Energy Tax Initiative in Taiwan: Issues and Perspectives

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1 CTCI Foundation The 2007 International Conference on Environment and Energy Energy Tax Initiative in Taiwan: Issues and Perspectives Chung-Huang Huang National Tsing Hua University Center for Sustainable Development

2 碳 經 濟 月 刊 CARBON ECONOMY

3 Outlines About the Energy Tax Act The Issues The Perspectives Concluding remarks

4 Legislation Objectives of the Energy Tax Act in Taiwan To induce energy saving To stabilize energy supply To enhance energy efficiency To develop alternative energies and move toward a sustainable society To reduce CO 2 emission

5 Major Characteristics of the Act Selected energy products are targeted Tax rate is energy-product dependent Tax rate increases over time at a fixed amount up to a pre-determined end period The revenue is used with priority to eliminate the existing excise tax of the targeted energy products, and the surplus to reduce personal income tax and corporate tax

6 Energy Products to be Taxed The energy products covered by the Act include gasoline, diesel, kerosene, aviation gasoline, fuel oil, LPG, natural gas, and coal. (Article 7) Ethanol gasoline, biodiesel and other renewable energy shall be taxed in proportion to their content of the taxed energy products. All targeted energy products shall be taxed at the time when they are out-of plant or imported

7 Tax Rates For the first year: Under debate and consensus not reached yet. The first-year tax rate for each energy product is determined by adding a fixed amount to the existing excise tax. For the following years, the rates increase at the same amount until nine years after the first charging year. Taking into account the potential impact on prices and industrial development, the Executive Yan is authorized to adjust the rate as deemed necessary by ±50%

8 Tax Rate by Proposed Chen Tax rate ( NT$) Year Gasoline Diesel Kerosene Aviation fuel LPG Fuel oil Coal Natural Gas Solvant

9 % Change Relative to the Prevailing Excise Tax Rate Percent change (%) Year Gasoline Diesel Kerosene Aviation fuel LPG Fuel oil Coal Natural Gas Solvant

10 The Tax Rate by Mr. Chen Items/ Year Gasoline (NT$/l) Diesel (NT$/l) Kerosene (NT$/l) Aviation gasoline (NT$/l) Solvants (NT$/l) LPG (NT$/kg) Fuel oil(%) Coal(%) NG(%) % 0% 0% % 0% 0% % 10% 10% % 15% 15% % 20% 20% 25% 25% 25% 30% 30% 30% % 35% 35% % 40% 40%

11 Items Year The Effective Tax Rates in Huang et al.( ) Implementation year: 2009 Gasoline $/L Diesel $/L Kerosene $/L Aviation gasoline $/L LPG $/Kg Fuel Oil $/L Coal $/KG

12 Revenues: Chen vs. EN , 能 源 稅 稅 收 ( 百 萬 元 ) , , , 陳 明 真 版 新 稅 率 版 陳 明 真 版 新 稅 率 版

13 The Issues Rationality of energy tax Choice of tax base and the targeted payers Determination of the optimal tax rate Disposal of tax revenues Feasibility of the double dividends Efficiency and Equity Impact evaluation Integration of policy instruments

14 Objectives Rationality of Energy Tax Energy saving Energy supply Energy efficiency New energy development Emission reduction Revenue raising and tax reform Effectiveness Partial Inadequate Partial Partial Partial Full Alternative instruments Energy price Hedging, stockpiling Standards, BAT Subsidy for renewables Carbon tax, C&T Other resources and environmental fees

15 Problems under Imperfect Market DWL may increase further A tax on monopolist might be inappropriate for emission reduction A P m F B MC + t MC P c E G C MR AR Q m Q c

16 Choice of tax base and the Targeted Payers Why energy products? Why not consumers or emitters? Primary energy Energy products CO 2 Air pollutants Producers Importers Consumers

17 Framework for the Optimal Tax Determination External effects Affecting output and price Energy market CO2 emission Mitigation Affecting price and consumption Policy goals Impacts on industries Producers tax tax incidence Government Revenues Revenue disposal Rate determination Consumers Welfare and distributional effects

18 Optimal Energy Tax Rate What is the socially optimal tax rate and what are the determinants? Are the proposed rates socially optimal? Environmental damages of of the externalities associated with energy use and their properties Benefits of of emission reduction and energy saving and their properties Demand and supply elasticity of of energy products Market structure of of the taxed energy products Availability of of alternative policy instruments

19 Pigouvian Tax Rate when Environmental Cost Exists $ Demand curve Marginal social cost MSC=MPC MPC+MECMEC MC + t Marginal production cost MPC = C/ Q A B t = MEC Q=Q* = AD D Q* Q c C quantity

20 Disposal of Tax Revenues The tax interaction effect may outweigh the tax recycling effect in the long run, regardless of the ways of revenue disposal. Subsidy to the production cost is preferred to labor income tax substitution for higher efficiency. Optimal disposal depends on the weights of various policy goals EN1 EN2 EN3 EN4 EN5 EN 年

21 Executive Yuan s s Proposal( ) 3, 單 位 : 億 元 2, 盈 餘, 盈 餘, 盈 餘, , 取 消 氣 燃 費 能 源 稅 稅 收 2, , 盈 餘, 2 2 薪 資 扣 除 額 1. 2 萬 元, 6 0 遊 覽 車 汽 燃 費, 4 娛 樂 稅, 2 三 項 貨 物 稅, 5 8 電 器 類, 7 3 1, 油 氣 類 貨 物 稅 盈 餘, 6 薪 資 扣 除 額 1 萬, , 盈 餘 印 花 稅, 盈 餘, , 取 消 汽 燃 費 盈 餘, , 取 消 汽 燃 費 盈 餘, , 取 消 汽 燃 費 5 0, 取 消 汽 燃 費 6 0, 薪 資 扣 除 額 1. 2 萬 , 實 施 年 度 0 1, , , , , , , , , , 第 1 年 第 2 年 第 3 年 第 4 年 第 5 年 第 6 年 第 7 年 第 8 年 第 9 年 第 1 0 年

22 Scenarios in Huang et al.( ) EN1: Revenue not recycled EN2: The net revenue used to subsidize the firm s OTHER COSTS.(Production cost. EN3: The net revenue used to subsidize personal income tax and corporate income tax. EN4: 50% for reducing OTHER COSTS and 50% for reducing personal income tax. EN5: The net revenue used for removing the excise tax of other taxed items. EN6: Following the way of disposal initiated by the Executive Yuan ( )

23 Impact on GDP Growth Rate 核 四 商 轉 EN1 EN2 EN3 EN4 EN5 EN 核 一 除 役 LPG 稅 率 調 高 年

24 CO 2 Emission 百 萬 公 噸 基 線 ; EN6; EN2, EN5; EN1, EN3; EN4; 基 線 EN1 EN2 EN3 EN4 EN5 EN 年

25 CO2 Emission per capita Tons per capita 基 線 EN1 EN2 EN3 EN4 EN5 EN Average: Average:

26 Feasibility of the Double Dividends Energy tax revenue is simply a transfer payment from tax payers to the government. Efficiency of public fund allocation may not be as good as the private allocation. Double dividends, while negligible in the long run, could possibly occur only in the short run with particular conditions. The tax rate and the size of the revenue do matter. The shift of the tax base from energy products to emission would favor the feasibility of the double dividends. Energy tax is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the development of new energy

27 Efficiency and Equity Energy tax is not the most effective instrument for CO 2 emission control, although it encourages energy saving. Tax exemption is less efficient than tax-andredistribution. The distributional effect on consumer tends to be regressive. Equity achieved through subsidizing the lower income groups will be at the cost of efficiency

28 Impact Evaluation Adequate decision criteria should be clear for wiser policy making. Regulatory impact analysis deserves more attention. Selection of proper tools for impact evaluation is essential. Phasing-out of uncompetitive technologies and innovation of the newly emerging technologies should be taken into account

29 Integration of Policy Instruments Alternative policy instruments, such as energy price, cap-and-trade, subsidy for renewables, regulatory standards, etc., must be integrated and harmonized. Rationalization of energy price Emission fees of air pollutants Charges for Energy Fund Cap-and-trade Standards and BACT wrt CO 2 control Subsidies EIA

30 Concluding Remarks Failure to realize double dividends does not imply that the energy tax is not justifiable as it may result from the divergence of the proposed tax rate from the socially optimal level. Energy tax is not the most effective instrument for CO 2 emission control, although it encourages energy saving and emission reduction. Cost effectiveness of the energy tax should be evaluated and compared with alternative instruments. Adequate integration with energy prices and capand-trade is warranted for policy harmonization

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