Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra. Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences

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1 Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences Department of Animal Physiology Department of Hygiene and Food Safety Slovak Society for Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Veterinary Sciences at the Slovak Academy of Sciences Proceeding Book (Abstracts) of 3th International Scientific Conference RISK FACTORS OF FOOD CHAIN OCTOBER 7TH, 2004 NITRA

2 Editors: doc. MVDr. Peter Massányi, PhD., doc. Ing. Róbert Toman, Dr., Ing. Norbert Lukáč, PhD., Ing. Marcela Kramárová, PhD. Authorized by the Rector of SAU in Nitra on September, 27th 2004 as a Proceedings Book of Full Papers SAU v Nitre ISBN

3 Scientific Commitee of the Conference: prof. László Bárdos, DVM, PhD. Saint István University, Gödöllő, Hungary prof. MVDr. Jozef Bíreš, DrSc. ŠVPS SR, Bratislava, Slovak Republic prof. Ing. Jozef Bulla, DrSc. SPU, FBP, KFŽ, Nitra, Slovak Republic Dr. Zsolt Forgács, PhD. National Institute of Chemical Safety, Budapest, Hungary prof. Ing. Jaroslav Kováčik, PhD. SPU, FBP, KFŽ, Nitra, Slovak Republic prof. MVDr. Jozef Sokol, DrSc. KVPS SR, Trnava, Slovak Republic doc. Ing. Jaroslav Slamečka, PhD. VÚŽV, Nitra, Slovak Republic prof. Dr. Frieda Tataruch, PhD. Veterinaruniversitat, Wien, Austria doc. Ing. Miroslav Valent, PhD. WVU, Morgantown, USA doc. MVDr. Lenka Vorlová, CSc. VFU, Brno, Czech Republic Reviewers: prof. MVDr. Ján Danko, PhD. prof. Ing. Jaroslav Kováčik, PhD. doc. MVDr. Viera Cigánková, PhD. doc. Ing. Juraj Čuboň, PhD. RNDr. Alena Jančová, PhD. Ing. Marcela Kramárová, PhD. Ing. Peter Haščík, PhD. Ing. Marián Kopernický, CSc. Ing. Jaroslav Andreji I

4 Organizing commitee of the conference: doc. MVDr. Peter Massányi, PhD. MVDr. Marián Fabiš, PhD. Ing. Jozef Golian, Dr. doc. Ing. Róbert Toman, Dr. Ing. Norbert Lukáč, PhD. Ing. Marcela Kramárová, PhD.

5 CONTENT 1. Andreji, J., Stránai, I.: The level of manganese, zinc, copper, cobalt and nickel in the fish muscles in relation to the body length and weight Andreji, J., Stránai, I.: The level of chromium, lead, cadmium and mercury in the fish muscles in relation to the body length and weight Angelovičová, M., Angelovič, M., Turjanica, I.: The level of cholesterol in hen, quail and ostrich eggs Bajčan, D., Tóth, T., Timoracká, M: Possibilities of elimination of risky elements input into chosen agricultural plants Bárdos, L., Réthy, K., Gregosits, B., Kiss, Zs., Oppel K.: Are there beneficial effects of lycopene supplementation on flows? (Pilot study on Japanese quail) Borkovcová, I., Breineková, K., Svobodová, Z., Smutná, M., Buchtová, H., Vorlová, L., Kocour, M.: Variability of total cholesterol in carp muscle (Cyprinus carpio) Bulla, R., Bulla, J., Bielik, P.: GMO Risk assessment and Risk management Cigánková, V., Naď, P., Koréneková, B., Skalická, M., Holovská, K.: Histological changes in the kidneys of Japanese quails after cadmium administration Čapkovičová, Z., Tóth, P., Oršula, P.: Microbiological quality of poultry meat packaged in protective atmosphere Drábeková, J., Pivko, J., Faragová, N.: Xray micranalysis of renal tubular cells in rabbits Ducsay, L., Varga, L.: Investigation of selenium input to spring barley Formicki, G., Stawarz, R.: Cadmium accumulation and depuration in common frog (Rana temporaria L.) larvae exposed to ultraviolet radiation Golian, J., Sokol, J., Chovanec, M.: Toxicity of aluminium in humans and animals Golian, J., Sokol, J.: Food safety prorities of actual research Gombíková, M., Škarbová, B.: Monitoring of hormone residues in food animals Haščík, P., Weis, J., Melen, M., Kulíšek, V., Vagač, V.: Sensoric quality of the chicken meat as the of the basic parameter for consumers Hazucha, R.: Analysis of hormonal substances in foodstuff Hecl, J.: The heavy metal content in peas in relation of selected soil factors Hijová, E., Ništiar, F., Kuchta, M.: Changes of ALT and uric acid after cadmium intoxication Húska, M., Kováč, G., Link R., Novotný J., Reichel P., Zachar P.: Influence of Lactobacillus Reuteri and E. coli administration on internal enviroment in pigs 7476

6 21. Ihnátová, M., Bíreš, J.: The National Plan for Examination of Residues in the Slovak Republic in terms of requests of European Union Creation and implementation Ivanko, Š.: The role of phytobiotics and exogenous digestive enzymes in reduction of risk factors content in food chain Jakabová, D., Trandžík, J., Ostrolucká, A., Haško, M., Massányi, P., Zajačiková, L., Kozlík, P., Jakab, F., Turčan, J., Chrastina, J., Bulla, J.: Detection of DNA polymorphism in Holstein bulls in Slovakia Jančová, A., Massányi, P., Naď, P., Skalická, M., Koréneková, B., Drábeková, J.: Concentration of heavy metals in the organs of small terrestrail mammals in an area with emmision contamination Jesenská, M., Hiščáková, M., Novotný, J., Hlinčíková, S., Kováč, G.: Lead concentration in organs of farm and game animals Kačániová, M., Mindek, S., Haščík, P., Košťálová, D., Petrová, J.: Microbiological quality of will duck meat Kačániová M., Andreji, J., Košťálová D., Stráňai, I., Petrová, J.: Microbiological quality of fish meat Kalábová K., Vorlová L., Borkovcová I.: Dynamic of hydroxymethylfurfural formation in honey Kolesárová, A., Sirotkin, A., Kramárová, M., Fabiš, M., Kováčik, J., Massányi, P.: Úloha oytocínu v regulácii produkcie vybraných biologicky aktívnych látok granulóznymi bunkami vaječníkov ošípaných Kopčeková, J., Šramková, K.: Overweight, obesity and hypercholesterolemia prevalence in adult women Kordiovská, P., Vorlová, L., Karpíšková, R., Lukášová, J.: Potential risk of biogenic amine formation in carp muscle (Cyprinus carpio) Korének, M., Koréneková, B., Skalická, M., Naď, P., Kottferová, J., Jacková, A.: Effect of zinc on activity of chymotrypsin and trypsin in Japanase quail Koréneková, B., Skalická, M., Naď, P., Korének, M., Kottferová, J., Jacková, A.: Influence of essential elements chromium and zinc on levels of cholesterol in poultry Kováčik, J., Kramárová, M., Massányi, P., Fabiš, M., Bukovinský, M.: Content of urea in biological fluids of dairy cows and technological quality of milk Kramárová, M., Massányi, P., Fabiš, M., Kováčik, J., Kolesárová, A.: Concentration of cadmium and lead in liver and kidneys of some wild animals Kramárová, M., Kolesárová, A., Kováčik, J., Fabiš, M., Massányi, P.: Effect of probiotic preparation on some parameters of mineral profile of hens and turkeys

7 37. Krížová, S., Šalgovičová, D.: Lead exposition of the population in Slovak Republic Link, R., Kováč, G., Seidel, H., Húska, M.: New trends in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases of livestock Link, R., Kováč, G., Seidel, H., Paulíková, I.: Preventic and therapeutic effect of Bacillus licheniformis in calves with diarhoe syndrome Link, R., Kováč, G., Húska, M.: Effects of Bacillus licheniformis on immunity in piglets infected with Salmonela strain Lovásová E.: The effect of subchronic heavy metal intoxication on antioxidant status of organism Lukáč, N., Massányi, P., Toman, R., Sládečka A.: Structural changes of mice kidney after lead experimental administration Massányi, P., Lukáč, N., Toman, R.: The effect of lead on the rat testicular structure and function Massányi, P., Maretta, M., Trandžík, J., Jakabová, D., Lukáč, N., Toman, R., Turčan, J., Strapák, P., Halo, M., Fabiš, M., Kováčik, J., Kramárová, M., Kolesárová, A.: Contamination of bovine insemination doses with cadmium, copper, lead and zinc and its relation to semen activity Mesároš, P., Cigánková, V., Bíreš, J.: The influence of some microelements on the ram sexual functions Mlynár, R., Rajčáková, Ľ., Gallo, M.: The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri on fermentation process and aerobic stability of maize silage Muchová, Z., Mikuška, R.: Quality of milling products in relation to contamination by heavy elements Naď, P., Skalická, M., Koréneková, B., Ciganeková, V., Ďatelinka, I., Korének, M.: Effect of higher doses of risk chemical elements on production and immunity parameters of poultry Neuschl, J., Šály, J., Korének, M., Šutiak, V.: The effect of the subchronic doses insecticide Supermethrin on weight gains and health of sheep Neuschl, J., Šály, J., Korének, M., Šutiak, V.: The effect of the subchronic doses herbicide Bentazone on weight gains and health of sheep Neuschl, J., Šály, J., Korének, M., Šutiak, V.: Rate of toxicity of insecticide supermethrin Novotný, J., Kováč, G., Link, R., Jesenská, M.: Bioplexes trace elements as alternatives to ATB stimulators of growth

8 53. Pavličová, S.: Genetically modified microorganisms and their potential effects on human health and nutrition Poráčová, J., Šutiaková, I., Nemcová, R., Gancarčíková, S., Šalamon, I.: The opportunities of a risk s reducing by phytoaditive use in regard to food chain Rajčáková, Ľ., Mlynár, R.: Ensilage of hybrid sorghum x sudan grass in areas damaged by climatic changes with moisture deficit Schneidgenová, M., Fabiš, M.: Metabolic profile test and its value in rearing of dairy cattle Skalická, M., Koréneková, B., Naď, P., Korének, M., Kottferová, J., Jacková, A.: Changes of glucose and cholesterol levels after application of cadmium in poultry Šalgovičová, D., Sasková, Z.: Nitrate expozition of the population in Slovak Republic Šalgovičová, D., Krížová, S.: Trends in the DDT foodstuff contamination in Slovak Republic Šalgovičová, D., Sasková, Z., Krížová, S.: Monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls in foodstuff Šalgovičová, D., Krížová, S.: Lead in the game muscles in Slovak Republic Šály, J., Neuschl, J., Tučková, M., Kremeň, J., Lenhardt, Ľ., Baranová, D.: Subacute toxicity to chickens of chlotetracyclinium chloride in Feed Grade preparations of Slovak and Chinese provenience Šály, J., Neuschl, J., Magic, D., Tučková, M., Ševčíková, Z., Kremeň, J., Koščík, D., Goldová, M.: Subchronic toxicity of natrium salinomycine in preparation Synvertas plv. a.u. v. and Sacox 120 in chicken) Škarbová, B., Gombíková, M., Nováková, R.: Application of Charm II system for detection of residues of antibacterial drugs in raw cow milk Šramková, K., Bitter, K.: Risk factors of the low bone density in relation to nutrition and board Šutiaková, I., Maraček, I., Vlčková, R., Šutiak, V.: The comparison frequency of micronuclei in the peripheral lymphocytes of sheep in oestrus synchronized and naturally bred Šutiaková, I. Naď, P., Koréneková, B., Skalická, M., Šutiak, V., Poráčová, J.: The study of effect cadmium on the activity of isoenzyme lactate dehydrogenase in blood plasma of quail Tančinová, D., Labuda, R., Felšöciová, S.: Fungal contamination of storaged wheat and sunflower

9 69. Toman, R., Massányi, P., Golian, J., Lukáč, N.: Changes of blood parameters of pheasants after longterm administration of cadmium Toman, R., Massányi, P., Lukáč, N.: Growth of mice and some internal organs after a nickel administration Tomáš, J., Tóth, T., Vollmannová, A., Bajčan, D., Lazor, P.: Input of heavy metals to the food chain Tóth, P., Opáth, R., Oršula, P.: Conversion of filtration waste products Tóth, T., Tomáš, J., Vollmannová, A., Lazor, P., Bajčan, D.: Risks of food pigments Valent, M., Kováčik, J., Fabiš, M., Massányi, P.: Blood urea and fertility in dairy cows and humans: Possible mechanisms and sites of action Vollmannová, A., Tomáš, J., Tóth, T., Melicháčová, S.: Bioflavonoids in legumes and their risks in human nutrition

10 Obsah mangánu, zinku, medi, kobaltu a niklu vo svalovine rýb v závislosti na ich dĺžke tela a hmotnosti Andreji, J., Stráňai, I. Katedra hydinárstva a malých hospodárskych zvierat, FAPZ SPU v Nitre Abstract This study determined the accumulation of Mn, Zn, Cu, Co and Ni in the muscle of four fish species Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), European bream (Abramis brama), Wels catfish (Silurus glanis) and Zander (Sander lucioperca) in relation to their standard length (body length) and weight. The samples were collected from Nitra River above to Nitra City in 2000 and 2003, analysed by AAS and evaluated in mg.kg 1 of fresh matter. Concentrations of heavy metals in the muscle were as follows: Mn , Zn , Cu , Co and Ni Statistically significant decrease of the nickel concentration in relation to standard length in European bream (P<0.05) was recorded. Úvod Kovy sa v stopových množstvách bežne vyskytujú v živých organizmoch, kde sa zúčastňujú na dôležitých biochemických procesoch. Na druhej strane majú kovy schopnosť bioakumulácie a biomagnifikácie v organizme a pri zvýšených množstvách sa správajú toxicky. Ryby, ako organizmy stojace vo vodnom ekosystéme na konci potravného reťazca, sa týmto stávajú ich posledným recipientom. V porovnaní s teplokrvnými stavovcami, sa ryby vyznačujú kontinuálnym telesným aj hmotnostným rastom. Táto skutočnosť môže mať vplyv na samotnú bioakumuláciu a biomagnifikáciu kovových prvkov u rýb, čo sme sa pokúsili zistiť v našej práci. Materiál a metodika Ryby sa odlovili v roku 2000 a 2003 z rieky Nitry v okolí mesta Nitra. U týchto rýb sa urobilo základné biometrické vyšetrenie a determinácia veku. Následne sa z každého kusa odobrala vzorka svaloviny v množstve 3 5 g na stanovenie obsahu cudzorodých látok (Mn, Zn, Cu, Co a Ni). Samotné stanovenie obsahu jednotlivých ťažkých kovov bolo vykonané metódou AAS (atómová absorpčná spektrofotometria) a hodnoty sú vyjadrené v mg.kg 1 čerstvej hmoty. Zistené výsledky sa štatisticky vyhodnotili programom Statgraphics Plus v. 5.1 metódou lineárneho modelu regresnej analýzy. Výsledky Celkovo bolo analyzovaných 42 ks rýb patriacich k štyrom druhom: kapor pontokaspický (Cyprinus carpio), pleskáč vysoký (Abramis brama), sumec západný (Silurus glanis) a zubáč veľkoústy (Sander lucioperca). Ich biologické charakteristiky sú uvedené v tabuľke 1. Hodnoty koncentrácií jednotlivých kovových prvkov vo svalovine analyzovaných druhov rýb sú uvedené v tabuľke 2. Hodnoty korelačných 9

11 koeficientov závislostí obsahu jednotlivých kovov vo svalovine na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti jednotlivých druhov rýb sú uvedené v tabuľke 3. Obsah Mn sa v analyzovaných vzorkách pohyboval v rozpätí 0,13 3,20 mg.kg 1, s najnižšou priemernou zaznamenanou hodnotou 0,24 mg.kg 1 u sumca západného a najvyššou u kapra pontokaspického (0,94 mg.kg 1 ). Mn vo svalovine sledovaných druhov rýb vykazoval klesajúcu tendenciu v závislosti na dĺžke tela rýb i hmotnosti, s výnimkou pleskáča vysokého, u ktorého sme zistili mierne stúpajúci trend. Štatisticky významné rozdiely obsahu mangánu v závislostí na dĺžke tela alebo hmotnosti rýb sa nepotvrdili (P>0,05). Obsah Zn vo svalovine analyzovaných rýb dosahoval hodnôt od 2,95 82,72 mg.kg 1,s najvyššou priemernou hodnotou 38,35 mg.kg 1 zaregistrovanou u kapra pontokaspického a najnižšou 4,41 mg.kg 1 zaregistrovanou u sumca západného. Závislosť obsahu Zn na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti mala podobne ako u mangánu klesajúci trend, s výnimkou sumca západného, u ktorého sa zistil stúpajúci trend. Štatisticky významné rozdiely obsahu zinku v závislostí na dĺžke tela alebo hmotnosti rýb sa nezistili (P>0,05). Obsah Cu vo vzorkách svaloviny analyzovaných druhov rýb dosahoval hodnoty 0,15 1,46 mg.kg 1, s najvyššou priemernou hodnotou 0,87 mg.kg 1 zaznamenanou u kapra pontokaspického a najnižšou u sumca západného (0,27mg.kg 1 ). Závislosť miery akumulácie Cu na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti rýb mala takmer identický priebeh ako u mangánu. U analyzovaných druhov rýb mala klesajúcu tendenciu, s výnimkou pleskáča vysokého, u ktorého sme zaznamenali mierne stúpajúci trend. Štatisticky významné rozdiely akumulácie medi v závislostí na dĺžke tela alebo hmotnosti rýb sme nezistili (P>0,05). Obsah Co sa vo svalovine analyzovaných rýb pohyboval v rozmedzí 0,03 0,58 mg.kg 1, s najnižšou priemernou hodnotou 0,10 mg.kg 1 zistenou u sumca západného a najvyššou (0,27 mg.kg 1 ) u kapra pontokaspického. Miera akumulácie kobaltu vo svalovine analyzovaných druhov rýb vykazovala v závislosti na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti rýb klesajúcu tendenciu s takmer identickými hodnotami ako akumulácia Mn a Cu. Výnimku v akumulácii kobaltu tvoril iba pleskáč vysoký, u ktorého sa zistil stúpajúci trend. Zistené závislosti však boli bez štatisticky významných rozdielov (P>0,05). Obsah Ni u analyzovaných druhov rýb dosahoval hodnôt 0,00 0,53 mg.kg 1, s najnižšou priemernou hodnotou 0,08 mg.kg 1 zistenou u sumca západného a najvyššou (0,21 mg.kg 1 ) u kapra pontokaspického. Tendencia akumulácie Ni v závislosti na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti rýb mala u analyzovaných druhov vo všeobecnosti klesajúci charakter. Jedine u zubáča veľkoústeho sa zistil mierne rastúci trend. Štatisticky preukazný rozdiel závislosti akumulácie Ni na dĺžke tela ryby sa zistil len u pleskáča vysokého. Tabuľka 1. Počet, vek, dĺžka a hmotnosť analyzovaných druhov rýb vek dĺžka tela (mm) hmotnosť (g) Druh N (roky) priemer ± SD Min priemer ± SD Min Max Max kapor pontokaspický ,1 ± 82, ± 1406, pleskáč vysoký ,2 ± 74, ,5 ± 614, sumec západný ,7 ± 255, ,0 ± 3985, zubáč veľkoústy ,6 ± 58, ,9 ± 520, SD smerodajná odchýlka 10

12 Tabuľka 2. Koncentrácie jednotlivých kovov (priemer ± smerodajná odchýlka) analyzovaných druhov rýb (v mg.kg 1 čerstvej hmoty) Druh Mn Zn Cu Co Ni kapor pontokaspický 0,94±1,04 38,35±20,90 0,87±0,29 0,27±0,20 0,21±0,16 pleskáč vysoký 0,53±0,28 5,06±1,61 0,73±0,38 0,19±0,09 0,14±0,06 sumec západný 0,24±0,05 4,41±1,21 0,27±0,10 0,10±0,04 0,08±0,03 zubáč veľkoústy 0,29±0,09 4,61±1,32 0,42±0,20 0,15±0,05 0,09±0,06 Tabuľka 3. Korelačné koeficienty závislostí obsahu jednotlivých kovov vo svalovine na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti jednotlivých druhov rýb Druh Mn Zn Cu Co Ni kapor pontokaspický SL 0,4396 0,2220 0,3017 0,3949 0,5222 W 0,3466 0,2682 0,1034 0,2445 0,3923 pleskáč vysoký SL 0,0246 0,3535 0,0156 0,1112 0,5189 * W 0,1554 0,3270 0,0600 0,0403 0,4410 sumec západný SL 0,5365 0,6120 0,2680 0,1380 0,1944 W 0,5322 0,6287 0,2477 0,2238 0,1686 zubáč veľkoústy SL 0,4774 0,1109 0,5127 0,3547 0,0524 W 0,3260 0,1095 0,4181 0,2444 0,0550 SL dĺžka tela, W hmotnosť, * P<0,05 Záver Z dosiahnutých výsledkov môžeme konštatovať, že rôzne druhy rýb reagujú na prítomnosť kovových prvkov vo vodnom ekosystéme rôznym spôsobom. Vo väčšine prípadov má akumulácia mangánu, zinku, medi kobaltu a niklu v závislosti na dĺžke tela ako i hmotnosti rýb klesajúci charakter. Štatisticky sme túto závislosť potvrdili len pri nikli u pleskáča vysokého a aj to len v závislosti na dĺžke tela. Z pomedzi analyzovaných druhov rýb sa nájdu aj výnimky, u ktorých má akumulácia týchto prvkov rastúci charakter. Ide však len o mierne stúpajúce tendencie bez štatisticky významných rozdielov. 11

13 Obsah chrómu, olova, kadmia a ortuti vo svalovine rýb v závislosti na ich dĺžke tela a hmotnosti Andreji, J., Stráňai, I. Katedra hydinárstva a malých hospodárskych zvierat, FAPZ SPU v Nitre Abstract This study determined the accumulation of Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg in the muscle of four fish species Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), European bream (Abramis brama), Wels catfish (Silurus glanis) and Zander (Sander lucioperca) in relation to their standard length (body length) and weight. The samples were collected from Nitra River above to Nitra City in 2000 and 2003, analysed by AAS and evaluated in mg.kg 1 of fresh matter. Concentrations of heavy metals in the muscle were as follows: Cr , Pb , Cd and Hg A statistically significant difference of the metal concentration in relation to standard length for nickel in European bream (P<0.05), lead in Zander (P<0.001) and cadmium in Wels catfish (P<0.05) was recorded. Also statistically significant differences of the metal concentration in relation to weight for cadmium in Wels catfish (P<0.05) and lead in Zander (P<0.01) were recorded. Úvod Kovy sa v stopových množstvách bežne vyskytujú v živých organizmoch, kde sa zúčastňujú na dôležitých biochemických procesoch. Na druhej strane majú kovy schopnosť bioakumulácie a biomagnifikácie v organizme a pri zvýšených množstvách sa správajú toxicky. Ryby, ako organizmy stojace vo vodnom ekosystéme na konci potravného reťazca, sa týmto stávajú ich posledným recipientom. V porovnaní s teplokrvnými stavovcami, sa ryby vyznačujú kontinuálnym telesným aj hmotnostným rastom. Táto skutočnosť môže mať vplyv na samotnú bioakumuláciu a biomagnifikáciu kovových prvkov u rýb, čo sme sa pokúsili zistiť v našej práci. Materiál a metodika Ryby sa odlovili v roku 2000 a 2003 z rieky Nitry v okolí mesta Nitra. U týchto rýb sa urobilo základné biometrické vyšetrenie a determinácia veku. Následne sa z každého kusa odobrala vzorka svaloviny v množstve 3 5 g na stanovenie obsahu cudzorodých látok (Cr, Pb, Cd a Hg). Samotné stanovenie obsahu jednotlivých ťažkých kovov bolo vykonané metódou AAS (atómová absorpčná spektrofotometria) a hodnoty sú vyjadrené v mg.kg 1 čerstvej hmoty. Zistené výsledky sa štatisticky vyhodnotili programom Statgraphics Plus v. 5.1 metódou lineárneho modelu regresnej analýzy. Výsledky Celkovo bolo analyzovaných 42 ks rýb patriacich k štyrom druhom: kapor pontokaspický (Cyprinus carpio), pleskáč vysoký (Abramis brama), sumec západný (Silurus glanis) a zubáč veľkoústy (Sander lucioperca). Ich biologické charakteristiky 12

14 sú uvedené v tabuľke 1. Hodnoty koncentrácií jednotlivých kovových prvkov vo svalovine analyzovaných druhov rýb sú uvedené v tabuľke 2. Hodnoty korelačných koeficientov závislostí obsahu jednotlivých kovov vo svalovine na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti jednotlivých druhov rýb sú uvedené v tabuľke 3. Obsah Cr sa v analyzovaných vzorkách pohyboval v rozpätí 0,001 0,429 mg.kg 1, s najnižšou priemernou hodnotou 0,056 mg.kg 1 u pleskáča vysokého a najvyššou u kapra pontokaspického (0,155 mg.kg 1 ). Cr vo svalovine sledovaných druhov rýb v závislosti na dĺžke tela rýb vykazoval klesajúcu tendenciu, s najvýraznejšou hodnotou u sumca západného. Cr v závislosti na hmotnosti u analyzovaných druhov rýb vykazoval taktiež klesajúci trend, s výnimkou zubáča veľkoústeho, u ktorého sme zaznamenali mierne stúpajúci trend. Štatisticky významné rozdiely závislostí obsahu chrómu na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti rýb sa nepotvrdili (P>0,05). Obsah Pb vo svalovine analyzovaných rýb dosahoval hodnôt od Pb 0,090 1,080 mg.kg 1,s najvyššou priemernou hodnotou 0,479 mg.kg 1 u kapra pontokaspického a najnižšou 0,203 mg.kg 1 u sumca západného. Závislosť obsahu Pb na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti mala stúpajúci trend u pleskáča vysokého a sumca západného, ale bez štatisticky významných rozdielov. Naopak, klesajúci trend sme zaznamenali u kapra pontokaspického a zubáča veľkoústeho. U zubáča veľkoústeho sme navyše zistili štatisticky významné rozdiely v akumulácii Pb v závislosti na dĺžke tela (P<0,001) a hmotnosti (P<0,01). Obsah Cd vo vzorkách svaloviny analyzovaných druhov rýb dosahoval hodnoty 0,029 0,188 mg.kg 1, s najvyššou priemernou hodnotou 0,122 mg.kg 1 zaznamenanou u kapra pontokaspického a najnižšou u zubáča veľkoústeho (0,048mg.kg 1 ). Závislosť miery akumulácie Cd na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti rýb mala podobný trend ako u olova. U dvoch druhov (kapor pontokaspický a pleskáč vysoký) sme zaznamenali stúpajúci trend. U zostávajúcich dvoch druhov (sumec západný a zubáč veľkoústy) klesajúci trend. Jedine u sumca západného sa zistili štatisticky významné rozdiely (P<0,05) pri akumulácii Cd v závislosti na dĺžke aj hmotnosti rýb. Obsah Hg sa vo svalovine analyzovaných rýb pohyboval v rozmedzí 0,028 6,552 mg.kg 1, s najnižšou priemernou hodnotou 1,285 mg.kg 1 zistenou u kapra pontokaspického a najvyššou (2,995 mg.kg 1 ) u sumca západného. Miera akumulácie Hg vo svalovine analyzovaných druhov rýb vykazovala v závislosti na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti rýb stúpajúcu tendenciu s výnimkou pleskáča vysokého, u ktorého sa zistil klesajúci trend. Zistené závislosti však boli bez štatisticky významných rozdielov (P>0,05). Tabuľka 1. Počet, vek, dĺžka a hmotnosť analyzovaných druhov rýb vek dĺžka tela (mm) hmotnosť (g) Druh N (roky) priemer ± SD Min priemer ± SD Min Max Max kapor pontokaspický ,1 ± 82, ± 1406, pleskáč vysoký ,2 ± 74, ,5 ± 614, sumec západný ,7 ± 255, ,0 ± 3985, zubáč veľkoústy ,6 ± 58, ,9 ± 520, SD smerodajná odchýlka 13

15 Tabuľka 2. Koncentrácie jednotlivých kovov (priemer ± smerodajná odchýlka) analyzovaných druhov rýb (v mg.kg 1 čerstvej hmoty) Druh Cr Pb Cd Hg kapor pontokaspický 0,155 ± 0,159 0,479 ± 0,364 0,122 ± 0,047 1,285 ± 0,565 pleskáč vysoký 0,078 ± 0,046 0,268 ± 0,108 0,070 ± 0,033 1,514 ± 0,857 sumec západný 0,056 ± 0,038 0,203 ± 0,037 0,057 ± 0,021 2,995 ± 1,748 zubáč veľkoústy 0,083 ± 0,035 0,257 ± 0,110 0,048 ± 0,014 2,374 ± 0,579 Tabuľka 3. Korelačné koeficienty závislostí obsahu jednotlivých kovov vo svalovine na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti jednotlivých druhov rýb Druh Cr Pb Cd Hg kapor pontokaspický SL 0,1924 0,3643 0,3857 0,0711 W 0,0845 0,2435 0,0681 0,3351 pleskáč vysoký SL 0,0650 0,2854 0,3852 0,2117 W 0,0803 0,2315 0,3709 0,1544 sumec západný SL 0,2928 0,6479 0,7953 * 0,2233 W 0,3203 0,5785 0,7660 * 0,1054 zubáč veľkoústy SL 0,4155 0,5487 W 0,0170 0,8940 ** 0,4347 0,6652 0,0650 0,9227 *** SL dĺžka tela, W hmotnosť, * P<0,05; ** P<0,01; *** P<0,001 Záver Z dosiahnutých výsledkov môžeme konštatovať, že rôzne druhy rýb reagujú na prítomnosť kovových prvkov vo vodnom ekosystéme rôznym spôsobom. Miera akumulácie chrómu vo svalovine analyzovaných druhov rýb v závislosti na dĺžke tela a hmotnosti má vo všeobecnosti mierne klesajúci trend. Akumulácia olova vykazovala rastúci aj klesajúci trend, u zubáča veľkoústeho dokonca štatisticky vysoko preukazne klesajúci trend v závislosti od dĺžky (P<0,001) aj hmotnosti rýb (P<0,01). U kadmia bola situácia podobná. U nedravých druhov vykazovala akumulácia kadmia rastúci trend, u dravých druhov klesajúci, konkrétne u sumca západného štatisticky preukazne (P<0,05) klesajúci trend. Z nášho pohľadu najhoršie na tom bola ortuť, u ktorej akumulácia vykazovala stúpajúcu tendenciu vo vzťahu k dĺžke i hmotnosti u analyzovaných druhov rýb, s výnimkou pleskáča vysokého, u ktorého sa zistil mierne klesajúci trend. 14

16 Obsah cholesterolu v slepačích, prepeličích a pštrosích vajciach Angelovičová, M., Angelovič, M., Turjanica, I. Slovenská poľnohospodárska univerzita, Nitra Abstract The cholesterol content in egg yolk remains in the centre of attention in relation to cardiovascular diseases. This problem has divided experts into two groups. One groups of experts declare that the egg is a highly valuable, healthly and harmless foodstuff. The second group experts maintaining that egg yolk belongs among the category of highrisk foods. This paper presents data about the cholesterol content in market eggs of various laying hens and in quail and ostrich eggs. Úvod a odôvodnenie cieľa Známe sú stanoviská odborníkov na cholesterol vajcového žĺtka vo vzťahu ku srdcovocievnym ochoreniam ľudí, pretože je jedným z najbohatších jeho zdrojov. Tieto ochorenia v ostatných rokoch zaznamenávajú nie len u nás, ale celkovo vo svete, vzostupnú tendenciu. Podiel cholesterolu z celkového obsahu lipidov sa pohybuje od 3,99 do 5,17% (Brendl a Klein, 1976; Rous, 1980; Noble, 1987; Hronček et al., 1991; Angelovičová et al., 1992). Lipidy vajcového žĺtka sú tvorené prevažne triacylglycerolom (63% z celkových lipidov) a fosfolipidmi (30%), (Leskanich a Noble, 1997). Mnoho autorov vo svojich výskumných prácach venovalo pozornosť sledovaniu obsahu cholesterolu vo vajcovom žĺtku v závislosti od mnohých činiteľov. Cieľom predloženého príspevku bolo sledovanie celkového obsahu cholesterolu v žĺtku vajec vybraných sliepok, japonskej prepelice a pštrosice pri definovaných podmienkach chovu a výživy. Materiál a metodika Schéma pokusu Pokus Skupina Druh/Typ/Plemeno Fáza znášky Výživa Technológia chovu I. K Shaver Starcross 288 HYD10 Veľkovýrobná P 1 Shaver Starcross 288 HYD10 (s 1% tuku) P 2 Shaver Starcross 288 HYD10 (s 3% tuku) P 3 Shaver Starcross 288 HYD10 (s 5% tuku) II. K Shaver Starcross 288 HYD10 Veľkovýrobná P Shaver Starcross 288 HYD10 (+ probiotikum) III. Shaver Starcross 288 HYD10 Veľkovýrobná Shaver Starcross 579 HYD10 Veľkovýrobná Hempšírka pšeničný šrot Malovýrobná + kuchynské zvyšky IV. Shaver Starcross 288 začiatok HYD10 Veľkovýrobná vrchol koniec V. Araukany HYD10 Malovýrobná VI. K Japonská prepelica HYD10 Malovýrobná P Japonská prepelica VII. Pštrosica africká Kombinovaný typ Veľkovýrobné kŕmnej dávky 15

17 Obsah cholesterolu bol stanovený podľa Ingra a Simeonovovej (1983) modifikovanou metódou. Výsledky a diskusia a) Obsah cholesterolu vo vajcovom žĺtku sliepok kŕmených HYD10 s doplnkom zmesi tukov 1, 3 a 5 % (živočíšny tuk a rastlinný olej v pomere 3:1) V porovnaní obsahu cholesterolu v žĺtku vajec nosníc kŕmených kŕmnou zmesou HYD 10 so žĺtkom vajec nosníc, ktoré prijímali tukované kŕmne zmesi sme zistili, že s množstvom doplnku tuku sa zvyšovala aj jeho hodnota štatisticky preukazne (P<0,05) z 1495,0 na 1672,0 až 1775,0 mg.100 g 1. Týmito údajmi sme potvrdili závery Ferreiru a Camposa (1980). b) Obsah cholesterolu vo vajcovom žĺtku sliepok kŕmených HYD10 obohatenej probiotickým premixom V žĺtku vajec nosníc kŕmených kŕmnou zmesou HYD10 fortifikovanou probiotickým premixom na báze Enterococcus faecium M74 sa naznačila tendencia zníženia obsahu cholesterolu oproti kontrolným vajciam (HYD10) z 1579,0 na 1524,0, resp 1466,0 na 1344,0 mg.100 g 1 vo veku nosníc 38 a 56 týždňov a štatisticky preukazná (P<0,05) vo veku nosníc 28 a 61 týždňov z 1456,0 na 1291,0, resp. 1517,0 na 1394,0 mg.100 g 1. Uvedené výsledky sú v súlade s poznatkami Angelovičovej et al. (1995). c) Obsah cholesterolu v žĺtku vajec vybraných sliepok pri odlišných technológiách chovu Porovnaním obsahu cholesterolu v žĺtku vajec Shaver Starcross 288 a Schaver Starcross 579 rovnakého veku, pri rovnakej výžive a technológii chovu, jeho vyššie hodnoty (1619,0 mg.100 g 1 ) boli štatisticky preukazné (P<0,05) u Shaver Starcross 288 (1245,0 mg.100 g 1 ). Podobne bol štatisticky preukazne (P<0,05) zvýšený aj obsah cholesterolu 1641,0 v žĺtku vajec hempšírky z malovýrobnej technológie oproti žĺtku Shaver Starcross 288 (1245,0 mg.100g 1 ). Tieto poznatky sú v súlade so závermi Simeonovovej et al. (1992). d) Obsah cholesterolu vo vajcovom žĺtku sliepok počas znáškového cyklu Na začiatku znášky obsahoval vajcový žĺtok 1629,0 mg cholesterolu na 100 g. Táto hodnota postupne so znáškou klesala a vo vrchole znášky dosiahla 1233,0 až 1249,0 mg.100 g 1. Podobné hodnoty sme sledovali do konca 1. fázy znáškového cyklu. V 2. fáze znáškového cyklu sa postupne zvyšoval obsah cholesterolu na 1466,0 MG (56. týždeň veku nosníc) až 1517,0 mg.100 g 1. Štatistické rozdiely boli preukazné (P<0,05) v obsahu cholesterolu medzi začiatkom a koncom znáškového cyklu. 16

18 e) Obsah cholesterolu vo vajcovom žĺtku sliepok Araukany Na predbežný chemický rozbor boli použité 3 vajcia s cieľom zistenia obsahu cholesterolu v ich žĺtku. Toto overenie vyplynulo z požiadavky laickej verejnosti, že vajcia Araukany sú bezcholesterové. Zistené výsledky (priemerná hodnota 1274,83 mg.100g 1, s=12,75, v=1,0%) naznačili tendenciu porovnateľnosti obsahu cholesterolu v žĺtku týchto vajec s hodnotou vajec nosivého znáškového hybrida Shaver Starcross 288 vo vrchole znášky. f) Obsah cholesterolu vo vajcovom žĺtku japonských prepelíc Obsah cholesterolu 1340,0 mg.100g 1 bol sledovaný u japonských prepelíc po skrmovaní komerčnej kŕmnej zmesi. Pri kŕmnej zmesi so surovinou amarantus 5 a 10% sa jeho hodnoty štatisticky preukazne (P<0,05) znížili na 1260,0 a 1210,0 mg.100 g 1. Simeonovová et al. (1992) uvádza údaj tohto ukazovateľa u rôznych línií japonských prepelíc od 1210,0 do 3460,0 mg.100 g 1. g) Obsah cholesterolu v žĺtku pštrosích vajec Obsah cholesterolu v žĺtku vajec znesených pštrosicou v mesiaci júl sa pohyboval od 1200,0 do 1400,0 mg.100g 1. Záver Obsah cholesterolu vo vajcovom žĺtku je polyfaktorový ukazovateľ. Jeho sledovanie je veľmi obtiažne. Činitele, ktoré vplývajú na jeho obsah sú rozdelené na vnútorné a vonkajšie. Výsledky našich sledovaní potvrdzujú vplyv druhu /typu nosnice, podmienok chovu, výživy a fázy znášky na jeho hodnotu. Vzhľadom na to, že cholesterol má významnú fyziologickú úlohu v ľudskom organizme a zároveň je rizikovým faktorom vo vzťahu ku srdcovocievnym ochoreniam, odporúčame aktualizovať jeho priemernú tabuľkovú hodnotu vo vajcovom žĺtku. Ich dávkovanie odporúčame v súlade s najnovšími poznatkami pre jednotlivé skupiny ľudí, pretože sú zároveň zdrojom významných živín. Literatúra ANGELOVIČOVÁ, M Tuhe study of the cholesterol content in market eggs. In: Poultry Conf. Ivanka near Donau: Unigal, 1992, s ANGELOVIČOVÁ, M. LISÁ, V. ČUPKA, P In: Potrav. Vědy, roč. 13, 1995, č. 5, s ANGELOVIČOVÁ, M Cholesterol in market eggs. In: Funkčné potraviny. Nitra: SPU, 2003, s ARCHIPOV, A.V. TOPOROVA, E Lipidnij i žirnokislotnij sostav jajc v zavisimosti ot vozrast kur (Eds. Archipov, A. et al.: Povyšenie kačestva piščevogo jajca). Moskva : Kolos, 1975, s BRENDL, J. KLEIN, S In: Idustrial Food, roč. 27, 1976, s. 1976, s CUNNINGHAM, D.L. KRUEGER, W.F. FANGUY,R.C. PEABODY, J.W In: Poultry Sci., roč. 53, 1974, s

19 FEREIRA, M.D.D. CAMPOS, E.J In: Arg. Esc. Veter., roč. 32, 1980, s HRONČEK, J. LOPATNÍKOVÁ, J. MICHALÍK, I Egg mass processing according to ethanol disolavatation. In: Biotechnologic methods of the intensification crop production. Nitra : Eds. C, s INGR, I. SIMEONOVOVA, J In: Veter. Med., roč. 28, 1983, s LESKANICH, C.O. NOBLE, R.C In: Worlds Poultry Sci. J., roč. 53, 1997, s NOBLE,R.C Egg lipids. (Eds. Wells, R.G. Belyavin, C.G.: Egg Quality Current Problems and Recent Advances). London : Butterworths, 1997, s ROUS, J Egg, its formation and formulation. Laying of poultry single types. Special poultry breeding(eds. Špaček, F. eg al.). 2. vyd. Praha Bratislava : SAEd Nature, 1980, s SIMEONOVOVÁ, J. BAUMGARTNER, J. PETROVSKÁ, E. INGR, I Obsah cholesterolu ve slepičích vejcích z velkochovů a malochovů a vejcích křepelky japonské. In: Poultry Conf. Ivanka near Donau : Unigal, 1992, s

20 Možnosti eliminácie vstupu rizikových prvkov do vybraných poľnohospodárskych plodín Bajčan, D., Tóth, T., Timoracká, M. Katedra chémie, FBP SPU Nitra Abstract Different elimination methods of heavy metals input into the plants were tested in vegetation pot test. Amaranthus and millet were used as tested plants. Remediation techniques used in our work statistically increased the crop of amaranthus but not the crop of millet. The results confirmed the positive influence of addition of alkaline calcium and magnesium substances on decrease of heavy metals content in plants. The efficiency of the application of zeolite on the reduction of mobility and transfer of risk elements from soil into the plants was observed only for millet. Úvod Kontaminácia poľnohospodárskych pôd rizikovými prvkami a látkami predstavuje potenciálny zdroj kontaminácie celého potravového reťazca. Sledovanie kontaminácie potravín rizikovými látkami, kam patria aj ťažké kovy, je v súčasnosti po vyriešení zabezpečenia dostatku potravín pre populáciu jednou z hlavných úloh spoločnosti. Kontaminácia pôd a následne potravín, je jedným z hlavných činiteľov, ktoré sa podieľajú na zdravotnom stave obyvateľstva. Preto je potrebné hľadať možnosti eliminácie negatívnych účinkov zvýšených množstiev rizikových prvkov na agroekosystémy. Všeobecne na mobilitu ťažkých kovov v pôde vplývajú tieto základné faktory: ph pôdy, zrnitostné zloženie, obsah organickej hmoty a oxidoredukčný potenciál (Merian, 1991). Vychádzajúc z vyšie uvedených poznatkov môžeme definovať niekoľko základných eliminačných postupov pre obmedzenie vstupu rizikových prvkov do poľnohospodárskych plodín, a to: vyzrážanie ťažkých kovov vo forme nerozpustných zlúčenín, zvýšenie sorpčnej kapacity pôdy aplikáciou anorganických sorbentov a organickej hmoty alebo biologická inaktivácia použitím tzv. hyperakumulátorov ťažkých kovov (Sparks, 1995). Jednotlivé eliminačné postupy nemožno považovať za univerzálne pre všetky typy pôd. Cieľom práce bolo sledovať možnosti ovplyvnenia príjmu ťažkých kovov rastlinami prídavkom vápenatých a horečnatých látok a zeolitu do pôdy a posúdiť vplyv použitých eliminačných opatrení na úrodu vybraných plodín. Materiál a metodika Nádobový pokus sme realizovali vo vegetačnej klietke. Ako substrát sme použili slabo kyslú pôdu (fluvizem kultizemná) nasledovných vlastností: ph/kcl=5,90; obsah humusu=1,9%. Pôda bola odobratá v povodí rieky Štiavnica v katastri obce Hontianske Tesáre. Na nádobu (t.j. 6 kg zeminy) sme aplikovali základné NPK hnojenie 2,1g močoviny; 50 g superfosfátu a 1 g 60% draselnej soli. Pokus mal 6 variantov, ktoré sú uvedené v tabuľke 1, pričom každý variant mal 4 opakovania. Testovanými plodinami boli amarantus a proso siate. Vlhkosť substrátu sa udržiavala na 70% maximálnej 19

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