Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Strategy (APEIS)

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1 Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Strategy (APEIS) Integrated Environmental Monitoring IEM) Dust Storm Over-cultivation Desertification Urbanization Floods Deforestation Masataka WATANABE, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan Jiyuan LIU, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS

2 Integrated Monitoring System Satellite Observation Network Ecological Observation Network MODIS high-order products Land surface temperature Land cover / Vegetation indices Fires & biomass burning Leaf area index / FPAR Photosynthesis / NPP GIS Data Digital maps Statistic data Other remote sensing date Ground-truth Measurements Meteorological data Hydrological data Vegetation data Soil properties data Ecological Indices Water deficit index Aridity Index of desertification Index of dust storm Integrated Model for Assessment of Ecological Function Water resources Carbon cycle Nutrient cycle Food Production and Security Disaster Protection Detection of Ecosystem Vulnerability Contribution to Policy Making

3 Urumq Beijing i Fukang Haibei Tsukuba Taoyuan Fukang Yucheng Qianyanzhou Taoyuan Haibei Singapore Qianyanzhou Data Center Australia Validation Site Coverage of MODIS data MODIS data Receiving Station Produced by NIES Data Center, Japan

4 Desertification and Dust Storm Yellow River Yellow River Gansu Desertified Land Dust storm MODIS Image: Desertification Date: 2001/04/13 MODIS Image: Dust Storm Date: 2002/04/01 Received by Beijing MODIS Station

5 Urbanization of Pearl River Delta Produced by Beijing MODIS Station

6 Fire in East Siberia & East China Active fire and smoke 2. New fire scar 3. Old fire scar Taken by Beijing Station, August. 8, 2002

7 Fire near Sumatra Fire near Canberra Hot Spots Hot Spots Image taken by CRISP, Singapore July Image taken by CSIRO, Australia January

8 Floods in Bangladesh Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC Satellite: Terra Sensor: MODIS Date:

9 On Sri Lanka, much of the native forests have been cleared Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC Satellite: Terra Sensor: MODIS Date:

10 Chlorophyll Concentration Terra MODIS, 27 March 2003, UTC 03:33 Produced by CRISP, Singapore

11 Monitoring Water-body Changes Changes in Water Area and Volume of East Dongting Lake 09-16, Jan , Jan m Lake & Wetland Produced by NIES Data Center, Japan

12 Water level" derived by TOPEX/Poseidon between 1993 (orbit cycle 11) and 1999 (orbit cycle 267) at Datong St. 10 Ground measured discharge(m 3 /s) y = x R 2 = "Water level" derived from T/P (m) Rating curve between TOPEX/Poseidon derived water level and measured discharge at Datong St. River discharge (10 4 m 3 /s) Q obs Q cal Days from 1/1/1998 Comparison of estimated and observed discharge at Datong St. in 1998 and 1999 by TOPEX/Poseidon data

13 Ground-truth Ecological Observation Network Water, heat and carbon fluxes at Yucheng observed by APEIS-FLUX network Wheat Corn CO2 Flux (umol/m 2 ) Sink Source Heat Flux (W/m 2 ) /25 4/25 5/25 6/25 7/25 8/25 9/25 10/25 Sensible heat flux Latent heat flux Produced by NIES Data Center, Japan Produced by NIES Data Center, Japan

14 Validation of MODIS High-order products by observations of APEIS-FLUX network Ts-Obs Ts_MODIS /26/02 8/10/02 8/25/02 9/9/02 9/24/02 10/9/02 10/24/02 02/1/1 02/3/1 02/5/1 02/7/1 02/9/1 02/11/ LAI_IEM LAI_MOD Produced by NIES Data Center, Japan 6/11/02 6/26/02 7/11/02

15 MODIS Data Processing System LST Level 0,1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Surface Reflectance Thermal Anomalies Land Cover/ Land Cover Change Land Surface Temperature (LST) Vegetation Indices (NDVI & EVI) Albedo16-day L3 Vegetation Cover Conversion Leaf Area Index & FPAR Photosynthesis and NPP NDVI FPAR Integrated Model for Land-surface Process, Ecosystem function, and Crop Production LST, Australia

16 Seasonal Change of Vegetation in 2002, Mongolia Produced based on NASA s products by NIES Data Center, Japan

17 NDVI Coverage of Beijing and Urumqi stations 08-23, July-2002, Produced by Beijing Data Center, China

18 Land Use Change During Last Ten Years in China Produced by Beijing Data Center, China

19 APPLICATION OF ECOLOGICAL INDICES MODIS High-order Products NDVI, LAI, Surface Temp. Land Cover, Albedo Ground Truth Observation Data Heat Flux Soil Heat Flux Radiation Transfer Heat Budget Water Budget Scio-economic data Wind Speed Land Use Water Deficit Index Litter Biomass Soil Nutrient Socio-economy Dust storm Forest Fire Crop Production

20 Catchment-based Integrated Model GIS Database Geographical Socio-economical Soil & Nutrients Flux Tower Ecological Station Ice & Snow Soil Moisture Groundwater Rain fall Forest Runoff Dam MODIS Satellite Data Evapotranspiration Grass Agricultural Production Model Carbon Cycling Model Crop Nitrogen Cycling Model Lake Evaporation Urban Sea Simulation of Soil Water Content Water Cycling Model Discharge Soil Moisture Runoff and Flood Desertification Dust Storm Simulation of Changjiang River Discharge

21 Simulation of Irrigation Schedule and Water Use Efficiency (Contribute to Agricultural Water Use Policy) Main items Simulation Measurement Yield (kg/ha) Weight per grain (g) Grain number (grain/m2) Grains per ear Maximum LAI

22 APEIS Capacity Building Workshop on Integrated Environmental Monitoring of Asia-Pacific Region September 2002, Beijing, China

23 Workshop on Sustainable Environmental Management of Catchment Ecosystem in Asia-Pacific Region, Nov. 2002, UNU, Tokyo

24 Message from IEM 1. Large scale environmental degradation in Asia-Pacific Region caused by climate change and human activities can be detected by MODIS Network 2. Environmental degradation in terms of area, frequency and degree in Asia-Pacific Region are found to be much severer than predicted. 3. Most environmental degradations are related with water issues, such as desertification, floods, drought, dust storm, forest fire, water shortage, water pollution, etc. 4. Catchment-based environmental management is essential for sustainable development. IEM is contributing to the Task Force of Integrated River Basin Management in China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED). 5. Establishment of regional information system communicating with decision makers in Asia-Pacific Region is proposed.

25 Participation Organization: National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan Institute for Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), China National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Australia Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN), China Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography (XIEG), CAS, China Institute of Subtropical Agriculture (ISA), CAS, China Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology (NPIB), CAS, China Web sites

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