TESTING OUR SECURITY DEFENCES

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1 INFOSECURITY WITH PLYMOUTH UNIVERSITY TESTING OUR SECURITY DEFENCES Dr Maria Papadaki 1 1

2 Do we need to test our defences? Can penetration testing help to improve security? 2 2

3 OVERVIEW Why testing of defences Penetration Testing phases Strengthening defences 3 3

4 INFOSECURITY WITH PLYMOUTH UNIVERSITY WHY TESTING OF DEFENCES? 4 4

5 ARE OUR DEFENCES Average cost of worst security breach for K-30K for small businesses 110K-250K for large organisations Median number of breaches in 2011 small organisations, 33 breaches large organisations, WORKING? 134 breaches Source: Information Security Breaches Survey 2012, Source: 15th 5 Annual 2010/2011 Computer Crime and Security Survey, 5

6 PENETRATION TESTING Penetration testing are legitimate and authorised attempts that aim to test and improve security defences by identifying and exploiting vulnerable systems emphasis on determining business risk and potential impact of intrusions in a controlled, professional and ethical manner aids organisations to improve their security practices Should be performed regularly, but especially when: new services/equipment/policies are introduced significant modification of existing services/equipment/policies new office locations 6 6

7 ALTERNATIVES TO SECURITY ASSESSMENT Vulnerability assessment stops at identifying vulnerabilities, it does not exploit them and hence does not determine business impact tends to focus on software vulnerabilities only Intrusion detection and network/ /web monitoring Security audits Security audits follow rigorous set of criteria and checklists to ensure compliance with security policy, regulations and standards Penetration testing is a subset of security audits Configuration/Architecture review 7 7

8 SO WHY PENETRATION TESTING? Shows real life impact of breaches Useful for management Tests systems in real-life conditions, from the perspective of an attacker (and what they know) Is more transparent to target environment personnel Requires less time for in-depth interviews, audits, configuration and architecture reviews 8 8

9 INFOSECURITY WITH PLYMOUTH UNIVERSITY PENETRATION TESTING PHASES 9 9

10 PEN TESTING PHASES P l a n n i n g & S c o p i n g Reconnaisance Scanning Exploitation Exploit Post 10 10

11 PLANNING Get out of Jail Free Card. No testing can commence without it. Rules of Engagement. Agree how the test will be run: Contact information Encryption for data exchange between testers / target organisation How teams will communicate/debrief Start date and finish date for tests. Acceptable times for testing. Announced vs unannounced tests. Black Box vs. Crystal Box testing What is acceptable after compromise How the results will be treated 11 11

12 SCOPING Identify what needs to be tested Identify what needs to be avoided Third-party equipment (e.g. ISP routers, web hosting servers, cloud providers) Use VM clone or actual production system? Internal or external testing? Social Engineering? DoS? Dangerous exploits? 12 12

13 RECONNAISSANCE The purpose of this phase is to learn as much as possible about the target organisation inventory of possible targets, infrastructure people and culture terminology Provides vital clues for the remaining phases whois, DNS Lookups, network sweeps, google searching, metadata, social networking, online forums, organisation s website, addresses policy, organisation employees 13 13

14 WEB RECONNAISSANCE Organisation website. Background on organisation Main business, products, employees, addresses, office locations, competitors, Job postings, online devices web archives (e.g. The Wayback Machine) Document Metadata - pdf, doc(x), dot, xls(x), xlt, ppt(x), jpg, jpeg, etc User names, addresses, file system structure, client software (and versions) in use Social networking sites (LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, Myspace, etc) Google Hacking 14 14

15 METADATA ANALYSIS Dozens of automated tools available. ExifTool, Strings 15 15

16 BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER Automated recon tools can integrate results from various sources Domain names, IP Addresses, social networking, network scanning, etc 16 16

17 SCANNING Aims to discover openings by interacting more with the target environment. Nmap is a popular tool that can automate the process Network sweeps Network traces Port scans OS fingerprinting Version scans Vulnerability scans Really important to keep records of scanning attempts and monitor the health of affected systems while scanning 17 17

18 NETWORK TRACES Nmap traceroute is different from Windows, Unix Traceroute. Optimised for largescale scans Also Layer 4 traceroute, and web-based traceroute services available 18 18

19 PORT SCANS TCP scans different from UDP scans TCP has inbuilt response. If port is open, TCP will respond to a SYN request A SYN/ACK response means port is open A RST/ACK means port is closed or blocked Any other response, or lack of response, means the port is filtered UDP has no inbuilt response. Even if port is open, UDP will not respond to a request. The application on that port will. Response from application means port is open Lack of response means...????? UDP scans are more effective if they include application-layer requests As with traceroute, you need to make every packet count 19 19

20 SCANNING TECHNIQUES OS Fingerprinting Sends pre-defined unusual stimuli that are designed to show differences in OS behaviour First generation was more error-prone Second generation is more accurate. Uses more than 30 tests 20 Version Scans Help identify services on unexpected ports e.g. http on 23/tcp rather than 80/tcp Also helps to identify their version 20

21 SCANNING TECHNIQUES Vulnerability Scans Knowing live systems, running services, and their versions, the next step is to discover vulnerabilities Nmap, Nessus and numerous other tools can help in this step User Enumeration User accounts are often used in exploits. Apart from public-facing resources, they can be harvested from the local network. addresses /etc/passwd in Linux/ Unix 21 sid2user in Windows 21

22 EXPLOITATION The next step is gaining access to the system and running commands e.g. installing software on target system, taking files from target system, sniffing traffic, changing the configuration, pivoting to other systems, etc. useful to verify if vulnerability exists initial access is often used as pivot point to get further access in the internal network and show real impact of a vulnerability Carries risks and hence it is vital to pre-determine at planning stage what is allowed on what systems data exposure; system integrity; system instability Numerous tools available, e.g. metasploit, core impact, nmap, etc 22 22

23 EXPLOIT TYPES Server-side Once a vulnerability is discovered, an exploit is delivered to the service Inbound traffic on the port should be allowed on firewall Client-side The client needs to connect to the attacker, in order to retrieve the exploit Popular exploits: Flash Player, Adobe Acrobat, Internet Explorer, Java, QuickTime Player, etc

24 POST EXPLOITATION Once access is gained, the next step is to prove access and show its impact Files to pilfer: passwords, crypto keys, windows credentials, wifi preshared keys source code, system files, application config trust relationships, other systems from DNS cache, ARP cache, etc 24 24

25 INFOSECURITY WITH PLYMOUTH UNIVERSITY STRENGTHENING DEFENCES 25 25

26 DEFENDING AGAINST RECONNAISSANCE Understanding the value of information our systems, devices, employees emit is key Metadata, job websites, online forums Hardening of systems and devices E.g. silence routers and systems Free templates available at cisecurity.org. Automated tools include MBSA, Bastille Configure systems and applications to behave differently (e.g. different TCP/IP stack, change server banners and responses. e.g. IPPersonality, Servermask) Use pen testing tools against your own systems Social engineering Awareness raising 26 26

27 INFOSECURITY WITH PLYMOUTH UNIVERSITY Dr Maria Papadaki GCIA GPEN MBCS FHEA Centre for Security Communications & Network Research (CSCAN)

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