distinguish between correlation and causation 9

10 21 st Century Interdisciplinary Themes: _x Global Awareness _x Financial, economic, business, and entrepreneurial literacy _x_ Civic Literacy _x_ Health Literacy Transfer Students will be able to use their learning to: T1: Analyze a problem, developing hypothesis, and design a scientific experiment to test those hypothesis T2: Use statistical analysis of data collected to make an argument based on purely scientific evidence T3: Develop a vernacular of scientific terms and current environmental problems T4: Data mine from scientific journals and articles evaluating their scientific methodology for validity 10

11 Understandings Meaning Students will understand that U1: The environment consists of many interacting systems in which there are dynamic consequences to upsetting the balanced equilibrium. U2: is a problem-based, multidisciplinary science, which integrates the physical sciences, life sciences, and social sciences. U3: is designed to provide students with the scientific principles, concepts and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmental problems, both natural and human-made, and to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems. U4: A learning schedule and procedures are imperative to create a safe, structured, and enthusiastic learning environment. U5: Ecosystems are the result of the interactions among Earth s biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. U6: We can live more sustainably by relying more on solar energy, preserving biodiversity, and not disrupting the earth s natural chemical recycling processes. U7: Major causes of environmental problems are population growth, wasteful and unsustainable resource use, and exclusion of harmful environmental costs from the market prices of goods and services. U8: Our lives and economies depend on energy from the sun and natural resources and natural services (natural capital) provided by the earth. U9: Scientific evidence is used for building, refining, and/or critiquing scientific explanations. U10: Climate is influenced by interactions of multiple physical, chemical and biological factors, including human actions. Essential Questions Students will keep considering Q1: What methods are used to study environmental science? Q2: How are classroom expectations and rules needed to promote the process of science? Q3: How is scientific knowledge constructed? Q4: How does scientific knowledge benefit deepen and broaden, from scientists sharing and debating ideas and information with peers? Q5: Why is it important to think in terms of systems of systems when considering environmental issues? Q6: To what extent can human behaviors impact our planet s environment? Q7: What is biodiversity and why is it important? Q8: What factors contribute to our ecological footprint? Q9: How have humans contributed to our Environmental Problems? Q10: What Is Pollution and what can we do about It? Q11: How are our ecological footprints affecting the Earth? Q12: What are the major components of the atmosphere? Q13: How does the Atmosphere relate to climate? Q14: What are the layers of the geosphere? Q15: How does the composition of earth explain plate tectonics and other geologic events such as volcanoes and earthquakes? Q16: What are the biotic and Abiotic factors that define an ecosystem? Q17: What are the characteristics of the aquatic and terrestrial biomes? Q18: Why is it important to think in terms of systems of systems when considering environmental issues? Q19: What is sustainability? 11

12 Knowledge Students will know K1: Identify the location and proper use of safety equipment including goggles, aprons, eye wash station, safety shower, fire blanket, fire extinguisher, first aid kit, fume hood, fire alarm, emergency exit plans, review of bomb and emergency drills and procedures K1: Preventing pollution is more effective and less costly than cleaning up pollution; as our ecological footprints grow, we deplete and degrade more of the earth s natural capital; Living sustainably means living off earth s natural income without depleting or degrading the natural capital that supplies it. K2: Ecosystems are the result of the interactions among Earth s biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. K3: Human activities have physical, chemical, and biological consequences for ecosystems; the magnitude of the impact depends in part on the sensitivity of the system to perturbation. K3: Human activities have changed the Earth s land, oceans, and atmosphere, as well as its populations of plant and animal species. K4: the life cycle of consumer goods the impact of unsustainable usage of goods and services in developed countries on developing countries and the overall environment. K5: Life is sustained by the flow of energy from the sun through the biosphere, the cycling of nutrients within the biosphere, and gravity. Some organisms produce the nutrients they need, others get the nutrients they need by consuming other organisms, and some recycle nutrients back to producers by decomposing the wastes and remains of organisms. K6: Earth s atmosphere exchanges energy and matter within the Earth System through processes such as photosynthesis, the water cycle, biogeochemical cycles, the rock cycle and ocean currents. ** Human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals released into the atmosphere, and intensive farming, have changed the earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. Some of these changes have decreased the capacity of the environment to support some life forms Skills Students will be able to S1: Describe safety precautions and equipment in the laboratory S2: Describe what to do in case of thermal burns, chemical burns, cuts, fainting, poisoning, and burns. Students will then demonstrate their knowledge of safe laboratory practices. S3: Relate the role economics plays on the environment. S4: Graph the average ecological footprints of several countries, select two countries with different sized footprints and research the lifestyles of the citizens of the several countries of varying GDP. S5: Evaluate what aspects of lifestyles of the citizens of other countries, evaluating what aspects of lifestyle are most important in calculating an ecological footprint, and decide whether any lifestyle changes should or could be make to alter the value of the ecological footprint. S7: Identify actions that can be taken to deal with the problem of consumption patterns and identify the five categories within the life cycle of consumer goods. S8: Identify Earth s four major life-support components, identify the three factors sustain life on Earth, explaining how solar energy reaches the earth and how this connects to the climate. Students will analyze how humans have enhanced the natural system of the greenhouse affect. S9: Define abotic and botic factors and how specific levels of matter interact with each other. S10: Describe how the hydrogen cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorous cycle, and sulfur cycle. S11: Compare the short and long term consequences of a hypothetical environmental issue, explaining the impact the movement of tectonic plates can have on the environment, how and why biodiversity is important to humans, and describe several ways that species are being threatened with extinction S12: Define the field of environmental science and discuss its importance. S13: Identify ways in which humans have altered and continue to alter our environment. S14: Describe key environmental indicators that help us evaluate the health of the planet 12

13 Knowledge (Continued) Students will know K7: The atmosphere has mass, is bound to Earth by gravity, and exerts pressure which is greater near Earth's surface and decreases with altitude. K8: The atmosphere, which is very thin relative to Earth's radius, varies vertically in layers which differ in composition, density, and temperature. The lowest 8-16 km of the atmosphere - the troposphere - contains most of Earth's weather systems. K9: Climatic conditions result from latitude, altitude, and from the position of mountain ranges, oceans, and lakes. Dynamic processes such as cloud formation, ocean currents, and atmospheric circulation patterns influence climates as well. K10: Human beings are part of the earth's ecosystems. Human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium in ecosystems K11: Although Earth has a great capacity to absorb and recycle materials naturally, ecosystems have only a finite capacity to withstand change without experiencing major ecological alterations that may also have adverse effects on human activities K12: The value of ecosystem services to humans comes from their role in supporting our lives, their cheapness, and our limited ability to replace them with human-engineered alternatives. Skills Students will be able to S15: Define sustainability and explain how it can be measured using the ecological footprint. S16: Explain the scientific method and its application to the study of environmental problems. S17: Describe some of the unique challenges and limitations of environmental science. S18: Define systems within the context of environmental science S19: Explain the components and states of matter S20: List the basic components of an ecosystem S21: Describe how energy flows through ecosystems S22: Describe how carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycle within ecosystems S23: Explain how ecosystems respond to natural and anthropogenic disturbances S24: Discuss the values of ecosystems and how humans depend on them S25: Explain the forces that drive global circulation patterns and how those patterns determine weather and climate S26: Describe the major terrestrial biomes S27: Describe the major aquatic biomes S28: Explain the concept of biodiversity and how it is measured S30: Describe the ways in which evolution can occur S31: Explain how environmental change affects speciation and extinction 13

14 Knowledge (Continued) Students will know K13: Climatic conditions result from latitude, altitude, and from the position of mountain ranges, oceans, and lakes. Dynamic processes such as cloud formation, ocean currents, and atmospheric circulation patterns influence climates as well. K14: Human beings are part of the earth's ecosystems. Human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium in ecosystems K15: Although Earth has a great capacity to absorb and recycle materials naturally, ecosystems have only a finite capacity to withstand change without experiencing major ecological alterations that may also have adverse effects on human activities K16: The value of ecosystem services to humans comes from their role in supporting our lives, their cheapness, and our limited ability to replace them with human-engineered alternatives. Skills Students will be able to S32: Explain the concept of an ecological niche S33: Describe the formation of earth and the distribution of critical elements on earth S34: Define the theory of plate tectonics and discuss its importance S35: Compare the short and long term consequences of a hypothetical environmental issue, explaining the impact the movement of tectonic plates can have on the environment, how and why biodiversity is important to humans, and several ways that species are being threatened with extinction 14

15 Checks for Alignment U 1-10 Q 1-19 K 1-16 S 1-35 Evaluation Criteria Performance is judged in terms of Bloom s Taxonomy Rubric Evidence (Stage 2) Assessment Evidence Formative Assessment Essays, Journals, Rubrics, Formal Reports, Response and Reaction Essays, Cooperative Activities, Do-Now, Closure Activities Summative Assessments Quizzes, Tests, Projects, Presentations Learning Plan (Stage 3) Checks for alignment and best practice Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction The teaching and learning needed to achieve the unit goals. Required Activities Required Resources Textbook (TBD) Computers With Internet AP Practice Exams AP Practice Multiple Choice Questions AP Practice Free-Response Questions Lab Manuals or Textbook w/ Labs 15

16 Title of Unit Energy Flow and Ecosystem Ecology Grade Level 11,12 Curriculum Area AP Time Frame 3-4 Weeks Developed By Alfano, Blodnik Desired Results (Stage 1) Established Goals/Standards NJ High School Core Content (2011) A.1- Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific explanations A.2- Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to pose theories A.3- Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls, and presenting evidence B.1- Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures of central tendencies, casual/correlational relationships, and anomalous data B.2- Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational tools B.3- Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories B.4- Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and reviewing explanations C.1- Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges C.2- Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations C.3- Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments D.1- Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, observations, and experiences D.2- Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and diagrams D.3- Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals with respect for their safety and welfare B.1- Cite evidence that the transfer and transformation of matter and energy links organisms to one another and to their physical setting B.2- Use mathematical formulas to justify the concept of an efficient diet B.3- Predict what would happen to an ecosystem if an energy source was removed G.2- Explain the unintended consequences of harvesting natural resources from an ecosystem G.3- Demonstrate, using models, how internal and external sources of energy drive the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles G.4- Compare over time the impact of human activity on the cycling of matter and energy through ecosystems G.5- Assess (using maps, local planning documents, and historical records) how the natural environment has changed since humans have inhabited the region G.7- Relate information to detailed models of the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles, identifying major sources, sinks, fluxes, and residence times F.2- Explain how the climate in regions throughout the world is affected by seasonal weather patterns, as well as other factors, such as the addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and proximity to mountain ranges and to the ocean. 16

17 Primary Interdisciplinary Connections S.10.5 S.10.7 S.10.8 S.IC.5 6.SP.3 6.SP.5 8.SP.1 S.ID.9 Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data. Recognize possible associations and trends of the data Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to instigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association Distinguish between correlation and causation 17

18 21 st Century Interdisciplinary Themes: _x Global Awareness _x Financial, economic, business, and entrepreneurial literacy _x_ Civic Literacy _x_ Health Literacy Transfer Students will be able to use their learning to: T1: Analyze a problem, developing hypothesis, and design a scientific experiment to test those hypothesis T2: Use statistical analysis of data collected to make an argument based on purely scientific evidence T3: Develop a vernacular of scientific terms and current environmental problems T4: Data mine from scientific journals and articles evaluating their scientific methodology for validity Understandings Meaning Students will understand that U1: All organisms transfer matter and convert energy from one form to another. Both matter and energy are necessary to build and maintain living systems. U2: The earth s terrestrial and aquatic systems provide important ecological and economic services, which are being degraded and disrupted by human activities. U3: Saltwater and freshwater aquatic systems cover almost threefourths of the earth s surface, and oceans dominate the planet. U4: Differences in climate, based mostly on long-term differences in average temperature and precipitation, largely determine the types and locations of the earth s deserts, grasslands, and forests. U5: Movement of matter through Earth s system is driven by Earth s internal and external sources of energy and results in changes in the physical and chemical properties of the matter. Essential Questions Students will keep considering Q1: To what extent does understanding the flow of matter and energy through living systems effect personal and public policy decisions. Q2: Why Are the World s Oceans Important and How Have We Affected Them? Q3: What Are the Major Types of Aquatic Systems? Q4: How Have We Affected the World s Terrestrial Ecosystems? Q5: How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Location of Biomes? Q6: What Factors Influence Climate? Q7: How do geological processes and climate changes affect evolution, how do speciation, extinction, and human activities affect biodiversity, and is species diversity and how do species play in an ecosystem. Q8: What Are the Major Types of Freshwater Systems and How Have We Affected Them? 18

19 Knowledge Students will know K1: The chemical elements that make up the molecules of living things pass through food webs and are combined and recombined in different ways (photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen fixation, or decomposition). At each link in a food web, some energy is stored in newly made structures but much is dissipated into the environment. Continual input of energy from sunlight keeps the process going K2: The use and transfer of energy from one trophic level to another can be calculated and the rule of Ten K3: The chemical elements that make up the molecules of living things pass through food webs and are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in a food web, some energy is stored in newly made structures but much is dissipated into the environment. Continual input of energy from sunlight keeps the process going K4: Living systems require a continuous input of energy to maintain their chemical and physical organizations and also understanding that with the cessation of energy input, living systems rapidly disintegrate. K5: Although the various forms of energy appear very different, each can be measured in a way that makes it possible to keep track of how much of one form is converted into another. Whenever the amount of energy in one place diminishes the amount in other places or forms increases by the same amount. The abundance and distribution of living organisms are limited by the available energy and certain forms of matter such as water, oxygen and minerals. K6: Although Earth has a great capacity to absorb and recycle materials naturally, ecosystems have only a finite capacity to withstand change without experiencing major ecological alterations that may also have adverse effects on human activities. K7: The concept of Ecosystem Services is becoming popular as a way to encourage discussion about the dependence of humans on nature and what that means socially and economically. Ecosystem services are transformations of natural assets (soil, water, air, and living organisms) into products that are important to humans. Examples include: provision of clean air and water; maintenance of soil fertility; maintenance of livable climates; pollination of crops and other vegetation; control of potential pests; provision of genetic resources; production of food and fiber; and provision of cultural, spiritual and intellectual experiences K8: Decisions to slow the depletion of energy resources can be made at many levels, from personal to national, and they always involve trade-offs involving economic costs and social values Skills Students will be able to S1: Recognize the difference between primary and secondary succession Predict what would happen to an ecosystem if an energy source was removed S2: Use mathematical formulas to justify the concept of an efficient diet Explain the unintended consequences of harvesting natural resources from an ecosystem S3: - Demonstrate, using models, how internal and external sources of energy drive the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles. S4: Compare over time the impact of human activity on the cycling of matter and energy through ecosystems. S5: Assess (using maps, local planning documents, and historical records) how the natural environment has changed since humans have inhabited the region. S6: Relate information to detailed models of the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles, identifying major sources, sinks, fluxes, and residence times. S7: Explain how the climate in regions throughout the world is affected by seasonal weather patterns, as well as other factors, such as the addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and proximity to mountain ranges and to the ocean. S8: Describe the process of succession from pioneer to climax community in both terrestrial and aquatic situations S9: Associate typical plants and animals with the various terrestrial biomes S10: Recognize the physical environmental factors that determine the kind of climax community that will develop S11: Differentiate the forest biomes that develop based on temperature and rainfall S12: Describe the various kinds of aquatic ecosystems and the factors that determine their characteristics S13: Explain why most major cities are located on rivers, lakes, or the ocean S14: Describe the forces that result in farmland adjacent to cities being converted to urban uses S15: Explain why floodplains and wetlands are often mismanaged While urbanization may involve or provide a number of economic, social and environmental benefits, the global population demographic trend of increased urbanization that has been seen as more countries prepare to further industrialize may be associated with negative environmental and human health consequences. 19 S16: Describe the economic and social values involved in planning for outdoor recreation opportunities S17: Explain why some land must be designated for particular recreational

20 Knowledge (Continued) Students will know K9: All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and mass cycling within and between Earth s systems. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth s interior. The flowing energy and cycling matter cause chemical and physical changes in Earth s materials and living organisms. For example, large amounts of carbon continually cycle among systems of rock, water, air, organisms, and fossil fuels such as coal and oil. K10: The transport and transformation of substances through the Earth system are known collectively as biogeochemical cycles. These include the hydrologic (water), nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen cycles. Human activities can, deliberating or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium of these cycles. K11: Much of the complex behavior of the Earth system can be thought of as cycles involving physical, chemical and biological processes that transfer components among various storage locations over time. (CB, 2009). K12: The inputs and outputs connecting such reservoirs, the changes in the physical state or chemical characteristics of the components, and the time scale of these processes can all be recognized and quantified. (CB, 2009). K13: Biogeochemical cycles, such as the water cycle and carbon cycle, are driven and sustained by solar and/or geothermal energy, which is transferred, utilized and lost as an integral aspect of the cycles. (CB, 2009). K14: Differences in climate, based mostly on long-term differences in average temperature and precipitation, largely determine the types and locations of the earth s deserts, grasslands, and forests. K15: Freshwater lakes, rivers, and wetlands provide important ecological and economic services that are being disrupted by human activities. K16: Saltwater ecosystems provide major ecological and economic services that are being threatened by human activities. K17: Saltwater and freshwater aquatic life zones cover almost three-fourths of the earth s surface, and oceans dominate the planet. K18: In many areas, human activities are impairing ecological and economic services provided by the earth s deserts, grasslands, forests, and mountains. K19: Differences in long-term average annual precipitation and temperature lead to the formation of tropical, temperate, and cold deserts, grasslands, and forests, and largely determine their locations. Skills Students will be able to S16: Describe the economic and social values involved in planning for outdoor recreation opportunities S17: Explain why some land must be designated for particular recreational uses, such as wilderness areas and why that decision sometimes invites disagreement from those who do not wish to use the land in the designated way S18: List the steps in the development and implementation of a land-use plan S19: Describe methods of enforcing compliance with land use plans S20: Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the local and regional land-use planning S22: Describe the concept of smart growth S23: Students will be able to describe the different trophic levels and describe the loss of energy in the form of heat. S24: Distinguish between various forms of energy and discuss the first and second laws of thermodynamics S25: Describe the ways in which ecological systems depend on energy inputs. S26: Explain how scientists keep track of inputs outputs, and changes to complex systems. S27: Describe how natural systems change over time and space. S28: Contrast the ways in which density-dependent and densityindependent factors affect population size S29: Explain growth models, reproductive strategies, survivorship curves, and meta-populations S30: Describe species interactions and the roles of keystone species S31: Discuss the process of ecological succession S32: Explain how latitude, time, area, and distance affect the species richness of a community. S33: Describe the potential limits to human population growth S34: Describe important aspects of global and national population growth using demographic terminology and tools 20

21 Knowledge (Continued) Students will know K20: Key factors determining an area s climate are incoming solar energy, the earth s rotation, global patterns of air and water movement, gases in the atmosphere, and the earth s surface features. K21: The misuse of soil reduces soil fertility pollutes streams, and requires expensive remedial measures K22: As energy flows through ecosystems in food chains and webs, the amount of chemical energy available to organisms at each succeeding feeding level decreases. Matter, in the form of nutrients, cycles within and among ecosystems and in the biosphere. Human activities are altering these chemical cycles. Scientists use field research, laboratory research, and mathematical and models to learn about ecosystems. species plays a specific ecological role called its niche. K23: All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and mass cycling within and between Earth s systems. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth s interior. The flowing energy and cycling matter cause chemical and physical changes in Earth s materials and living organisms. For example, large amounts of carbon continually cycle among systems of rock, water, air, organisms, and fossil fuels such as coal and oil. K24: Earth exchanges mass and energy with the rest of the Solar System. Earth gains and loses energy through incoming solar radiation, heat loss to space, and gravitational forces from the sun, moon, and planets. Earth gains mass from the impacts of meteoroids and comets and loses mass by the escape of gases into space. K25: The transport and transformation of substances through the Earth system are known collectively as biogeochemical cycles. These include the hydrologic (water), nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen cycles. Human activities can, deliberating or inadvertently, alter the equilibrium of these cycles K26: While urbanization may involve or provide a number of economic, social and environmental benefits, the global population demographic trend of increased urbanization that has been seen as more countries prepare to further industrialize may be associated with negative environmental and human health consequences. Skills (Continued) Students will be able to S35: Evaluate the social, economic, and environmental factors that have contributed to decreasing growth rates in many countries. S36: Analyze relationships among changes in population size, economic development, and resource consumption at global and local scales S37: Explain how people have attempted to harmonize economic development with sustainable development. 21

22 Knowledge (Continued) Students will know K27: The size and rate of growth of the human population in any location are affected by economic, political, religious, technological and environmental factors. Some of these factors, in turn, are influenced by the size and rate of growth of the population. Skills Students will be able to Checks for Alignment U 1-5 Q 1-8 K 1-27 S 1-37 Evaluation Criteria Performance is judged in terms of Bloom s Taxonomy Rubric Evidence (Stage 2) Assessment Evidence Formative Assessment Essays, Journals, Rubrics, Formal Reports, Response and Reaction Essays, Cooperative Activities, Do-Now, Closure Activities Summative Assessments Quizzes, Tests, Projects, Presentations Learning Plan (Stage 3) Checks for alignment and best practice Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction The teaching and learning needed to achieve the unit goals. Required Activities Required Resources Textbook (TBD) Computers With Internet AP Practice Exams AP Practice Multiple Choice Questions AP Practice Free-Response Questions Lab Manuals or Textbook w/ Labs 22

23 Title of Unit Land Use and Food Production Grade Level 11,12 Curriculum Area AP Time Frame 3-4 Weeks Developed By Alfano, Blodnik Desired Results (Stage 1) Established Goals/Standards NJ High School Core Content (2011) A.1- Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific explanations A.2- Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to pose theories A.3- Use scientific principles and theories to build and refine standards for data collection, posing controls, and presenting evidence B.1- Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures of central tendencies, casual/correlational relationships, and anomalous data B.2- Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational tools B.3- Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories B.4- Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and reviewing explanations C.1- Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges C.2- Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations C.3- Consider alternative theories to interpret and evaluate evidence-based arguments D.1- Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, observations, and experiences D.2- Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and diagrams D.3- Demonstrate how to use scientific tools and instruments and knowledge of how to handle animals with respect for their safety and welfare G.2- Explain the unintended consequences of harvesting natural resources from an ecosystem G.5- Assess (using maps, local planning documents, and historical records) how the natural environment has changed since humans have inhabited the region G.6- Assess (using scientific, economic, and other data) the potential environmental impact of large-scale adoption of emerging technologies (e.g., wind farming, harnessing geothermal energy) G.7- Relate information to detailed models of the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles, identifying major sources, sinks, fluxes, and residence times. 23

24 Primary Interdisciplinary Connections S.10.5 S.10.7 S.10.8 S.IC.5 6.SP.3 6.SP.5 8.SP.1 S.ID.9 Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data. Recognize possible associations and trends of the data Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to instigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association Distinguish between correlation and causation 24

25 21 st Century Interdisciplinary Themes: _x Global Awareness _x Financial, economic, business, and entrepreneurial literacy _x_ Civic Literacy _x_ Health Literacy Transfer Students will be able to use their learning to: T1: Analyze a problem, developing hypothesis, and design a scientific experiment to test those hypothesis T2: Use statistical analysis of data collected to make an argument based on purely scientific evidence T3: Develop a vernacular of scientific terms and current environmental problems T4: Data mine from scientific journals and articles evaluating their scientific methodology for validity 25

26 Understandings Students will understand that Meaning U1: Dynamic forces that move matter within the earth and on its surface recycle the earth s rocks, form deposits of mineral resources, and cause volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. U2: The available supply of a mineral resource depends on how much of it is in the earth s crust, how fast we use it, mining technology, market prices, and the harmful environmental effects of removing and using it. U3: We can use mineral resources more sustainably by trying to find substitutes for scarce resources, reducing resource waste, and reusing and recycling nonrenewable minerals. U4: About 925 million people have health problems because they do not get enough to eat and 1.6 billion people face health problems from eating too much. U5: Modern industrialized agriculture has a greater harmful impact on the environment than any other human activity. U6: More sustainable forms of food production will greatly reduce the harmful environmental impacts of current systems while increasing food security and national security for all countries. U7: More sustainable food production involves reducing overgrazing and overfishing, irrigating more efficiently, using integrated pest management, promoting agrobiodiversity, and providing government subsidies only for more sustainable agriculture, fishing, and aquaculture. U8: We can sharply cut pesticide use without decreasing crop yields by using a mix of cultivation techniques, biological pest controls, and small amounts of selected chemical pesticides as a last resort (integrated pest management). U9: Future food production may be limited by soil erosion and degradation, desertification, water and air pollution, climate change from greenhouse gas emissions, and loss of biodiversity. U10: We have used high-input industrialized agriculture and lower-input traditional methods to greatly increase supplies of food. Essential Questions Students will keep considering Q1: How Can We Use Mineral Resources More Sustainably? Q2: How Long Will Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Last? Q3: What Are Mineral Resources and What Are the Environmental Effects of Using Them? Q4: How Are Earth s Rocks Recycled? Q5: What Are the Earth s Major Geological Processes and Hazards? Q6: How Is Food Produced? Q7: What Is Food Security and Why Is It So Difficult to Attain? Q8: How Can We Produce Food More Sustainably? Q9: How Can We Improve Food Security? Q10: What Environmental Problems Arise from Food Production? Q11: How Can We Protect Crops from Pests More Sustainably? Q12: What Is Food Security and Why Is It So Difficult to Attain? 26

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