2 Has someone died? Coping with bereavement The death of someone close can be shattering. Everyone experiences grief differently; there is no normal or right way to grieve. How we react will be influenced by many different things, including our age and personality, our cultural background and religious beliefs, our previous experiences of bereavement, our circumstances and how we cope with loss. This leaflet is about what you can do to help yourself, how others can help you, how you can help other people who may be struggling to cope after the death of someone close, and where you can get more advice and support.
3 Cruse Bereavement Care Cruse is a national charity that provides advice, information and support to anyone who has been bereaved (children, young people and adults), whenever or however the death occurred. The service is provided by trained, experienced volunteers, and is confidential and free. Cruse provides face-to-face, telephone, and website support both post- and pre-bereavement. We have a national helpline, and local services throughout England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Our sister organisation Cruse Scotland provides services in Scotland. For help and support and for details of your local Cruse service: visit our website at telephone our national helpline on us at Children and young people can: telephone our young people s freephone helpline on visit RD4U our website designed by and for young people at (see page 17 of this leaflet) RD4U at We offer: someone to talk to face-to-face, or on the telephone online support groups some bereaved people find it helpful to talk to others in similar circumstances information about many aspects of bereavement and other sources of help and support face-to-face, telephone helpline and online support for children and young people. Has someone died? 3
4 Has someone died? What people tell us After a death you may initially feel shocked, numb, guilty, angry, afraid and full of pain. These feelings may change to feelings of longing, sadness, loneliness even hopelessness and fear about the future. These feelings are not unnatural, or wrong. They are all normal reactions to what may be the most difficult experience of your life. Over time these feelings should lessen. Every person s experience of grief is unique, but these are some of the things people often say when they come to us for help following a bereavement. I don t feel anything. I feel numb. The shock can make you feel numb. You may feel confused and lost. This should pass with time. You may find initially you can carry on as if nothing has happened. This is a way of managing the pain and loss and can help you get through the early days when there is so much to do. I feel out of control. My emotions are all over the place one minute I m OK, the next minute I m in tears. Mood swings can be very frightening but they are normal. You may feel as if you are on an emotional roller coaster. You may feel overwhelmed and find it difficult to do even everyday tasks. It can be hard to concentrate. Some people find it helpful to throw themselves into work; others find they need to take some time out of dayto-day life and activities. Everyone needs to find their own way of coping. I can t eat or sleep. Physical reactions to a death are very common. You may lose your appetite, have difficulty sleeping, or feel exhausted all the time. People are also often very vulnerable to physical illnesses after a bereavement. If you are not sleeping well, you may feel mentally drained and unable to think straight. These are normal reactions to distress and loss, and should pass in time. But you may want to consult your GP if the problems persist.
5 I keep hearing his voice. I m worried that I m going mad. It may take you some time to grasp what has happened. Don t worry. It is quite normal to see the person, to hear their voice, or find yourself talking to them, especially if they were an important presence in your life. It can often happen when you least expect it, as if your mind has temporarily forgotten that they have died. I feel such pain. I keep on thinking again and again about what happened. I keep going over every detail of her last few days. This again is a common reaction, particularly where the death was sudden and unexpected, or occurred in traumatic circumstances. It is the mind s way of dealing with what has happened. You may feel immense emotional pain some people can find this overwhelming and frightening. I feel so guilty. A lot of people talk to us about feelings of guilt for being alive, when the person is dead; for not having somehow prevented their death; for having let them down in some way. You may find yourself constantly thinking: If only If only I had contacted the doctor sooner, if only I had showed them how much I cared when they were alive. You may be constantly asking yourself why? Why them? Why did this happen to us? Why didn t I do more? Death can seem cruel and unfair. It can make people feel powerless and helpless. These emotions can be very painful to live with, but feeling guilty will not help. It is important to try to focus on the good times, and not to dwell on things in the past that you cannot change. Has someone died? 5
6 Has someone died? I feel so depressed. Life has no meaning without her. I can t see the point of going on. Hopelessness and despair are understandable reactions when someone who has been a central part of your life dies. It is not unusual for people facing bereavement to think about their own death, and even think about taking their own life as a way of escaping the pain. It is important to talk to people you trust about these thoughts, and to remember that life does go on, and while there will always be someone missing in your life, there are many things that are worth living for. It may be helpful to talk through these feelings of hopelessness and despair with someone experienced in bereavement support or bereavement counselling. I feel so angry with him. How could he leave me like this? You may find yourself facing family, financial and domestic responsibilities with which you don t feel able to cope. You may feel very angry that suddenly you have to deal with all these things. You may feel angry with someone you feel is responsible in some way for the death. Anger is a completely normal part of grief. It is a perfectly healthy and understandable response to feeling out of control, powerless and abandoned. Everyone just vanished after the funeral. Now friends won t look me in the eye when I see them in the street, and no one calls round any more. Friends and acquaintances may seem to be avoiding you, particularly once the funeral is over. This is often because they don t know how to behave or what to say. You may want to talk about the person who has died, and find that people keep trying to change the subject, or suggest that it is bad for you to talk about them so much. Talking about the person who has died is an important part of the grieving process, and hopefully there are people in your life who will listen and understand, and be able to share your memories. I can t concentrate at work. People can find it hard to concentrate following a death, which may create difficulties at work. Explain this to your manager. You may be able to come to some temporary arrangement about shorter working hours, or other ways of helping you through this difficult time.
7 I thought I d be over this by now. It s been months and I still find myself bursting into tears. Sometimes it is just when you think you should be feeling better that you feel as if you are falling apart. In the early days following a bereavement, family and friends often rally around and it is only later, when everyone has gone home and you are left with your grief, that the reality of the death hits you. The physical and emotional loneliness can be very hard to bear. There is no time limit on grief. If you feel that you are struggling with your emotions or that you are not coping with life, then it may be time to seek help and support. Since our mum died my sister and I row all the time. Even close family members who are sharing the same loss will respond differently to a bereavement. Everyone has their own way of grieving, and their own ways of showing and coping with their feelings, but sometimes this can be hard for others to understand. A death can bring people together, but it can also create huge tensions and strains within families. Conflicts can emerge for example, about funeral arrangements, legacies and responsibilities for dealing with the dead person s possessions and property. I don t know how I ll cope with the anniversary of her death. You may be particularly affected on and near significant anniversaries for many years after a death. Some people find it helpful to plan in advance what they are going to do on those days, to avoid feeling left alone with their emotions. Some people create a tradition of visiting special places that remind them of the person who has died. Others find this too painful. There is no right and wrong way to mark these anniversaries. You need to find the way that is right for you. If you need reassurance, or information, or simply to talk to someone, ring the Cruse national helpline on Has someone died? 7
8 Has someone died? Taking care of yourself It is important that you take care of yourself following a bereavement. One of the most helpful things is to talk about the person who has died and your relationship with them. Who you talk to will depend on you. It may be your family, friends, a faith/spiritual adviser, your GP or a support organisation. Do.. Talk to other people about the person who has died, about your memories and your feelings. Look after yourself. Eat properly and try to get enough rest (even if you can t sleep). Give yourself time and permission to grieve. Seek help and support if you feel you need it. Tell people what you need. Don t. Isolate yourself. Keep your emotions bottled up. Think you are weak for needing help. Feel guilty if you are struggling to cope. Turn to drugs or alcohol the relief will only be temporary.
9 Helping other people If you are supporting someone else following a bereavement family, friends, work colleagues these are some suggestions that may help you, and them. People who have been bereaved may want to talk about the person who has died. One of the most helpful things you can do is simply listen, and give them time and space to grieve. Offering specific practical help not vague general offers can also be very helpful. Do Be there for the person who is grieving pick up the phone, write a letter/ , call by or arrange to visit. Accept that everyone grieves in their own way there is no normal way. Encourage the person to talk. Listen to them. Create an environment in which the bereaved person can be themselves and show their feelings, rather than having to put on a front. Be aware that grief can take a long time. Contact the person at difficult times special anniversaries and birthdays, for example. Offer practical help. Don t Avoid someone who has been bereaved. Use clichés: I understand how you feel ; You ll get over it ; Time heals. Tell them it s time to move on, they should be over it how long a person needs to grieve is entirely individual. Has someone died? 9
10 Has someone died? Looking to the future Life will never be the same again after a bereavement, but the grief and pain should lessen and there will come a time when you are able to adapt and adjust and cope with life without the person who has died. Many people worry that they will forget the person who has died how they looked, their voice, the good times they had together. There are so many ways you can keep their memory alive. These are just a few suggestions: talk about them and your special memories write down your memories keep an album of photos keep a collection of some of their special possessions do something that commemorates them, such as planting a tree, paying for a park bench, or making a donation to a charity.
11 Helping bereaved children and young people Although most of the information in this part of the leaflet refers to younger children, much will also apply to young people in their teens. Uncertain but certain It's uncertain. You're gone. But not gone. You're lost. But not lost. You're here. But not here. It's certain. You're always in my thoughts. No matter what. Life will go on but my memories of you will flow along with it. Forever, not never. I miss you. In loving memory of my grandma, who is always in my thoughts. A poem by Katie Has someone died? 11
12 Has someone died? How children react Children are no different to adults when it comes to bereavement. There is no right way to react and every child will respond differently. How they react will be affected by a lot of different things their age, their understanding of death, and how close they were to the person who has died. Like adults, children may feel hopeless and despairing when someone they love dies. They may feel angry that the person has left them; they may question why it has happened and blame themselves. They may express their feelings of loss and pain in different and sometimes, to an adult, surprising ways it may seem as if they do not care. Because children cannot sustain emotional pain in the way that adults can, they tend to move in and out of grief. They may appear to be coping much better than we expect. It is important to remember, too, that children may not have the words to express their feelings, and may show how they feel through their behaviour. Children who are bereaved may react in some of these ways: mood swings happy one minute, and very angry or distressed the next unable to concentrate on schoolwork or other focused activities for some time after the death quiet and withdrawn some children find it difficult to share and express their thoughts and feelings, and may prefer to be alone disturbed sleep patterns some children may find it difficult to settle to sleep for a while. They may wake in the night and have bad dreams behaving like a younger child many children start doing things they did when they were younger, like sucking their thumb, wetting, or clinging to you difficulties with friends the death may make a child feel different from their friends and less confident with other people. They may be bullied, or even bully others breaking rules, stealing, truanting from school a child may feel there is no point in behaving well
13 being very good some children may become frightened of causing further upset. They may be hoping that, if they are very good, the dead person will come back. Some children work very hard at school, or behave like an older child and try to take care of the adults around them being aggressive towards other people, or behaving destructively with toys, for example. For the majority of children, these behaviours will pass in time. If you are worried, ask your GP or a support organisation for help. If your child is harming him or herself or talking about wanting to be dead, you should seek help urgently. What can you do? Cruse has extensive experience of supporting parents, carers and people working with bereaved children and young people, and of providing support to bereaved children and young people themselves. Below are some suggestions, based on our experience, for what you can do to support a child/young person who has been bereaved. One of the first things to bear in mind is the importance of looking after yourself, for your children s sake as well as your own. You will be better able to help your child if you are taking care of yourself too. You may not feel able to talk to your child about some of these difficult issues when you yourself are very distressed. You could ask a trusted friend or relative, whom the child or young person also trusts and knows well, to talk to them. Has someone died? 13
14 Has someone died? What should I tell him? It is best if you or someone who knows your child well tells them about the person s death. They should be told as soon as possible. Explain that you have sad news and then talk to the child honestly and openly, using words they can understand. Many adults worry that they will frighten a child by telling them the truth but a child s own ideas about what has happened may be far more frightening to them. Use words like death and dead, not gone to sleep or gone away. Tell them what happened. Explain that death happens to everyone at some time but that not everyone dies at the same age and in the same circumstances, and most people live a long time. You may need to tell younger children several times that when a person dies they will not come back. You could explain that the body no longer works, and that the dead person does not eat, sleep or breathe. People have different ideas about what happens to the essence of a person after death, and it may help to share your own ideas with your child. Bear in mind that younger children may find it harder to understand, and may ask more questions. Answer these as simply, honestly and truthfully as possible. If you don t know the answers, say so. Many children worry that something they said or did, or didn t say or do, caused the person to die. It is important that they are allowed to talk about this and are reassured that this is not the case. You may have to repeat these things several times over the weeks and months following the death, especially with younger children.
15 Should I show my feelings? Don t hide your feelings. If you are sad, don t hide your tears. If children see you cry, it will let them know that it is alright for them to cry too. If you are angry, explain why, so your child doesn t think it is their fault. If you are feeling overwhelmed by grief and unable to care for your child, you could ask a relative or close friend, whom both of you know and trust, to help for a while. Reassure your child that it s ok to talk to other people if they want to. Should I let her view the body? It is important to consider carefully whether it might help a child or young person to see the body, if they want to. Doing so may help them understand that the person has died and is not coming back, and that it is time to say goodbye. Explain that they can touch the body and put something in the coffin if they want to. Tell them what they will see, and what the body will look and feel like. Check if they still want to before they go in to see the body. Reassure them that it is fine to change their mind, or to look from a distance if this is what they want to do. Should I take her to the funeral? In most cases we would say that a child should be given the choice to go to the funeral if they want to, unless there are particular religious, cultural or family reasons not to. Going to a funeral can help children understand the finality of death and join family and friends in saying goodbye. Explain what the funeral is for and what will happen. Explain that there are no shoulds about how they feel at the funeral. Include your child in planning the funeral and find ways in which they can take part in the service if they want to. Children may want to write something to be read out during the funeral, or put something in the coffin, or they may want to say something themselves. It is important that they do not feel under any pressure to do this. Explain to them that they can change their mind, even at the last moment. You could ask someone you and your child trust to help take care of them during the ceremony, to explain to them what is going on and to go out with them at any point if they wish to do so. Has someone died? 15
16 Has someone died? If your child decides not to go to the funeral, make it clear that this is ok. Try to find other ways to involve them for example, by taking photographs and writing down and talking about what happened at the service. Try to work out with them other ways they can say goodbye. How can I make sure he doesn t forget her? Children and young people may need help to hold on to memories. They may want to draw and write their memories of times spent with the person who has died. You could help them create some kind of memory box containing items that remind them of the person who has died photos, drawings, a piece of clothing, something picked up on a walk together, something that smells of their perfume/aftershave. The box can be added to over time. Older children may prefer to put the box together on their own. child s needs and understand why they may be behaving in particular ways. It may be helpful for you and your child to agree with teaching staff what the other children should be told. Teachers may need to be aware that particular anniversaries and dates will be significant for your child. Keep in regular contact with the school to discuss how your child is coping. What should I tell the school? School can provide stability and routine in what can be a chaotic time for your child. It is important to tell the school what has happened so teachers can be sensitive to your
17 Do Be honest in your explanations. Show your own grief it gives your child permission to do so. Give plenty of reassurance and affection. Let them know you love them and will be there for them. Keep to usual routines as much as possible. Look after yourself. Be aware that changes in your child s behaviour may be an expression of grief. Take time to listen to and answer their questions. Let them know their feelings are important. Help them remember the person who has died. Take things one day at a time. Don t Try to hide your own grief. It s ok to cry in front of your child, but try not to overwhelm them. Tell your child not to worry and not to be sad. Feel like you have to have all the answers and get it right all the time. Be surprised by a child s ability to set their grief aside and have fun and play. Play enables children to express themselves and release anxiety. RD4U RD4U is a website developed by Cruse Bereavement Care to support young people after the death of someone close to them. RD4U means the 'road for you'. Everyone reacts differently to a death and the website aims to help young people find their own road to dealing with their loss. In the personal section young people can read accounts of how other young people in their situation have coped. They can share their thoughts and feelings on the message board and offer advice to others and exchange ideas for coping. There s a gallery for young people to post poems, stories, photographs and drawings. And if they want a break, they can go to the fun zone and play one of our computer games. There s also a special section for the lads, because they can find it harder to open up about their feelings. The site was developed by the Cruse Youth Involvement Project, a group of young people, including trained volunteers, who have experienced bereavement. They meet regularly to discuss the site and make sure it is offering what young people want. Has someone died? 17
18 Has someone died? Cruse offers several different kinds of support for young people. Our local Areas and Branches offer face-to-face support. They can also visit RD4U at or telephone the freephone helpline or RD4U at Coping day to day Spend time with your child. Show them you love them. Keep talking about the person who has died, and encourage your child to talk about them too. Let them know it s ok to show their feelings to feel sad, to laugh, and to feel angry. It will help them if you are able to show your feelings too. Try to maintain routines as far as possible, as these provide a sense of security. Try to keep to your child s usual bedtime, as far as possible, and encourage them to keep up with schoolwork and their other usual activities and interests. Grief is normal and natural. There is no time limit. As a child grows up there may be times in their life when they will feel the absence of the person more acutely. These may be sad times for both of you, when you and your child will need to talk and show your feelings. Children and young people, like any bereaved person, need understanding, time, space, reassurance, to be held and to be listened to when they need to talk. Over time, with love and support, children and young people can be helped to get through this difficult and painful time. If you telephone Cruse, we can suggest leaflets that you can give your child, and recommend books they may find helpful. There are a number of other organisations that offer specialist help and support to bereaved families and children and young people. You can get information about services available in your area by contacting Cruse or your GP. Your child may become worried or upset when you go out. Say where you are going and what time you will be coming home.
19 Has someone died? 19
20 Working towards equality and diversity How to contact Cruse Bereavement Care National helpline Cruse young people s helpline Cruse website Cruse young people s website Central Office Cruse Bereavement Care PO Box 800 Richmond TW9 1RG Telephone Fax Cruse Northern Ireland Knockbracken Healthcare Park Saintfield Road Belfast BT8 8BH Telephone Cruse Wales Ty Energlyn Cwrt Llanfabon Caerphilly CF83 2TP Telephone In Scotland services are provided to the same standard by Cruse Bereavement Care Scotland Riverview House Friarton Road Perth PH2 8DF National phoneline Cruse relies on donations to fund our work. If you would like to make a donation, please contact Cruse central office at the address above, or visit our website Royal Patron: Her Majesty The Queen Registered charity no A company limited by guarantee no (London) Registered office Unit 0.1, One Victoria Villas, Richmond, Surrey TW9 2GW Local Area/Branch Cruse Isle of Man 6c Village Walk Onchan Isle of Man IM3 4EA Telephone /2 Proudly supported by
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For parents Children, armed conflict and flight Children s reactions to armed conflict and flight An increasing number of families and children are affected by armed conflict, and are being forced to flee.
Helping you through this difficult time. New York Life Insurance Company New York Life Insurance and Annuity Corporation (A Delaware Corporation) 51 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10010 www.newyorklife.com
Self Assessment: Substance Abuse Please respond TRUE (T) or FALSE (F) to the following items as they apply to you. Part 1 I use or have used alcohol or drugs for recreational purposes. I use alcohol despite
Managing your worries about cancer returning This information is for anyone who has had treatment to cure cancer and is worried about it coming back. It is an extract from the booklet Worrying about cancer
Are you feeling... Tired, Sad, Angry, Irritable, Hopeless? I feel tired and achy all the time. I can t concentrate and my body just doesn t feel right. Ray B. I don t want to get out of bed in the morning
Look after your mental health It s important to take care of yourself and get the most from life. This booklet suggests 10 practical ways to look after your mental health. What is mental health? Hi, how
Activity 3: Observe Psychological First Aid In this activity you have the opportunity to hear a conversation between a survivor of bomb blast and a Red Cross behavioral health volunteer. This role play
Have you lived through a scary and dangerous event? A R E A L I L L N E S S Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) U S DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH II National Institute
Adjusting to Spinal Cord Injury After a spinal cord injury, everyone copes differently with the journey toward psychological healing and adjustment. The topics below will explore common issues and concerns
The Florida Crisis Consortium is supported by the Florida Dep:ntment ofhealth. Age-Appropriate Reactions & Specific Interventions for Children & Adolescents Experiencing A Traumatic Incident The following
When Death Enters Your Life: A Grief Pamphlet Acknowledgements We want to thank the women and men in prisons and jails who have shared their stories with us. We also want to thank the administration of
Grief / Depression Assessment Inventory. All rights reserved. Please do not reproduce without prior permission. There are a series of paragraphs below that are paired: One describes how a person who is
JUST FOR KIDS: Returning to School after a Loss Someone you love has died or is gone from your life. You feel strange, like someone came behind you and pushed you into deep water: nothing is normal. Sometime
Explaining Separation/Divorce to Children By: Liana Lowenstein, MSW (Tel) 416-575-7836 (email) firstname.lastname@example.org (Web) www.lianalowenstein.com General Tips Prepare yourself before addressing the issue
The Problem Negative Automatic Thoughts People who are depressed tend to think about themselves, the world and the future in a negative way. These negative thoughts are: AUTOMATIC DISTORTED UNHELPFUL PLAUSIBLE
Caring For The Person Who Is Suicidal For further information see also the following MIND Essentials resource Conducting a suicide risk assessment. Suicidal thoughts and behaviours are not unique to mental
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - PTSD Introduction Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, or PTSD, is a common disorder in which a person experiences disabling anxiety after a traumatic event. People with PTSD
National Institute on Aging AgePage Depression Everyone feels blue now and then. It s part of life. But, if you no longer enjoy activities that you usually like, you may have a more serious problem. Feeling
Worried about someone s mental health? This factsheet can help you if you are worried about the mental health of a friend, relative or loved one. It explains what you can do and where to go to get help
switching seats in the classroom stealing money Take Action Against Bullying spreading rumors pushing & tripping U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Brain Injury Association National Help Line: 1-800-444-6443 Brain Injury Association Web site: www.biausa.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site: www.cdc.gov/ncipc/tbi Contents About Brain
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder It s natural to be afraid when you re in danger. It s natural to be upset when something bad happens to you or someone you know. But if you feel afraid and upset weeks or
IS 42 December 2011 Information sheet Loss & bereavement in people with dementia Introduction... 1 What is grief?... 1 Breaking the news... 2 Planning the funeral rituals... 2 The funeral - a rite of passage...
HELP WHEN WE NEEDED IT MOST How to prepare for and respond to suicide in schools and colleges. How to prepare for and respond to suicide in schools and colleges 1 Nobody likes to think about a death in
LOOKING AFTER YOURSELF AFTER A DISASTER CONTENTS Introduction 3 Common reactions to an extraordinary event 4 Dealing with the emotional impact of a natural disaster 6 When the reaction or distress does
Telling the Kids about Separation and Divorce Ruth A. Peters, Ph.D. Divorce is tough on everyone--mom, Dad, as well as the kids. But, there are some steps that parents can take to make the situation less
Antidepressants are drugs used, most often, to treat depression. Depression is a complex illness that involves sad and hopeless feelings that do not go away. Doctors sometimes order these drugs for other
Non-epileptic seizures a short guide for patients and families Information for patients Department of Neurology Royal Hallamshire Hospital What are non-epileptic seizures? In a seizure people lose control
Therapeutic Identification of Depression in Young People Identification and Treatment Manual The TIDY project The Academic Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Imperial College London & Lonsdale Medical