Published by: Authors: Acknowledgments: ISBN: INRCA Ancona 2012

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1 I mf r mw r k f rr r m I l y I N R C AI s u N z l d R p s C u r p ra z V EI I I s u d R v r C u r C r r S f ( I R C C S ) I l, A, V S. M r g h r, 5 P l S f T l g D p r m p s u z u à s s s z l C r S u d R r h E m S l p rl ʼ v h m

2 Publshd by: INRCA A 2012 Auhrs: Adr Prp s rsrhr h Il Nl Isu f Hlh d S Agg (INRCA), A. Hs urr rsrh rss vr v gg.g. h gg wrkfr d vlurg ldr g, d wrkg rrs' rl f wrk fr h lbur mrk wh frml r ldr fmly mmbrs. Adr Prp b d V S. Mrghr, 5, 60124, ph , Pr Chu s rsrhr h Lbur Mrk Dprm f h Il Isu fr h Dvlpm f Trg f Wrkrs (ISFOL), Rm. H prpd h mrg f Il Publ Emplym Srvs, fusg hs vy prss wh dsbls d ldr wrkrs. H s urrly rdg ISFOL rsrh v gg d s mmbr f h Wrkg Grup Agg rgzd by h Ud Ns Em Cmmss fr Eurp (UNECE). Mrk D Rs s rsrh fllw h Il Nl Isu f Hlh d S Agg (INRCA). Hs urr rsrh rss rl rss-l suds wrk d vlurg f ldr ppl, fmly rgvg d h rl f mgr r wrkrs. Akwldgms: Sur: Im frm wrk fr rrm. Cury rpr Ily Eurp Fud fr h Imprvm f Lvg d Wrkg Cds, 2012, Wyvll Rd, Dubl 18, Irld. Bsd dffr l ury rprs, Eurfud hs publshd sldd Eurp rpr, ld Im frm wrk fr rrm h EU, vlbl frm hp://www.urfud.urp.u/publs/dx.hm. Th uhrs wuld lk hk Hs Dubs (Eurfud) fr hs usful mms. ISBN:

3 Im frm wrk fr rrm Ily Adr Prp, Pr Chu d Mrk D Rs 2

4 Cs 1 Irdu: h rlv f h p 1 2 Trds m frm wrk fr rrm Th x f h phm Em ssus 6 3 Chrrsg wrk fr rrm Th wrk Th wrkg psrs Idvdul d sruurl furs: hw d hy r? 17 4 Gvrm pls 18 5 Cmpy s suds Supr El Suprmrk Cs sudy bkgrud Th wrkg psr Orgsl pls fr wrkg psrs Exrl sps Lsss lrd frm h s sudy Uvrsy f Cmr Cs sudy bkgrud Th wrkg psr Orgsl pls fr wrkg psrs Exrl sps Lsss lrd frm h s sudy Cr Lr Mrhg Vz Bll Cs sudy bkgrud Th wrkg psr Orgsl pls fr wrkg psrs Exrl sps Lsss lrd frm h s sudy 37 6 Cluss d ky mssgs skhldrs 39 Rfrs 42 Ax 1: Sdry d lyss mhdlgl vrvw 43 Ax 2: Exprs rvws mhdlgl vrvw 47 Ax 3: Cs suds mhdlgl vrvw 50 0

5 1. Irdu: h rlv f h p Ardg h Lbur Fr Survy, vr h ps yrs Eurp (EU27), mplym rs mg h 65 d ldr rsd frm 4.3% % 2011 (EUROSTAT, 2012). Th sm sur udrls h bslu rms, wrkg ppl vr 65 yrs rsd h sm m-sp by 725,000 dvduls, h s frm bu 3.4 bu 4.1 mlls, dg h h rl plyd by h wrk fr h lbur mrk fr rrm my hv srghd r ms. As mr f f, s ms Eurp urs, h db wrk fr rrm hs rsgly dvlpd h ls yrs ls Ily, fr dffr rss. A m rs s h m. I hs ms f fl rss (d hs s v mr xpd fuur prspv) rrd ppl f hv dl wh ps dquy, hus hy d supplm hr ps m wh wg frm wrk fr h lbur mrk. I Ily 63% f rrd ppl u ps m lwr h 1,000 mhly urs, whrs rrd prs fur hs dl wh ps m v udr 500 mhly urs (ISTAT, 2011). Udr smlr m ds lf s hrd fr rrd ppl, splly f hy lv l r f hy r skd suppr mlly dul hldr wh lw wgs r v umplyd. Hwvr, mpr fr sdr lkd h lr, s h svrl Il psrs r rlvly yug, s s ls udrsdbl h hy w rm v h sy. Il vrg x g frm h lbur mrk s mg h lws Eurp. Bw 2004 d 2009, ws vrg 61.1 yrs fr m d 58.7 yrs fr wm (OECD, 2012). Oly 4 Eurp urs (.. Slvk Rpubl, Ausr, Luxmburg d Pld) wm rrd rlr h Ily, d ly 6 Eurp s (.. Luxmburg, Ausr, Fr, Blgum, Slvk Rpubl d Hugry) m rrd rlr h Ily. Th m rs fr hs, s h r ms Ily, v f h ffl rrm g fr h ld-g ps (.. ps d vh) ws 65 fr m d 60 fr wm, h sry ps (.. ps d zà) ws ls vlbl, dd bh by rr lkd h g d h yrs f rbus. Thus h r ps, ppl uld rr 57 yrs f g f hy uld u 35 yrs f rbus. Furhrmr, durg h 90 s hr rly rrm shms wr lrgly vlbl. Fr xmpl, fr publ mplys h s-lld bby pss (blshd 1992) wr vlbl. Thy wr llwd rr fr ly 20 yrs f rbus, whrs f hy wr mrrd wm wh hldr, v fr jus 14 d hlf yrs f rbus. Th mu f bby-pss s rhr lw, d hs prlly xpls h rs fr h urr ps dquy md bv. Hwvr, s prvusly udrld, hs b sdrd h byd ps dquy, mv f hs yugr rrd wrk fr h lbur mrk s h hy w d smhg prduv byd bg rrd. I ll, h f h hs yugr psrs hv bul sd rr fr rrm, d sdrbl x udr udlrd rms, s publ kwldg, Ily. 1

6 Y, hs dsr b prduv fr rrm my drv ly yugr-ld rrd, s s bsrvd by Gr (2009), h py prfrm dvd sg f ld g hs sply rsd rly. Idd, urr 70-yr-ld r v 80-yr-ld rrspds prs 15 r 20 yrs yugr ury g. Ardg hs prspv, Eurp sy s gg, bu rjuvg, ls bu ls s u br hlh ds. Thus, wrkg fr rrm my b drv by rss hr h fl ds, lk fr xmpl dvdul dsr/rs d s, b sll v, r rm ludd sy. Ths vw bss prspvs dvd by hrs lk.g. vy d uy hrs (Hvghurs, 1961; Mddx, 1968). Furhrmr, w bsrv h wrk fr rrm, Ily s hr Eurp urs, s frlsd by muh mr vlbl dmd-drv pprus. I f, s lf xpy s hghr h h ps mbd wh h m f mbg publ dfs, pls urgg wrk ldr g r rsgly vlbl. Jus by surfg h Ir, bsrv h Ily hr r svrl kds f spf wrk ffrs (whs rlbly shuld b hwvr hkd) fr rrd ppl. Why? O m rs my b h fr r spf wrks d sks, rrd ppl s xpr my b hghly vlud by mplyrs, s hy w xpl hr ps. Ahr rs my plly b h mplyrs my ry sv my by mplyg hm (f udlrd wy) s hy my p wg ( gr hr ps m) h s lw, mprd mrk wgs b sp fr yugr r smply rrd wrkrs. Ths, Ily, pss quss bu h p f h susbly f h sysm. O h hd, hr s ll fr mr wrk ldr g: s wll kw h gg f h ppul mgh ld drsd shrs f h ppul wrk, d h hs mgh plly us lbur fr shrgs mps. Ardg hs vw, wrk ldr g shuld b urgd Ily, gv h wh 36.6% hs ury hs h ffh-ls mplym r f ldr wrkrs (gd yrs) Eurp, jus hd f Ml, Pld, Hugry d Slv (EUROSTAT 2012b). Y, dsp hs, umplym f yugr ppl s wdsprd Ily. I Obr 2011, h vrll umplym r ws 8.5% whrs yuh umplym (.. f ppl gd yrs) ws 29.2%. I h prvus mh, umplym f yugr ppl ws 29.4%.. h hghs r h ls 8 yrs (ISTAT, 2011b). Th rgrl mr sms b prulrly vd h publ sr. Idd, mg h 34 OECD urs, Ily hs h hghs shr f wrkrs h publ sr ldr h 50 yrs: 2009, 49.2% (bu 1 2) wr vr 50 (OECD, 2011). Th rss fr hs r h hrg/urvr frz by h publ sr h ls yrs d ps rfrms h hv dlyd rrm frm h lbur mrk (CNEL, 2011). Thus, s vd h hr s d fr pursug d fdg slus urg wrk fr rrm whl vdg rgrl wrk fls, Il x h hs s pulrs. Th m f hs bk s shd lgh h ssu f m frm wrk fr rrm Ily. Ths rqurs df f h bj f ur lyss. Frs f ll, v f w r sslly xplrg ldr ppl, hr s sr g-rr fr lus, s ps Ily hs b (d sll s) vlbl frm dffr gs. Nvrhlss, w rdud g-lm f 60 yrs fr lus f rvrs f pss lkd sm mld dgr f dsbly, sd f g rr. W ludd hs kd f psr s Ily 2

7 mg ll ps rvrs, hr s sdrbl prg (10.6%) f rrd ppl gd 60 yrs r mr wh bf f pss du rdud bly r bly wrk (.. ps d vldà, 7.1%) r du wrk ds d upl dsss (.. ps dr, 3.5%) (ISTAT 2011). I xplrg h ssu f wrk f ldr ppl fr rrm, wuld b ssl ls udrsd h rl plyd by hs kd f rrd ppl. Isd, rvrs f pss du svr physl r ml dsbly (.. ps ssszl) wr xludd frm h rsrh. Thus ur bj f lyss s: rrd ppl wh wrk bg pd. T b rrd ms rvg ld-g ps r sry ps y g, r dsbly/bly ps fr 60 yrs f g. Pd wrk ms hvg ddl m (dlrd r udlrd) frm h wrk fr h lbur mrk, bh s slf-mplyd r s mply. T rry u h sudy, w dpd mhdlgy whh ludd sdry d lyss f vlbl l d, xpr rvws d s suds rgss mplyg rrd wrkrs (fr mr mhdlgl dls, s Axs 1 3). Ardg h frmwrk dsussd bv, Chpr 2 rds d dvlpms f h m grd by hs ps-rrm wrk s lysd, whrs Chpr 3 fuss dsrbg yps f pd wrk f rrd wrkrs d hr dvdul hrrss. Chpr 4 rs wh h gvrm s dg rms f pls fl mplym fr rrm. Chpr 5 rprs wrkpl xprs hw r r r rrs. I h lusv Chpr 6, ply rmmds skhldrs r prvdd hw prm d srgh wrk fr rrm. 3

8 2. Trds m frm wrk fr rrm 2.1. Th x f h phm Ardg h Msry f Lbur d Sl Pls, psrs rrd bw 2008 d 2011 wh ddd r-r h lbur mrk r rsg. INPS d udrld h 2008 ldr rrd ppl (.. m vr 65 d wm vr 60) rryg u sl jbs wr 509,265, 37% f whh wr wm [Expr 3]. Thus, wrk fr rrm Ily s fgurd s msly ml phm. Obsrvg hs ssu srly rms f prvl, rlv h uvrs f rrd ppl, 2010 wrkg psrs frm h g f 55 wrds wr 6.9% f l psrs f h sm g, d h s sbl mprd bu yrs g (Grld, 2000). Y, ddrssg hs ssu by gdr w bsrv h hs prg rss 10.7% wh vsgg ly m whl drss 3.7% wh vsgg ly wm (INPS, 2012). Ardg survy rrd u V Rg mg mplyd wrkrs vr 45 yrs f g, 7% f wrkrs wr lrdy rrd whrs 8% f rrd mplys xprssd h u wrk rrd (Prrshp Prg Equl Ag Mgm, 2006). Tbl 1. Prvl f h phm f wrk fr rrm D sur Bk f Ily IT-SILC ISTAT-Lbur Yr Tl smpl sz 20,581 19,836 45,133 40, , ,578 Tl umbr f wrkrs 7,183 6,864 19,891 17,698 61,922 56,205 Wrkg psrs u f ll wrkrs 2.7% 4.7% 5.4% 5.5% 0.3% 0.2% N: Th umbr f wrkrs s h sum f mplys d slf-mplyd Sur: ur lbr mulpl dbss T ry kw mr bu h prvl f wrk fr rrm Ily, sdry d lyss mprg dffr dbss ws rrd u prvd frs dsrpv pur f h phm. Gv hs m m, d prvdd h fllwg bls f ss 2 d 3 r wghd. Th sdry d lyss ws rrd u dss f hr smpl-bsd survys (.. survy f h Bk f Ily d w survys rrd u by h Nl Isu f Sss: IT-SILC d Lbur Fr Survy), h llwd dfy ppl wh smulus m bh frm wrk d frm h d f rrd prs. I shws h h prvl f rrd wrkrs u f ll wrkrs rgd frm 0.2% ( 2011) rdg h ISTAT survy h lbur fr, 5.5% ( 2010) rdg ISTAT IT-SILC 4

9 survy (Tbl 1). Ths sprd my b rbud mly h dffr survys smpl mps (s Ax 1 fr mr dld dsrp f h sur). Furhr lyss r rrd u h sub-smpl f wrkg psrs. O h hr hd, h rd f grwh s rprd by ly w f h vsgd surs d ufrmly, wh subsl rs prg rprd by h Bk f Ily s survy bw 2004 d 2010 (.. frm 2.7% 4.7%), d slghly hghr rs by h IT-SILC bw 2007 d 2010 (frm 5.4% 5.5%). Ths s qu ss wh frm h uvrs f rrd ppl gd 55 r mr, h rprd slgh rs prg f h wgh f wrkg psrs u f l psrs f h sm g frm , fr bh m d wm (INPS, 2012). Ifrm vlbl h umbr f wrkg psrs by g grup frm s prsd Tbl 2, whr rd f grwh umbr f ppl wrkg fr rrm splly frm h g f 70 yrs b bsrvd. Tbl 2. Wrkg psrs, by g grups, 2008, 2009 d 2010 (N) M Wm Tl M Wm Tl M Wm Tl ,870 72, , ,373 74, , ,080 71, , , , , , , , , , , ,995 62, , ,426 65, , ,095 63, , ,745 29, , ,250 32, , ,304 34, , ,299 11,532 55,831 48,850 12,408 61,258 49,188 12,870 62, ,090 5,811 22,901 19,797 6,300 26,097 21,319 6,776 28, , ,130 1,049, , ,370 1,099, , ,580 1,067,129 Sur: ur lbr INPS, 2012 Wm rrd frm publ r prv jbs 2011 wh srd w jb dd mly h srvs sr (3,979), fllwd by h dusrl sr (1,249) d grulur (236). Th sm d rg m r 7,607 h srvs sr, 7,391 dusry d 1,527 grulur [Expr 3]. Nvrhlss, s h 90 s rly rrm ws urgd splly h publ sr, s lkly h hs rrd ppl rrd h lbur mrk bh h publ d h prv sr [Expr 1]. Mlpd d Vlls (2009) udrld h l f wrkrs h ps uld rr bw 50 d 55 yrs f g hrugh h sry ps, d h hs wrkrs prbbly ud wrk fr h lbur mrk, mplyd splly SMEs. Afr h frm f h lw whh frm 2009 llwd h mb bw ps d m frm wrk, hs rd hs xpdd vlvg ls prfssls (lwyrs, mdl drs, us,.). 5

10 Wrk fr rrm sms b wdsprd ls mg mgrs (splly wh lrg mps). Ohr srs vlvd r rss, grulur d dms wrk. I ll, wrk fr rrm sms b prs bh hgh sklld d lw sklld rls, bg sd lss rprsd rls rqurg rmd qulf lvl [Expr 3]. Tbl 3 prvds vrvw f h rl f ldr wrkrs dffr prfssl grs. Tbl 3. Prg f vr 60 dffr prfssl grs wh wrkrs f ll gs h sm grs s rmsr Arss Rlrs Slf- mplyd grulur Frlrs d prfssls Sur: ur lbr INPS, Th ggrphl dms s ls mpr fvurg wrk fr rrm bh fr mplyrs d mplys. I rgs wh hgh dffus f SMEs, s V, mplyrs u mg hr w busss, v fr rhg rrm g. Ths s f du dffuls rsfrrg dsl pwr hr hldr r rlvs, s hy my b usubl r ursd. O h hr hd, mplys hghly sdrdzd prdus r uwllg r-r h lbur mrk, rl h hrdss f hr ps jb. Th prpsy wrk fr rrm s hus hghr wh SMEs, h r hrrzd by lss sdrdzd prdu. I hs xs, wrkrs f m bk wrk h sm mpy, ls mrg yugr llgus. I rs whr lrg mps r prs, hr s ls h ppruy mplm sll prdus hrugh rrd wrkrs [Expr 2] Em ssus Th urr su h kd f ps rvd by wrkg rrd ppl hghlghs h ms f hm bf f ld g ps r sry ps (s ls Grld, 2000), splly f slf-mplyd rrd wrkrs (Tbl 4). Fr hs rrd ppl wrkg s mplys, h rl f bly/dsbly pss s hghr, lhugh s lr f wrds rd f grwh (.g. rdg Bk f Ily) r dl (.g. rdg IT-SILC). 6

11 Tbl 4. Kd f ps f wrkg psrs gd 60 yrs r mr D sur Bk f Ily IT-SILC ISTAT-Lbur Yr Kd f ps Kd f ps Emplys N Old g ps Ibly/ dsbly Ohr spfd 74.5% 78.4% 78.3% 85.0% % 14.9% 20.0% 13.1% % 6.7% 1.7% 1.9% - - Slf-Emplyd N Old g ps Ibly/ dsbly Ohr spfd 92.8% 92.9% 92.9% 90.0% % 1.2% 6.2% 7.8% % 5.9% 0.9% 2.1% - - N: N s h sum f ll wrkg psrs vr 60 yrs f g rvg ls kd f ps. Sur: ur lbr mulpl dbss Wh rgrds fuur srs, h ps rfrm frd Jury 2012 (r.24, Lw. 214/2011) hs pspd h rrm g, s urgg l rrm. Thus s ssumd h fuur rrd wrkrs wll b ldr h urr s. Th wrkg ppul s ssumd rs by bu 5% by 2017, whrs h hr hd h umbr f psrs s suppsd drs by bu 10% by h sm yr d by bu 15% 2032 (Mzzfrr d Mr, 2012). Th hghr rrm g sms prlly rd h vlbly f mb bw m frm wrk d ps, whh ws rdud 2009 (Lw. 33/2008). Idd, whl wrk fr rrm ws suppsd b mr mgbl wh h md rrm g ws rud 55, h ls rfrm wll s mv hs md g 65, hus rqurg mr fr wrkrs hlh sus d wrkg ds [Exprs 1, 3 d 4]. Furhrmr, whrs bu w dds g h vrg ps m ws hghr fr wrkg psrs h fr psrs s whl (Grld, 2000), h rl f ps dquy s urrly hghr d s xpd rs furhr h fuur. Idd, h mpl dp f h rbu bsd rgm (whh rpld h ld wg-bsd rgm) wll rly rdu subsu rs: f ul rly h vrg ps uld b v 80% f h ls slry, hs prg uld prgrssvly fll blw 60%. I h ps, hghr ps ms prbbly dd urg muh wrk fr rrm, whrs h w sr ldg lwr ps m h fuur, wll prbbly fr fuur psrs rr h lbur mrk fr m rss. Y, s hy wll b vr 66 yrs f g frm 2018 d 7

12 vr 67 frm 2026 (m d wm), hs wll prbbly hghlgh prblms rld hlh d hrdss f wrkg ds [Exprs 1, 3 d 4]. Wrkg psrs my b sdrd s pl mprs f h rrd wrkfr, bus hy g wh mplyrs fr hghly fvurbl ds fr hmslvs d fr h mplyrs, hrugh xsv us f flxbl rs (pr-m, fxd rm, vrus frms f frl llbrs,.) [Expr 1]. Mr grlly, h pl sl fl bw yugr d ldr wrkrs wll ls prbbly bm mr vd h fuur du h rsd rrm g. I f, h ls yrs s h gvrm hs srd prgrssvly rs h rrm g, yugr prss hv xprd mr d mr dffuls fdg jb [Expr 4]. Ths ls b s by mprg rds f h mplym r f ldr wrkrs d f h umplym r f yug ppl (Fgur 1). Fgur 1. Emplym r d umplym r 15-24, (3rd rmsr) (%) Sur: ur lbr ISTAT Lbur fr survy, dffr yrs Th rs rrm g vsgd by h ls ps rfrm wll dd bu 15% rr lgh mprd h ps, d sdrg s uhgd h l mu f hurs wrkd hs Il x f rss, hs wll m lss wrk fr yugr ppl [Expr 4]. Ths prblm wll prhps b urlly vrm h fuur s yugr hrs wll b lss d lss umrus vr m [Expr 1]. Thus ll, h fl rss sms mly gvly ff wrk f yugr grs, rhr h wrk fr rrm. I h publ sr fr xmpl, h urvr frz rld publ budg us, d h m mplym f f rrd, hghly sklld suls (wh wrkd bfr s p lvl ffrs), r srusly hmprg yugr ppl s pprus bm vl srvs, r uvrsy shlrs [Exprs 1 d 4]. Furhrmr, h prpsy f bh publ d prv p mgrs u 8

13 wrk fr rrm s msly rld h ffr f mg hr sus d sl dy, rhr h mrg v. Ths s prulrly prblm Ily, bus lw vsms v d hum pl (urgd by h m rss) hv rbud h r f dqu umbr f hghly qulfd jb pss vr m [Expr 1]. Prbbly, h ggm f ldr r rrd wrkrs mrg fus uld b f h pssbl slus fr h wrk-fl bw yugr d ldr grs, ghr wh h r-rdu f mr ffv vs (rdud 2007 bu vr rlly mplmd) suppr h hgvr f ldr/yugr wrkrs [Expr 2]. 9

14 3. Chrrsg wrk fr rrm 3.1. Th wrk Ardg h Msry f Lbur, bu 80% f wrkg prds prfrmd by prss wh rrd bw 2008 d 2011 r blw 1 yr f dur (h vrg dur y s s grwg), hus prbbly dg xsv us f flxbl rs (hrugh llbrs, wrk vuhrs,.) [Expr 3]. Tbl 5. Wrk hrrss f h wrkg ppl f ll gs wh rv ps (%) D sur Bk f Ily IT-SILC ISTAT-Lbur Yr Emplys N Kd f r Kd mplym Qulf lvl f Op r Fxd-rm r dd Tmprry Pr-m Full-m Drr Mgr Wh llr Blu llr Appr Hm-wrk N.A Slf-mplyd N Kd f slf- mplym Frlr Erprur Slf-mplyd Ohr Sur: ur lbr mulpl dbss Nvrhlss, ur d lyss rvld h rlv rrd wrkrs f ll gs (hs bg mly vr 50), h rl f flxbl rs (bh mprry r fxd-rm, whr hs frm s vlbl) mg 10

15 rrd ppl wrkg s mply sm b rhr mrgl v r ms (Tbl 5). O h hr hd, s r yrs mps hv xsvly usd flxbl rs mply rrd wrkrs, suh s mplyr-rdd frl rs r hr rs suh s suls (whh d mply rgul f wrkg m), hs my pr hv hdd h ul mply pss (fr xmpl rms f rqurd wrkg m) [Expr 4], d hy my hv b survyd s slfmplym. Ths suggss h pss udr shr-rm bsd r Tbl 5, my b rprsd mly mg slf-mplyd. A survy rrd u mg mps V rg (Prrshp Prg Equl Ag Mgm, 2006) udrld h mpy fv mplyd rrd wrkrs, splly f mdum-lrg szd (vr 50 mplys). Th prpsy f mplyrs hr psrs my b drmd msly by w frs: ) h sklls f h sgl wrkr, rl h m sr; b) h pssbly spd lss my rmur h wrkr usg flxbl frms f rs (h r ls hrrzd by lwr x rs). Bh lrg mps d SMEs fllw hs srgy. Th ly dffr s h lrg mps hv rl rgzl rsurs pl [Expr 1]. Typ f wrk I h fld f llul prfssls s usul fd prss wh u wrk ul 70 (fr xmpl, Uvrss) r 80 yrs f g. I hs ss h prsrv f h sl sus s f gr mpr. Blu-llr r wh-llr wrkrs r mr lkly r-r h lbur mrk smlr pss f hy hv hgh lvl f splz (urrs, mllrs,.) d ls bus ul r yrs hy rhd rrm rlvly yug g [Expr 4]. Wrkrs my hv srg r wk mrk pss wh pprhg rrm. A smll umbr f wrkrs vr 65 hv srg pss (lk publ r prv p mgrs) d g h xs f hr wrkg lf h bs ds. O h hr hd, lw sklld wrkrs my hv mr prblms,.. dffuls dlg wh hlgl v r m rsfrm [Expr 1]. Opprus fr wrk fr rrm r sdrd b hghr fr slf-mplyd d prfssl wrkrs. Mrvr, dlrs r v hgh lvl prfssls suh s us d x suls my rgz hr wrk rl h pssbly f sllg hr w srvs. Wh rgrds blu r wh llrs, fr umplyd ppl vr 55 s f hrd fd w jb d h urr m rss hs rsd h rsk f lg rm umplym. I Ily hr r umplyd ppl vr 50 yrs f g h urrly d hv h rqurms rr, bu hvg ls jb, hy r rsk f lg rm umplym su whh m suppr msurs prvd uvrsl vrg. Fr hs prss s hrd mg prp h lbur mrk rrd f hy prs sly m u frm h d f umplyd [Exprs 1 d 4]. Thr s sm vd h rrd wrkrs r sldm mplyd h sm mpy whr hy wrkd bfr rrm, bu rhr hy fd w pprus hrugh prvus prfssl s r hrugh frds r rlvs (Prrshp 11

16 Prg Equl Ag Mgm, 2006). O h hr hd, 1997 wrkg psrs wr rprsd mly mg rrd ppl by rss d rdrs (43%), h by grulurl wrkrs (27%), -- (h s llbrz rd uv, flxbl r h b rsld s mplyrrdd frl wrk, s s 4) (17%), mplys (11%) d dms wrkrs (2%) (Mlzz, 2000). Qulf lvl Ardg sm xprs, mg wrkg psrs lw sklld prfls (grulur, dms wrk,.) wh flxbl rs r rrgulr pss s wll s hgh sklld prfssls, prbbly prvl. Irmd lvl prfls r prbbly mssg bus wrkrs wh rrd hs yrs sll hv gd subsu r f 80%. Thr lvl f m ds urg hm j h lbur mrk g [.g. Expr 3]. Ths s ly prlly frmd by h d lyss, s rdg, rrd wrkrs (f ll gs) r mly wh d blu llrs (Tb 5) (h blu llr gry ls luds lw sklld prfls). I s prhps uusul h 2000 h V rg, h mjry f wrkrs vr 65 yrs f g h prv sr wr hrd fr -sklld pss (Prrshp Prg Equl Ag Mgm, 2006). Ths sms b ss wh h f h mgrs d suprvsrs d prlg hr wrkg lf mr h hr wrkg grs, by pspg rrm (Vlls, 2008) rhr h by r-rg h lbur mrk fr rrm, d wh h f h ms rrd mgrs wllg wrk fr rrm hv dffuls j h lbur mrk (Qur, 2008). Ardg hs vw, hr s hug vlbly f rrd mgrs ffrg l prdu h h Il lbur mrk s vlbl buy. Rrd mgrs h fd w jb fl ss f frusr. By bmg psr sd m, hy mlly d psyhlglly lv sd rrm sydrm (Qur, 2008). Pr-m wrk Th hr surs vsgd rprd rsg vd h dffus f pr-m rs mg mplys rrd. Ardg h ISTAT Lbur Fr Survy, pr-m s h ms wdsprd rul frm. Ths s ss wh rsuls f survy rrd u V rg (Prrshp Prg Equl Ag Mgm, 2006). Isd, rdg h hr w vsgd surs, rrd wrkrs d mly full-m bss (Tbl 5). Slf-mplym Numrlly, slf-mplyd rrd wrkrs r mr h hs mplyd s mplys (Tbl 5). Wrk fr rrm hrugh slf-mplym s wdsprd rl dms upkpg (plumbrs, grdrs, lrs,.) [Expr 2]. I Ily 2008, h slf-mplyd wr 31.3% f h l wrkrs (ISTAT, 2010b). Elbrg d frm h lr sur, rls h ms f hm wr ldr wrkrs: 28.1% mg hs wrkrs gd frm 55 59; 49.5% f wrkrs gd frm 60 64; 75.7% f 65-69; 89.4% f d 93% f wrkrs gd 75 d vr. 12

17 Th rl f udlrd wrk Th rl f udlrd wrk mg rrd ppl Ily s ssumd b hgh (s ls Grld, 2000). Nvrhlss, ffl frm rg rrgulr wrk mg ldr wrkrs r by g r vlbl. ISTAT (2010) sms h 12.3% f l wrkg ppl 2009 wr rrgulr, d h hs shr ws smd rm subslly sbl bw 2001 d I h lr wrk, ISTAT dfd wrk s rrgulr wh prfrmd mpl wh h lgsl prg fsl d sl sury rbus, wh h squ h uld b bsrvd drly rprss, sus d dmsrv surs. Th msur f rrgulr wrk usd by ISTAT rfrs h p f full-m quvl us: hs rprs h rsfrm f lbur prvdd full-m us d r bd frm h sum f full-m d pr-m jbs (m d sdry) rsfrmd full-m us. Tbl 6. Irrgulr wrkrs u f l wrkrs by m sr d ggrphl r (%) Agrulur Idusry Buldg Srvs Nrh- ws Nrh- s Cr Suh Ily Sur: ISTAT 2010 Th dr s gv by h prg r f rrgulr full m quvl us l full m quvl us. Agrulur s rlvly h m sr wh h hghs prg f rrgulr wrk mprs rgulr [Expr 1]. I grl rms, shrs ly 3.9% f mplys, whl dusry shrs 28.5% d srvs shrs 67.6% (ISTAT, 2010). Grld (2000) fud h 1997, ms f h rrgulr wrk ws prfrmd h g sp frm yrs (50.8% f ll rrgulr wrk) whrs frm h g f 50 yrs wrds ud fr 6.5% f h l f rrgulr wrk. Tbl 6 ffrs vrvw f rrgulr wrk Ily, by sr. Prfssls prulr, my ry sp ps rbu (.. hrugh udlrd wrk) wh wrkg fr rrm g [Expr 4]. Th ps rfrm wll prbbly dsurg rrgulr wrk, bu msly mg yugr wrkrs s hy wll d qur rbu rh h rqurms fr bg ps, d h ppls lss wrkg psrs [Expr 3]. Irrgulr wrk s ls d h lgslv rgdy, fr s rl h vrm, hlh d sfy lgsl r rprs sr-up. Ths prulr uld ff vry smll bussss, mgd h fmly lvl [Expr 2]. 13

18 Chgs vr m Ev f d surs shw sm ss rsg vds, du h dffr smpl mps d dpd dfs, h wrk hrrss sm b qu sbl vr h ls yrs. Ardg h lbur fr survy, hr ws rs rrd ppl wrkg s wh llrs frm 18.5% 25% bw 2007 d All surs gr h rs slf-mplyd rrd wrkrs, whrs h vd rrd frlrs s rdry Th wrkg psrs A vsg f h phm by g grup llws udrsd h wrk fr rrm s wdsprd msly h g-sp bw 50 d 60 yrs, bu h prg f rrd wrkrs fr 65 yrs f g shuld b grd (splly rdg h ISTAT Lbur Fr Survy, s Tbl 7). I 1997 hwvr, wrkg psrs wr rprsd msly mg psrs gd yrs (17.1%), h mg hs (15.8%), (12.2%), (11.3%) d 65+ (3.4%) (Mlzz, 2000). Ardg Mlzz (2000), 1997, 60% f wrkg psrs wr Nrhr Ily, whrs 23% Crl Ily d 17% h Suh. Curr rrd wrkrs rsul mly mrrd (rg frm 63% 79.9% 2010/2011) fllwd by wdwd (frm 9.6% 21.2%). O h hr hd, wh wrkg psrs, sgl d dvrd ppl r lss rprsd (Tbl 7). Mv wrk My psrs r prbbly mvd wrk by dvdul mvs, s fr xmpl h ssy hlp hr hldr d grdhldr, gv h urr dffuls wssd by yugr wrkrs fdg jb (hs rs my wgh s muh s 60% f h l). Dmd by mplyrs sms b lss mpr (prbbly 30%) d v lss sms b mrk pprus (10%) [Expr 3]. Thr s url prpsy u wrk fr rrm, ulss h jb s prulrly rwrdg d hrrzd by hgh lvl f sus (lk publ p mgrs d drrs). Idvdul sus r lwys f gr mpr (prsl m, hushld ds, sus f sgl,.), ls gv h ps rfrm wll prgrssvly rdu h ps m [Exprs 1 d 2]. As lrdy udrld, h m d s mvr fr s xpd bm mr mpr h fuur, bu h ps su ws dffr. Idd, h bgg f h ury h ps m f wrkg ppl ws hghr wh rsp h vrg ps m, suggsg h h dsr rs s w m fr m dffuls mgh b h m r ls h ly rs wrk fr rrm, bg sd mr mpr fd r pprus h lbur mrk (Grld, 2000). Currly, slf-mplyd d prfssls r prbbly mvd bh by m ds d prsl rss. Emplys r prbbly drv lssr x by hr m su d by mrk pprus (publ pls d/r mplyrs dmd). Whl h pssbly prfrm llul wrk s rld dvdul 14

19 prpr d qulf, hrd d rpv wrk hs ll h b prfrmd fr 60 r 65 yrs f g [Expr 4]. Tbl 7. Chrrss f h wrkg psrs (%) D sur Bk f Ily IT-SILC ISTAT-Lbur Yr N , Gdr Ml Fml Up Ag lss d vr Mrrd Mrl Sus Sgl Dvrd/ Sprd Wdwd Edul lvl Lw Mdum Hgh Gd Hlh sus Nhr pr r gd Pr N.A Sur: ur lbr mulpl dbss Th m mvs wrk f rrd ppl V rg, rdg Prrshp Prg Equl Ag Mgm (2006), r mly du h dsr sy v d m rss. Th sudy ls rprd ss f mur, rrd wrkrs wh xprssd wrk fr rrm fr dffr rss: rsfr hr kwldg h yugr gr; rs hr m; vd drs hg hr lf d bus hy w sy v by bg usful hrugh pls vy (Prrshp Prg Equl Ag Mgm, 2006). Gdr dffrs As bsrvd Tbl 7 (s ls 2.1 d Mlzz, 2000), wrk fr rrm s mly ml phm. Wm s rrs r f shrr h m s s. Gv h sm kds f mvs 15

20 wrk fr rrm g r srgr h hghs pss, wm r plzd hs rsp. Wm r ls mr lkly b vlvd r vs wh hr fmls, dffr wys d dffr phss f hr rrs (hy r mhrs h bgg d h mddl f hr rr d h hy r vlvd s grdmhrs whl f kg r f hr ldr rlvs) [Exprs 3 d 4]. Wm wh mrrd prfssl ls shw lwr prpsy wrk, splly fr 60 r 65, hs dvrgg frm wm f h lwr sl lss. I hs s, m d sump lvls f prfssls hushlds r prbbly bsd h ml brdwr. Wh lrg publ d prv rgzs, wh wm rh p mgrl pss hy ls shw prpsy prlg wrkg lf (s h s f m) [Expr 1]. I dusry, whr prdu s lsr rfsmshp (s r xls prdus), ldr rrd wm r mr lkly b vlvd h rsmss f sklls yugr pprs. O h rry, srs hrrzd by hgh sdrdz f wrk d hgh shr f wm wrkrs (lk mrlrs r fd prssg), h prpsy f wm wrk fr rrm b lwr r bs, splly wh hr hushlds bf frm w ps ms [Expr 2]. Th rl plyd by h dul lvl Ev f ms f h vsgd dss rpr lw lvl f du fr ppl wh wrk fr rrm, rdg h IT-SILC, ms f hm hv rmd dul lvl. Isd, hghly dud wrkrs r lss rprsd. Ths s rhr ss wh rsuls h lvl f qulf s bv (s 3.1). Th rl plyd by hlh Tbl 7 shws h hlh ds f ppl wh wrk rrd r mly gd. Th rl plyd by hlh ds wrk fr rrm s sdrd f gr mpr. Wh h vrg rrm g ws bw 50 d 60 ( ls ul 2009), hlh ds dd rlly ff h prpsy u wrk fr rrm. Y, gv h h r ps rfrm hs rdud rrm g 66 srg frm 2018 (wh h pssbly f flxbl rrm bw 62 d 70), hvg gd hlh ds s gg hv grr mpr vr m [Expr 4]. Chgs vr m All h vsgd d surs rpr rs prg f wrk fr rrm fr wm h ls yrs. Ths my m h w hrs f rrd wm r mr p-mdd wrds h ppruy wrk fr rrm. Thrfr h gdr-gp s bg rdud, d hs phm s h rs v fr h g f 65 yrs. Rrd wrkrs r ls br hlh ds vr m, v f gv mp f h ps rfrm (du dfrrd ps) s xpd hs rsp. Crg wh rds vr m mrl sus d dul lvl, h vd s rdry. 16

21 3.3. Idvdul d sruurl furs: hw d hy r? Wh rsp h ms mpr prfls fr wrk fr rrm Ily, 2011 d frm h Msry f Lbur d Sl Pls shw h umrlly, rrd m r mr rprsd ll m srs (.. srvs, dusry d grulur). I prg, hwvr, 73% f rrd wm wrk h srvs sr gs 46% f m. M, sd, r mr rprsd dusry (45% vs. 23%), d grulur (9% vs. 4%), splly Suhr Ily (Grld, 2000). Ev f r rs fr spf jb my b ssumd fr wrkg fr rrm, h m mvl drvr ll srs fr bh gdrs my b h m. Furhrmr, rdg h xprs rvwd, h lr m drvr fuur prspv wll b v mr mpr, du h xpd rdu h fuur ps m. Afr h r rfrm, suff lvl f pr wll b md ly h s f lg d frgmd wrkg rrs, bfg f mdum-hgh wgs d h uld b rfrd by gd upl ps. Idvduls h lr gry r xpd rprs mr pr f fuur rrd wrkrs, d hs mr pr wll b mplyd hgh qulfd jbs. O h rry, lw sklld wrkrs wh frgmd wrkg rrs d hgh rsk f lg rm umplym fr 55 yrs f g, wll lkly vw wrk fr rrm s prssg ssy h r fuur [Exprs 1, 2 d 4]. Idd, gv ls h urr m rss, h umbr f wrkrs wh d uld h fuur u supplml upl ps s vry lmd (s ppl d hv m rsurs vs ). Ths wll hmpr v furhr h pssbly fr lw sklld bby bmrs hv d lvl f ps rbu bfr rrg [Exprs 1, 2 d 4]. I h x jus dsrbd, wrk fr rrm my hlp mlly suppr fuur psrs. Fr xmpl, h dvlpm f prsl r srvs d wrks ddrssd ldr prss, uld rprs rsg sr fr wrk fr rrm splly fr wm, d uld ls gv sdrbl rbu rms f GDP grwh [Expr 4]. Th prf sr uld ply rl rl hs rgrd, ffrg ldr rrd ppl h ppruy wrk d h pssbly fully prp mmuy lf [Expr 1]. 17

22 4. Gvrm pls Tbl 8. Wrk fr rrm Ily: ply vrvw M (ld g ps) 66 Wm (ld g ps) 62 (66 h Publ sr) Rrm g (r/d yrs f sry) fr bg ld publ ps (frd Jury 2012) Wm (slf-mplyd) M (sry ps) Wm (sry ps) mhs 42 yrs + 1 mh f rbu 41 yrs + 1 mh f rbu M 60 yrs-ld wh 36 yrs f rbu r 61 yrs-ld wh 35 yrs 31 Dmbr 2012 rr h g f 64. Wm 60 yrs-ld wh 20 yrs f rbu 31 Dmbr 2012 rr h g f 64. Old g ps: Wm 66 (frm 2018) Rfrm (frd Jury 2012): fuur sps M 67 (frm 2026) Wm 67 (frm 2026) Sry ps: Rrm g fr upl ps A ddl mh f rbu frm 2013 A furhr ddl mh f rbu frm 2014 M Wm Th sm g fr bg ld publ ps. I s vlbl fr mmum 5 yrs f rbu. Is h mplym r umlly rmd (plly prlgd by h mplyr) h sury ps g? Rrm fr sury rrm g s mpulsry. Wrkrs r prd by ulrl dsmssl f Lw. 214/2011 fr, whh sblshs flxbl rrm frm Erly rrm p, publ ps Pssbl hrugh h sry ps (s bv). Csqus fr mgud f ps Pssbl xps h rdu ( 31 Dmbr 2012) Rdu f 1% fr h yr f rly rrm bfr 62. Addl rdu f 2% fr h yr f rly rrm bfr 60. M wrkrs 60 yrs ld wh 36 yrs f rbu d 61 yrs ld wh 35 yrs f rbus rr rly 64. Wm wrkrs 60 yrs ld wh 20 yrs f rbu wll hv ld g ps

23 Erly rrm p, upl ps I s f prds f umplym vr 48 mhs, wrkrs sk rv upl ps 5 yrs bfr h sury rrm g. Wrkrs sk dvs h mu f ps, wh: ) hlh rms, vlvg ls spuss d hldr (75% mx y mm) b) buy h hus f rsd, ls hldr s dvg (75% mx, fr 8 yrs f rbu) ) hr prsl ds (30% mx, fr 8 yrs f rbu). Csqus fr mgud f ps Is llwd rv ps d wg h sm m? Wh r h squs fr h mgud f h ps? Wh r h x ruls wh rgrd m frm wrk, dd m frm publ d upl pss? Th ps wg wll b lwr s wll b luld shrr rbu prd. I s llwd h full mb f h mplym d ps m frm Jury 2009 (DL. 112/2008 s frd by Lw. 133/2008). Lms mb d us sblshd by prvus rms rm h fllwg ss: dsbly llw (ssg d vldà); ps fr survvrs; ps fr wrkrs udr r wrkfr msurs (Lvr Slm Ul); mmum m msurs; mplys wh rsfrm full-m wrk pr-m wrk. Dfrrl publ d upl ps I s pssbl hrugh flxbl rrm frm yrs f g. Mgud f yrly rul Th lul wll b md wh h rbu sysm d h rsfrm ff wll b 5,620%, ul 70. Ar mply/mplyr sl sury (hlh, publ ps,.) rbus sll b md wh wrkg byd rrm? Ys. Tbl 8 shws vrvw m pls d frm h rs frm wrk rrm Ily. Th vd shws h rps f v ply s suppr h prlg f wrkg lf r vry lmd x rrd ppl. Ardg r rsrh, vs rs h kwldg d h us f vs prlg wrkg lf spflly ddrssd rg f ppl vr 65, r 0.2% f h l vs suppr h prlg f wrkg lf (Chu, 2011). Pls whh r drly rlv h ssu f m frm wrk fr rrm Bsds h r 2012 ps rfrm whs m s d hw hs ffs wrk fr rrm hv lrdy b dsrbd hs bk d Tbl 8, h ms mpr p fr wrk fr rrm rms f pls, s h h full mb f mplym d ps m frm Jury 2009 s llwd (DL. 112/2008 s frd by Lw. 133/2008). Pss udr rrbuv shm b fully mbd wh mplym m h fllwg ss: 19

24 Old g pss; Sry pss wh 40 yrs f rbu; Sry pss h g f 59 d 36 yrs f rbu fr mplys d g f 60 d 36 yrs f rbu fr slf-mplyd wrkrs. Pss udr h w rbu-bsd shm ls b fully mbd wh mplym m rdg f h fllwg rqurms: 35 yrs f rbu d g luld h bss f h rrbuv shm rr (s bv); 40 r mr yrs f rbu h g f 65 fr m d 60 fr wm (mplys d slfmplyd wrkrs). Lms mb d us sblshd by prvus rms rm h fllwg ss: dsbly llw (ssg d vldà); ps fr survvrs; ps fr wrkrs udr r wrkfr msurs (Lvr Slm Ul); mmum m msurs; mplys wh rsfrm full-m wrk pr-m wrk. I prulr, h s f Dsbly Allw, h fllwg rdus r mpld: rdu f h llw by 25% f m lvl s 4 ms bv ul mmum (hrshld f 24, ); rdu f h llw by 50% f m lvl s 5 ms bv ul mmum (hrshld f 30, ); f fr h u h llw s sll vr h mmum ( pr mh 2011) hr uld b sd u, rdg h rbu lul: 40 yrs f rbu u; mplys blw 40 yrs f rbu u by 50% f h mu xdg h mmum; slf-mplyd wrkrs blw 40 yrs f rbu u by 30% f h mu xdg h mmum, y s vr 30% f m prdud by h wrkr; by rsfrmg h llw ld g ps, h m rm mb fr (s bv). Ps fr survvrs (rlvs f dsd wrkr r rrd wrkr) wll suffr frm y u f bfrs m lvl s 3 ms blw INPS ul mmum ( 18, ). Abv hs hrshld h u s 25% r 40% s m s 4 ms h ul mmum (hrshld 24, ) d 50% s m s 5 ms h ul mmum (hrshld 30, ). 20

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