PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY"

Transcription

1 PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER P.R.W. Kendall, OBC, MBBS, MSc, FRCPC Provincial Health Officer December 2008 Office of the Provincial Health Officer Office of the Provincial Health Officer

2 Copies of this report are available from: Office of the Provincial Health Officer Ministry of Healthy Living and Sport 4th Floor, 1515 Blanshard Street Victoria, B.C. V8W 3C8 Telephone: (250) Fax: (250) and electronically (in a.pdf file) from: ISBN Date: December 2, 2008 British Columbia. Office of the Provincial Health Officer. Public health approach to alcohol policy: an updated report from the Provincial Health Officer, December 2008 National Library of Canada Cataloguing in Publication Data British Columbia. Office of the Provincial Health Officer Public health approach to alcohol policy: an updated report from the Provincial Health Officer, December 2008 Issued by British Columbia Ministry of Healthy Living and Sport. Also available on the Internet. Includes bibliographical references: p. ISBN Drinking of alcoholic beverages British Columbia. 2. Drinking of alcoholic beverages Health aspects. 3. Alcoholic beverages Government policy British Columbia. I. Kendall, Perry R. W. (Perry Robert William), II. British Columbia. Ministry of Healthy Living and Sport. III. Title. HV5309.B7B

3 CONTENTS Acknowledgements...iii Executive Summary...v Introduction...1 Context and Background...1 Recent Efforts to Enhance Alcohol Policy in BC and Canada...2 Levels and Patterns of Alcohol Consumption in BC and Canada...5 Consumption Levels...5 Consumption Patterns...6 Frequency and Quantity...7 Concentration of Drinking in Canada...7 Exceeding Low-Risk Drinking Guidelines...8 Risky Drinking...8 Hazardous Drinking and Alcohol Dependence in BC...9 Patterns of Alcohol Use Among University and College Students in BC and Canada...9 Alcohol Use Among Underage Youth in BC...10 Sources of Alcohol in BC...10 Summary...11 Alcohol-Related Health and Social Harms in BC and Canada...13 Alcohol-Caused and Alcohol-Related Mortality...14 Alcohol-Caused and Alcohol-Related Morbidity...16 Alcohol-Impaired Driving...18 Alcohol-Related Crime...20 Self-Reported Alcohol-Related Health and Social Harms...21 PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER i

4 CONTENTS Alcohol-Related Substance Abuse Treatment Summary Benefits and Costs of Alcohol in BC and Canada Economic Benefits Health Benefits of Moderate Alcohol Consumption Social Costs of Substance Abuse in BC and Canada Benefit Cost Analysis Summary Alcohol Policy Best Practice Policies Public Opinion Current Status of Alcohol Policies in BC Economic Availability Physical Availability Government Retail Monopoly Restrictions on Days and Hours of Sale Restrictions on Outlet Density A Note on the Relationship between Physical Availability and Consumption Other Policies Minimum Purchase Age Drinking and Driving Policies Brief Interventions Policies and Programs for Reducing Violence in and around Licensed Establishments Server Training Programs Proactively Enforcing Laws on Service to Intoxicated Patrons, Overcrowding, and Sales to Minors Violence Prevention Training for Security and Bar Staff Encouraging Strong Local Collaboration Alcohol Advertising and Promotion Summary ii PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER

5 CONTENTS Discussion Recommendations Economic Availability Physical Availability Other Policies Programs and Policies to Reduce Violence in and around Licensed Establishments Conclusion References Appendix 1: Recommendations from the National Alcohol Strategy Appendix 2: Methods for Calculating Alcohol-Attributable Fractions for Mortality and Morbidity Estimates Published by the BC Alcohol and Other Drug Monitoring Project Appendix 3: International Classification of Disease (ICD) Codes Used to Estimate Alcohol-Related Morbidity and Mortality in the BC AOD Monitoring Project ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report is the product of a collaboration between the Centre for Addictions Research of BC (CARBC), the University Victoria, and the Office of the Provincial Health Officer. The principal author was Gerald Thomas, with contributions by Tim Stockwell and Jinhui Zhao. The editorial group was led by the Provincial Health Officer and comprised of Scott Macdonald, Dan Reist, Tim Stockwell, and Gerald Thomas. Key data, tables, and figures were prepared by Jinhui Zhao and Lorissa Martens (CARBC), Jane Buxton and Andrew Tu (BC Centre for Disease Control). The Provincial Health Officer wishes to thank Karen Ayers, Janice Carlson, Cindy Stephenson, and Barry Bieller (Liquor Control and Licensing Branch, Ministry of Housing and Social Development), Jay Chambers and Gord Hall (Liquor Distribution Branch, Ministry of Housing and Social Development), and Linda Mazzei and Nancy Letkeman (Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General) for their valuable contributions to this report. In addition, the Provincial Health Officer wishes to thank Denise de Pape, Eric Young, and Brian Emerson for their assistance with this report. Final editing, proofreading, and production of this report was undertaken by Zhila Kashaninia, Barb Callander, and Barb Miles, from the Office of the Provincial Health Officer and Corporate Support, Planning and Legislation. Graphic Design was provided by Anthony Alexander, Mercury Art & Design. PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER iii

6

7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 2002, the Provincial Health Officer (PHO) issued a special report entitled A Public Health Approach to Alcohol Policy. At that time, the provincial government was set to implement several policy changes designed to increase access to alcoholic beverage products in BC. Since international research suggests that increasing access to alcohol can lead to increases in consumption and, by extension, increases in alcoholrelated health and social harms, the PHO recommended that the government closely monitor the impact of the policy changes and also offered a set of recommendations designed to mitigate the potential negative public health outcomes of the changes. This report updates the 2002 report, by assessing the impacts of the 2002 policy change and providing updated recommendations to address the health and social harms from alcohol in BC. This report reviews in detail: levels and patterns of alcohol consumption, rates and trends of alcoholrelated health and social harms, the current cost-benefit profile of alcohol in BC, best practice policies for managing alcohol in society, and the status of current alcohol policies in BC relative to these best practices. The major findings of this study are: The physical availability of alcohol has increased substantially in BC, with the total number of liquor stores in the province increasing from 786 in 2002 to 1,294 in All of this growth has been in licensed private retail, rural agency, and other liquor stores. The economic availability of alcohol appears to have increased, with wine and spirits becoming relatively cheaper over time because of the prices for these products not keeping pace with the cost of living. In addition, there are currently clear price incentives for consumers to choose higher-strength alcohol products in all major beverage classes. Alcohol consumption has increased 8 per cent overall since 2002, with rates of consumption growing in all regions of the province particularily in the Vancouver Island and Interior Health Authorities. The increases in Interior Health Authority are particularly troubling given that this region already has some of the highest rates of consumption in the province. Self-reported rates of drinking at hazardous levels at least monthly have increased since 2003, particularly in women age and men age and Although undergraduates in BC generally drink in less risky patterns than those in other parts of Canada, about 12 per cent binge drink at least weekly, nearly 27 per cent report regular hazardous drinking, and nearly 30 per cent report at least one symptom indicative of dependent alcohol use. Over one-quarter of underage youth report binge drinking at least once a month, with youth alcohol use highest in the Interior and Northern Health Authorities. Overall, rates of death caused by or related to alcohol have remained stable while alcohol-related hospital stays have increased moderately but significantly since Chronic deaths from alcohol (e.g., liver cirrhosis, cancers) show an increasing trend when analyzed separately from acute deaths (e.g., poisonings, injuries). Several indicators suggest that the prevalence of alcoholimpaired driving may have increased since Real direct government revenue from the control and sale of alcohol has increased 4 per cent per year from 2003 to This rate of growth is substantially higher than the average growth in revenue from 1988 to 2002 (0.0 per cent). PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER v

8 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A comparison of a subset of direct alcohol-related costs and benefits indicates that health and enforcement costs exceeded government revenue from alcohol by approximately $61 million in 2002/2003. The report ends with a series of recommendations that, if properly implemented, would serve to reduce the present burden of harms from alcohol consumption in BC. Recognizing that government is unlikely to adopt all of these recommendations, the Provincial Health Officer recommends as priorities that the government: Continue to actively monitor consumption patterns and regularly assess the benefit/cost ratio of alcohol consumption in BC. Commit to reversing the apparent increasing trend of alcohol-impaired driving. Increase the resources available for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) prevention, early detection, and supports for those born with FASD. Support communities to create partnerships and implement programs that reduce the harms from alcohol misuse and promote safer communities. Implement a small levy based on standard drinks and use the proceeds to enhance treatment, prevention, and research capacity for addictions in British Columbia. Focus on initiatives that will reduce harmful use by youth and young adults. In particular: - Adjust prices to reflect alcohol content, keep pace with the cost of living, and prevent discounting the price of high alcohol content drinks. - Review and strengthen ID enforcement compliance practices, especially in licensed private retail, and rural agency liquor stores. - Review the impact of present alcohol advertising practices on youth and develop and evaluate programs for youth that realistically portray the dangers of excessive drinking. vi PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER

9 INTRODUCTION The Provincial Health Officer (PHO) of British Columbia is required by the Health Act to conduct independent analyses on matters relevant to the health of British Columbians and also to comment on the need for legislation, policies, or other actions when deemed necessary. This responsibility is served most directly by the production of the PHO s Annual Report; however, from time to time, feature reports on specific topics are also prepared. In 2002, the PHO published a feature report entitled A Public Health Approach to Alcohol Policy, which took a broad look at consumption, alcohol-related health and social harms, and the status of alcohol control policy in BC (PHO, 2002). At that time, the provincial government was in the process of implementing numerous policy changes that were likely to increase the availability of alcohol in BC, including the partial privatization of retail alcohol sales. Research from Canada and other countries suggests that increasing access to alcohol can lead to increases in population consumption, and this is frequently associated with increases in some types of alcoholrelated harms (Babor et al., 2003). This report updates the 2002 Public Health Approach to Alcohol Policy report, by assessing the effects of the 2002 alcohol policy changes and generating discrete, actionable recommendations to minimize the harms associated with alcohol use in BC. 1 First, it presents information on levels and patterns of alcohol use in BC and Canada over the last several decades, with a focus on the period Next, it provides trends for several major health and social harms related to alcohol. Third, it reviews the economic benefits and social costs of alcohol in BC and Canada, looking at trends over time where data are available. Fourth, it presents a summary of best practice policies for managing alcoholrelated health and social harms and reviews the current status of BC s alcohol policies in relation to these practices. Finally, the report offers a set of practical recommendations to help minimize the health and social harms of alcohol in BC. Context and Background Alcohol misuse is a major issue in Canada, with direct and indirect health and social costs estimated at $14.5 billion in 2002, accounting for 36.6 per cent of total substance abuserelated costs (Rehm et al., 2006). Alcohol also provides substantial economic and social benefits to Canadians. For example, governments in Canada took in approximately $7.7 billion in revenue from the sale and control of alcohol in fiscal year 2003 (Statistics Canada, 2004, with further analysis from the author). The 2002 PHO report on alcohol policy provided a number of recommendations to mitigate the potential adverse effects of the policy changes being proposed by the provincial government at that time. Specifically, the report recommended the following: 1. Monitoring of public health and safety impacts of policy changes (e.g., rates of traffic crashes, crime, and chronic health problems). 2. Increased prevention programming with a focus on children and youth and on modifying risky drinking behaviours. 1 While there are a number of perspectives that need to be considered when crafting alcohol policy in BC, including economic, social, political, and ethical views, this report is designed to explicitly bring a public health perspective to this topic. Given the historical dominance of economic and political considerations within alcohol policy, the promotion of the public health perspective in this area is an important part of efforts to enhance alcohol policy in BC. PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER 1

10 INTRODUCTION 3. Rigorous monitoring and enforcement of laws relating to sales to underage and intoxicated consumers. 4. An enhancement of the addictions treatment and rehabilitation system. 5. Evaluation of prevention policies and programs, with reduction of drinking-related harms as the main criterion of effectiveness. 6. Involvement of public health experts in the planning of future changes to alcohol policy. Efforts have been made to implement some of these recommendations since For example, the Centre for Addictions Research of BC (CARBC) operates the BC Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Monitoring Project, which collects population-level data on alcohol use, alcoholrelated morbidity and mortality, and other data relevant for tracking the effects of changes in BC s alcohol policies. 2 As well, researchers from CARBC submitted a brief on alcohol pricing and taxation policy in the 2008/2009 provincial budget process and met with representatives from the BC Ministry of Finance and the BC Liquor Distribution Branch in December 2007 to discuss economic approaches for responding to alcohol-related health and social harms in the province. While this meeting did not lead to any substantive changes in alcohol pricing and taxation policy, it did allow health and safety issues relating to alcohol to be discussed among senior policy makers in BC. Other organizations have also been involved in implementing recommendations from A Public Health Approach to Alcohol Policy. For example, the BC Liquor Control and Licensing Branch in the Ministry of Housing and Social Development conducted comprehensive audits of age verification practices at both government and privately operated liquor stores across the province in 2003, 2004, 2005, and Further, in June 2007, the provincial government implemented a new, higher penalty for minors caught using false ID to purchase alcohol. As well, fines for licensees selling liquor to minors and allowing minors to enter licensed establishments were increased significantly in The minimum penalty for selling liquor to minors increased from a 4-day licence suspension or a $5,000 fine, to a 10-day suspension and a $7,500 fine. The minimum penalty for bars who allow minors on the premises increased from a 1-day licence suspension or $1,000 fine, to a 4-day licence suspension and a $5,000 fine. In terms of prevention, the BC Liquor Distribution Branch conducts monthly in-store responsible use campaigns 4 and operates the annual Dry Grad Program, which takes donations from customers and distributes them to high schools across the province to fund alcohol-free graduation events. In 2008, the Dry Grad Program distributed over $625,000 to 55 school districts across BC for this purpose. Finally, the Liquor Distribution Branch has been cooperating closely with researchers from CARBC on several projects, including sharing detailed sales data to help improve estimates of alcohol consumption in the province. Recent Efforts to Enhance Alcohol Policy in BC and Canada In March 2006, the BC Ministry of Health published Following the Evidence: Preventing Harms from Substance Use in BC. This document offers numerous recommendations for improving public health outcomes for alcohol and other drugs across five major strategic directions: (1) influence developmental pathways; (2) prevent, delay, and reduce use by teens; (3) reduce risky patterns of use; (4) create safer contexts; and (5) influence economic availability. Further, in 2007, a diverse expert working group, co-chaired by Health Canada, the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, and the 2 Data from the BC Alcohol and Other Drug Monitoring Project can be viewed online at tabid/240/default.aspx. 3 The 2008 compliance check involved audits of 831 liquor retailers in BC (Hoy & Carlson, 2008). The findings from the 2008 Liquor Control and Licensing Branch age verification compliance check project are shown in the report section entitled Current Status of Alcohol Policies in BC. The Branch has secure funding for ongoing age verification protocol compliance checks as part of its enforcement mandate. 4 An evaluation of the Liquor Distribution Branch s responsible alcohol use campaign revealed that 89 per cent of customers had some awareness of the initiative. The Branch s corporate goal was 90 per cent recognition, so this goal under its social responsibility mandate was recorded as not met in the 2007/2008 Annual Report (BC Liquor Distribution Branch, 2008). 2 PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER

11 INTRODUCTION Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission, developed the first-ever National Alcohol Strategy for Canada. The strategy offers 41 detailed recommendations across 4 action areas, which, if properly implemented, could further reduce the health and social harms associated with alcohol use in Canada (National Alcohol Strategy Working Group, 2007). The recommendations from the National Alcohol Strategy are listed in Appendix 1. With this context in mind, the next section presents information on levels and patterns of alcohol consumption in BC and Canada. PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER 3

12

13 LEVELS AND PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN BC AND CANADA Consumption Levels Alcohol use is very common in BC and Canada. In 2004, approximately 80 per cent of the population age 15 and older reported drinking at least once in the last year (Demers & Poulin, 2005). Based on official sales records, consumption in Canada has varied from an overall high of approximately 11.5 litres of absolute alcohol per capita (age 15 and older) in 1978/1979, to an overall low of 7.2 litres in 1996/1997. More recently, between 1996/1997 and 2006/2007, national consumption increased approximately 12.5 per cent, to 8.1 litres of absolute alcohol per person (Statistics Canada, 2008 and various years). Similarly, consumption in BC reached a global maximum in the early 1980s and decreased to an overall low of 7.5 litres per person (age 15 and older) in 1997/1998. Based on official Statistics Canada data, per capita consumption in BC increased 12 per cent to 8.4 litres of absolute alcohol per capita between 1998 and Researchers at CARBC recently generated more accurate estimates of per capita alcohol consumption in British Columbia. 5 These data suggest that consumption of alcohol increased from 8.26 litres of absolute alcohol in 2002, to 8.82 in Put another way, this is approximately 513 beers or glasses of wine or cocktails per person per year for everyone age 15 and older in BC. Figure 1 provides a comparison Figure 1 Comparison of Alcohol Consumption Estimates, BC and Canada, Litres per capita British Columbia (BC AOD Monitoring) British Columbia (StatCan) Canada (StatCan) Note: Statistics Canada estimates are based on sales data by fiscal years The BC AOD Monitoring Project figures are by calendar year , and are based on sales and U-brew/U-vin data obtained from the Liquor Control and Licensing Branch. Home brew, duty-free sales, and illegal sales are not included in the data. Statistics Canada alcohol sales data provide a conservative estimate of total alcohol consumption because they do not include consumption from all sources. Source: Statistics Canada and BC Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Monitoring Project. 5 The Alcohol and Other Drug Monitoring Project data include estimates for alcohol distributed through U-vin and U-brew facilities and more accurate estimates of alcohol content for wine and coolers sold in liquor stores. Data analyzed for showed that the typical alcoholic strength of wine and coolers sold from liquor stores in BC was higher than assumed by Statistics Canada (12.2 per cent versus 11.5 per cent for wine and 6.7 per cent versus 5 per cent for coolers). PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER 5

14 LEVELS AND PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN BC AND CANADA of Statistics Canada and CARBC estimates of per capita consumption in BC and Canada between 1996 and These data reveal that per capita alcohol consumption in BC was above the national average until 1998, was equivalent to national consumption from , and has remained above the Canadian average since Per capita consumption also varies substantially across the province. Figure 2 depicts per capita consumption of alcohol for the five regional health authorities in 2007, based on data from the AOD Monitoring Project. When aggregating consumption levels according to health regions, Interior Health Authority had the highest rate of alcohol consumption in 2007 at litres per capita, followed by Vancouver Island (10.71), Northern (9.73), Vancouver Coastal (8.61), and Fraser (7.03) Health Authorities. However, if Vancouver Coastal Health Authority is divided into two areas, Central Coast will stand out as having the highest consumption level in the province at litres per capita in Figure 2 Per Capita Alcohol Consumption, Regional Health Authorities and BC, 2007 Source: Based on data published by the BC Alcohol and Other Drug Monitoring Project: (http://carbc.ca/default. aspx?tabid=402). Litres per capita Figure Interior Health Vancouver Coastal Health Northern Health Trends in alcohol use also show variation across BC, as depicted in Figure 3. Linear regression analyses conducted for this report showed that per capita alcohol consumption increased significantly in four out of the five regional health authorities and in the province as a whole between 2002 and In terms of percentage increases, Vancouver Island Health Authority had the largest increase at 15.2 per cent (p < 0.002), followed by Interior Health Authority at 8.6 per cent (p < 0.002). The increase in Interior Health Authority is especially noteworthy, given the relatively high rate of consumption in this region. 6 Northern Health and Fraser Health Authorities recorded the smallest overall increases in consumption at 1.8 per cent and 4.3 per cent (p < 0.01) respectively. Vancouver Coastal Health Authority recorded a moderate increase of 5.6 per cent (p < 0.002) while the overall provincial average was 8.0 per cent (p < 0.001). Consumption Patterns Trends in Per Capita Alcohol Consumption, Health Authorities and BC, 2002 to Fraser Health Vancouver Island Health BC Source: Based on data published by the BC Alcohol and Other Drug Monitoring Project (http://carbc. ca/default.aspx?tabid=402). The overall level of consumption in a population is a powerful predictor of rates of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. At any given overall level of drinking, however, the more heavy drinking occasions an individual engages in adds substantially to his/her risk of both acute and chronic harms (Rehm et al., 2006). The majority of people who consume alcohol do 6 A portion of the elevated per capita consumption in the Interior Health Authority is likely explained by the concentration of wineries that sell alcohol to tourists visiting the area. However, there are indications that some alcohol-related problems are relatively high in this region. In further analyses, it will be important to sort out tourist wine consumption from resident consumption in the development of public policies for this region. 6 PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER

15 LEVELS AND PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN BC AND CANADA not experience problems, but a sizeable minority regularly consume in ways that increase the risk of health and social harms to themselves and others. For example, excessive alcohol consumption is the leading contributing cause of death among British Columbians 25 years of age and under, due to fatal road crashes, suicides, homicides, and poisoning deaths (Ministry of Health, 2006). Furthermore, in relation to some alcohol-related conditions such as some cancers and liver disease, there is no known safe level of consumption, with risks increasing from as little as one drink per day. Frequency and Quantity Table 1 shows the frequency and usual quantity of alcohol consumed in the past year, as reported by drinkers in BC and Canada in Table 1: Frequency and Usual Quantity of Alcohol Consumed, BC and Canada, 2004 Frequency BC Canada Less than once a month 23.3% 22.7% 1-3 times a month 32.5% 33.3% 1-3 times a week 34.1% 34.1% 4+ times a week 10.3% 9.9% Usual Quantity BC Canada 1-2 drinks 65.3% 63.7% 3-4 drinks 17.8% 20.2% 5+ drinks 16.8% 16.0% Source: Demers & Poulin, Cumulative Percentage of Drinking by Annual Volume of Intake Cumulative Percentage of Drinking Figure 4 by Annual Volume of Intake, Canada, Cumulative Percentage of Current Drinkers Source: Stockwell, Zhao & Thomas, in press. In 2004, among those who drank alcohol in the past year, BC had the third highest rate of at least weekly consumption at 44.4 per cent, which was just behind Ontario at 45.5 per cent and substantially lower than Quebec at 48.0 per cent (Demers & Poulin, 2005). Concentration of Drinking in Canada From a public health perspective, it is useful to consider the dispersion of drinking across the population. Analysis using usual quantity and frequency of drinking data from the Canadian Addiction Survey (2004) suggests that a small proportion of drinkers in society account for a majority of alcohol consumed, as shown in Figure 4. This chart reveals that the top 10 per cent heaviest drinkers in Canada accounted for 53.3 per cent of total alcohol consumption in 2004, while the top 20 per cent accounted for over 70 per cent of the total. This means that the remaining 80 per cent of the drinking population accounted for 28 per cent of overall alcohol consumption, as measured by selfreporting. 7 7 The self-reported data likely underestimate the true concentration of drinking in Canada. Further analysis of the data from the Canadian Addiction Survey revealed that self-reported drinking only accounted for about 40 per cent of the alcohol sold in Canada as measured by official Statistics Canada sales data (Stockwell, Sturge & Macdonald, 2005). This, coupled with the fact that heavier drinkers tend to under-report their consumption more than lighter drinkers (Greenfield, Kerr, Bond & Stockwell, 2007), suggests that the actual concentration of drinking in society is likely even more skewed than suggested in Figure 4. PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER 7

16 LEVELS AND PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN BC AND CANADA Exceeding Low-Risk Drinking Guidelines Data from the 2004 Canadian Addiction Survey suggest that a substantial proportion of alcohol in BC is consumed in levels that exceed drinking guidelines set to reduce the risk of health and social harms (Stockwell, Sturge & Macdonald, 2005). 8 Related findings include: Per cent Figure Percentage of Current Risky Drinkers Reporting Monthly Drinking, BC and Canada, 2001, 2003, and 2005 Males Canada Males BC Note: Risky drinking is defined as five or more standard drinks per occasion. Females Canada Females BC Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycles 1.1, 2.1, and 3.1. Over 90 per cent of alcohol consumption reported by males age was in excess of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Low-Risk Drinking Guidelines, and 85 per cent of alcohol consumed by females age exceeded the guidelines. Just under 30 per cent of males and 14 per cent of females reported regularly drinking in ways that increased the risk of short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) alcohol-related harms. Approximately 40 per cent of British Columbians at least occasionally drink in ways that put themselves and others at risk of short-term harms due to intoxication (i.e., males consuming five or more standard drinks on a single occasion, females consuming four or more). Risky Drinking In Canada and elsewhere, drinking five or more drinks on a single occasion is often used as a measure of risky drinking, since this pattern of use is associated with increased risk of health and social harms. Figure 5 depicts self-reported rates of monthly risky drinking for males and females in BC and Canada for 2001, 2003, and 2005, based on findings from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Figures 6 and 7 Percentage of Current Male and Female Drinkers Reporting Monthly Risky Drinking, BC, 2001, 2003, and 2005 Males Females Per cent Per cent Note: Risky drinking is defined as five or more standard drinks per occasion. Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycles 1.1, 2.1, and The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Ontario recommends no more than 2 standard drinks a day, with a weekly limit of 14 drinks for men and 9 for women. A standard drink is one 12 oz beer at 5 per cent alcohol, one 5 oz glass of wine at 12 per cent alcohol, or one 1.5 oz shot of spirits at 40 per cent alcohol. 8 PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER

17 LEVELS AND PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN BC AND CANADA For both males and females, self-reported rates of monthly risky drinking declined in BC between 2001 and 2003, but increased between 2003 and This contrasts to the situation in Canada, where monthly risky drinking increased more gradually for females between 2001 and 2005, and decreased slightly for males in the same time period. Changes in risky drinking practices in BC were not uniform across all age groups, however, as shown in Figures 6 and 7. These data indicate that males and females of all age groups in BC, except males age 45 54, reported an increase in risky drinking between 2003 and In terms of overall increases between 2001 and 2005, males age and and females age showed the largest increases over this time period. Hazardous Drinking and Alcohol Dependence in BC The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a valid and reliable screen for hazardous drinking, was applied as part of the 2004 Canadian Addiction Survey. Data from the survey revealed that 17 per cent of current drinkers age 15 and older in BC reported engaging in hazardous drinking during the previous year. This was identical to the average for the rest of Canada (Kellner, 2005). In 2002, the Canadian Community Health Survey used several standard questions to estimate the rate of alcohol dependency across Canada. These data suggest that in 2002, BC had the second highest prevalence of alcohol dependence in Canada at 3.6 per cent (representing an estimated 122,400 people). This percentage was statistically significantly higher than the Canadian average of 2.6 per cent, and was second only to Saskatchewan (4.1 per cent) among Canadian provinces (Tjepkema, 2004). Patterns of Alcohol Use Among University and College Students in BC and Canada In 2004, a major national survey was undertaken to assess patterns of alcohol and drug use among undergraduate university and college students in Canada (Adlaf, Demers & Gliksman, 2005). Results from this research for BC and Canada are compared in Table 2. These data suggest that while heavy and hazardous alcohol use is less common among undergraduate students in BC compared to undergraduates across Canada, about 27 per cent of undergraduate students in BC are considered hazardous drinkers, 39 per cent report being harmed by drinking, and approximately 30 per cent report at least one symptom of dependent drinking. Not surprisingly, the prevalence of heavy and hazardous alcohol use among undergraduates in BC (and even more so for Canada) is much higher than that for the general population age 15 and older, as found in the Canadian Addiction Survey. These data on undergraduate alcohol use in BC were largely confirmed in a smaller study of undergraduate students at Simon Fraser University and the University College of the Fraser Valley undertaken by the BC Centre for Social Responsibility (McCormick, Cohen, Clement, & Rice, 2007). The report from this study made the following recommendations: (1) students should be better educated as to what binge drinking actually is; (2) there is a need to recognize that binge drinking behaviours begin, on average, in high school; therefore, education regarding problematic alcohol use should begin at a fairly early age; and (3) campuses in BC need to be more proactive in Table 2: Patterns of Alcohol Use, Undergraduate Students (BC and Canada) and Canada (Age 15+), 2004 BC Undergraduates Canada Undergraduates Canada Age 15+ Heavy Frequent Alcohol Use (5 or more drinks on a single occasion at least weekly) 11.7% 16.1% 6.2% Hazardous Drinking (AUDIT 8+) 26.7% 32.0% 17.0% Harmful Drinking (reporting at least one harm from the AUDIT) 39.0% 43.9% n/a Dependent Drinking (reporting at least one dependent drinking symptom from the AUDIT) 29.6% 31.6% n/a Note: Scores of 8 or more on the AUDIT screening instrument were used to identify hazardous drinkers. Percentages for Canadians age 15 and older were taken from the 2004 Canadian Addiction Survey. Sources: Adlaf, Demers & Gliksman, 2005; Adlaf, Begin & Sawka, PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER 9

18 LEVELS AND PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN BC AND CANADA dealing with this issue. For example, by introducing safe ride home programs, implementing alcohol-free residences, and providing education on alcohol directly to new students as part of their orientation programs. Alcohol Use Among Underage Youth in BC Underage alcohol use is common in BC, with 79 per cent of in-school youth reporting using alcohol at least once by age 17. More troubling, risky alcohol use is also common among in-school youth; in 2003, 20 per cent of in-school drinkers (approximately 16 per cent of the overall youth population) reported binge drinking 9 three or more days in the last month (McCreary Centre Society, n.d.). In terms of trends, self-reported monthly risky drinking among underage youth increased between 1992 and 1998, and then decreased marginally from 27.1 per cent to 25.7 per cent between 1998 and 2003, as shown in Figure 8. Table 3 shows the regional variation in alcohol use among inschool youth in BC. The prevalence of self-reported monthly binge drinking among in-school youth is highest in the Kootenays (38 per cent) and lowest in the Greater Vancouver area (19 per cent). Lifetime alcohol use is also highest in the Kootenays and the North and lowest in the Greater Vancouver area. Table 3: Alcohol Use by In-School Youth, BC Regions, 2003 Ever Had a Drink of Alcohol Binge Drank in the Past Month Kootenays 71% 38% Northwest 69% 35% Northeast 67% 34% Upper Island 66% 32% Interior 65% 31% Greater Victoria 63% 29% Greater Vancouver 49% 19% Note: The low rate of alcohol consumption in Greater Vancouver likely reflects the presence of a significant number of people from traditionally non-drinking cultures. Source: McCreary Centre Society, (n.d.). Other data collected by the McCreary Centre Society reveal that alcohol use among in-school youth varies somewhat by age and gender. Specifically, in 2003, 37 per cent of students age 14 and younger, 67 per cent of those years old, and 79 per cent of students age 17 and older reported using alcohol in their lifetime. In terms of gender differences, the prevalence of self-reported lifetime drinking was not substantially different between boys and girls in 2003; however, boys were slightly more likely to report engaging in risky drinking than girls (21 per cent versus 18 per cent). Per cent Figure Trends in Self-Reported Monthly Binge Drinking, In-School Youth, BC, 1992, 1998, and Binge drank in past month Trend 25.7 Sources of Alcohol in BC Data from the BC Liquor Distribution Branch allow for the identification of the major sources of alcohol sold through official sources. Figure 9 depicts the percentage of total alcohol sales by major sources in A substantial majority (about 73 per cent) of alcohol consumed in BC originates from liquor stores, with public stores currently slightly ahead of licensed private retail stores in terms of sales. Bars and restaurants are the next highest source, accounting for approximately 19 per cent of sales. Together, liquor stores and bars/restaurants account for over 90 per cent of recorded alcohol consumption in BC. Note: The McCreary Centre Society collected new data on alcohol and other drug use among inschool youth via the Adolescent Health Survey (AHS-IV) in 2008; however, data are not yet available from this new wave of research. Source: McCreary Centre Society, (n.d.), with further analysis. 9 Binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks within a few hours in the McCreary Centre Society s Adolescent Health Survey. 10 PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER

19 LEVELS AND PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN BC AND CANADA Figure 9 Percentage of Alcohol Sold by Source, BC, % 4% 7% 12% 39% Government Stores Private Stores Bars and Clubs Restaurants Homemade (Raw Grapes) U-brew/U-vin 33% Note: Data does not include homemade beer and wine from kits (estimated to be about 5 per cent of total consumption); alcohol purchases at duty-free border outlets; and illegal alcohol (estimated to be about 2 per cent of total consumption). See Macdonald et al. (1999) for methodologies used to develop these estimates. Source: Macdonald, Zhao, Pakula, & Stockwell, n.d. Summary Canada as a whole appears to be moving into a wetter phase of alcohol use after a drier period in the mid- to late-1990s. Alcohol consumption in BC has followed an increasing trend since 1998, with per capita consumption levels higher than the national average since Per capita consumption is highest in the Interior and Vancouver Island Health Authorities and lowest in the Vancouver Coastal Health Authority. Consumption levels in the Interior Health Authority stand out due to a relatively higher rate of growth in consumption since BC is slightly above the national average in terms of quantity and frequency of alcohol use. Nearly half (44 per cent) of the population age 15 and older in BC reported drinking at least weekly, which was the third highest percentage among the provinces in A substantial proportion of alcohol consumed in BC is drunk in patterns that exceed guidelines set to reduce health and social harms. This is particularly true for younger drinkers, where upwards of per cent of alcohol consumed is done in ways that exceed low-risk guidelines. Close to 30 per cent of males and 14 per cent of females report regularly drinking above low-risk guidelines. Rates of self-reported risky drinking in BC declined for both men and women between 2001 and 2003, and then increased in Rates of self-reported risky drinking increased between 2003 and 2005 for all age groups in BC except men age Increases were especially large for men age and 65 74, and women age A substantial minority of drinkers in BC (17 per cent) reported engaging in hazardous drinking in 2004, as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER 11

20 LEVELS AND PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN BC AND CANADA BC s estimated rate of alcohol dependence (3.6 per cent) is above the national average (2.6 per cent) and is second only to Saskatchewan among Canadian provinces. About 27 per cent of post-secondary students in BC are considered hazardous drinkers, 39 per cent report experiencing at least one harm from drinking, and approximately 30 per cent report experiencing at least one symptom of dependent drinking. Risky alcohol use is fairly common among in-school youth, with 20 per cent of youth who drink reporting binge drinking at least 3 days in the last month. Youth risky drinking is highest in the Kootenays and the North, and lowest in the Greater Vancouver area, although the presence of families from traditionally non-drinking cultures likely partially explains the lower levels of youth drinking in Vancouver. Together, public and licensed private retail stores and bars/restaurants account for over 90 per cent of recorded alcohol consumption in BC. A proportion (roughly 11 per cent) of alcohol consumed in BC comes from sources that are not accounted for in official Statistics Canada estimates of consumption. 12 PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER

21 ALCOHOL-RELATED HEALTH AND SOCIAL HARMS IN BC AND CANADA Alcohol-related health and social harms derive largely from three properties or effects of consumption: toxicity, intoxication, and dependence. Several studies suggest that slightly more alcohol-related health and social costs are associated with acute effects (e.g., toxicity and intoxication) than are associated with chronic, heavy use (e.g., dependence) (Single, Robson, Rehm, & Xie, 1999). The negative acute health effects of excessive alcohol use include alcohol poisoning (overdose), acute pancreatitis, acute cardiac arrhythmia, and unintentional and intentional injuries. Long-term excessive (chronic) use of alcohol is directly linked to cirrhosis of the liver and an increased risk of some types of cancers. Chronic alcohol use is also associated with an increased risk of hypertension, wasting of the limb and heart muscles, and brain damage of various kinds (Babor et al., 2003). The social harms associated with the acute effects of excessive alcohol use 10 include violence, sexual assault, crime, alcohol-involved traffic casualties, and other intentional and unintentional injuries. As well, excessive alcohol use can have serious negative effects on work, study, and relationships, especially within the family. While these types of social costs are likely substantial across the entire population, they are very difficult to measure in any systematic way and so are often left out when developing estimates of alcohol-related costs. The range of intergenerational effects caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy include physical, mental, behavioural, and/or learning disabilities with possible lifelong implications. Alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which is the leading cause of preventable mental disability in Canada (Health Canada, 2002). Estimates are that for every 1,000 babies born, up to 3 will have the full features of FASD, while an additional 5 or 6 will have significant long-term disabilities (PHO, 2002). For British Columbia, this means that between 200 and 320 infants may be born affected by alcohol each year. 11 First Nations communities appear to be particularly affected. Other problems associated with alcohol use during pregnancy are low birth weight, death within the first month of life, and alcohol withdrawal in the newborn. A substantial portion of the costs of special needs education, youth justice, adult incarceration, homelessness, and addiction can be attributed to FASD (PHO, 2002). Alcohol dependence syndrome is a condition recognized under standard international disease classification systems that affected an estimated 2.6 per cent of the population (approximately 820,000 Canadians) in 2003 (Tjepkema, 2004). In the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey, 3.6 per cent of the BC population (122,400 people) were estimated to be alcohol dependent. There is a strong correlation between heavy alcohol use and mental health conditions, such as major depression and anxiety disorders. Research about to be published in Canada conservatively estimates that in 2002, 1.3 per cent of the general Canadian population age 15 and older (or approximately 336,761 people) reported experiencing 10 Although research has shown that moderate alcohol use is associated with protective effects on cardiovascular health for some segments of the population, moderate alcohol use has also been associated with negative health effects. For example, recently published research from a very large cohort study in the United States suggests that moderate alcohol use is associated with lower brain volumes (Paul et al., 2008). 11 At present, there is little data available to generate reliable estimates of the prevalence of FASD in BC. The Health Status Registry and reporting sources are working together to improve provincial information on this condition. PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER 13

22 ALCOHOL-RELATED HEALTH AND SOCIAL HARMS IN BC AND CANADA co-occurring major alcohol use and mental health disorders in the previous year (Rush et al., forthcoming). Further, it was determined that the prevalence of major mental health issues like depression are positively and significantly correlated with levels of heavy drinking, as shown in Figure 10. Alcohol-Caused and Alcohol-Related Mortality Since 2002, the BC Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Monitoring Project has been tracking the annual rates of tobacco, alcohol, and other drug-caused deaths for the province using data provided by the BC Ministry of Health Services. The AOD Monitoring Project uses a conservative approach that estimates the number of deaths caused by alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drug use based only on the most responsible cause of death recorded using the attributable fraction method (Buxton, Tu, & Stockwell, in press). The BC Vital Statistics Agency also produces its own estimates of alcohol-, tobacco-, and illicit drug-related deaths. The approach by the Vital Statistics Agency is less conservative than the AOD Monitoring Project approach, because any single mention of alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drug use in relation to any one of the many possible contributing causes to a particular death (as opposed to just the most responsible diagnosis) is counted; therefore, much higher numbers are generated by the Vital Statistics Agency. Using the most recent 2006 mortality data, the BC AOD Monitoring Project estimates that alcohol caused more than twice as many deaths as all major illicit drugs combined, but only one-fifth of the deaths caused by tobacco. Specifically, in 2006, there were 4,610 deaths attributed to tobacco, 905 deaths attributed to alcohol, and 378 deaths attributed to illicit drugs (Figure 11). In terms of trends, tobacco mortality rates have declined since 2001, while alcohol and illicit drug mortality rates have remained relatively stable. However, deaths attributable to alcohol more frequently involve younger people than do those from tobacco; hence, epidemiological measures such as potential years of life lost (PYLLs) as well as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) indicate similar burdens of illness between tobacco and alcohol. Globally, it has been estimated that alcohol and tobacco contribute 4.0 per cent and 4.1 per cent of the total burden of disease measured in terms of DALYs Per cent Number of Deaths Figure No Heavy Drinking in Past Year Prevalence of Major Depression by Frequency of Heavy Drinking, General Household Population Age 15+, Canada, 2002 Heavy Drinking Less Than 12 Times Per Year Males Monthly Heavy Drinking Females Alcohol Dependence Note: Even when accounting for other confounding factors,the increases in prevalence of major depression depicted are statistically significant for men with alcohol dependence, and for all categories of women drinkers except those who had not engaged in heavy drinking in the past year. Source: Tjepkema, Figure Tobacco-Caused Deaths Comparison of Tobacco, Alcohol and Illicit Drug-Caused Deaths, BC, Alcohol-Caused Deaths 378 Illicit Drug-Caused Deaths Note: There were also 454 deaths estimated to have been prevented by moderate alcohol use in BC in However, such estimates have become controversial in recent years (see the report section entitled Benefits and Costs of Alcohol in BC and Canada). Source: Based on data published by the BC Alcohol and Other Drug Monitoring Project: (http:// carbc.ca/default.aspx?tabid=402). 14 PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO ALCOHOL POLICY: AN UPDATED REPORT FROM THE PROVINCIAL HEALTH OFFICER

Key trends nationally and locally in relation to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm

Key trends nationally and locally in relation to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm Key trends nationally and locally in relation to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm November 2013 1 Executive Summary... 3 National trends in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm... 5

More information

Levels and Patterns of Alcohol Use in Canada

Levels and Patterns of Alcohol Use in Canada Levels and Patterns of Alcohol Use in Canada Alcohol Price Policy Series, Report 1 of 3 November 2012 Gerald Thomas Senior Research and Policy Analyst Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse WWW.CCSA.CA WWW.CCLAT.CA

More information

Alcohol Units. A brief guide

Alcohol Units. A brief guide Alcohol Units A brief guide 1 2 Alcohol Units A brief guide Units of alcohol explained As typical glass sizes have grown and popular drinks have increased in strength over the years, the old rule of thumb

More information

Alcohol Indicators Report 2011

Alcohol Indicators Report 2011 Alcohol Indicators Report 2011 Alcohol Indicators Report 2011 Health Promotion and Protection Peer Reviewers Norman Giesbrecht, PhD Senior Scientist, Public Health and Regulatory Policy Section Social,

More information

Alcohol Awareness: An Orientation. Serving Durham, Wake, Cumberland and Johnston Counties

Alcohol Awareness: An Orientation. Serving Durham, Wake, Cumberland and Johnston Counties Alcohol Awareness: An Orientation Alcohol Facts The most commonly used addictive substance in the United States o 17.6 million people (1 in 12 adults) suffer from alcohol abuse or dependence o Millions

More information

Alcohol Indicators Report

Alcohol Indicators Report Alcohol Indicators Report A framework of alcohol indicators describing the consumption of use, patterns of use, and alcohol-related harms in Nova Scotia NOVEMBER 2005 Nova Scotia Health Promotion Addiction

More information

TAJIKISTAN. Recorded adult (15+) alcohol consumption by type of alcoholic beverage (in % of pure alcohol), 2005

TAJIKISTAN. Recorded adult (15+) alcohol consumption by type of alcoholic beverage (in % of pure alcohol), 2005 TAJIKISTAN SOCIOECONOMIC CONTEXT Total population 6,640,000 Annual population growth rate 1.3% Population 15+ years 61% Adult literacy rate 99.5% Population in urban areas 25% Income group (World bank)

More information

AZERBAIJAN. Lower-middle Income Data source: United Nations, data range 1999-2006

AZERBAIJAN. Lower-middle Income Data source: United Nations, data range 1999-2006 AZERBAIJAN SOCIOECONOMIC CONTEXT Total population 8,406,000 Annual population growth rate 0.6% Population 15+ years 76% Adult literacy rate 98.8% Population in urban areas 52% Income group (World bank)

More information

JAMAICA. Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) Last year abstainers

JAMAICA. Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) Last year abstainers JAMAICA Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) 6 5 Litres of pure alcohol 4 3 2 Beer Spirits Wine 1 1961 1965 1969 1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 21 Sources: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization

More information

NETHERLANDS (THE) Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) Last year abstainers

NETHERLANDS (THE) Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) Last year abstainers NETHERLANDS (THE) Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) 14 12 Litres of pure alcohol 1 8 6 4 Beer Spirits Wine 2 1961 1965 1969 1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 21 Year Sources: FAO (Food and

More information

Source: Minnesota Student Survey, Key Trends Through 2007, Minnesota Departments of Corrections, Education, Health, Human Services and Public Safety.

Source: Minnesota Student Survey, Key Trends Through 2007, Minnesota Departments of Corrections, Education, Health, Human Services and Public Safety. Underage Drinking in Minnesota The Consequences of Drinking Outweigh the Experience. What s the Big Deal? Underage alcohol use is a big deal and directly related to criminal behavior and serious social

More information

Alcohol Facts and Statistics

Alcohol Facts and Statistics Alcohol Facts and Statistics Alcohol Use in the United States: Prevalence of Drinking: In 2012, 87.6 percent of people ages 18 or older reported that they drank alcohol at some point in their lifetime;

More information

Public Health Association of Australia: Policy-at-a-glance Alcohol Policy

Public Health Association of Australia: Policy-at-a-glance Alcohol Policy Key message: Public Health Association of Australia: Policy-at-a-glance Alcohol Policy 1. Alcohol is responsible for a substantial burden of death, disease and injury in Australia. Alcohol-related harm

More information

Facts About Alcohol. Addiction Prevention & Treatment Services

Facts About Alcohol. Addiction Prevention & Treatment Services Facts About Alcohol Addiction Prevention & Treatment Services Table of Contents Facts about alcohol: What is harmful involvement with alcohol?... 2 What is alcohol dependence?... 3 What Is BAC?... 4 What

More information

Evidence-based Prevention of Alcohol-related Problems for College Students. Toben F. Nelson, ScD

Evidence-based Prevention of Alcohol-related Problems for College Students. Toben F. Nelson, ScD Evidence-based Prevention of Alcohol-related Problems for College Students Toben F. Nelson, ScD www.epi.umn.edu/alcohol Recommendations for Reducing College Student Drinking Individual interventions for

More information

If you re with child, be without alcohol. No amount of alcohol is safe to drink during pregnancy.

If you re with child, be without alcohol. No amount of alcohol is safe to drink during pregnancy. Alcohol & Pregnancy If you re with child, be without alcohol. No amount of alcohol is safe to drink during pregnancy. www.withchildwithoutalcohol.com 3 Introduction Many things we hear about pregnancy

More information

SMOKING TOBACCO: SMOKING

SMOKING TOBACCO: SMOKING TOBACCO: SMOKING One in 4 adults in Guam is a smoker. Among youth, 1 in 5 smokes. Guam s smoking rate is higher than most US States and Territories; this has remained unchanged since 2001. T O B A C C

More information

Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral: A Clinical Tool

Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral: A Clinical Tool Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral: A Clinical Tool Dr. Ryan Sommers Family Physician Medical Officer of Health, NSHA Dalhousie Family Medicine Refresher Nov 27 th 2015 Disclosures None

More information

The Health and Well-being of the Aboriginal Population in British Columbia

The Health and Well-being of the Aboriginal Population in British Columbia The Health and Well-being of the Aboriginal Population in British Columbia Interim Update February 27 Table of Contents Terminology...1 Health Status of Aboriginal People in BC... 2 Challenges in Vital

More information

Prevention Status Report 2013

Prevention Status Report 2013 The Prevention Status Reports (PSRs) highlight for all 50 states and the District of Columbia the status of public health policies and practices designed to prevent or reduce important health problems.

More information

UK Chief Medical Officers Alcohol Guidelines Review Summary of the proposed new guidelines

UK Chief Medical Officers Alcohol Guidelines Review Summary of the proposed new guidelines UK Chief Medical Officers Alcohol Guidelines Review Summary of the proposed new guidelines January 2016 2 UK Chief Medical Officers Alcohol Guidelines Review Summary of the proposed new guidelines 1. This

More information

How to keep health risks from drinking alcohol to a low level: public consultation on proposed new guidelines

How to keep health risks from drinking alcohol to a low level: public consultation on proposed new guidelines How to keep health risks from drinking alcohol to a low level: public consultation on proposed new guidelines January 2016 2 How to keep health risks from drinking alcohol to a low level: public consultation

More information

http://nurse practitioners and physician assistants.advanceweb.com/features/articles/alcohol Abuse.aspx

http://nurse practitioners and physician assistants.advanceweb.com/features/articles/alcohol Abuse.aspx http://nurse practitioners and physician assistants.advanceweb.com/features/articles/alcohol Abuse.aspx Alcohol Abuse By Neva K.Gulsby, PA-C, and Bonnie A. Dadig, EdD, PA-C Posted on: April 18, 2013 Excessive

More information

Control and sale of alcoholic beverages, for the year ending March 31, 2012 Released at 8:30 a.m. Eastern time in The Daily, Thursday, April 11, 2013

Control and sale of alcoholic beverages, for the year ending March 31, 2012 Released at 8:30 a.m. Eastern time in The Daily, Thursday, April 11, 2013 Control and sale of alcoholic beverages, for the year ending March 31, 2012 Released at 8:30 a.m. Eastern time in The Daily, Thursday, April 11, 2013 Beer and liquor stores and agencies sold $20.9 billion

More information

9. Substance Abuse. pg 166-169: Self-reported alcohol consumption. pg 170-171: Childhood experience of living with someone who used drugs

9. Substance Abuse. pg 166-169: Self-reported alcohol consumption. pg 170-171: Childhood experience of living with someone who used drugs 9. pg 166-169: Self-reported alcohol consumption pg 170-171: Childhood experience of living with someone who used drugs pg 172-173: Hospitalizations related to alcohol and substance abuse pg 174-179: Accidental

More information

Alcohol Addiction. Introduction. Overview and Facts. Symptoms

Alcohol Addiction. Introduction. Overview and Facts. Symptoms Alcohol Addiction Alcohol Addiction Introduction Alcohol is a drug. It is classed as a depressant, meaning that it slows down vital functions -resulting in slurred speech, unsteady movement, disturbed

More information

Drug & Alcohol Response Teams (DARTs) 1

Drug & Alcohol Response Teams (DARTs) 1 Drug & Alcohol Response Teams (DARTs) Empowering the community to respond to local drug and alcohol issues Outline Brief Overview Drug and Alcohol Response Teams (DARTs) are a multifaceted, place-based

More information

Colorado Substance Use and Recommendations Regarding Marijuana Tax Revenue

Colorado Substance Use and Recommendations Regarding Marijuana Tax Revenue Colorado Substance Use and Recommendations Regarding Marijuana Tax Revenue Substance addiction and abuse is Colorado s most prevalent, complex, costly and untreated public health challenge. It is an issue

More information

Reducing Alcohol-Related Harm

Reducing Alcohol-Related Harm Reducing Alcohol-Related Harm in Canada: Toward a Culture of Moderation Recommendations for a National Alcohol Strategy April 2007 Toward a Culture of Moderation ii Reducing Alcohol-Related Harm in Canada:

More information

Underage Drinking. Underage Drinking Statistics

Underage Drinking. Underage Drinking Statistics Underage Drinking Underage drinking is a serious public health problem in the United States. Alcohol is the most widely used substance of abuse among America s youth, and drinking by young people poses

More information

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS W O R KING TO BUILD A HE A LTHY AUSTRALIA FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS www.nhmrc.gov.au National Health and Medical Research Council AUSTRALIAN GUIDELINES TO REDUCE HEALTH RISKS FROM DRINKING ALCOHOL Australian

More information

Control and sale of alcoholic beverages, for the year ending March 31, 2013 Released at 8:30 a.m. Eastern time in The Daily, Thursday, April 10, 2014

Control and sale of alcoholic beverages, for the year ending March 31, 2013 Released at 8:30 a.m. Eastern time in The Daily, Thursday, April 10, 2014 Control and sale of alcoholic beverages, for the year ending March 31, 2013 Released at 8:30 a.m. Eastern time in The Daily, Thursday, April 10, 2014 Beer and liquor stores and agencies sold $21.4 billion

More information

AMA Submission to the Inquiry into Ready-to-Drink Alcohol Beverages

AMA Submission to the Inquiry into Ready-to-Drink Alcohol Beverages The Secretary Senate Community Affairs Committee PO Box 6100 Parliament House Canberra ACT 2600 Dear Mr Humphrey Re: AMA Submission to the Inquiry into Ready-to-Drink Alcohol Beverages Please find attached

More information

ALCOHOLISM, ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE AND THE EFFECTS ON YOUR HEALTH.

ALCOHOLISM, ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE AND THE EFFECTS ON YOUR HEALTH. ALCOHOLISM, ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE AND THE EFFECTS ON YOUR HEALTH. Alcoholism also known as alcohol dependence is a disabling ADDICTIVE DISORDER. It is characterized by compulsive and uncontrolled consumption

More information

The Economic Benefits of Risk Factor Reduction in Canada

The Economic Benefits of Risk Factor Reduction in Canada The Economic Benefits of Risk Factor Reduction in Canada Tobacco Smoking, Excess Weight, Physical Inactivity and Alcohol Use Public Health 2015 May 26, 2015 Risk Factors in High-Income North America Ranked

More information

Alcohol and drugs prevention, treatment and recovery: why invest?

Alcohol and drugs prevention, treatment and recovery: why invest? Alcohol and drugs prevention, treatment and recovery: why invest? 1 Alcohol problems are widespread 9 million adults drink at levels that increase the risk of harm to their health 1.6 million adults show

More information

Northern Ontario School of Medicine Government Affairs and Advocacy Committee Position Paper on Managed Alcohol Programs.

Northern Ontario School of Medicine Government Affairs and Advocacy Committee Position Paper on Managed Alcohol Programs. Northern Ontario School of Medicine Government Affairs and Advocacy Committee Position Paper on Managed Alcohol Programs March 2015 Background What is Harm Reduction? Currently there is no universally

More information

Optimal levels of alcohol consumption for men and women at different ages, and the all-cause mortality attributable to drinking

Optimal levels of alcohol consumption for men and women at different ages, and the all-cause mortality attributable to drinking Optimal levels of alcohol consumption for men and women at different ages, and the all-cause mortality attributable to drinking Ian R. White, Dan R. Altmann and Kiran Nanchahal 1 1. Summary Background

More information

ACCORDING TO THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, THE U.S.-BASED CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL

ACCORDING TO THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, THE U.S.-BASED CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL ACCORDING TO THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, THE U.S.-BASED CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION, AND THE CANCER QUALITY COUNCIL OF ONTARIO, ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN EXCESS OF LOW-RISK GUIDELINES IS

More information

Young people and alcohol Factsheet

Young people and alcohol Factsheet IAS Factsheet Young people and alcohol Updated May 2013 Young people and alcohol Factsheet Institute of Alcohol Studies Alliance House 12 Caxton Street London SW1H 0QS Tel: 020 7222 4001 Email: info@ias.org.uk

More information

ARTICLE #1 PLEASE RETURN AT THE END OF THE HOUR

ARTICLE #1 PLEASE RETURN AT THE END OF THE HOUR ARTICLE #1 PLEASE RETURN AT THE END OF THE HOUR Alcoholism By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/alcoholism/ds00340 Definition Alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive

More information

The Effects of Price on Alcohol Use, Abuse and Consequences

The Effects of Price on Alcohol Use, Abuse and Consequences The Effects of Price on Alcohol Use, Abuse and Consequences Frank J. Chaloupka Director, ImpacTeen, University of Illinois at Chicago www.uic.edu/~fjc www.impacteen.org Prepared for the National Academy

More information

Alcohol Quick Facts. New Zealand s drinking patterns. Health impacts. Crime and violence. Drink driving. Social costs

Alcohol Quick Facts. New Zealand s drinking patterns. Health impacts. Crime and violence. Drink driving. Social costs Alcohol Quick Facts New Zealand s drinking patterns 85% of New Zealanders aged 1664 had an alcoholic drink in the past year (Ministry of Health 2009). Three in five (61.6%) past-year drinkers consumed

More information

Social Reference Prices for Alcohol: A Tool for Canadian Governments to Promote a Culture of Moderation

Social Reference Prices for Alcohol: A Tool for Canadian Governments to Promote a Culture of Moderation Social Reference Prices for Alcohol: A Tool for Canadian Governments to Promote a Culture of Moderation July 2015 National Alcohol Strategy Advisory Committee Working Group Tim Stockwell Director, Centre

More information

Alcohol Facts and Statistics

Alcohol Facts and Statistics Alcohol Facts and Statistics Alcohol Use in the United States:» Prevalence of Drinking: In 2014, 87.6 percent of people ages 18 or older reported that they drank alcohol at some point in their lifetime;

More information

October 31, 2014. The effect of price on youth alcohol. consumption in Canada. Stephenson Strobel & Evelyn Forget. Introduction. Data and Methodology

October 31, 2014. The effect of price on youth alcohol. consumption in Canada. Stephenson Strobel & Evelyn Forget. Introduction. Data and Methodology October 31, 2014 Why should we care? Deaths 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Year Accidents (unintentional injuries) Intentional self-harm (suicide) Other causes of death Assault

More information

Screening Patients for Substance Use in Your Practice Setting

Screening Patients for Substance Use in Your Practice Setting Screening Patients for Substance Use in Your Practice Setting Learning Objectives By the end of this session, participants will Understand the rationale for universal screening. Identify potential health

More information

THE FILIPINO AS THE QUINTESSENTIAL DRINKER: A Study of Alcohol Drinking Patterns Among Filipinos. Maritona Victa Labajo

THE FILIPINO AS THE QUINTESSENTIAL DRINKER: A Study of Alcohol Drinking Patterns Among Filipinos. Maritona Victa Labajo THE FILIPINO AS THE QUINTESSENTIAL DRINKER: A Study of Alcohol Drinking Patterns Among Filipinos Maritona Victa Labajo Purpose of the Study To examine the available literature on and observations about

More information

What You Don t Know Can Harm You

What You Don t Know Can Harm You A L C OHOL What You Don t Know Can Harm You National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism National Institutes of Health U.S. Department of Health and Human Services If you are like many Americans,

More information

Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Harms 2012

Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Harms 2012 Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Harms 2012 Australians drink a large volume of alcohol overall, and many drink at harmful levels, including teenagers and young adults. Young Australians are starting

More information

Do you drink or use other drugs? You could be harming more than just your health.

Do you drink or use other drugs? You could be harming more than just your health. Do you drink or use other drugs? You could be harming more than just your health. Simple questions. Straight answers about the risks of alcohol and drugs for women. 1 Why is my health care provider asking

More information

Macomb County Office of Substance Abuse MCOSA. Executive Summary

Macomb County Office of Substance Abuse MCOSA. Executive Summary Macomb County Office of Substance Abuse MCOSA Executive Summary This report marks the second data profile of alcohol and illicit drugs burden in Macomb County. The first report produced in 2007 detailed

More information

www.cymru.gov.uk GUIDANCE ON THE CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL BY CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE From Dr Tony Jewell Chief Medical Officer for Wales

www.cymru.gov.uk GUIDANCE ON THE CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL BY CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE From Dr Tony Jewell Chief Medical Officer for Wales www.cymru.gov.uk GUIDANCE ON THE CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL BY CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE From Dr Tony Jewell Chief Medical Officer for Wales GUIDANCE ON THE CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL BY CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE

More information

Substance Abuse. Health Equity Highlight: Adolescents

Substance Abuse. Health Equity Highlight: Adolescents Substance Abuse 108 Background The deliberate use and overuse of harmful substances has a serious impact on the quality of life of Maine people. As a result of substance abuse, the lives of Maine residents

More information

activity guidelines (59.3 versus 25.9 percent, respectively) and four times as likely to meet muscle-strengthening

activity guidelines (59.3 versus 25.9 percent, respectively) and four times as likely to meet muscle-strengthening 18 HEALTH STATUS HEALTH BEHAVIORS WOMEN S HEALTH USA 13 Adequate Physical Activity* Among Women Aged 18 and Older, by Educational Attainment and Activity Type, 09 11 Source II.1: Centers for Disease Control

More information

Policy Brief. Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use Economics and Public Health Policy. Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs.

Policy Brief. Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use Economics and Public Health Policy. Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs. Policy Brief Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use Economics and Public Health Policy May 2015 Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs OECD s new flagship report examines the economic and public health

More information

Alberta Alcohol Strategy. July 2008

Alberta Alcohol Strategy. July 2008 Alberta Alcohol Strategy July 2008 Alberta Alcohol Strategy July 2008 Copyright Notice This document is the property of Alberta Health Services (AHS). On April 1, 2009, AHS brought together 12 formerly

More information

DRUG AND ALCOHOL POLICY

DRUG AND ALCOHOL POLICY DRUG AND ALCOHOL POLICY Pace University seeks to promote individual wellness in as many ways as possible. Accordingly, in summary, the Policy prohibits the unlawful use, possession, sale, distribution,

More information

The Health Index: Tracking Public Health Trends in London & Middlesex County

The Health Index: Tracking Public Health Trends in London & Middlesex County FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDER (FASD): ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION DURING PREGNANCY, AWARENESS AND ATTITUDES IN LONDON AND MIDDLESEX COUNTY Issue 16, May 2005 KEY POINTS A recent amendment to the Liquor License

More information

ARGENTINA. Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) Last year abstainers in Buenos Aires

ARGENTINA. Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) Last year abstainers in Buenos Aires ARGENTINA Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) 2 18 16 Litres of pure alcohol 14 12 1 8 6 4 2 1961 1965 1969 1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 21 Beer Spirits Wine Sources: FAO (Food and Agriculture

More information

A conversation with CDC s Alcohol Program, September 5, 2014

A conversation with CDC s Alcohol Program, September 5, 2014 A conversation with CDC s Alcohol Program, September 5, 2014 Participants Robert Brewer, MD, MSPH Epidemiologist; Lead, Excessive Alcohol Use Prevention Team (Alcohol Program), Division of Population Health

More information

Alcohol consumption and harms in the Australian Capital Territory

Alcohol consumption and harms in the Australian Capital Territory Alcohol consumption and harms in the Australian Capital Territory Alcohol consumption The 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey found that 86.5 per cent of Australian Capital Territory (ACT) residents

More information

Grenada National Alcohol Policy

Grenada National Alcohol Policy Grenada National Alcohol Policy CONTENTS 1. Purpose 1.1 Policy objectives 1.2 Scope 1.3 Target population 1.4 Expected outcomes 2. Background 2.1 What is the public health problem? 2.2 Stakeholders 2.3

More information

European status report on alcohol and health 2014. Reducing the negative consequences of drinking and alcohol intoxication

European status report on alcohol and health 2014. Reducing the negative consequences of drinking and alcohol intoxication European status report on alcohol and health 2014 Reducing the negative consequences of drinking and alcohol intoxication Reducing the negative consequences of drinking and alcohol intoxication Background

More information

Canterbury District Health Board s

Canterbury District Health Board s Canterbury District Health Board s POSITION STATEMENT ON ALCOHOL This position statement is consistent with the position statements of Nelson Marlborough, West Coast, Canterbury, South Canterbury, and

More information

Alcohol. HP 2010 Objectives:

Alcohol. HP 2010 Objectives: Alcohol Alcohol is one of the most commonly used substances during adolescence. Though underage drinking is against the law, alcohol may be easily accessible to many teens. Binge drinking (defined by the

More information

1 GUIDE TO ALCOHOLISM

1 GUIDE TO ALCOHOLISM 1 GUIDE TO ALCOHOLISM Understanding Alcoholism While a glass of wine with dinner or a couple of beers while watching the big game may seem like a harmless way to unwind, for 14 million Americans, it is

More information

REDUCTION OF THE HARMFUL USE OF ALCOHOL: A STRATEGY FOR THE WHO AFRICAN REGION. Report of the Regional Director. Executive summary

REDUCTION OF THE HARMFUL USE OF ALCOHOL: A STRATEGY FOR THE WHO AFRICAN REGION. Report of the Regional Director. Executive summary 15 June 2010 REGIONAL COMMITTEE FOR AFRICA Sixtieth session Malabo, Equatorial Guinea, 30 August 3 September 2010 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH Provisional agenda item 7.2 REDUCTION OF THE HARMFUL USE OF ALCOHOL:

More information

Changing the Culture of Alcohol Use

Changing the Culture of Alcohol Use Changing the Culture of Alcohol Use in Nova Scotia An Alcohol Strategy to Prevent and Reduce the Burden of Alcohol-Related Harm in Nova Scotia Changing the Culture of Alcohol Use in Nova Scotia An Alcohol

More information

Binge Drinking Healthiest State Summit. David Golden Director, Public Health and Communications Boynton Health Service

Binge Drinking Healthiest State Summit. David Golden Director, Public Health and Communications Boynton Health Service Binge Drinking Healthiest State Summit David Golden Director, Public Health and Communications Boynton Health Service History To binge, the Oxford English Dictionary reveals, was originally a Lincolnshire

More information

Noncommunicable diseases and conditions have become

Noncommunicable diseases and conditions have become Commentaries on WHO:s alcohol strategy Pekka Puska Alcohol control A global public health issue Noncommunicable diseases and conditions have become the leading cause of mortality worldwide. According to

More information

Alcohol and Binge Drinking

Alcohol and Binge Drinking Alcohol and Binge Drinking (Excessive Alcohol Use) Mrs. Eilenberger Health 12 Class What is Alcohol????? Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxicating ingredient found in beer, wine, and liquor. Alcohol

More information

ALCOHOL. A Women s Health Issue

ALCOHOL. A Women s Health Issue ALCOHOL A Women s Health Issue U.S. DEP AR TMEN T OF HEAL TH AND HUMAN SER VICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism This booklet is the result of a collaboration

More information

Control State vs. Open State. North Carolina Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission Control - Service - Revenue Since 1935 www.ncabc.

Control State vs. Open State. North Carolina Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission Control - Service - Revenue Since 1935 www.ncabc. Control State vs. Open State North Carolina Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission Control - Service - Revenue Since 1935 www.ncabc.com Prohibition On May 26, 1908, by a referendum vote of 62% to 38%, North

More information

Employee Handbook of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland. RCPI Policy Group on Alcohol. 2014 Pre Budget Submission

Employee Handbook of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland. RCPI Policy Group on Alcohol. 2014 Pre Budget Submission Employee Handbook of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland RCPI Policy Group on Alcohol 2014 Pre Budget Submission September 2013 Contents 1. Introduction... 3 2. Recommendations... 5 3. Effect of

More information

ALCOHOL IS OUR MOST COMMON RECREATIONAL DRUG

ALCOHOL IS OUR MOST COMMON RECREATIONAL DRUG NOT DRINKING IS THE SAFEST OPTION FOR YOUNG PEOPLE UNDER 18 YRS OF AGE. ALCOHOL IS OUR MOST COMMON RECREATIONAL DRUG DID YOU KNOW? 8 out of 10 New Zealanders aged 12-65 years reported drinking alcohol

More information

Year. Sources: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), World Drink Trends 2003. Male 36.4%

Year. Sources: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), World Drink Trends 2003. Male 36.4% ITALY Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) 25 Litres of pure alcohol 2 15 1 Beer Spirits Wine 5 1961 1965 1969 1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 21 Year Sources: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization

More information

NHS Swindon and Swindon Borough Council. Executive Summary: Adult Alcohol Needs Assessment

NHS Swindon and Swindon Borough Council. Executive Summary: Adult Alcohol Needs Assessment NHS Swindon and Swindon Borough Council Executive Summary: Adult Alcohol Needs Assessment Aim and scope The aim of this needs assessment is to identify, through analysis and the involvement of key stakeholders,

More information

Drinking patterns. Summary

Drinking patterns. Summary Drinking patterns 6 Linda Ng Fat and Elizabeth Fuller Summary This chapter presents data on frequency of drinking alcohol, the amount consumed on the heaviest drinking day in the previous week, and regular

More information

It s More Than DWI: Reducing Death and Harm From Alcohol in New Mexico. Loss of control not being able to stop once started

It s More Than DWI: Reducing Death and Harm From Alcohol in New Mexico. Loss of control not being able to stop once started It s More Than DWI: Reducing Death and Harm From Alcohol in New Mexico Problem Statement Alcohol is an intoxicating flammable liquid according to the dictionary. It is also considered a drug. That is a

More information

Focus Area 6: Mental Health, Alcohol, and Substance Abuse

Focus Area 6: Mental Health, Alcohol, and Substance Abuse Focus Area : Mental Health and Mental Disorders Alcohol Abuse Substance Abuse Autism Spectrum Disorders Exposure to Trauma 119 WORK GROUP ON MENTAL HEALTH, ALCOHOL, AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE Co-Chairs Barbara

More information

California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) Consumer Q&As

California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) Consumer Q&As C o n s u m e r Q & A 1 California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) Consumer Q&As Q: Is addiction a disease? A: Addiction is a chronic disorder, like heart disease or diabetes. A chronic disorder is

More information

Alcohol Quick Facts ALCOHOL FACTS. New Zealand s drinking patterns. Crime and violence. Health impacts. Drink driving.

Alcohol Quick Facts ALCOHOL FACTS. New Zealand s drinking patterns. Crime and violence. Health impacts. Drink driving. Alcohol Quick Facts ALCOHOL FACTS New Zealand s drinking patterns The proportion of New Zealanders aged 15 years or more who drank alcohol in the past year dropped from 84% in 2006/07 to 80% in 2011/12

More information

Effectiveness of group therapy on psychological wellbeing among alcoholic dependents at selected De-addiction Centre in Ahmedabad

Effectiveness of group therapy on psychological wellbeing among alcoholic dependents at selected De-addiction Centre in Ahmedabad IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR-JNHS) e-issn: 2320 1959.p- ISSN: 2320 1940 Volume 3, Issue 5 Ver. I (Sep.-Oct. 2014), PP 35-39 Effectiveness of group therapy on psychological wellbeing

More information

Responses to Misleading and Inaccurate Beer Industry Propaganda on Excise Taxes

Responses to Misleading and Inaccurate Beer Industry Propaganda on Excise Taxes Responses to Misleading and Inaccurate Beer Industry Propaganda on Excise Taxes Forty four percent of the retail price of beer is now consumed by taxes. The ʺ44 percentʺ calculation deceptively includes

More information

AMA Information Paper. Alcohol Use and Harms in Australia (2009)

AMA Information Paper. Alcohol Use and Harms in Australia (2009) Alcohol Use and Harms in Australia (2009) Alcohol Consumption in Australia Considered overall, Australians drink a large volume of alcohol and drink it frequently. In 2007 the per capita consumption of

More information

Addictions Foundation of Manitoba

Addictions Foundation of Manitoba Addictions Foundation of Manitoba The Addictions Foundation of Manitoba is responsible for providing rehabilitation and prevention services for Manitoba citizens relating to substance use and problem gambling.

More information

Introduction to Substance Abuse Issues in Canada: Pathways, Health Implications and Interventions

Introduction to Substance Abuse Issues in Canada: Pathways, Health Implications and Interventions Introduction to Substance Abuse Issues in Canada: Pathways, Health Implications and Interventions Maritt Kirst, PhD Centre for Research on Inner City Health, St. Michael s Hospital OTC Summer Institute

More information

Canadian Addiction Survey (CAS)

Canadian Addiction Survey (CAS) Canadian Addiction Survey (CAS) A National Survey of Canadians Use of Alcohol and Other Drugs Focus on Gender Health Canada is the federal department responsible for helping the people of Canada maintain

More information

Alcohol consumption Factsheet

Alcohol consumption Factsheet Alcohol consumption Updated August 2013 Alcohol consumption Factsheet Institute of Alcohol Studies Alliance House 12 Caxton Street London SW1H 0QS Tel: 020 7222 4001 Email: info@ias.org.uk Institute of

More information

Alcohol consumption. Summary

Alcohol consumption. Summary Alcohol consumption 6 Elizabeth Fuller Summary This chapter presents adults alcohol consumption in several ways: frequency; the maximum amount drunk on any day in the last week; and usual weekly consumption.

More information

Alcohol Awareness Month October 2013. Chad Asplund, MD, FACSM Medical Director, Student Health Georgia Regents University

Alcohol Awareness Month October 2013. Chad Asplund, MD, FACSM Medical Director, Student Health Georgia Regents University Alcohol Awareness Month October 2013 Chad Asplund, MD, FACSM Medical Director, Student Health Georgia Regents University Alcohol Statistics According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency

More information

Booklet B The Menace of Alcohol

Booklet B The Menace of Alcohol The Menace of Alcohol This report has been designed so that you consider the effects of excessive drinking. It has been compiled from a series of websites from around the world, all of which are reputable

More information

Maternal and Child Health Issue Brief

Maternal and Child Health Issue Brief Maternal and Child Health Issue Brief Substance Abuse among Women of Reproductive Age in Colorado September 14 9 Why is substance abuse an issue among women of reproductive age? Substance abuse poses significant

More information

Adolescent Substance Use: America s #1 Public Health Problem June 29, 2011

Adolescent Substance Use: America s #1 Public Health Problem June 29, 2011 Adolescent Substance Use: America s #1 Public Health Problem June 29, 2011 A Report by The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University 9 in 10 People Who Are Addicted* Begin

More information

TREATMENT, ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS AND ALCOHOL CONTROLS DURING THE DECREASE IN ALCOHOL PROBLEMS IN ALBERTA: 1975-1993t

TREATMENT, ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS AND ALCOHOL CONTROLS DURING THE DECREASE IN ALCOHOL PROBLEMS IN ALBERTA: 1975-1993t Alcohol & Alcoholism Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 265-272, 1998 TREATMENT, ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS AND ALCOHOL CONTROLS DURING THE DECREASE IN ALCOHOL PROBLEMS IN ALBERTA: 1975-1993t REGILD G. SMART* 1 and ROBERT

More information

Alcohol Abuse Screening and Brief Interventions for use in Primary Care Settings

Alcohol Abuse Screening and Brief Interventions for use in Primary Care Settings Alcohol Abuse Screening and Brief Interventions for use in Primary Care Settings Dr. Christine Harsell DNP, ANP BC Dr. Maridee Shogren DNP, CNM Objectives Upon completion of this session, participants

More information

ADMISSION TO THE PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY SERVICES OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL-RELATED MENTAL DISORDER

ADMISSION TO THE PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY SERVICES OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL-RELATED MENTAL DISORDER Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov Series VI: Medical Sciences Vol. 4 (53) No. 2-2011 ADMISSION TO THE PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY SERVICES OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL-RELATED MENTAL DISORDER P.

More information