# Computational Modeling and Simulation for Learning an Automation Concept in Programming Course

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2 proposed a class of simulation based on scaffolding for learning the concept of automation. Class is composed of steps as in Fig. 1. The first step is Collection. In this step, the learners searches and collects the data to solve the problem. The second step is Abstraction. The learners extract the important information associated with problems in the collected data. The third step is Representation. This is when the learners are able to understand the relationship between data and consider how to represent to the computer. The forth step is Formula. In this step, the learners express the relationship between data by mathematical formula. The fifth step is Instruction. The learners are possible to comprehend how to use the tools to implement the real-world problems to the computer. The sixth step is Algorithm. In this step, the learners create a problem solving process for implementing on a computer. The seventh step is Implementation. In this step, the learners implement an algorithm using programming language. B. Materials In Collection step, the learners search and collect the data to solve the problem. This step consisted of two parts, Object Name and Search Results. Because the object name is used in the next step, we instructed the learners to display using the [ ]. The following Fig. 2 is an example of the worksheet to be provided to the learners. Fig. 2. Collection worksheet. In Abstraction step, the learners extract the important information associated with problems among the collected data. Learner can be defined properties of the object that they create in step1. The following Fig. 3 is an example of the data abstraction activity. Fig. 1. Modeling and simulation steps. Fig. 3. Abstraction worksheet. In Representation step, the learners understand the relationship between data and consider how to represent to the computer. Therefore, the learners can perform simulation using squared paper such as Fig. 4. Like step 2, they can use the object that they created at step 1. Learners are able to understand the relationship of the object by attempting to represent all state of objects. III. METHOD A. Participants and Procedure In this paper, we are trying to see how modeling and real-world problems and solving the problem. 30 middle school students (27 males, 3 females) with a mean age of 13.3 participated in the experiment. They have no programming experience. The experiment was conducted 3 hours a day for every 3 weeks. The content of the class is the rotation and revolution of the Earth. Implementation of an algorithms for 3D object animation and analysis used C++ and OpenGL. OpenGL(Open Graphics Library) is a cross-language, multi-platform application programming interface (API) for rendering 2D and 3D computer graphics. The API is typically used to interact with a Graphics processing unit (GPU), to achieve hardware-accelerated rendering [11]. Class was conducted by the following Table I. Fig. 4. Representation worksheet. In Formula step, the learners expresse the relationship between data by mathematical formula. They can make mathematical formula of the relationship between objects by Representation Step. The learners must use object that they created at step 1, like other steps. The following Fig. 5 is an example of the making formula activity. TABLE I: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Week Class 1 Modeling 2 Implementation 3 Application Contents Data Collection Data Abstraction Data Representation Mathematical Formula Instruction Algorithm Implementation Application Discussion Teaching Method Worksheet Programming Presentation Fig. 5. Formula worksheet. 342

3 In Instruction step, the learners are possible to learn how to use the tools to implement the real-world problems based on a computer. Fig. 6 refers to the command of OpenGL. Learner can create an algorithm and implement using provided commands. to use. The learners can be defined properties of the object that they create in Collection step. Fig. 10 shows an abstraction activity that students have defined. Students performed using worksheet like Fig. 11. Fig. 6. Instruction worksheet. Fig. 10. Result of abstraction activity. In Algorithm step, the learners create a problem solving process for implementing on a computer. The learners can create problem solving procedure by using the worksheet such as Fig. 7. Fig. 11. Activity using the worksheet. Fig. 7. Algorithm worksheet. In Implementation step, the learners implement an algorithm using programming language. Implementation of an algorithm uses C++ and OpenGL. The following Fig. 8 is an example of the implementation activity. Fig. 8. Implementation worksheet. IV. RESULTS A. Result of the Student s Activity In Collection step, the learners collected information of rotation and revolution of the Earth using the internet. Fig. 9 shows the result of collection activity. Learner displays objects using the [ ] because the objects name are used in the next step. Fig. 12. Result of representation activity. Fig. 9. Result of collection activity. Fig. 13. Teacher described relationship of objects using gestures. In Abstraction step, learner defined the object they want In Representation step, the learners express all situations 343

4 such as Fig. 12. From this step, they could understand the relationships between objects. Like Abstraction step, they can use the object that they created in Collection step. Many students felt difficult to express the relationship between the objects. Therefore, the teacher described the relationship of the objects using gestures such as Fig. 13. In Formula step, the learners could define the relationships between objects. In this step, they can create a formula to calculate the position of the sun and the earth. The formula was consisted by using the result of the search. Fig. 14 shows a formula that students have created. Fig. 17. Result of implementation activity. Fig. 14. Result of formula activity. B. Student s Feedback After the class, we asked to students about what was the most important activity. Fig. 18 shows students sorting the cards that named by activities in order of importance. Finally, students ordered the cards such as Fig. 19. In Instruction step, they can learn how to use programming language. C++ is very difficult to middle school students. So, we provided the only command that is required to implement the rotation and revolution of the Earth. Fig. 15 is an example of using the command to be used when the learners implements. Fig. 18. Students who are considered about the order. Fig. 15. Result of instruction activity. In Algorithm step, the learners can make a problem solving procedure using formula and instruction. Fig. 16 shows an algorithm that students have created. In this step, they can organize their idea on how to solve the problem. Fig. 19. Priority for students to think. Most students though Collection step was the most important step because information is required to solve the problem. They said that the least important step is Instruction. Because it is more important what they do make rather than how they used the programming language. Table II is the student s feedback after the class. Fig. 16. Result of algorithm activity. In Algorithm step, the learners can implement an algorithm to the programming language. Fig. 17 shows the C++ code that students have created. They can make a programming code using their algorithm. 344

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