1 From Customer Relationship Management to Citizen Interaction Platform Summary Alastair Burt 1, Stuart Oldfield 2, and Susie Ruston 3 Customer Relationship Management (CRM or in this document CuRM) can be defined as customer-centric business strategies that make the best use of resources by tailoring services to individual customers. This approach can obviously be applied to government agencies to better serve citizens, and in this context such a system is now commonly referred to as Citizen Relationship Management (CiRM). Citizen Relationship Management focuses on serving rather than selling, but both CiRM and CuRM are premised on the fact that in order to obtain best results from the relationship, there has to be identification, differentiation, interaction and personalization. It is the latter point personalization that ultimately accounts for the breakthrough in service delivery. Citizen Relationship Management s goal is to provide citizens with the highest quality service at the lowest cost to taxpayers by focusing the government s resources in the best way for each citizen. CiRM is about providing timely, consistent and responsive access to government information and services by whatever channel citizens prefer. Apart from the trend to better responsiveness and more personalization, there is also a movement towards soliciting and using more input from the citizens in the provision of public services. This extension of CiRM to provide more two way communication we term a Citizen Interaction Platform (CIP). This document outlines the key differences between CuRM, CiRM and CIP, and shows how the CARMEN system can be used provide a comprehensive panoply of services within a public administration (PA). Customer Relationship Management Software for Customer Relationship Management maintains information on actual and potential customers and provides support for the organisations interaction with these customers. When such software is introduced into an organisation, it is often accompanied by some reorganisation of the processes within the organisation to make it more customer-centric. A typical deployment will therefore consist of the following: Introducing customer-based metrics to analyse the type of customers the organisation is serving and the organisation's response to them. Developing or adapting the organisation's processes to serve customers Providing comprehensive customer support, including the provision of information about services, the collection of feedback, and the handling of complaints. Tracking the interaction of all aspects of customer interaction related to to the provision of services. Providing the tools to give an overall view of customers and the provision of services
2 As we shall see below in the case of CiRM, the introduction of a CRM approach will typically lead to a consolidation of software packages and a sharing of data between applications, as the organisation brings all information about a customer together in one place and offers the customer a consistent interface across services. It is this consolidation that is a major issue for advanced local authorities. The major monolithic packages such as SAP and Siebel tend to be focussed towards CuRM with integration into commercial functions. The CiRM systems have tended to be left behind as administrations find it difficult to identify a favourable monolithic package or cannot afford to fund the transition required. The Situation for Public Administrations Within public administrations, where profit maximisation is not the sole success criterion, the CuRM approach must be adapted slightly. This is often termed Citizen Relationship Management (CiRM). The following are some of the key elements in which the public and the private sectors differ: The citizen is often legally obliged to use the service, such as registering a change of address,f or the administration is a monopoly provider of the service. The public administrations are more likely to have regulations regarding the handling of citizen data, defining what data they may collect and with whom the data may be shared. Even without formal regulation, the administration has a natural moral obligation to safeguard data from the citizens, when they are not totally free to choose to use the service. Different public administrations are not commercial competitors. They should therefore have no compunction about sharing experiences and software and interchanging data where this does not compromise the citizens' privacy or expose citizens to identity theft. The citizens, through the government institutions, are ultimately the owners of the administrations. The organisation has therefore even more reason to be citizen-oriented. Differential marketing, offering a different grade of services to different citizens is likely to be resented even more than in the private sector, and may well raise complaints that it is inherently undemocratic, or violate regulations regarding transparency and fair treatment of citizens. In many of these areas the administrations are in a similar position to other non-profit organisations such as NGOs. In those organisations, the term Constituent or Stakeholder Relationship Management has become popular to describe similar software systems and process reengineering. Differences in CiRM contexts arise across national boundaries with government directives and legislative changes placing different demands upon PAs. For example in the UK a series of outcomes were defined by the government with PAs being scored and rewarded for achieving the outcomes defined. This created a short term drive in the UK towards presenting a single interface to the citizen and accelerating the uptake of smart card technologies for example. Organisational structures also change over national boundaries with a move in the UK towards federated service provision to try to join up the various bodies that actually deliver the end service to the citizen. To date the move towards outsourcing and tendering for services, whilst having delivered the efficiency gains demanded in pure cost terms, have left behind a legacy of disparate IT systems as each servicing business has developed its own IT. Collating and integrating these systems is now very difficult due to the contractual and control boundaries that this federated structure has created. A CiRM Approach to Providing Public s For all the differences, the benefits of bringing CuRM approaches to public services are clear. In CiRM, as in CRM, the key is to build a 360º view of the government s customers its citizens -- by capturing interactions across all the channels or touch points. This will provide government with the
3 necessary information to be able to better serve its citizens through a number of benefits or byproducts. For example: Data can be captured once but reused often Citizen preferences can be identified through analysis of past interactions s can be personalized based on geography, life stage, or specific eligibility requirements Applications, filings, payments, or other interactions can be simplified by enabling them online Automatic notification can be made of license expirations, renewal due dates or other timesensitive interactions and where possible they may be transacted on-line Data can be shared across government agencies and levels in order to facilitate dealings with the citizen Quick detection and prevention of identity theft and other fraud attempts can be enabled. In the following two sections, we show the difference in system architecture between the provision of services without and with a CiRM system. Before CiRM Illustration 1: Situation before the Introduction of CiRM The situation that typically exists before the introduction of a CiRM system is given schematically in Illustration 1. Various departments within the public administration will have begun to offer services to the citizens via the web. Some services will consist solely in the provision of information. Others may be more sophisticated involving transactions that replace the need to go to visit an office or make a telephone call. Some of the services may encompass more than one means of communication, such as web forms, , SMS messages, maintaining the relevant addresses for each citizen. However, unless the administration already has some policy for CiRM, the databases containing the citizens
4 preferences and addresses will not be shared, nor will there be a common means for the citizens to authenticate themselves. After CiRM Illustration 2: Situation after the introduction of a CiRM A typical situation after some reengineering and the introduction of supporting software is given schematically in Illustration 2, and in more detail in Illustration 3. The crucial differences comprise the following: That databases that contained citizens' preferences and coordinates are now shared or federated amongst the services. The services share the same authentication mechanisms, that is to say the user may now use the same password and/or smart card for all of them. Some overarching structure is given to the services with the aid of some device such as a web portal. In public administrations the structure is often based around life events, such as getting married or moving house, where several services may be called for at the same time. There is software to analyse the data concerning citizens and the services that the administration provides. These can be used to track the quality of the services and to identify gaps in service provision. This analysis may be supplemented with survey data from the citizens using the service. Where only one service may have been multi-channel, using and SMS messages as well as the web, the other services can now make use of these channels, using the same user coordinates and message handling software. General help desk or support services may be provided via the web, telephone, or electronic mail. The citizen should not have to search out the relevant party in each department to get such help.
5 Customer Relationship Management Back Office Contact Centre Agents Real Time Case Transfer Paper Mail Channel Manager Contact Routing Engine Task Feedback Completion Assignment Task Face 2 Face Information Illustration 3: Details of the post CiRM situation Current Best Practice in CiRM The importance of delivering e-government is central to every local authority s plans. Of course e- government is not just about technology. It s about delivering better citizen services at an affordable cost to the taxpayer. But technology is key to enabling a cost-effective service transformation. This is where CiRM systems have a vital role to play. CiRM can be used as a central tool in allowing data to support services over multiple channels. And it can give organisations a more holistic picture of their individual customer. This means an e- government strategy that incorporates CiRM will certainly help EU local authorities to make steps towards the pinnacle of better services and greater efficiency. Better services result from increased flexibility and choice on the ways that citizens can access services; easy-to-understand public services made available from a single information point; faster and better-informed responses to a higher volume of telephone calls with the caller being given a single point of reference.
6 Mobile Working IT Infrastructure Access Gateways Security & Identity Management Access Content Management System Revenues & Benefits Content Repurposing Internet Portal Knowledge Base Education IDTV Kiosks ` Eforms SCC Staff Housing Social s Neighbourhoods Integration Hub Case Management Highways & Planning Face to Face Telephony Contact Management File & Print s Environment & Leisure Workflow Fax Gateways FAX Messaging & Calendaring Printing Document management Management Information White Mail Scanning Network Illustration 4: Best practice in CiRM Greater efficiency results from moving from a departmental-based organisation to one centred around the citizen; process automation thereby increasing the efficiency of handling requests and reducing the chances of human error; achieving a single view of every citizen, regardless of the contact channel, as an aid to individual service delivery and organisational planning. But although many local authorities are talking about CiRM, rather fewer are actually doing it. And some are making the mistake of starting with CiRM as a technical solution, without first identifying the business and organisational problems they are seeking to solve. Many vendors are little better. There are plenty of companies purporting to offer a CiRM system for local government, but there are very real differences in terms of what is actually on offer. For example many amount to little more than simple call tracking systems. These may be fine for small call centres but cannot help with the complex integration issues and multi-channel access required for real e-government.
7 Web phone fax white mail eforms Knowledge Management website PBX Channel Manager Workforce Manager Fax <> Intake Image Processing Process Management Messaging Workflow eforms CRM Integration Hub People & Property Back - office Applications Workflow Workflow GIS edms Fulfilment Illustration 5: An integrated CiRM solution Two important elements are provided by an integrated approach to CiRM,the channel management functions that maintain a consistent level of service regardless of the contact channel used along with a workforce management tool that is capable of proactively monitoring service fulfilment service level agreements against staffing levels. The CARMEN Proposition Best Practice for All Administrations CARMEN has identified the following common gaps in typical CiRM implementations: The federated nature of service provision in a modern PA. The understanding that content and indeed services will be generated by different federated groups without central control. That user enrolment and control will occur at different points in the delivered model. That organisations will upgrade their requirements for authentication independently of the provision of central services. It has therefore produced a CiRM toolkit with the following components: A Federated identity model. A platform that is agnostic of the eventual content or service that the end user receives. A set of application services that can be used to present a variety of contact channels: SMS capabilities Web capabilities
8 Capabilities The use of these modules allows an administration to provide the full spectrum of CiRM functionality in an integrated and consistent way. It is also important to stress the position of authentication and authorisation within an organisation. With the move towards federated transactional services, it is often the case that external customer requests are authenticated through a common channel with internal users of the various services. In practice this usually means implementing a customer registration function along with the associated technical capabilities required to resolve the authentication and authorisation requests. Internal s AD Directory Server Replication Application Servers Terminal s s File & Print External s SQL Adapter Citizen Database LDAP Web s Federated s LDAP LDAP LDAP LDAP Illustration 6: Authentication in a CiRM Illustration 6 shows one such organisation that retains its local command and control over local users by delivering a closed active directory mode for local user authentication yet respects a downstream LDAP structure for clearing requests from non-local users. Taken to the next level of detail it becomes clear where the CARMEN modules fit into the equation:
9 External Agencies Internal Domains Government Gateway Education Internal Active Directory LDAP Server Workstation Care s Other Agencies I N T E R N E T Request Routing LDAP Database Registration Validation Authorisation Accounting Suspension Deletion Web s Registration s Authentication s Authorisation s Suspension s Deletion s ` User Credentials USERID PASSWORD DOMAIN S Card Illustration 7: Using CARMEN web service modules within a CiRM The modules provide the basic services required (the Web s, marked in blue, in Illustration 7) to support clearance of the external authentication and authorisation requests necessary to support a federated environment.
10 Citizen Interaction Platform Illustration 8: Citizen Interaction Platform CuRM in its typical form does not effectively support the flow of ideas from the customer to the organisation. The accent is rather on making the management of of possible new sales targets cheaper and more comfortable for the organisation. This is probably not optimal for many profit-directed organisations, where innovations and suggestions from the organisation's customers are an important source of profitable new activities. It is even less useful for a public administration whose aim is to serve the citizenry rather than extract the maximum amount of service fees from it. What is needed is an approach with more two-way interaction between citizens and the administration. For this approach, the term Customer or Citizen Relationship Management is perhaps not the most appropriate, since it rather implies that the customer or citizen is a passive entity to be managed. A Citizen Interaction Platform (CIP) is a better term to express the two way nature of the desired system. A key element of providing more interaction is making the transactions in the workflow of the administration available to the citizen to whom the service is being provided. A typical case might be citizens who are applying for a passport, a patent or a driver s license. In these situations there is a process characterized by workflow covering a number of steps and involving one or more transactions with the same individual. This constitutes a case and its status in the process and work queues should be tracked in the same way that FedEx tracks a shipment. Whenever possible it should be done openly, providing the applicant with free and friendly access to the case file in order to engage the individual in facilitating his or her own situation. Furthermore, by capturing the history of cases transactions within a specific agency and across agencies and levels of governments, the process of better serving that specific citizen can be substantially enhanced. A government official working on a transaction could have ample awareness of that citizen s preferences, prior transactions, and other interactions with sister agencies. All the needed authentication and eligibility verification could be done automatically, through the case management system connected to other agencies and levels of government. Backlogs and cycle times could be substantially reduced and the government could do its job much more effectively. Illustration 8 sketches the architecture of a more interactive version of the CiRM of Ilustration 2. Three areas of functionality have been added:
11 Transparency of the workflow. Allow the citizens to see exactly how the services are processed. This is already obligatory in countries such as Italy. E-Democracy support. Citizens should be encouraged to discuss the activities of administration and offer ideas on how to improve them. Electronic polls and questionnaires can be used to sound out the attitude of the citizenry to any proposed changes. Supporting activity from the citizens. Some of the citizens may be inclined to offer services themselves instead of waiting for them to be provided by the administration. If such activities are of clear benefit to others and are provided on a voluntary basis, the administration should support such endeavours, including their incorporation into the CIS platform. CARMEN already has elements to support some of these activities. In particular, it has modules to support E-Polling, and some elements of the workflow may be optionally exposed to the citizen. The full dimension of the change that the new ability for administrations to interact with citizens will bring about in the future is currently not predictable. It is far too early to divine all the changes that the internet will induce in society as a whole and it is likely that the provision of public services will not be unaffected by these, indeed it may become one of the central points for these changes. As the requirements for full democratic interaction in service provision in the internet age become clearer, the CARMEN toolkit will be extended with new modules to satisfy them. Conclusion Most private organisations of any size now find the need for a CuRM system to provide a consistent, manageable interface between the organisation and outside bodies. This had lead to a large and varied market for software packages to provide this functionality. Public administrations are usually in a different situation: they do not have the same sort of commercial relation with external parties, they have many more legal and organisational obligations, and their budgets are often more restricted. Moreover, the interaction between the citizen and administrations is in a state of flux as the Internet continues to induce new technological innovations and changes in social attitudes. The CuRM systems are not, therefore, suitable without modification and the corresponding market for CiRM packages has large unfilled gaps. CARMEN provides a toolkit of modules to fill many of these gaps. These modules have demonstrated their general applicability within a project partially funded by the European Union, where they were used within a wide variety of organisations in four different countries. The tools will continue to be developed and will support the CIPs that modern public administrations will need to meet the increasing demands from their citizens. Abbreviations CuRM CiRM CIP PA Customer Relationship Management Citizen Relationship Management Citizen Interaction Platform Public Administration
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