1 625 CHAPTER 17 Determining Windows 2000 Network Security Strategies Today, most organizations want their computer infrastructure connected to the Internet because it provides valuable services to their staff and customers. However, the services made available through Internet connection can be misused, which makes it necessary to employ network security strategies. Microsoft Windows 2000 includes a variety of technologies that you can use as you plan your network security strategy. These technologies can also be useful if your network security issues are internal to your organization or if your external network connections are to networks other than the Internet. For more information about internal security, see Planning Distributed Security in this book. The strategic use of security technologies to protect your company s network connections to the Internet or other public networks is discussed in this chapter. This chapter does not provide details about how to install and use network security technologies. Network architects involved in network security design and system administrators involved with administering network security need to read this chapter. As a prerequisite to performing the tasks outlined in this chapter, you need to be familiar with network and Internet technologies, such as routing, network protocols, and Web serving. In This Chapter Planning for Network Security 627 Developing Strategies for Secure Network Connections 632 Deploying Network Security Technologies 635 Planning Task List for Determining Network Security Strategies 648
2 626 Part 5 Advanced Management Chapter Goals This chapter will help you develop the following planning documents: Network security plan Deployment plan for network security technologies Related Information in the Resource Kit For more information about implementing and using relevant Windows 2000 network security technologies, see the Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit Internetworking Guide. For more information about IPSec, see the Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit TCP/IP Core Networking Guide.
3 Chapter 17 Determining Windows 2000 Network Security Strategies 627 Planning for Network Security A connection to the Internet allows your organization s staff to use to communicate with people around the world and to obtain information and files from a vast number of sources. It also allows your customers to obtain information and services from your organization at any time. In addition, your organization s staff can use company resources from home, hotels, or anywhere else they might be, and partners can use special facilities to allow them to work more effectively with your company. As you plan your network, you might want to implement security technologies appropriate for your organization. Addressing these issues early in your Windows 2000 deployment planning ensures that security cannot be breached and that you are ready to provide secure networking facilities when needed. Even though you probably have a secure network environment already in place, it is important for you to review your security strategies with Windows 2000 capabilities in mind. Considering the implications of the new network security technologies in Windows 2000 might lead you to rethink your security plan. To begin, it is recommended that you complete the following tasks as you develop your network security plan: Assess your network security risks. Determine your server size and placement requirements. Prepare your staff. Create and publish security policies and procedures. Use a formal methodology to create a deployment plan for your security technologies. Identify your user groups and their specific needs and security risks. The following sections describe these items in more detail. Note For more information about deployment planning for your network, see Determining Network Connectivity Strategies in this book. That chapter includes strategies for routing, addressing, name resolution, network applications, and similar networking issues. This chapter concentrates on the security issues of your network.
4 628 Part 5 Advanced Management Assessing Network Security Risks Unfortunately, the ability to share and obtain information comes with significant risks. Competitors might try to gain access to early or proprietary product information, or someone might maliciously modify Web pages or overload computers so that they are unusable. There is also the possibility that employees might access information that they should not see. You want to avoid these and other types of security risks to ensure that your company s business functions can carry on as intended. To make sure that only the appropriate people have access to resources and data, it is a good idea to review your network security technologies carefully and plan your strategies well. This also provides accountability by tracking how network resources are used. For a general discussion about how to identify security risks and select appropriate strategies, see Planning Distributed Security in this book. Note Some organizations minimize network security risks by not allowing connections to the Internet or any other public network. This obviously limits the community of people who can misuse the network facilities. However, network security risks can still exist within the organization, and even limited network connections can expose some risks. Therefore, network security strategies and technologies are still necessary in these situations. Figure 17.1 illustrates the primary steps for determining your network security strategies.
5 Chapter 17 Determining Windows 2000 Network Security Strategies 629 Start Plan for deployment. Create secure boundaries. Prepare for Windows 2000 network security strategies. Deploy strategies for everyone. Deploy strategies for users of company applications. Deploy strategies for company staff. Deploy strategies for partners. Figure 17.1 Process for Determining Network Security Strategies Determining Server Size and Placement When you are establishing a connection between your intranet and the Internet or other public network, carefully consider where you will make the connection. Typically this will be in the central part of your organization s network, so that the effective distance between your servers and the Internet is minimized. It will also usually be at a location where networking specialists can easily access it for maintenance.
6 630 Part 5 Advanced Management Preparing Your Staff Ideally, you want to have only one connection to the Internet for your entire company. This simplifies management of the connections and reduces the potential for security weaknesses due to inconsistently applied policies and procedures. After you have decided where to place the connection to the Internet, you must determine what server hardware you need to support your network security technologies. The characteristics of these servers will depend on the technologies you plan to implement and the anticipated workload, but at a minimum, they need to be capable of running Windows 2000 Server. Although it is possible to run software for applications other than network security on the same servers as your network security applications, it is not recommended. Running other applications reduces the capacity of the servers to respond to network security needs and might cause the servers to fail. Also, if the applications have security weaknesses, they might compromise network security. Security technologies need to be deployed and managed by very capable and trustworthy people. They must integrate the entire network and network security infrastructure so that you can eliminate or minimize weaknesses. As the environment and requirements change, they must continually maintain the integrity of the network security infrastructure. A critical factor for ensuring the success of your network security staff is to be sure they are well trained and kept up-to-date as technologies change. The staff needs to take time to learn Windows 2000, particularly its network security technologies. They also need to have opportunities to reinforce their training with experimental work and practical application. In addition, the network security staff must familiarize themselves with network security issues in general. Many books about this topic are available, and the Internet has many sites that address network security. Developing Security Policies and Procedures Policies and procedures are always important, but they are critical for security. You need to create and publish your policies to gain consensus on how you will handle specific security issues and to ensure that everyone clearly understands the policies. Formalized procedures ensure that system maintenance and changes are always done in a well-thought-out manner. One issue you need to consider is how to monitor for breaches in or attempts to break security. You can minimize breaches and stop attempts to break security if appropriate staff are aware of them as early as possible. This is only possible if monitoring procedures are in place. Well-defined policies help you establish procedures for dealing with these security issues.
7 Chapter 17 Determining Windows 2000 Network Security Strategies 631 Reliability is another important security issue you need to address. Have plans in place for when a component of the security infrastructure fails. Decide the appropriate action for any possible security breach ahead of time, and have resources available to repair the problem as soon as possible. Creating a Plan for Deploying Your Security Technologies Create a detailed plan for deploying network security technologies as part of your overall Windows 2000 deployment plan by using a formal project methodology. This will ensure that you deploy the technologies in a systematic, thorough manner with minimal opportunity for failure. Critical steps in the project include communicating the network security policies to all interested parties, and communicating policies and procedures to network users. The most important aspect of the deployment project is pilot testing. The proposed network security technologies needs to be subjected to significant and realistic testing in a safe environment. This will help to ensure that the architecture works as intended, your security goals have been achieved, and your staff is ready to deploy and support the technologies. Identifying User Categories and Their Security Needs and Risks Your network infrastructure is in place to serve people for the benefit of your organization. For the purposes of discussing network security strategies in this chapter, these people are divided into four network user communities: Everyone This category includes all people accessing your network from any organization or location, which could include staff, users, and partners. They generally cannot easily be identified reliably and must, therefore, be considered anonymously. Staff This group includes all people who work for your organization. They can be easily identified using standardized internal procedures. Typically, they use company and your intranet. Users This group includes staff who use applications to accomplish business functions. Partners This group includes people from any organization or location who have a special relationship with your organization. They are prepared to follow standardized procedures so that they can be identified. They might use facilities similar to staff and users. They are often considered to be part of an extranet.
8 632 Part 5 Advanced Management The network security strategies presented in this chapter address the needs and risks of each category of network user and detail approaches you can use to satisfy their needs while minimizing risks. In addition, you will find an overall strategy for security in general and an overall strategy for network security infrastructure. Developing Strategies for Secure Network Connections Network security becomes most critical when you connect your computers to a network that you do not entirely trust. Network security issues are common within an organization, but in those cases you have a lot of scope for accountability and discipline, and you have a range of basic, distributed, and network security technologies to address the issues. Beyond your organization, options for accountability and discipline are greatly diminished, and therefore you need to rely more strongly on security strategies themselves. Creating Secure Boundaries Network security between your organization and the outside world is dependent on one or more servers where you implement network security technologies. These servers logically sit on the boundary between your organization and the outside world. Often the application servers providing services to the outside world are in the same physical location. One approach to maximize the security of these servers is to logically place them in a unique location in your network infrastructure. The area in which they are placed is often called a demilitarized zone (DMZ). The firewall (discussed in the next section ) has an additional network adapter that directs traffic to the DMZ based on a set of addresses assigned to that area. Figure 17.2 shows this relationship. Within the DMZ, you can ensure that servers do not have access to corporate resources. This way, if a security breach does occur on those servers, the perpetrators cannot then move on to other computers within your intranet. Internet Intranet Firewall DMZ Figure 17.2 A Demilitarized Zone
9 Chapter 17 Determining Windows 2000 Network Security Strategies 633 The DMZ, as with all internal network components, needs to be physically secured against access by the public. This ensures that no one not even one of your employees can weaken your security by rearranging cabling or by using logged in accounts. You do not have to physically separate the DMZ from other computers and networking equipment. However, it is appropriate to apply special policies and procedures to the DMZ, because of its critical role in your network security. The smallest of changes, made improperly, can be sufficient to create a breach that intruders can take advantage. Therefore, it must be impossible for unqualified staff to change the DMZ. Applying additional physical security to the DMZ ensures that this is the case. Caution Carefully secure your client computers and accounts to ensure that only authorized users can use them to access your network. If you cannot physically secure a client computer, then make certain that the accounts used on it have few privileges and that you use file encryption, secured screen savers, and other local security strategies. Securing Against Everyone To secure your organization s network for access to and from the Internet, you need to put a server between the two. The server provides connectivity for company staff to the Internet while minimizing the risks that connectivity introduces. At the same time, it prevents access to computers on your network from the Internet, except for those computers authorized to have such access. This server runs firewall or proxy server software. It also has two network interfaces: one for the corporate network and one for the Internet. The firewall or proxy server software examines all network packets on each interface to determine their intended address. Where appropriate, the packets are passed to the other interface for distribution to the rest of the respective network if they pass the software s criteria. In some cases, the contents of the packets are passed along as if they came from the proxy server, and the results are passed to the requesting computer when they are returned to the proxy server. This ensures that people on the Internet cannot get the addresses of computers within the company other than the proxy server. Using Microsoft Proxy Server Microsoft Proxy Server 2.0 provides both proxy server and firewall functions. Proxy Server 2.0 runs on Windows 2000, and both need to be configured properly in order to provide full network security. If you have a version of Proxy Server earlier than 2.0 with Service Pack 1, you need to upgrade it for Windows 2000 compatibility at the time that you upgrade the server to Windows 2000.
10 634 Part 5 Advanced Management In many cases, the volume of traffic between a company network and the Internet is more than one proxy server can handle. In these situations, you can use multiple proxy servers; the traffic is coordinated among them automatically. For users on both the Internet and intranet sides, there appears to be only one proxy server. To use advanced Microsoft Proxy Server features, computers need to have the Microsoft Proxy Server client installed and configured to use the proxy server. Computers without the client (such as those on the Internet) receive basic service from the proxy server as anonymous users. It is important to test the proxy server before connecting it to the Internet. Set up a small-scale simulation of the Internet and your intranet, and have client computers try to access various services in both directions. Also, attempt to make unauthorized connections to verify that your network rejects them. Be sure to test a wide variety of network access methods to verify that all types of network access are secure. Try different techniques that can be used to take advantage of security holes, to ensure that you do not have such holes in your environment. Books about network security include suggestions for specific issues that you can test. Third-party products can also help with such testing, as can consultants who are experienced in this area. Procedures for using Microsoft Proxy Server are included with the product. For more information about Microsoft Proxy Server and for details about Microsoft security technologies, see the Microsoft Security Advisor link on the Web Resources page at Monitoring Your Network Security The network security technologies you implement can meet your goals only if you plan and configure them carefully. With thorough preparation, this work can be done very successfully. However, anticipating all possible risks can be very difficult: new risks develop, systems break down, and the environment in which your systems are placed changes over time. Ongoing reviews of your network security strategies can minimize these risks. However, you also need to watch the actual network security activity, to spot weaknesses before they are exploited, and to stop attempts to break security before they are effective. To watch your network security activity, you need tools to capture the details about the activities and to analyze the data. Microsoft Proxy Server includes logging at two levels: normal and verbose. Windows 2000 also has event logging, which can be enhanced by enabling security auditing. Internet Authentication Server, discussed later in this chapter, has extensive activity reporting options. Third-party products are also available that can help with monitoring servers and applications, including security servers and applications. Be sure you review the documentation for whatever systems you use and select the logging options that best serve your requirements.
11 Chapter 17 Determining Windows 2000 Network Security Strategies 635 Connecting to External Networks When you have a proxy server in place, complete with monitoring facilities and properly prepared staff, you can connect your network to an external network. Conduct a final set of tests to be sure that the implementation properly fulfills your plans. You need to be confident that only the services you have authorized are available, and the risk for misuse is almost nonexistent. This environment requires diligent monitoring and maintenance, but you will also be ready to consider providing other secure networking services. Note This chapter does not discuss how to set up a network connection. There are many books that cover this topic, and your network service provider can make the connection or put you in touch with consultants who can make the connection. Deploying Network Security Technologies After you have prepared your overall network security strategy, you can decide how you want to use enhanced network security technologies for each community of users defined in this chapter: Everyone, Staff, Users, and Partners. You can then deploy network security strategies for each of your network user communities. You might want to first consider the needs of Everyone, as a group, and then address the needs of company Staff, Users of company applications, and Partners as business priorities dictate. Before you identify specific security policies for your organization, you need to consider Windows 2000 capabilities that enhance your network security. Preparing for Windows 2000 Network Security Technologies In some cases, Windows 2000 network security technologies are dependent on other Windows 2000 security technologies. For example, the virtual private networking Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) uses IPSec to provide security from the remote client to the VPN server. The IPSec security negotiation requires certificates to authorize the connection. Therefore, a certification server is required with the appropriate configuration. Typically, a Windows 2000 certificate server is joined to a domain. The domain specifies Group Policy with public key infrastructure (PKI) settings for computers to auto-enroll in this certificate authority to get a computer certificate for IPSec. L2TP creates the necessary IPSec policy to ensure the L2TP traffic is secure. However, administrators might want to also secure other traffic between all servers and clients. This requires the configuration of IPSec on each client and server. Because IPSec is configured using a policy, after you create the policy in Active Directory, you can apply it to all computers on a group or domain basis. You can deploy certificates and IPSec policy to all domain computers by centralized administration using Group Policy in Active Directory.
12 636 Part 5 Advanced Management For more information about planning for the deployment of Windows 2000 certificates, see Planning Your Public Key Infrastructure in this book. For more information about Active Directory planning, see Designing the Active Directory Structure in this book. Deploying Strategies for Everyone When your Internet connection is in place, anyone who can find it presents a potential network security risk. Therefore, the first community of users to address when you deploy an overall network security strategy is the group previously defined as Everyone. You have already done this, in part, by putting in place a proxy server as well as security monitoring policies, procedures, and technologies. You might also want to consider the network applications that Everyone can benefit from and the security requirements those applications have. For example, you might want to set up Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) with an internal Web site. IIS has many security options available that you need to carefully consider and configure as required. (IIS includes extensive documentation about this subject.) Also consider using File Transfer Protocol (FTP) servers and other services that Everyone can benefit from. Deploying Strategies for Staff People in the Staff group might want to access the corporate network from any location in order to access internal Web sites, to copy files, to print documents, and for other simple functions. The primary security goal in these cases is to verify that the user is an authorized employee before the user gains free access to the network. Therefore, the initial connection into the network must be secure, but no further validation is required. An additional concern is that you need to prevent unauthorized people from intercepting and reading the traffic on your network. Employees can use Internet service providers (ISPs) to access the company network; however, not all staff will have such access. You might not want to make all intranet services available through the Internet, or you might require the guaranteed network capacity of a dedicated network link. Using Windows 2000 Routing and Remote Access service, you can define remote access policies to be highly specific as to how users can access the internal network when connecting over the Internet. Routing and Remote Access Organizations typically provide remote connection options to staff at their own sites. Information technology (IT) staff set up dedicated telephone numbers for this purpose and attach modems (or similar hardware) to a server that is directly connected to the intranet. The server runs specialized software to handle connection details, and it also authenticates the dial-up user as being an authorized staff member.
13 Chapter 17 Determining Windows 2000 Network Security Strategies 637 Windows 2000 includes Routing and Remote Access, which allows you to provide dial-up facilities for your users. If you want to centralize your user authentication, authorization, and accounting services in Windows 2000, you can use Remote Access or VPN by setting up an Internet Authentication Service (IAS) server. Figure 17.3 illustrates one possible configuration of these servers. Remote Access Client Modem Public Switched Telephone Network Modem Virtual Private Network Server Intranet Internet Authentication Service Server Figure 17.3 Sample Routing and Remote Access Configuration The Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit Internetworking Guide contains information about how Routing and Remote Access works and what capabilities it provides. Windows 2000 Server Help describes how to install and use Routing and Remote Access. When you are planning the deployment of Routing and Remote Access, consider the following security issues: Who will be given the phone numbers? Who will be given permission to use Routing and Remote Access? What kind of authentication methods will be used? How is data encryption to be used (Routing and Remote Access client to Routing and Remote Access server)? If you need end-to-end encryption (remote access client all the way to the application server on the internal network), use Internet Protocol security (IPSec), which is discussed later in this chapter. What remote access policies will be used to control user access? For more information about general deployment issues for Routing and Remote Access, see Determining Network Connectivity Strategies in this book.
14 638 Part 5 Advanced Management Routing and Remote Access Security Restricting the distribution of Routing and Remote Access phone numbers helps minimize the number of people who might try to dial into your network. However, any dial-up connection solution still poses a risk because anyone can potentially obtain the phone number. It is possible to set up an automatic process to dial phone numbers in sequence until you find a modem that answers. Therefore, Routing and Remote Access needs to be secured to ensure only authorized access. At a minimum, Routing and Remote Access requires that the user provide a valid computer account and password. However, this level of security is open to all the usual logon attacks, such as guessing passwords. It is recommended that you use additional Routing and Remote Access security options. You can restrict the use of Routing and Remote Access to only those people with a confirmed business requirement to dial in. You can also require that Routing and Remote Access hang up the connection when it is first established and dial back to the user. This way, the user can only access the Routing and Remote Access facility from a predetermined phone number, or the phone number can be recorded. Where facilities allow, you can also use caller ID to record the phone number that originated the connection. Consider that someone can intercept a user name and password while a user is attempting to log on to the Routing and Remote Access server using techniques similar to a wiretap. To prevent this, Routing and Remote Access can use a secure user authentication method, such as Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP) version 1 and version 2, Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), or Shiva Handshake Authentication Protocol (SPAP). A related risk is a user who believes he or she is dialing in to the company network, but is actually dialing into another location that is now obtaining their identification information. To avoid this, you can use mutual authentication to ensure that the Routing and Remote Access server is authorized much like the user is authorized. This is possible with EAP-Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS) or MS-CHAP version 2 authentication protocols. Similar issues exist for the data that is transferred over the Routing and Remote Access connection. The EAP-TLS or MS-CHAP version 2 authentication protocols allow you to encrypt data as it is being transmitted, using Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE). Remote access policies, whether implemented as local policies or as part of Group Policy, can enforce the use of the authentication and encryption techniques you choose to use. For more information about networking, Routing and Remote Access authentication, and data encryption techniques, see Windows 2000 Server Help.
15 Chapter 17 Determining Windows 2000 Network Security Strategies 639 Virtual Private Networks Virtual private networks (VPNs) provide secure network services over a public network, like a private network does, but at a reduced cost. VPNs allow company staff and other authorized users to connect to the corporate network from remote locations as securely as they can from a company site. Therefore, all corporate network services can be securely offered over VPNs. VPNs require more effort than nonsecured public connections to understand, set up, and support, but they provide fully secure connections using low-cost Internet or similar connections. You can use VPNs in conjunction with Routing and Remote Access, but this is not required. You can set up VPNs between sites using any kind of link and you can also use them within a site for enhanced security. Virtual private networks typically work as follows: The user dials into any Internet service provider (ISP). The VPN client software contacts a designated VPN server owned by your company through the Internet and initiates authentication. The user is authenticated and security details are provided. The VPN server provides a new Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) address to the client computer and the client computer is directed to send all further network traffic with that address through the VPN server. All network packets are then fully encrypted as they are exchanged in a manner that only the VPN client and VPN server can decrypt. Figure 17.4 illustrates the relationships among these computers. VPN connection Tunnel Internet Internet Service Provider VPN Server Intranet Figure 17.4 Sample Virtual Private Network Configuration
16 640 Part 5 Advanced Management You can also use VPNs to connect multiple computers at a site to your corporate network, or to restrict communications with a subnet to authorized staff only. Windows 2000 Server includes Windows 2000 VPN software as part of Routing and Remote Access, which is an optional Windows 2000 component. The Internetworking Guide contains extensive information about how Windows 2000 VPNs work and what facilities they provide. Windows 2000 Server Help describes how to install VPNs. Deploying VPNs If you are planning to deploy VPNs, there are various issues you need to consider, such as: Which security protocol to use Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) or Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP). Whether to use IPSec (if L2TP is selected). What certificates to use when connecting with L2TP/IPSec. Where to locate the VPN server in front of your firewall, behind it, or beside it. How to use Connection Manager to give users predefined settings. How to use VPNs as part of your remote access policy. PPTP vs. L2TP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a TCP/IP network protocol that encapsulates IP, IPX, or NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI) protocols. PPTP allows non-tcp/ip, or multiprotocol, network activity over the Internet (or similar networks). PPTP-based VPNs also provide user authentication, access control, and the opportunity to apply dial-up profiles to carefully restrict certain types of remote access use by specific users. PPTP provides an internal address configuration to the remote client, so they can participate on the internal network as if they were directly connected. PPTP provides compression and options for standard and strong RC4 (a symmetric stream cipher) encryption for the traffic that is carried inside the tunnel. L2TP is very similar to PPTP but uses UDP, and therefore can be used over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), Frame Relay, and X.25 networks as well. When L2TP is used over IP networks, it uses a UDP port 1701 packet format for both a control channel and a data channel. L2TP can also be used with IPSec to provide a fully secured network link. IPSec first does a security negotiation, using certificates for authentication, between client and VPN server for L2TP traffic. L2TP then provides authentication using a user account and password or using a user certificate.
17 Chapter 17 Determining Windows 2000 Network Security Strategies 641 Internet Protocol Security Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is a protocol for securing Internet Protocol (IP) network traffic. IPSec provides complete security between two computers, so that no section of the connection is insecure. Configuration of IPSec is performed using IPSec policies. These policies can contain a number of security rules, each one specifying a certain type of traffic with filters, associated with a filter action and authentication method. IPSec policies can be creating and assigned locally on a computer, or in Active Directory within Group Policy. Note IPSec does provide end-to-end IP security, but it does not encrypt all protocols that run over IP. IPSec has built-in exemptions for certain traffic such as Internet Key Exchange negotiation, Kerberos authentication, IP broadcast, and IP multicast traffic. If necessary, additional protocols can be exempted by creating IPSec rules with a filter to specify the type of traffic and a filter action of permit. For more information about IPSec, see Windows 2000 Server Help, and the TCP/IP Core Networking Guide. For more information about planning the deployment of your certification authority in a public key infrastructure, see Planning Your Public Key Infrastructure in this book. VPN Server Location You can use VPNs in conjunction with firewalls. Although VPNs can act similarly to firewalls, each offers additional benefits that the other cannot, and therefore both might be needed. In such a situation, consider the location of the VPN server in relation to the firewall. Physically, you can install the two on the same server. This creates a single point of failure if the server is unavailable or if the security of the server is compromised. However, having fewer servers reduces the probability of server unavailability, as well as reducing the costs of server maintenance. There can also be capacity implications. Consider how each of these factors affects your situation to determine the specific design you need. A more significant set of issues is the logical relationship of the VPN server to the firewall. The options, as shown in Figure 17.5, are to have the VPN server logically in front of the firewall, behind it, or beside it. Windows 2000 can provide firewall services, either with Proxy Server or using packet filter routing. For more information about these kinds of solutions, see Routing and Remote Access Service in the Internetworking Guide. When the VPN server is in front of the firewall, the firewall only provides its external services to authorized VPN users. Therefore, general Internet or similar access is not provided. The exception to this is if Internet access is provided at the far end of the VPN connections.
18 642 Part 5 Advanced Management Intranet Intranet Intranet VPN Server Firewall VPN Server Firewall VPN Server Firewall Internet Internet Internet In Front Behind Beside Figure 17.5 Sample Logical Positioning of VPN Server in Relation to a Firewall When the VPN server is behind the firewall, the firewall provides all its traditional services, but it needs to be configured to open ports that are needed by the VPN server. These include ports needed for IPSec if you are using an L2TP with IPSec VPN. When the VPN server is beside the firewall, each provides their services independently of each other. However, this configuration provides two access routes to the corporate network, which increases potential for a security breach. Normally, neither provides a route around the other, but with two routes, the risk is doubled. Choosing the best relationship for your situation depends on which security issues you are most comfortable with. With the servers beside each other, you have two routes into your Intranet, and thus two sets of security risks. With the VPN server behind the firewall, you have to open more ports on the firewall. With the VPN server in front of the firewall, the VPN server does not benefit from the security that the firewall provides, but all the traffic it processes does benefit from the firewall.
19 Chapter 17 Determining Windows 2000 Network Security Strategies 643 Connection Manager Providing VPN facilities to your users requires some configuration on each client computer. The settings are not necessarily easy to make, however, Windows 2000 includes a Connection Manager that eases the user setup process. Connection Manager operates on computers running Microsoft Windows 95, Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows NT, or Windows Windows 2000 servers also have an administrative kit, called the Connection Manager Administration Kit, which allows you to create a customized connection manager for your users. For more information about connections, the Connection Manager, and Connection Manager Administration Kit, see Windows 2000 Server Help. After following the instructions in Windows 2000 Server Help and running the Connection Manager Administration Kit, you will have a program and documentation that you can distribute to your users. Remote Access Policies Remote access policies allow you to specify which people can use Routing and Remote Access, and the various conditions that will be applied when they connect. You can specify policies based on which Windows 2000 group the user is in, the phone number they use, the time of day, and other relevant information. The policies can specify that the connection should be accepted or rejected, and a profile can be applied to the connection. The profile can specify how long the session can last, how long it can be idle, what kinds of dial-up media are allowed, which addresses are allowed, what authentication methods are required, and whether encryption or a VPN is required. You can set remote access policies for either Routing and Remote Access or for Internet Authentication Service (IAS), which is discussed later in this section. For more information about remote access policies, including how to set them up and the options the policies provide, see Windows 2000 Server Help. Consider applying different policies to different groups or conditions carefully. It is possible for policies to overlap and thus to disallow people that you intended to allow to dial-up, or to cause other problems. A complex combination of policies makes such problems more likely. Therefore, it is best to minimize the number of policies whenever possible. Windows 2000 Server Help includes a recommended procedure for troubleshooting remote access policies if problems develop.
20 644 Part 5 Advanced Management VPN Server Capacity As with all servers, VPN servers can be overwhelmed with work if excessive activity is sent their way. You need a lot of VPN links for this to occur, but it can become an issue for a large organization. In your pilot, you can test how much load your users are likely to put on your available VPN servers. You can also test how much capacity your VPN servers can handle by estimating the number of concurrent users you are likely to have and the amount of data they are likely to send. You can then send a comparable amount of data through the VPN server using a small number of client computers but over your local area network (LAN) and using large volume activities, such as copying large numbers of files. By monitoring the VPN server and its responsiveness, you can determine whether your VPN servers are adequate for the role. If necessary, you can increase the size of your servers, or add more VPN servers and use Network Load Balancing Service or round-robin DNS to balance the load. Internet Authentication Service Windows 2000 Server includes Internet Authentication Service (IAS) as an optional component. This service implements an industry-standard network authentication security protocol, Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS), which allows centralization of account authorization. RADIUS also allows you to specify how long the session can last and what IP address can be used. IAS can also record session details, providing accountability, and reporting options. You can also use IAS is if you want to outsource your remote access facilities but continue to control the authentication of people trying to use those facilities. In this case, the outsourcing vendor can direct the authorization requests from their Routing and Remote Access servers to your IAS servers. IAS authenticates accounts against native Windows 2000 domains and Windows NT 4.0 domains. You need to place IAS Server behind your firewall with ports opened on the server for RADIUS authentication and appropriate User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets. For more information about installing and using IAS, including operating suggestions, see Windows 2000 Server Help. Windows 2000 Server Help also includes best practices for additional security details, and information about scaling IAS in large environments and using IAS logging effectively.
21 Chapter 17 Determining Windows 2000 Network Security Strategies 645 Deploying Strategies for Users Some users might want to access secured company applications when they are away from their offices. Some of these applications are relatively simple, such as time management, company benefits registration, or similar programs. Others are complex, such as accounting systems and line-of-business applications. Make sure that you secure these applications so that only authorized users can access the data and that they can only make authorized changes. This also provides accountability, because use of the applications can be tracked to specific users. Windows 2000 includes a variety of security technologies that provide application developers with options for including network security. The choice of technologies depends on: The application s security requirements Integration issues The developer s degree of familiarity with the technology Network and application performance impact Administration complexity The application-oriented network security technologies include: Security Support Provider Interface (SSPI) a general purpose security API that provides access to plenty of security services from a standardized programming interface. Windows NTLM security, also known as Windows NT domain-level security. Kerberos v5 authentication protocol. For more information about this, see Planning Distributed Security in this book. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). SSL has been enhanced and standardized by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as Transport Layer Security (TLS). Certificates, as discussed earlier in this chapter. These network security technologies, and the network technologies that access them, relate to each other as indicated in Figure Note that SSP in the figure stands for SSPI Security Provider, meaning the interface between the security facility and SSPI. Remote Procedure Call (RPC), Microsoft Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM), and Windows Sockets (Winsock) are process-to-process communication methods. WinInet (Windows Internet API) is a programming interface used to initiate and manage Web interfaces. The network security technologies are in the lower half of the diagram, starting at the SSPI. The network technologies are in the upper half of the diagram and are located underneath the application box that uses them.
22 646 Part 5 Advanced Management Distributed Applications Java, DCOM, Internet DCOM RPC Winsock 2.0 Interface SSPI-TCP/IP Provider WinInet Security Support Provider Interface (SSPI) NTLM SSP Kerberos SSP SSL SSP Figure 17.6 Relationships of Sample Network Application Security Technologies Work with your corporate application developers and vendors to determine which application-oriented network security technologies you need to deploy. These technologies do not require any further infrastructure planning; however, you do need to determine how your developers can benefit from the more powerful network security that Windows 2000 provides. For example, they might consider using smart cards to ensure secure user authentication when the Routing and Remote Access or VPN links are set up. Deploying Strategies for Partners Most organizations work in a complex world of relationships between customers, vendors, allied companies, suppliers, consultants, regulators, and others who work with the organization. Many of these partners, as they are often called, benefit greatly from direct access to your company s data and applications. However, providing such access can create considerable risk of exposing advantageous or sensitive information to the wrong people, or can create the risk of people maliciously controlling the corporate computer infrastructure. Therefore, networking security strategies must be employed effectively to give partners only the most appropriate access. The collection of network and security technologies that allows partners to access your corporate network is often called an extranet. Extranets frequently employ the same technologies as previously discussed to provide access to staff and users, such as VPNs and Routing and Remote Access. A distinguishing characteristic of partners, however, is that they might always communicate with your company from a specific location and through a predefined link. Therefore, you can configure your proxy server to allow the extranet link from only that network address.
23 Chapter 17 Determining Windows 2000 Network Security Strategies 647 When you are considering which partners will use your extranet, make certain you determine what business units they will communicate with. Typically, partners fall into distinct categories that communicate primarily with distinct parts of the company. Some might work with shipping and receiving, others with engineering, and others strictly with sales. Deploying network security strategies for partners is different from deploying for users or staff, primarily because extranets can quickly become mission critical for your partners. Corporate employees usually have the option of coming into the office to access corporate resources. Partners only have the option of using the extranet (or falling back to traditional means). Employees are also likely to work with relatively small quantities of data at any given time, whereas partners often generate considerable data to be processed by your computers and transmitted through your network. Partners and business units are also very sensitive to the timeliness of the extranet service. Business functions are often dependent on the data that is exchanged and delays can be very costly. The extranet needs to be reliable, and when any issues arise, the partners and business units need to be able to contact someone who can fix the problems quickly. The business units that supply services over the extranet have particular business issues and constraints in mind. They also have systems and staff with a history that is unique when compared to other parts of the company. Therefore, it is not unusual for some business units to have extranet requirements that are different from other business units. For these reasons, a strategy for deploying network security to partners needs to emphasize reliability, scalability, flexibility, and supportability. Staffing is particularly critical, along with thorough pilot testing, policy and procedure development, and communication. The network security technologies included with Windows 2000 provide the basis for a secure extranet, but the primary differences between your extranet security strategy and your internal network security strategies will be in your policies and procedures.
24 648 Part 5 Advanced Management Planning Task List for Determining Network Security Strategies Table 17.1 summarizes the tasks you need to perform when planning your network security. Table 17.1 Planning Task List for Determining Network Security Task Plan for deployment. Create secure boundaries. Prepare for Windows 2000 network security technologies. Deploy strategies for everyone. Deploy strategies for company staff. Deploy strategies for users of company applications. Deploy strategies for partners. Location in Chapter Planning for Network Security Creating Secure Boundaries Deploying Network Security Technologies Preparing for Windows 2000 Network Security Technologies Preparing for Windows 2000 Network Security Technologies Deploying Strategies For Users Deploying Strategies For Partners
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