FEBRUARY Karsten Gareis Tobias Hüsing Strahil Birov Inna Bludova Carola Schulz Werner B. Korte. by: Ref. Ares(2014) /02/2014

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1 Ref. Ares(201) /02/201 E-SKILLS FOR JOBS IN EUROPE: MEASURING PROGRESS AND MOVING AHEAD FIINAL REPORT FEBRUARY 201 Prepared for the European Commission by: Karsten Gareis Tobias Hüsing Strahil Birov Inna Bludova Carola Schulz Werner B. Korte empirica Gesellschaft für Kommunikations- und Technologieforschung mbh, Bonn, Germany with the support of:

2 Table of Content 0 Executive Summary Introduction Objectives and background of the study Definition of e-skills used in this report E-skills policies and stakeholder initiatives in Europe Policies and initiatives at Member State level Multi-stakeholder partnerships for e-skills Cross-national initiatives by industry Recent developments and emerging approaches Assessment and validation of e-skills policies in Europe Results from a Stakeholder Survey Objectives Approach and methodology Survey results...88 e-skills supply and demand in Europe Definitions ICT workforce in Europe today and developments from ICT graduates in Europe E-skills demand in Europe ICT professional workforce forecasts The changing profile of the ICT workforce Interpreting the results Outlook Policy recommendations First recommendation: Launch initiatives in countries lagging behind Second recommendation: Scale up efforts through longer term policy commitment Third recommendation: Adapt education and training to the digital age Fourth recommendation: foster ICT professionalism and quality Fifth recommendation: Build bridges for all students, graduates and workers Annex A: Methodology Research design Assessment of e-skills policies and stakeholder initiatives Annex B: Analysis of multi-stakeholder partnerships for e-skills List of candidates for good practice Selected good practice cases: Results of the benchmarking analysis Evolution of Best Practice cases from Annex C: List of national level stakeholders and experts who provided input to the study First phase Initial data collection Second phase Validation / 253

3 List of Exhibits Exhibit 1: Digital Literacy and e-skills Policy and Stakeholder Initiatives Exhibit 2: Digital Literacy and e-skills Policy and Stakeholder Initiatives Exhibit 3: Summary assessment of national policy and stakeholder initiatives in the e-skills domain...29 Exhibit : Comparison of country performance 2009 to Exhibit 5: European country landscape on e-skills policy activity versus ICT innovation capability Exhibit 6: European country landscape on e-skills policy activity versus ICT innovation capability Exhibit 7: European country clusters on e-skills policy activity versus ICT innovation capability Exhibit 8: European country landscape on e-skills policy activity versus Share of ICT Workforce 2013 Exhibit 9: Annual graduates per core ICT workforce (3 year averages) in European countries Exhibit 10: Annual graduates per core ICT workforce (3 year averages) in European countries 2010 by e- skills activity index Exhibit 9: Relevance of certifications for recruitment or promotion of ICT professionals...68 Exhibit 10: Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs - Overview of pledges by late October Exhibit 11: Stakeholder survey Respondents by country...88 Exhibit 12: Stakeholder survey Respondents by affiliation...89 Exhibit 13: Stakeholder assessment of the appropriateness and effectiveness of e-skills policies and initiatives in Europe...90 Exhibit 1: Stakeholder satisfaction with European e-skills policies and initiatives...96 Exhibit 15: Stakeholder satisfaction with national e-skills policies and initiatives...97 Exhibit 16: Stakeholder assessment of the impact of e-skills policies + initiatives at country level...99 Exhibit 17: Stakeholder assessment of the tangible benefits of European e-skills policies and initiatives in Europe Exhibit 18: Stakeholder assessment of the relevance of European e-skills policies and initiatives in the future Exhibit 19: Stakeholder assessment on the e-skills supply and demand until Exhibit 20: CEN ICT job profiles based on e-cf Exhibit 21: ICT profiles as a definition template of the ICT profession Exhibit 22: ICT workforce in Europe in Exhibit 23: ICT professional workforce Exhibit 2: ICT professional workforce as share of employed Labour Force in Europe Exhibit 25: Development of ICT employment and average annual growth rates in Europe Exhibit 26: Global IT market and EU ICT jobs (growth in %) Exhibit 27: Enrolment in and Graduates from Computer Science studies (ISCED 5A and 5B) in Europe (EU27) Exhibit 28: ICT graduates (first degrees in ISCED 5A and first qualifications in 5B) in Europe Exhibit 29: Tertiary level computer science graduates in European countries Exhibit 30: Vocational graduates in Computing in European countries Exhibit 31: Main forecast scenario : Real GDP growth / 253

4 Exhibit 32: Main forecast scenario : IT spending growth Exhibit 33: e-skills Jobs Main forecast scenario : Development ICT Professional e-skills Jobs in Europe Exhibit 3: e-skills Demand Potential - Main forecast scenario : Development of ICT Professional e-skills Demand Potential in Europe Exhibit 35: e-skills Vacancies Estimate- Main forecast scenario : Summing-up of National ICT Professional Excess Demand in Europe Exhibit 36: e-skills Vacancies Estimate- Main forecast scenario : Distribution of vacancies per country Exhibit 37: Main Forecast Scenario: ICT Professional Jobs and Demand in Europe (EU-27) Exhibit 38: Stagnation scenario: Real GDP growth Exhibit 39: Stagnation scenario: IT spending growth Exhibit 0: e-skills Jobs Stagnation scenario: Development ICT Professional e-skills Jobs in Europe Exhibit 1: e-skills Demand Potential - Stagnation scenario: Development of ICT Professional e-skills Demand Potential in Europe Exhibit 2: e-skills Vacancies Estimate- Stagnation scenario: Summing-up of National ICT Professional Excess Demand in Europe Exhibit 3: Stagnation Scenario: ICT Professional Jobs and Demand in Europe (EU-27) Exhibit : Disruptive boost : Real GDP growth Exhibit 5: Disruptive boost : IT spending growth Exhibit 6: e-skills Jobs Disruptive boost scenario : Development ICT Professional e-skills Jobs in Europe Exhibit 7: e-skills Demand Potential - Disruptive boost scenario : Development of ICT Professional e- skills Demand Potential in Europe Exhibit 8: e-skills Vacancies Estimate- Disruptive boost scenario : Summing-up of National ICT Professional Excess Demand in Europe Exhibit 9: ICT Professional Jobs and Demand in Europe (EU-27) Exhibit 50: Comparison of the three scenarios: Vacancies Exhibit 51: ICT workforce profile changes Exhibit 52: Expected ICT workforce profile changes Main forecast scenario...10 Exhibit 5: Overview of the service contract s components and related outputs...19 Exhibit 55: The study approach Data capture and validation with support of ENIR network Exhibit 56: Presentation format for findings of national policy assessment Exhibit 57: Criteria for selecting MSPs for a good practice MSP candidate short-list Exhibit 58: Benchmarking criteria for selecting good practice MSPs Exhibit 59: Good practice MSP evaluation criteria Exhibit 61: Major MSPs in the field of e-skills development Disclaimer The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission. Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the information provided in this document. / 253

5 0 Executive Summary Objectives, background and research methods The general goal of this service contract is to monitor the supply and the demand of e-skills across Europe and to benchmark national policy initiatives and multi-stakeholder partnerships in the European Union. To this end, the service contract analyses the evolution of the supply and demand in the last ten years, with the objective to provide a basis for: understanding the impact of the initiatives launched at EU and national level since 2008; propose new approaches (wherever appropriate) to remedy the situation; and identify successful ways and efficient means to foster multi-stakeholder partnerships to reduce e-skills shortages, gaps and mismatches. The service contract has to be seen against the Commission s Communication on e-skills for the 21 st Century (2007) which presented a long term e-skills agenda, The Digital Agenda (2010) and the Communication Towards a Job-rich Recovery (2012) which include new proposals regarding e-skills. Recent developments include the launch of the Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs by the European Commission at a Conference in Brussels on -5 March 2013, which was hosted by President José Manuel Barroso Vice Presidents Neelie Kroes and Antonio Tajani, Commissioners László Andor and Androula Vassiliou as well as Richard Bruton, Irish Minister for Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation. This service contract builds on previous work, commissioned by the EC, on supply and demand of e- skills across the EU and on policy / stakeholder initiatives Member States are taking to make sure that their labour markets receive the required quantities and qualities of ICT practitioners. An evaluation carried out in 2010 (eskills21 Evaluation of the Implementation of the Communication on e-skills for the 21 st Century ) came to the conclusion that the first two years after adoption of the European e-skills Agenda have seen impressive (if variable) progress across the EU: Member States were increasingly developing e-skills strategies, making use also of innovative approaches such as multi-stakeholder partnerships incorporating stakeholders who are not traditionally part of education system. Nevertheless, it was widely recognised that more needed to be done to address innovation skills shortages and to implement the European e-skills Agenda. As the 2012 Communication Towards a job-rich recovery and the associated Staff Working Document on Exploiting the employment potential of ICTs states, according to the most reliable estimates by 2015 Europe is expected to face a shortage of approximately 700,000 ICT practitioners. Lack of skilled workers, often referred as ICT skills gap, remains one of the reasons. Education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics needs to be strengthened and the career image of these fields improved, in particular for women. Policy and stakeholder initiatives related to e-skills development Our analysis shows a significant level of activity in the large majority of Member States. This applies to the digital literacy domain, where the target audience is the entire population or specified subgroups thereof, such as people at risk of being excluded from the knowledge-based society. It also applies, to almost the same extent, to the area of ICT practitioner skills. Our assessment of national policy and stakeholder initiatives in the e-skills domain across all (then 1 ) EU Member States shows high or even very high levels of activity in many countries not only in the Digital Literacy domain but also in the e-skills area where the focus is on ICT practitioners and professionals rather than the population at large. 1 Croatia, which joined the EU after the start of the service contract, has not been covered 5 / 253

6 Of the 27 Member States, 12 have a value of 3 or higher on the 5-point index scale for e-skills activity. The group of leading countries includes the U.K. and Ireland. Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, Malta the Netherlands and Sweden also perform strongly in terms of the level of activity for Level of policy and stakeholder activity on e-skills (2013) Country e-skills activity index Digital Literacy activity index e-leadership skills index AT BE BG CY CZ DE DK EE EL ES FI FR HU IE IT LT LU LV MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK UK ensuring adequate supply of ICT practitioners on the labour market today and in the future. The range of interventions used is very broad. There are clear indications that the 2007 e-skills Agenda and the subsequent initiatives by the European Commission have triggered Member States to engage in public debates about the e-skills issue and helped them to develop appropriate responses. However, the degree of integration and consistency of policy-making is still limited in a significant number of Member States. Most countries lack a master strategy or the topic still does not attract continuous attention in policy-making across the different policy areas concerned. Typically, measures are taken for adapting the education system to the demands of a knowledgebased economy, but in some countries little reference is being made to ICT practitioner skills and the need to boost supply of suitably qualified ICT professionals (e.g. Czech Republic, Luxembourg). Initiatives targeting young people, especially girls, with the intention to develop a positive attitude towards STEM subjects in general and a career in ICT in particular, are widespread, which is not surprising given their modest cost and strong (if short-lived) attraction for the media. They do, however, sometimes seem to lack sustainability and make use of questionable pedagogical/methodological approaches. Since the onset of the current economic crisis in Europe and the resulting jump in unemployment rates across most of Europe, policy-makers have tended to direct their attention away from the issue of (current or upcoming) skilled worker shortages. The widespread problem of budget deficits appears to have a negative impact on some Member States' ability to follow through with plans to address the e-skills topic more full-heartedly and in a systematic way, especially in countries with below average GDP/head. This appears to apply, for example, to Portugal, Greece, Slovenia and Cyprus. In their place, available sources of financial support (such as ESF funds) are being used to re-train unemployed persons for jobs in the ICT domain, but national experts tend to be very sceptical about the effectiveness of such measures in terms of the success in providing e- skills needed on the labour market, especially in the countries with the highest rates of unemployment. Other countries, however, have taken the route of strategic, long-term policy making in the e-skills domain, with strong engagements from a wide range of stakeholders in the public sector as well as the business and civic sectors. The United Kingdom has extensive experience in e-skills related policy development and remains a benchmark for multi-stakeholder partnership in this domain. The Netherlands and Ireland also benefit from strong policy leadership in the e-skills domain; these 6 / 253

7 countries have a master strategy in place as well as a comprehensive infrastructure for adapting measures closely to changes in supply and demand for different types of ICT practitioners. Sweden has an e-skills Council and shows evidence of a high level of maturity in terms of mainstreaming the e-skills issue throughout all parts of the country's education system. Some countries, such as Denmark and Austria, use their ambitious e-government strategies as a horizontal lever to promote e-skills policy goals across a wide spectrum of policy domains, with a focus on the education sector, which is dominated by public education providers in both countries. In Denmark, a range of initiatives driven by universities in cooperation with other national stakeholders have been taken. There is already strong evidence for substantial success in attracting young people to ICT study courses over the last 10 years in the country. Significant policy leadership and vision in the s-skills area is also found in countries with belowaverage economic strength (as indicated by GDP/head). This applies to Estonia which, as it places ICT at the heart of its strategy for economic development, is fully aware of the need to ensure a steady supply of sufficiently qualified ICT practitioners for medium and long-term prosperity. Neighbouring Latvia also has become active with a master strategy to develop e-skills. The general picture suggests that most Member States have responded to the European e-skills Agenda with a delay of a few years. For example, France has developed a comprehensive policy strategy with its Roadmap on Digital Policy in 2013, after a lengthy period during which national experts have complained that the country lacked policy leadership in the e-skills domain. Given the newly established policy framework, the situation in the country is expected to improve much now, also because of the strong engagement of the non-governmental sector. Spain may be on the same path as it has stepped up activities in the context of the new Digital Agenda, but it appears to early to tell yet how strong policy commitment will be. The long-term continuity and sustainability of state programmes on e-skills has been negatively affected by the electoral cycle in some Member States. In Malta, a country that has shown policy leadership in the e-skills area as exemplified by set-up of the eskills Malta Alliance in 2010, a change of government in 2013 resulted in the future of the Alliance being in doubt. At the time of writing, however, the Alliance is about to be re-established in a new format. In Hungary, the Orbán government after coming to power set out to overhaul the tertiary education system, which in the face of strong opposition by stakeholders in the university system has diverted attention away from the challenge of how to improve the country's ability to produce sufficient numbers of ICT practitioners. Some countries are seeking to secure public investments in grants offered to ICT students against the risk that graduates leave the country in search for higher wages elsewhere. To this end, Hungary has introduced legislation according to which state subsidies to university education (scholarships) must be paid back if a graduate seeks employment abroad within a certain number of years after graduation. In Malta, education grants under the "Get Qualified" scheme are paid out as tax incentives, i.e. only in the case that the graduate is employed in Malta. In other Member States again, governments have shown limited commitment to the e-skills issue, but other stakeholders industry, trade unions, and the civic sector show high levels of activity. Bulgaria lacks a strategic policy approach on e-skills development, but the country's strong software industry has stepped in to fill the gap with a range of ambitious initiatives. In Germany, major industry players have taken the lead for instance in e-skills training and certification. Here, the focus is increasingly moving from the national to the regional, as key stakeholders on a region's market for ICT practitioner supply & demand join forces to address current shortcomings and projected shortages and mismatches. In Belgium, most of the policies related to e-skills (e.g. education and training) are in the remit of the federated bodies, and the country's regions have long-established programmes which are generally regarded to be successful in spite of serious administrative hurdles, such as in the 7 / 253

8 Brussels region. Some of these initiatives have even started to cross borders, i.e. to address supply & demand issues concerning e-skills in a border region. Other countries still concentrate mainly on digital literacy activities with no e-skills related policies apart from promotion and awareness raising measures (e.g. Greece but also Italy, Hungary) and show little e-skills policy activity (e.g. Lithuania, Romania, Slovak Republic). Poland used to belong to this group as well, but has very recently shown strong efforts to e-skills development, reflected by the Broad Agreement for Digital Skills in Poland signed in July In Lithuania, as well, developments are pointing in the right direction: In early November 2013 a Lithuanian National Digital Coalition was officially launched with the commitment of the Lithuania's government educational, library and digital and ICT sectors to boost digital skills and jobs in Lithuania. Finland presents a very interesting example as it has to deal with a decreasing ICT sector as a result of the poor performance in recent years of the sector's national giant, Nokia. The short-term issue here is not shortage of ICT practitioners, but quite the opposite: a surplus of ICT professionals who have been shed by Nokia (or one of Nokia's suppliers) and who now must be enabled to find reemployment, including the option of self-employment, i.e. setting up their own business. Nokia in cooperation with the country's tertiary education providers as well as local/regional governments have set up a major programme for this purpose. Evidence so far suggests that this programme promises to become the most successful campaign for entrepreneurial activity based on ICT practitioner skills in the whole of Europe. Developments since 2009 Research that preceded the present one already found evidence for a huge variation concerning the level of activity by national governments and stakeholders in the e-skills area. There is a need, of course, to interpret such differences in the context of the overall economic development of the respective countries and the maturity of its ICT practitioner labour market. It is for this reason that our previous research suggested that the analysis should be carried out by taking into account each Member States' performance on the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) published by the World Economic Forum. Using a grouping of Member States according to the NRI in 2009 (the reference year for our last study on the subject), the 2013 research allows exploring to what extent different strategies have been used by countries according to their position in terms of Networked Readiness. Group A included countries with very high levels of digital literacy and e-skills availability in the workforce but only modest level of activity in terms of policy and stakeholder initiatives in the e-skills domain in 2009: Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, and Estonia. All of these have seen sharply increasing levels of policy and stakeholder activity between 2009 and Our research suggests that the Nordic countries have reached a higher level of maturity by now, as initiatives are focusing not on boosting supply of ICT practitioners in general, but rather on channeling ICT students to those segments of the ICT labour market where the risk of shortages is expected to be highest. At the same time, the large number of ICT practitioners in these countries' workforces means that retraining of ICT practitioners has become an issue especially in Finland, where there are now too many people with skills in mobile telephony and too few in parts of the market which are more dynamic. In this situation, efforts are focusing on boosting entrepreneurial activity, which explains why there is increasing debate about the need for the provision of e-leadership skills. Group B included countries with high levels of digital literacy and e-skills availability in the workforce as well as significant levels of policy and stakeholder activity in the e-skills domain (the U.K. and to a lesser extent the Germany, France and the Netherlands). In all of these, levels of policy and stakeholder activity have further increased, especially so in France and the Netherlands, both of which are seing strong policy leadership. Germany does not have a 8 / 253

9 national e-skills strategy, but benefits from a strong role of stakeholders from industry. The UK's approach in the last decade has relied on strong financial engagement by the state and industry, which the recent economic crisis has made difficult to sustain. Nevertheless, the country's initiatives in the e-skills domain remain a worldwide benchmark for policy intervention in the area, with e-skills UK, the Sector Skills Council for the area, at the core of most activities. The second category had been composed of countries with medium range NRI figures. It had been split in two subgroups: Group C comprised countries with high levels of activity and at the same time large e-skills gaps as reported by industry, which meant that these countries could be expected to close existing gaps over the medium to long term. This included Ireland, Belgium and Malta, which were recommended to continue with high levels of effective activity. These Member States have indeed continued to show strong commitment to the e-skills topic, in spite of considerable challenges in the form of administrative hurdles (Belgium), strong budgetary constraints (Ireland); and termination of established multi-stakeholder partnerships following a change in government (Malta). Group D included Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Luxembourg, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain with modest levels of policy and stakeholder activity but also smaller e-skills gaps, with the exception of Slovenia. In the period 2009 to 2013, this group has again displayed medium to low levels of policy and stakeholder activity. In all of these countries with the exception of Luxembourg, the economy has been hit hard by the Eurozone debt crisis, leading to high rates of unemployment. This might have resulted in labour shortages being given little priority by policy makers. These countries will require, however, a strong ICT workforce in order to manage the structural shift of their economies towards sectors that offer room for strong growth. The third category of countries was represented by: Group E, with comparatively low NRI figures in the range of.0 to This included some countries with medium levels of activity in the e-skills area (Hungary, Latvia and to a lesser extent Romania and Poland), raising the expectation that policy and stakeholder initiatives would help improve the situation in the years to come. In the period 2009 to 2013, however, three of these four have displayed decreased levels of policy and stakeholder activity, which suggests that governments found it hard to sustain a focus on shortages of ICT practitioners in the face of growing budget deficits. Much of the activity in these countries appears to be related to the use of Structural Funds money for providing unemployed workers with ICT user skills and sometimes to retrain them to become ICT professionals. While this approach may bring short-term benefits in terms of availability of sufficiently e-skilled workers on the national labour market, it is unlikely to be of use for ensuring that employers will have an adequate supply of ICT practitioners in the medium to long term. Positive exceptions in this group are Poland, which has shown increasing efforts to secure future supply of suitably qualified ICT practitioners; and Bulgaria, in which non-government stakeholders mainly from the ICT industry have taken the lead in the absence of policy leadership by the government. e-leadership skills policy activities in 2013 Our research indicates that e-leadership skills have started to become an issue in policy and stakeholder initiatives of 21 of 27 EU Member States. Developments are still in their infancy, though, with the exception of Denmark, Germany, Finland, Malta, the Netherlands and the U.K.: Denmark has a well-developed system for entrepreneurship training, with e-leadership skills on the way to become a key component of the education programmes. 9 / 253

10 In Finland initiatives in response to the contraction of the Nokia ecosystem have included largescale promotion of entrepreneurship predominantly in the digital domain. These have included comprehensive training measures to equip prospective entrepreneurs with e-leadership and traditional business skills. Education providers have responded by developing training in e- leadership skills. In Germany the Software Campus set up in 2012 is among the first major initiatives in Europe that focuses explicitly on e-leadership skills. It has lead to an increased awareness about the need for e- leadership skills and related training and education offers. In Malta skills for e-leadership and digital entrepreneurship attract considerable attention amongst policy-makers and other national stakeholders. The Centre for Entrepreneurship and Business Incubation at Malta University and the Microsoft Innovation Centre have started to provide training in this area. In the Netherlands some first stakeholder initiatives which explicitly deal with e-leadership skills and digital entrepreneurship have been launched in recent years. Examples include integrated business development initiatives such as the Brainport Talent Region; and national campaigns and training schemes targeting SMEs such as Slimmer & veilig ondernemen in 1 minuut. Several Dutch universities (Nyenrode, Tias Nimbas Tilburg, TU Delft) are also actively involved in the EuroCIO Executive Education Programme addressed to EuroCIO members which addresses the e-skills shortage in industry and are since recently also addressing e-leadership skills. In the United Kingdom increasing emphasis is put on e-leadership skills with the advent of the Information Economy Strategy and Council and the proposed joint action by government, business and academia on digital skills. Education providers have started to develop innovative offers at the interface between ICT and business management. It becomes apparent that e-leadership skills have only become an issue in countries which rank at the top in Europe in terms the propensity for a country to exploit the opportunities offered by ICTs (as reflected in the NRI Index). Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) on e-skills Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) are defined as initiatives jointly operated by organisations from the established education and training sector and private-sector partners (industry associations, employers from the private sector). The latter take over responsibilities which in traditional education systems have been held (more or less) exclusively by public sector or civic sector institutions. MSPs build on the idea that the private sector can complement and extend services provided by the public sector, with the objective to enhance available resources and thus achieve faster and stronger impact. To be successful MSPs need to have an emphasis on involving all key stakeholders which are of relevance for a certain e-skills related issue. This is seen as the best way to ensure that progress will be self-sustainable and all-encompassing, as opposed to the piecemeal, uncoordinated approaches which too often dominate the modernisation of systems of higher education and VET in Europe. From an industry viewpoint, multi-stakeholder partnerships present the possibility of overcoming the traditional polarisation between the public education system, which is the main factor behind supply of (formalised) skills on the labour market, and private sector employers, which exert demand for particular skills. Our 2013 research on multi-stakeholder partnerships on e-skills showed that existing initiatives can be clustered into eight categories according to their main focus: Awareness raising activities: These initiatives are based on the premise that there is limited understanding about ICT practitioners, their role within the economy in quantitative and qualitative terms, their relevance for the performance of SMEs, career prospects in ICT, etc. Typical target groups include young people prior to taking decisions which have a bearing on 10 / 253

11 their later career, i.e. students in primary, secondary and tertiary education. There is a huge variety of approaches being used to address this particular target group across Europe, ranging from competitions and event-type "meet your future employer" activities to tools and platforms that seek to make ICT a "cool" career choice among teenagers. Providing the basis at early age: This includes initiatives for adapting primary and secondary education in order not only to provide basic ICT user skills at an early age, but also to raise interest in continuing with computing related studies after secondary school. In recent years all Member States have been engaged in a updating and modernising school curricula and ICT infrastructure to fit the rapid pace of technical innovation as well as the evolving needs of industry and society. The success has been variable and depends to some extent, of course, on the ability of each country to finance investments in its education system. Some countries have subjected their complete system of primary and secondary education to scrutiny and developed ways to mainstream pupils' exposure to STEM related subjects, as a means to increase interest in technological subjects from an early point onwards. Curricula have been overhauled with the purpose of embedding ICT use and media literacy within all segments of the learning process. Denmark, for example, has introduced a new school subject "Computational thinking and practice" which represents the state-of-the-art in the didactical approach to teaching computing related issues at school. The U.K. are advancing along similar lines. Initiatives focussing on girls/women: A sub-group of the former type of MSPs targets school age girls and young women. With very few exceptions, women are significantly underrepresented among both current ICT practitioners and ICT students. Some of the longestrunning initiatives mentioned in the present report have the objective to make ICT-related study fields more interesting for young women. In both Germany and Austria, these programmes have started in the early years of the last decade already. Many other Member States have initiatives specifically targeting girls and young women as well, often using mentor programmes through which female ICT students or graduates are sent into schools as role models. Development and provision of tailored education & training according to the needs of the labour market: In the face of, on the one hand, increasing rates of unemployment and, on the other hand, hard-to-fill vacancies for ICT practitioners, many Member States have attempted to channel graduates and other jobseekers towards particular ICT jobs for which their is strong demand. The Republic of Ireland has been especially successful in this area. New approaches to VET are being sought as well: Some initiatives seek to provide students and workers with alternative channels of educational achievement and to offer improved means for on-thejob and just-in-time learning. Career support, lifelong learning and e-leadership training: The fact that the ICT profession is less clearly defined as other, more established professions means that the transparency of the ICT labour market for employees seeking to make career choices is less than optimal. Initiatives for career support of ICT practitioners have been set up to help improve this situation. Often such programmes provide users with market information tailored to their individual needs. They also intend to help individuals who look for (re)training in professional e-skills by supplying advice for finding appropriate training offers on the market. e-skills competence frameworks, certification and job matching: The development of widely recognised e-skills frameworks and definitions has been taken place at the national level in the 1990s already (e.g. AITTS with APO-IT in Germany; SFIA in the U.K.; Les Métiers des Systèmes d Information dans les Grandes entreprises Nomenclature RH in France). It received a strong push in recent years with the development of the European e-competence Framework (e-cf). A large number of schemes for education and certification of e-skills in Europe make use of, or are closely aligned with, the e-cf. There also is increasing activity at sub-national level to 11 / 253

12 establish coherent systems to steer relevant professional skills to where there is demand for ICT practitioners, and to counsel job seekers in issues concerning re-skilling and certification. Facilitating geographical workforce mobility across regions and countries is an important element in this, as shown by the example of CompeTIC, a cross-boarder project between the Belgian Walloon Region and the French Region North-Pas-de-Calais. Related measures include the implementation of strongly user-centred Internet portals/knowledge databases plus campaigns for raising awareness among employers, especially SMEs with limited HRM capabilities. Comprehensive, national e-skill partnerships with strong government role : In addition to the focused initiatives discussed above, a number of Member States feature strongly governmentsupported partnerships that are engaged in a whole range of e-skills related measures and initiatives, based on a long-term strategical approach in close alignment with policy-making. The most well-known example is e-skills UK, which as Skills Sector Council for the ICT sector is subject to control by the government, but has also benefitted from significant public funding as well as from strong policy support. Budget cuts have made it more difficult to maintain this kind of governance model, in the U.K. but also elsewhere. Comprehensive, national e-skill partnerships with limited government role : In other countries, such comprehensive partnerships in the e-skills domain have been established with little or no government influence. One example is France's which enjoys strong support from the business sector as well as the relevant trade unions, but is not embedded in the government's policy agenda to the same degree as this is the case with e-skills UK. Stakeholder and expert survey on effectiveness and relevance of EU and national e-skills policies Stakeholder opinions and views on the effectiveness and relevance of e-skills policies were obtained through an interview survey, which was administered online and accompanied by telephone interviews. The survey was addressed to around 1,000 experts from national governments and governmental agencies involved in e-skills policy making; higher education; research and academia; ICT industry and the business sector at large; social partners; associations; and consultants. The response rate of was 17% with 171 experts getting involved and responding. 111 responses could be used for the statistical analysis. Those types of policies which were most widely perceived as appropriate and effective include: Provision of market information on current and future e-skills supply and demand; Activities by universities on new ICT curricula and programme development for Bachelor and Master courses; Vocational school activities teaching dedicated subjects for students to become an ICT practitioner, Initiatives around e-skills frameworks and associated online tool development; Institution building: establishment of a dedicated (possibly government funded) institution (like e-skills UK) to promote and support the ICT profession through a multitude of activities. Respondents almost unanimously state that nearly all existing types of e-skills policies and initiatives will be of high or even very high relevance in the near future. When it comes to the role of the European Commission and Member States governments, experts and stakeholders call on both to step up their efforts in the e-skills domain. This applies especially to the national governments level, which according to the large majority of respondents needs to become much more active to prove capable of meeting the challenges surrounding shortage of suitably qualified ICT practitioners in Europe. 12 / 253

13 e-skills supply and demand in Europe The ICT workforce in Europe in 2012 includes 7. million workers, which is 3.% of the European workforce. The workforce of ICT professionals as used in this report includes: Management and architecture and analysis level skills (1.5 million); ICT practitioners at professional level (3. million); ICT practitioners at associate/technicians level (2.5 Million). A mapping the available statistical classification data (ISCO-08) to the CEN ICT job profiles is done in the following picture and gives an overview of the occupational structure of the ICT workforce. ICT profiles as a definition template of the ICT profession 2012 ICT managers 280,200 ICT consultants 517,100 Systems analyst /architect 680,200 Telco eng 263,00 ICT sales professionals 183,000 Software developers 672,00 Other SW/app developer/analyst Applications programmers 592,100 Electronics engineers 292,300 ICT trainers 36,800 Web / multimedia dev 1,700 Database design/ admin 9,300 Syste ms admins 23,00 Web technicians 52,900 ICT operations technicians 388,00 ICT user support technicians Process control Medical records technicians; technicians Other Db/ntwkpro Broadcst/audio-vis tech ,700 Computer network 192,600 Electronics engineering and systemstechnicians technicians Medic. imag. Network professionals 319, , ,800 Telco engtechn /therap. eqmt techn 130, Air traffic safety electronics technicians Source: empirica ICT practitioners are working in almost all industries of the economy and not just in the ICT industry sector, and it appears reasonable to assume that almost full employment of this occupational group exists in Europe. Three countries already account for half of today s jobs, namely the United Kingdom, Germany and France. Adding Italy, Spain, Poland and the Netherlands, already this group of seven would reflect three quarters of the European ICT professional workforce. The share of the ICT professional workforce within the total workforce is 3.% in Europe and varies significantly across the European countries. United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with a share of above 5% can be found at the highest ranks in this regards. 13 / 253

14 The Netherlands feature the largest share of management, architecture and analysis jobs within the IT workforce, their share is 0%, followed by Sweden (35%) and Finland (30%). Development of ICT employment and average annual growth rates in Europe million Source: Eurostat LFS. Narrow definition: ISCO-88 groups 213, 312: Computing professionals and Computer associate professionals. Break in series 2011: ISCO-08 groups 25 ICT professionals, 35 Information and communications technicians. Broad definition: see elsewhere in this document. The development of the ICT workforce in Europe between 2000 and 2012 has been very dynamic. The size of ICT workforce naturally depends on the definition used. Using a minimum definition, that only includes a core set of practitioners but is comparable across the time span of interest here, from we have seen an average growth rate of.3% per year and of 3.9% between 2011 and 2012 (with a break in series 2010/11). In a broader definition, where today s ICT workforce in Europe amounts to 7. million workers, the growth of workforce according to this broader definition has however been only 1.8% between 2011 and The major inflows into the ICT workforce would obviously come from the ICT graduates from Higher, and in some countries Vocational, Education. The e-skills supply in Europe in 2011 from ICT graduates from Higher Education can be estimated to sum up to 113,000 ICT graduates. A closer look at the developments over the past 10 years shows a trend indicating decreasing numbers throughout Europe for the past years, but especially in the United Kingdom and Sweden. After a continuous increase and a peak of 127,000 ICT graduates leaving universities in 2006 the figures went down. Development of the number of tertiary level computer science graduates in European countries Total number EU-27 71,000 83,59 92,685 10, , , , , , ,965 11, ,918 France 11,7 1,81 15,61 16,081 18,088 20,09 19,673 18,09 17,551 19,136 20,31 20,31 United Kingdom 21,918 2,992 27,009 30,767 27,670 29,557 28,239 25,156 23,802 19,15 19,180 19,535 Germany 5,630 5,860 6,617 8,368 11,090 12,767 1,238 16,092 16,515 17,19 16,800 16,526 Spain 10,963 13,727 16,152 19,323 19,718 18,559 17,298 15,760 1,551 15,071 15,068 1,790 Poland 1,912 3,52,112 5,879 10,681 13,116 1,788 1,209 13,023 12,06 12,535 12,315 Netherlands 1,308 1,5 1,65 1,75 3,611 3,969,650,385,083 3,928 3,858 3,651 Czech Republic 2,328 2,676 2,73 1,215 1,98 1,63 2,133 2,06 2,909 3,07 2,939 2,86 Italy 1,626 1,519 2,23 2,83 3,211 3,59 3,51 3,385 2,933 2,870 2,778 2,20 19 other Member States 16,5 17,99 20,026 22,066 2,86 2,682 25,89 2,913 25,751 21,159 20,976 20,0 Relative to peak : 0.89% p.a Narrow definition Broaddefinition (data only ) :.77% p.a : 2.65% p.a. Broaddefinition (until2010:"backcasting" based onnarrowdefinition growthrates) EU France United Kingdom Germany Spain Poland Netherlands Czech Republic Italy other Member States Source: Based on Eurostat, some estimates. 7. m : 1.82% : 3.9% :.11%*.5 m * break in series 1 / 253

15 Thousands Today, like in almost all recent years except for the aftermath of the dotcom-bubble bursting, the demand for ICT workers is outstripping supply. The results of a representative empirica survey of CIO s and HR managers in eight European countries in 2012 show that the demand for e-skills, i.e. ICT professionals and practitioners, extrapolated to the whole of Europe (EU-27) can be estimated at around 27,000 in This is based on the numbers given by CIOs and HR managers in European organisations for the number of vacancies in ICT-related occupations. Among these, we find a demand of about 73,000 vacancies for the EU-27 for ICT management and business architecture skills and about 201,000 for Core ICT practitioners and Other ICT technicians jobs. As percentage of existing workforce, there are 3.% open positions for practitioners and 5.0% for management, architecture and analysis jobs. Three scenarios have been prepared in the study. The main forecast scenario represents the most likely future as we foresee it, while a stagnation scenario assumes a slightly less favourable future and a disruptive boost scenario is meant to describe a future of increased demand due to ICT based disruptions of one or several industries of yet unknown kind. Scenarios are meant to span the space of likely possible futures. ICT Professional jobs and demand in Europe ,300 8,800 8,300 7,800 7,300 6,800 7,677 7,757 7,873 7,03 7,19 7,51 EU27 - Main Forecast Scenario 8,013 7,503 8,169 7,571 Source: empirica. 8,33 7,657 Demand Potential Total 8,532 7,752 8,703 7,88 Jobs Total 8,863 7, The first scenario features an economic growth scenario based on ECFIN forecasts until 201 and a slow recovery afterwards. GDP growth across Europe is assumed at an average of 1.0 % compound annual growth rate between 2012 and 2015 and increases to 1.7 % on average annually between Moderate IT investments will be reflected in 2.2 % p.a. growth until 2015, with an increasing trend from 201 on, so that the second half of the decade will see a growth rate of 3.0 % on average. IT investments will not least build upon a rapid diffusion of mobile devices and apps and of cloud services and other new IT delivery models. Big data applications and services are expected to grow considerably over the complete period of the forecasting. In the Main Forecast Scenario, the ICT workforce in Europe will grow from 7. million in 2012 to 7.9 million in 2020, of which 5.9 million will be ICT practitioners and 2 million ICT management level employees. The excess demand or shortage (calculated as the number of open posts) amounts to 509,000 in 2015 and 913,000 in This figure can best be described as demand potential or job potential for ICT jobs. It should be seen as a (theoretical) figure describing the demand potential for new ICT jobs which could theoretically be additionally created in Europe due to an e-skills demand likely to occur especially in the years closer to / 253

16 Thousands The second synthesis scenario called Stagnation Scenario features a stalling economic recovery: Southern European economies remain in recession with high taxes and austerity prevailing. The US budget fight repeats itself and the impact is felt in the rest of the world. Thousands ICT Professional jobs and demand in Europe ,800 8,600 8,00 8,200 8,000 Growth in China and other 7,800 7,759 7,677 emerging markets slows down, with 7,732 7,807 7,600 effects felt in Germany and many 7,59 7,659 7,537 7,00 7,82 European countries which relied on 7,03 7,18 7,0 increasing business from emerging 7,200 economies as a strategy of Demand Potential Total Jobs Total 7,000 recovery. As a consequence of the 6,800 continued economic mire, IT budgets and investments are once again under pressure new Source: empirica. projects once again put on hold. Again, the focus of IT expenditure is on keeping the lights on. A vicious cycle entails as lack of investments stops innovation, increases technical glitches and security breaches which in turn makes it difficult for companies to focus on top line growth. This will mean that ICT investments will continue to hover around the 2% mark. As a result, the number of jobs will not increase as much, growing from 7. million to 7.8 in 2015 and 7.8 million in Excess demand will come in at 50,000 in 2015 and 750,000 in ICT Professional jobs and demand in Europe The third synthesis scenario called EU27 - Disruption Disruptive boost features some disruptive innovations taking effect in some 9,800 industries, exactly which is naturally - yet 9,01 unknown. The drive towards adopting 3rd 9,300 9,127 platform technologies (mobility, social, big 8,827 data, cloud) increases dramatically as a new 8,800 "killer app" emerges. This could for 8,537 example be from the Internet of Things 8,27 8,300 applications, where Line of Business 8,072 budgets get released to fund ICT 7,896 8,055 7,760 7,800 7,677 7,920 investments to a much higher degree; it 7,795 7,690 could be the use of 3D printers where again 7,59 7,51 investments may be channelled from 7,300 7,03 7,20 7,5 production budgets to ICT investments; it Demand Potential Total Jobs Total could be a major security breach that 6, pushes mass adoption of virtualised (or cloud) based workplace environments to Source: empirica. control data access; or it could be faster adoption of big data/social in dealing with customers, which again lets ICT spending tap into other parts of the organisation's budget. This will produce ICT investment growth back to the rates seen at the end of the 1990s - a phenomenon that would not have been expected. 7,839 7,931 EU27 - Stagnation 8,00 8,19 8,270 8,0 8, / 253

17 Excess demand in Europe , comparison of the three scenarios Source: empirica. The increased innovation leads to higher economic growth from 2017 onwards. We have assumed that there is a general improvement in economic conditions from 201 onwards to open up for the new "investment spree". Thus GDP growth will come back after 201 and exceed the 2 percent mark again. After the disruptive boost setting in in 2017, growth will even surpass 2.5%. IT spending is assumed to increase slightly in anticipation of the disruptive boost and then still be felt in the following years. As a result, the number of jobs will increase from 7. million to 7.5 in 2015 and 8.1 million in Excess demand will be at 560,000 in 2015 and 1.3 million in Policy recommendations Five policy recommendations are proposed for ensuring Europe has sufficient e-skills and e- leadership skills. They are intended as input for a comprehensive roadmap of actions at EU and national levels. FIRST RECOMMENDATION: LAUNCH INITIATIVES IN COUNTRIES LAGGING BEHIND Governments in countries with low levels of e-skills activity should establish comprehensive strategies, foster multi-stakeholder partnerships, and engage in related measures and initiatives. Momentum is growing across Europe for such actions, and the Conclusions of the European Council of 25 October 2013 state that part of the European Structural and Investment Funds ( ) should be used for ICT education, support for retraining, and vocational education and training in ICT, including through digital tools and content, in the context of the Youth Employment Initiative. National e-skills initiatives need a long-term strategic approach such as e-skills UK, the national Skills Sector Council for the ICT sector, which has received public funding and strong commitment from industry, or supported by academia, industry and unions. Funding can be leveraged from the European Structural and Social Funds to implement eligible e-skills initiatives. Public authorities at national and regional level can be advised on how best to incorporate e-skills in their Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation particularly in the Smart Specialisation Platform. The Commission and national and regional governments should support awareness-raising, based perhaps on the pan-european "e-skills for Jobs" campaign in 201. Member States should help employers (especially SMEs) to offer work placements and provide guidance to students, and new sources of funding should be identified, from industry associations, CSR activities, and social partners. SECOND RECOMMENDATION: SCALE UP EFFORTS THROUGH LONGER TERM POLICY COMMITMENT All national governments should put in place a long-term strategy, with clear goals and measures, to ensure sustainability of successful activities and partnerships that can address the e-skills challenge. To strengthen the link between e-skills development, promotion of entrepreneurship and innovation leading to growth and employment, every effort should be made to incorporate e- skills into policies on education, training, innovation and entrepreneurship, at EU, Member State 17 / 253

18 and regional/local level. Since 2007, the Commission has provided a solid knowledge base of information on Member States e-skills policies and multi-stakeholder partnerships for national policy decision making. This continuous exercise in stock taking, monitoring and benchmarking progress has put into the hands of national governments the evidence on which to agree on and implement the necessary policies and actions. THIRD RECOMMENDATION: ADAPT EDUCATION AND TRAINING TO THE DIGITAL AGE National and regional authorities should ensure that primary and secondary school curricula embed ICT use and media literacy throughout the learning process, with a focus on creative ICT applications for real-world challenges. National governments and stakeholders should dedicate resources to job placement and adjustment services, to help willing workers find positions that use their skills. Member States need to improve the matching of new graduates with industry requirements. The German and Austrian VET dual and apprenticeship system also offer alternative ICT career paths for those interested in a more practical vocational job in this field. So do further education and training activities, where approaches can build on previous work experiences. Cooperation with employment agencies and the recruitment industry to ensure placement of graduates from these schemes and programmes is important, and implementation should aim at the adaptation or integration of recognised industry-based training and certification schemes. Other valuable stakeholders will be leading ICT companies offering industry-based certification courses, international certification and examination providers, industry representatives, associations and unions. FOURTH RECOMMENDATION: FOSTER ICT PROFESSIONALISM AND QUALITY National and EU-level Initiatives should be fostered to strengthen ICT professionalism, to steer professional skills to where there is demand for ICT practitioners using the e-competence Framework (e-cf) and online tools for career support and lifelong learning, and to counsel job seekers on re-skilling and certification. These activities would benefit from a coordinated approach at EU level. The implementation in each Member State will depend on the national situation, but should include stakeholders from industry, certification institutions, national or regional government, associations representing ICT professionals, and employment agencies. Europe-wide industry activities to promote ICT professionalism, initiated in March 2013 by the Council of European Professional Informatics Societies, the European e-skills Association and several other stakeholders within the "Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs", will need to be closely coordinated with those of CEN and of the Commission. FIFTH RECOMMENDATION: BUILD BRIDGES FOR ALL STUDENTS, GRADUATES AND WORKERS National governments should offer access to high quality information and career-support services for young people, providing advice on existing and future job opportunities and industry demand, and demonstrating that they could quickly find a job. Governments have a role in collecting the data needed to determine which skills are in demand and what kind of education and training is effective perhaps through an observatory that would provide the labour-market data that could allow students to make informed choices, and would track students progress including their studies, their first employment, their starting salaries etc. Prospective students could thus obtain a clearer picture of their future prospects. Initiatives for ICT career development for students, such as the Academy Cube, should be evaluated and lessons drawn about scaling up, replication and rollout in other countries. National governments and employment institutions should be responsible for quality career-support and advice services at postsecondary and university institutions. But for motivating widespread use of ICT industry certification and dedicated courses and certifications for non-ict STEM graduates and employees, the responsibility should be shared among ICT industry players, user industries, universities and education institutions as well as employment agencies and the recruitment industry. 18 / 253

19 1 Introduction 1.1 Objectives and background of the study The general goal of this service contract is to monitor the supply and the demand of e-skills across Europe and to benchmark national policy initiatives and multi-stakeholder partnerships in the European Union. To this end, the service contract analyses the evolution of the supply and demand in the last ten years, with the objective to provide a basis for: (a) understanding the impact of the initiatives launched at EU and national level since 2008, (b) propose new approaches (wherever appropriate) to remedy the situation and (c) identify successful ways and efficient means to foster multi-stakeholder partnerships to reduce e-skills shortages, gaps and mismatches. The European e-skills agenda had its roots in earlier EU-level dialogues around the issue, the main conclusions from which the European Commission in 2007 summarised as follows: The topic "e-skills" is still not really recognised as a major political challenge; There is no comprehensive and consistent e-skills strategy in the EU; The image problem, misperceptions and resulting decline in the supply of highly-skilled ICT practitioners are creating mismatches and a labour deficit in this field. It must be remedied; An even larger gap is opening up between the supply and the demand of specific e-skills, while digital illiteracy persists. In its Communication to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 7 September 2007, entitled "e-skills for the 21st Century: Fostering Competitiveness, Growth and Jobs", the European Commission laid out a longterm e-skills agenda and proposed a number of corresponding actions in the field of ICT. The document identified e-skills as a major issue for EU competitiveness in a globalised world and thus for productivity, growth and jobs. The EU and its Member States were called upon to quickly adopt rapidly-developing ICT in order to bridge the e-skills gap and be in a position to create a leading knowledge-based economy. In the document, the European Commission emphasised the need to: (a) establish a long-term e- skills agenda at national and EU levels; (b) improve co-operation between the public and private sectors in order to make an effective link between basic e-skills training, higher education and professional development; and (c) get industry and policy to act more decisively and consistently regarding their strategies to promote the attractiveness of ICT education, jobs and careers. After extensive stakeholders' consultations and a number of exploratory studies, the European Commission proposed five action lines to be pursued at the adequate level in the EU: Promoting long-term cooperation and regular dialogue between stakeholders (Member States, industry, associations, trade unions), and monitoring progress; Developing supporting actions and tools. This includes: supporting the development of a European e-competence Framework, further promoting the Europass, setting up fast-track schemes for third-country ICT practitioners to the EU; Raising awareness by encouraging exchange of information and good practices between Member States and by promoting awareness and information campaigns at European and national level; Fostering employability and social inclusion as part of the initiative on e-inclusion; Promoting better and greater use of e-learning and the development of e-learning exchange mechanisms of training resources and the networking of training and research centres. 19 / 253

20 Implementation of these measures has mainly been the responsibility of the Member States, with supporting actions at EU level only to the extent that they create real added value. In 2010 the European Commission published the results of an "Evaluation of the Implementation of the Communication on 'e-skills for the 21 st Century'", carried out by empirica. The research demonstrated that good progress had been made and that Member States were increasingly developing e-skills strategies. Moreover, important e-skills activities had commenced under the umbrella of the "Digital Agenda for Europe" and the "Innovation Union", both of which were adopted in the same year (2010). Nevertheless the report, as well as subsequent research conducted on the subject, concluded that more needed to be done to address innovation skills shortages and to implement the European e-skills agenda. The continuing need for policy intervention follows most obviously from the fact that there are still sizeable gaps, shortages and mismatches regarding e-skills today: The 2012 Communication Towards a job-rich recovery and the associated Staff Working Document on Exploiting the employment potential of ICTs reported that, according to the most reliable estimates available, by 2015 Europe is expected to face a shortage of approximately 700,000 ICT practitioners. Lack of skilled workers, often referred as ICT skills gap, remains one of the reasons. Education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics needs to be strengthened and the career image of these fields improved, in particular for women. 1.2 Definition of e-skills used in this report Already in 200 the European e-skills Forum distinguished between three categories of e-skills: ICT user skills; e-skills (ICT practitioner skills); and e-business skills (a hybrid of technology and business skills sets). This definition has been used in the multitude of studies and projects and e-skills carried out by different actors and stakeholders in Europe since then. It has also been referred to and presented in the Tender Specifications of the present call for tender stating that the term e-skills for competitiveness and innovation should be used as the overarching term covering three main categories: ICT practitioner skills: the capabilities required for researching, developing, designing, strategic planning, managing, producing, consulting, marketing, selling, integrating, installing, administering, maintaining, supporting and servicing ICT systems. ICT user skills: the capabilities required for the effective application of ICT systems and devices by the individual. ICT users apply systems as tools in support of their own work. User skills cover the use of common software tools and of specialised tools supporting business functions within industry. At the general level, they cover "digital literacy": the skills required for the confident and critical use of ICT for work, leisure, learning and communication. e-leadership skills: these cover a range of skills, attributes and attitudes related to: knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of software systems and information systems in use; ability to quickly assess new capabilities of existing systems and the relevance of offers of software and web services emerging on the market; ability to describe prototype solutions; understanding of the fundamentals of alignment of business and IT functions in an organisation. 20 / 253

21 2 E-skills policies and stakeholder initiatives in Europe 2.1 Policies and initiatives at Member State level The present chapter provides a brief summary and an overview of the results from the e-skills policy activity analysis carried out in 2009 followed by a brief summary of results from a first analysis of the e-skills policy activities in the EU Members States in In the final section a brief comparison of results obtained and achieved at both points in time and elaborating on developments which occurred over the past almost five years will be given to identify and describe the changes that occurred in the different countries. Most of the results will be presented in overview and tabular format to allow the reader to easily grasp the key results from and messages for each country. These will be condensed in an overall overview table summarising the results from 2009 and 2013 along two indices: an eskills activity index and a Digital Literacy index, putting these into a broader context by relating these to the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) which measures the propensity for countries to exploit the opportunities offered by information and communications technology. This has been done for each country and for both years. Finally an e-leadership skills activity index has been developed for each country describing the level of activity in terms of policies and initiatives in this area in the Member States Key objectives of e-skills policies at national level We can identify the following key objectives of policy action in the e-skills domain: Adapting the national education system to improve its capability for producing the required skills and competences (both in qualitative and quantitative terms): This refers to the development and provision of education & training. All Member States are engaged in a process to update and modernize school curricula and ICT infrastructure to fit the rapid pace of technical innovation as well as the evolving needs of industry and society. The success has been variable and depends to some extent, of course, on the ability of each country to finance investments in its education system. Some countries have subjected their complete system of primary and secondary education to scrutiny and developed ways to mainstream pupils' exposure to STEM related subjects, as a means to increase interest in technological subjects from an early point onwards. Curricula have been overhauled with the purpose of embedding ICT use and media literacy within all segments of the learning process. In some countries such as Denmark, a new school subject "Computational Thinking and Practice" has been introduced with the objective to move the emphasis away from digital literacy to creational and constructional competencies. The U.K. will follow along similar lines in 201. New approaches to VET are being sought as well: Many countries seek to provide students and workers with alternative channels of educational achievement and to offer improved means for on-thejob and just-in-time learning. Awareness raising: These policies are based on the premise that there is limited understanding about ICT practitioners, their role within the economy in quantitative and qualitative terms, their relevance for the performance of SMEs, career prospects in ICT, and so forth. Typical target groups include: (a) young people prior to taking decisions which have a bearing on their later career, i.e. students in primary, secondary and tertiary education; (b) SMEs who lack understanding of the relevance of e-skills for their competitiveness; (c) stakeholders in the education system, who are to accept responsibility for ensuring that students acquire the necessary e-skills and develop an interest in STEM careers; (d) the general public. 21 / 253

22 Improving job matching for ICT practitioners: There is evidence suggesting that Europe's Public Employment Systems (PES) do not perform well when it comes to job matching for ICT practitioners. There are a number of reasons for this, including lack or low uptake of occupational and competence frameworks in the e-skills area. Member States have embarked on policy actions, at national and sub-national level, to establish coherent systems to steer relevant professional skills to where there is demand for ICT practitioners, and to set up the infrastructure for counselling job seekers in issues concerning re-skilling and certification. Career support has become particularly important on labour markets where ICT practitioners are faced with unemployment, such as in Finland. Here, it is combined with industrial policy to lure employers to regions with an oversupply of well-qualified ICT practitioners. e-skills frameworks and certification: The development of widely recognised e-skills frameworks and definitions has been taking place at national level in the 1990s already (e.g. AITTS with APO-IT in Germany; SFIA in the U.K.). It received a strong push in recent years with the development of the European e-competence Framework (e-cf). A large number of schemes for education and certification of e-skills in Europe make use of, or are closely aligned with, the e-cf. Progress in e-skills certification independently from related training measures appears still very much limited to the European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL), which concentrates on ICT user skills. Provision of market information on current and future supply of and demand for ICT practitioners: This includes regular gathering, analysis and publication of information about supply and demand in e-skills, and the skills gaps, mismatches and shortages resulting from these, as well as future needs for e-skills. While the majority of Member States still relies on ad-hoc commissioned research for this purpose, the more advanced countries have comprehensive market monitoring systems in place. Integration with existing systems of occupational research still tends to be insufficient, which is partly due to the nature of the ICT practitioner market, which is characterised by rapid changes in skills demands and related nomenclature Policy approaches to e-skills development These policy objectives can be pursued through a range of policy instruments. The depiction in Exhibit 1 distinguishes between instruments that intervene directly in the provision of education and supply of e-skills on the labour market (top layer), support structures that focus on individuals such as IT practitioners, job seekers and employers (middle layer) and support structures that operate at the system level in order to improve the framework conditions for improvements in the e-skills area (bottom layer). Financial and fiscal incentives for individuals play an important role in channeling students and jobseekers into education and VET programmes that supply skills for which there are shortages in the labour market. At system level, efforts to mature the ICT profession are widely understood to be essential for creating an equilibrium between supply and demand on the ICT practitioner labour market. 22 / 253

23 Exhibit 1: Digital Literacy and e-skills Policy and Stakeholder Initiatives 2009 Boosting acquisition and supply of e-skills Primary & secondary education Vocational education & training(vet) Higher education Labour market Further education / LLL Support structures at Individual level Support structures at system level Awareness raising & motivation Financial and fiscal incentives Career support & job matching ICT professionalism & institution building Market information e-skillsframeworks A look back: E-skills policy activities at Member State level in 2009 In the predecessor studies to the present one an analysis of multi-stakeholder partnerships on e- skills was already carried out in 2006 / followed by a further one which then also included an analysis of related national policies in Both studies were commissioned by the European Commission (DG Enterprise and Industry); the latter one with the objective to perform an evaluation of the implementation of the European Commission's 2007 Communication on e-skills for the 21 st Century: Fostering Competitiveness, Growth and Jobs. From these studies it became apparent that there is a huge variation of levels of activity by national governments and stakeholders. In the latest study the level of activity has been assessed by way of two general activity indexes, one for e-skills (with a focus on ICT practitioners' skills) and one for digital literacy. In the following overview the index values for the countries investigated are displayed reflecting the state-of-the-play in 2009/10. The values of the indexes indicate the levels of activity in these two fields since the adoption of the Communication in 2007 in the respective countries, i.e. a low index value indicates a modest level of activity. There is a need, however, to interpret these values in the context of the overall skills and education landscape of the respective countries. A low level of activity in terms of policy and stakeholder initiatives does not necessarily indicate that the country is ill-prepared to meet the demand for suitably qualified ICT practitioners in the future or that it does not offer its population the required means to develop their ICT user skills. For example, low index values on digital literacy for countries like Sweden and Finland only indicate that the need for further action, initiatives and policies in this domain no longer really exists or only at a reduced level for minority groups since the vast majority 2 3 Korte, W.B. et al. (2007) "Benchmarking Policies on Multi-stakeholder Partnerships for e-skills in Europe", URL: ; Hüsing, T. and Korte, W.B. (2010) "Evaluation of the Implementation of the Communication of the European Commission 'e-skills for the 21st Century'", URL: final_report_en.pdf 23 / 253

24 of the population has already achieved high digital literacy levels. This shows that different types and intensity levels of policies and initiatives are needed depending on the stage of digital literacy or e-skills availability and supply in the workforce a country has reached. It is for this reason that the table below (Exhibit 2) also includes a column presenting the worldwide ranking of each country in the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) published by the World Economic Forum in March 2010 and an indicator on e-skills gap which is the result from the responses of company representatives on the question on hard to fill vacancies for ICT positions in the latest Eurostat ICT Enterprise survey. Exhibit 2: Digital Literacy and e-skills Policy and Stakeholder Initiatives 2009 Country NRI *) NRI Rank (total) NRI Rank (EU 27) e-skills activity index Digital Literacy activity index e-skills Gap as reported by enterprises DK SE FI NL UK AT EE FR N/A DE LU IE BE MT PT N/A SI CZ CY ES LT HU SK IT LV EL 55 2 RO BG PL *) Networked Readiness Index (NRI) Note: Skills Gap indicator values have been fitted to a 1-7 scale range. The table shows that, in 2009, the national e-skills strategy and implementation had still been in their infancy in quite a number of Member States. 2 / 253

25 When ranking Member States by their performance on the the Network Readiness Index (NRI), three loose categories of Member States can be distinguished (each of which containing seven countries): frontrunners, followers and low activity countries. Comparison with countries' performance concerning digital literacy and e-skills availability and supply in the workforce leads us to conclude that the frontrunner category was made up of two subgroups of countries in 2009: Group A included countries with high levels of digital literacy and e-skills availability in the workforce (expressed by values on the NRI between 5.2 and 5.9) but only modest levels of activity in terms of policy and stakeholder initiatives in the e-skills domain (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Estonia). In the Nordic countries, a high degree of digital literacy among the population and the workforce had been achieved early already as a result of successful policies launched in the past, strongly helped by a very well developed education and training system producing large numbers of IT practitioners. However, in 2009 national industry representatives had pointed out that these countries still suffered from significant gaps in ICT practitioner skills (especially highly qualified ICT practitioners). The recommendation was therefore to step up efforts by national governments and key stakeholders. Group B included countries with high levels of digital literacy and e-skills availability in the workforce as well as medium to high levels of policy and stakeholder activity in the e-skills domain (the U.K., Germany, France and the Netherlands). These countries were facing medium to large e-skills gaps as reported by industry; they were recommended, therefore, to continue with high levels of activity to close existing gaps and to adapt to newly emerging challenges in the e-skills domain. The second category had been composed of countries with medium range NRI figures ranging from 5.10 to.50. It could be split in two subgroups as well: Group C comprised countries with high levels of activity and at the same time large e-skills gaps as reported by industry, which meant that these countries could be expected to close existing gaps over the medium to long term. This included Ireland, Belgium and Malta, which were recommended to continue with high levels of effective activity. Group D included Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Luxembourg, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain with modest levels of policy and stakeholder activity but also smaller e-skills gaps, with the exception of Slovenia. The third category of countries is represented by: Group E, with comparatively low NRI figures in the range of.0 to They showed medium levels of activity in the e-skills domain and medium to high activity in the digital literacy area, raising the expectation that policy and stakeholder initiatives would help improve the situation in the years to come. Exceptions included Italy, Bulgaria and possibly also Greece, ranking in the bottom group of countries on the NRI as well as showing medium to low levels of policy and stakeholder activity. This suggested that there were structural barriers to the introduction of effective e-skills related policy making in these countries, which should be identified and subsequently addressed in order to achieve progress in the medium term. The study concluded that several national governments in 2009 still needed to reach higher overall levels of activity, and that key national stakeholders should turn their focus on improving the impact of their initiatives by boosting effectiveness, scalability and sustainability. In the period most Member States have embarked on new policy initiatives and many stakeholders have shown high levels of inititive across all of Europe. It is the purpose of the present study to shed light on these activities with a special emphasis on the further impact of the European Commission's e-skills Agenda in the years after / 253

26 2.1. The situation in 2013 Policies focusing on ensuring sufficient supply of suitably qualified ICT professionals in 2013 Our assessment of national policy and stakeholder initiatives in the e-skills domain across all (then )EU Member States shows high or even very high levels of activity in many countries not only in the Digital Literacy domain but also in the e-skills area where the focus is on ICT practitioners and professionals rather than the population at large. Of the 27 Member States, 15 have a value of 3 or higher on the 5-point index scale for e-skills activity. The group of leading countries includes the U.K., Ireland and the Netherlands. Austria, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, Malta and Sweden also perform strongly in terms of the level of activity for ensuring adequate supply of ICT practitioners on the labour market today and in the future. The range of interventions used is broad, as can be seen in the summary assessment overview table in Exhibit 3. There are clear indications that the 2007 e-skills Agenda and the subsequent initiatives by the European Commission have triggered Member States to engage in public debates about the e-skills issue and helped them to develop appropriate responses. However, the degree of integration and consistency of policy-making is still limited in a significant number of Member States. Most countries lack a master strategy or the topic still does not attract continuous attention in policy-making across the different policy areas concerned. Typically, measures are taken for adapting the education system to the demands of a knowledge-based economy, but in some countries little reference is being made to ICT practitioner skills and the need to boost supply of suitably qualified ICT professionals (e.g. Czech Republic, Luxembourg). Initiatives targeting young people, especially girls, with the intention to develop a positive attitude towards STEM subjects in general and a career in ICT in particular, are widespread, which is not surprising given their modest cost and strong (if short-lived) attraction for the media. They do, however, sometimes seem to lack sustainability and make use of questionable pedagogical/methodological approaches. Since the onset of the current economic crisis in Europe and the resulting jump in unemployment rates across most of Europe, policy-makers have tended to direct their attention away from the issue of (current or upcoming) skilled worker shortages. The widespread problem of budget deficits appears to have a negative impact on some Member States' ability to follow through with plans to address the e-skills topic more full-heartedly and in a systematic way, especially in countries with below average GDP/head. This appears to apply, for example, to Portugal, Greece, Slovenia and Cyprus. In their place, available sources of financial support (such as ESF funds) are being used to re-train unemployed persons for jobs in the ICT domain, but national experts tend to be very sceptical about the effectiveness of such measures in terms of the success in providing e-skills needed on the labour market, especially in the countries with the highest rates of unemployment. Other countries, however, have taken the route of strategic, long-term policy making in the e-skills domain, with strong engagements from a wide range of stakeholders in the public sector as well as the business and civic sectors. The United Kingdom has extensive experience in e-skills related policy development and remains a benchmark for multi-stakeholder partnership in this domain. The Netherlands and Ireland also benefit from strong policy leadership in the e-skills domain; these countries have a master strategy in place as well as a comprehensive infrastructure for adapting measures closely to changes in supply and demand for different types of ICT practitioners. Sweden has an e-skills Council and shows evidence of a high level of maturity in terms of mainstreaming the e-skills issue throughout all parts of the country's education system. Croatia, which joined the EU after project start, has not been covered 26 / 253

27 Some countries, such as Denmark and Austria, use their ambitious e-government strategies as a horizontal lever to promote e-skills policy goals across a wide spectrum of policy domains, with a focus on the education sector, which is dominated by public education providers in both countries. In Denmark, a range of initiatives driven by universities in cooperation with other national stakeholders have been taken. There is already strong evidence for substantial success in attracting young people to ICT study courses over the last 10 years in the country. Significant policy leadership and vision in the s-skills area is also found in countries with belowaverage economic strength (as indicated by GDP/head). This applies to Estonia which, as it places ICT at the heart of its strategy for economic development, is fully aware of the need to ensure a steady supply of sufficiently qualified ICT practitioners for medium and long-term prosperity. Neighbouring Latvia also has become active with a master strategy to develop e-skills. The general picture suggests that most Member States have responded to the European eskills Agenda with a delay of a few years. For example, France has developed a comprehensive policy strategy with its Roadmap on Digital Policy in 2013, after a lengthy period during which national experts have complained that the country lacked policy leadership in the e-skills domain. Given the newly established policy framework, the situation in the country is expected to improve much now, also because of the strong engagement of the non-governmental sector. Spain may be on the same path as it has stepped up activities in the context of the new Digital Agenda, but it appears to early to tell yet how strong policy commitment will be. The long-term continuity and sustainability of state programmes on e-skills has been negatively affected by the electoral cycle in some Member States. In Malta, a country that has shown policy leadership in the e-skills area as exemplified by set-up of the eskills Malta Alliance in 2010, a change of government in 2013 resulted resulted in the future of the Alliance being in doubt. At the time of writing, however, the Alliance is being re-established in a new format. In Hungary, the Orbán government after coming to power set out to overhaul the tertiary education system, which in the face of strong opposition by stakeholders in the university system has diverted attention away from the challenge of how to improve the country's ability to produce sufficient numbers of ICT practitioners. As a means to keep graduates (especially in the STEM area) from moving to countries with higher wages after finishing their studies, Hungary has introduced legislation according to which state subsidies to university education (scholarships) must be paid back if a graduate seeks employment abroad within a certain number of years after graduation an example which so far has not been followed by any other country in Europe. In other Member States again, governments have showed limited commitment to the e-skills issue, but other stakeholders industry, trade unions, and the civic sector show high levels of activity. Bulgaria lacks a strategic policy approach on e-skills development, but the country's strong software industry has stepped in to fill the gap with a range of ambitious initiatives. In Germany, major industry players have taken the lead for instance in e-skills training and certification. Here, the focus is increasingly moving from the national to the regional, as key stakeholders on a region's market for ICT practitioner supply & demand join forces to address current shortcomings and projected shortages and mismatches. In Belgium, most of the policies related to e-skills (e.g. education and training) are in the remit of the federated bodies, and the country's regions have long-established programmes which are generally regarded to be successful in spite of serious administrative hurdles, such as in the Brussels region. Some of these initiatives have even started to cross borders, i.e. to address supply & demand issues concerning e-skills in a border region. Other countries still concentrate mainly on digital literacy activities with no e-skills related policies apart from promotion and awareness raising measures (e.g. Greece but also Italy, Hungary) and show little e-skills policy activity (e.g. Lithuania, Romania, Slovak Republic). Poland used to belong 27 / 253

28 to this group as well, but has very recently shown strong efforts to e-skills development, reflected by the Broad Agreement for Digital Skills in Poland signed in July Finland presents a very interesting example as it has to deal with a decreasing ICT sector as a result of the poor performance in recent years of the sector's national giant, Nokia. The short-term issue here is not shortage of ICT practitioners, but quite the opposite: a surplus of ICT professionals who have been shed by Nokia (or one of Nokia's suppliers) and who now must be enabled to find reemployment, including the option of self-employment, i.e. setting up their own business. Nokia in cooperation with the country's tertiary education providers as well as local/regional governments have set up a major programme for this purpose. Numbers so far suggest that the programme is successfully boosting entrepreneurial activity based on ICT practitioner skills in the country. e-leadership skills policy activities in 2013 Our research indicates that e-leadership skills have started to become an issue in policy and stakeholder initiatives of 21 of 27 EU Member States. Developments are still in their infancy, though, with the exception of Denmark, Germany, Finland, Malta, the Netherlands and the U.K.: Denmark has a well-developed system for entrepreneurship training, with e-leadership skills on the way to become a key component of the education programmes. In Finland initiatives in response to the contraction of the Nokia ecosystem have included largescale promotion of entrepreneurship predominantly in the digital domain. These have included comprehensive training measures to equip prospective entrepreneurs with e-leadership and traditional business skills. Education providers have responded by developing training in e- leadership skills. In Germany the Software Campus set up in 2012 is among the first major initiatives in Europe that focuses explicitly on e-leadership skills. It has lead to an increased awareness about the need for e- leadership skills and related training and education offers. In Malta skills for e-leadership and digital entrepreneurship attract considerable attention amongst policy-makers and other national stakeholders. The Centre for Entrepreneurship and Business Incubation at Malta University and the Microsoft Innovation Centre have started to provide training in this area. In the Netherlands some first stakeholder initiatives which explicitly deal with e-leadership skills and digital entrepreneurship have been launched in recent years. Examples include integrated business development initiatives such as the Brainport Talent Region; and national campaigns and training schemes targeting SMEs such as Slimmer & veilig ondernemen in 1 minuut. In the United Kingdom increasing emphasis is put on e-leadership skills with the advent of the Information Economy Strategy and Council and the proposed joint action by government, business and academia on digital skills. Education providers have started to develop innovative offers at the inter-face between ICT and business management. It becomes apparent that e-leadership skills have only become an issue in countries which rank at the top in Europe in terms the propensity for a country to exploit the opportunities offered by ICTs (as reflected in the NRI Index). A summary overview from the differentiated assessment of national policy and stakeholder initiatives in the e-skills domain in each country is provided in the following table. 28 / 253

29 Exhibit 3: Summary assessment of national policy and stakeholder initiatives in the e-skills domain National policy and stakeholder initiatives on ICT Practitioner Skills AT Austria Recent years have seen increased activity for promotion of careers in IT and better coordination of education, RTD and innovation policies. Special attention is being placed on attracting more women to choose IT-related study subjects, and in promoting the STEM field among young Austrians, such as through "Child Universities". BE Belgium Belgium, in its regions, has ICT competence/ reference centres. The VET sector is well equipped with ICT infrastructure and ICTrelated teacher and worker training measures. Especially the private sector accounts for the good rating of Belgium here, as it runs a range of activities including promotion / awareness raising, certification, and training measures. BG Bulgaria Bulgaria for the time being lacks a master strategy towards e-skills. The country's IT industry is stepping in to fill this gap at least to some extent by initiating a range of programmes for defining and implementing improvements to the education system to address the sizeable gap in IT professionals. Good use appears to be made of EU funding for improving the education infrastructure. National policy and stakeholder initiatives on Digital Literacy A wide range of digital literacy activities focusing on schools, pupils and e-learning in the school context, older people and other people at risk of exclusion. The country's high-profile e- government strategy has acted as a means to convince more citizens of the benefits from going online, thus increasing digital literacy. For digital literacy, Belgium had a national action plan against the digital divide over the period Its evaluation showed largely positive results. Eurostat statistics suggest that these initiatives may have been contributing to the country's much improved performance in terms of share of the population with strong computer and Internet skills. Bulgaria has taken actions to improve IT related education in schools, which will help the level of digital literacy of generations entering the labour market. Still no master strategy is visible with regards to equipping the labour force with the required skills in the IT area. Lack of resources has become an even bigger problem since the onset of the latest economic crisis. National policy and stakeholder initiatives on e-leadership skills and Digital Entrepreneurship No policy initiatives on e-leadership skills were identified. No policy initiatives on e-leadership skills were identified, but some universities have started to offer e-leadership related courses. Moreover, both Wallonie and Flanders have set up institutions that provide targeted support to digital entrepreneurs. Very little policy initiatives are in place which explicitly deal with e-leadership skills or digital entrepreneurship, except for the start-up accelerator programmes Eleven and LAUNCHub. 29 / 253

30 National policy and stakeholder initiatives on ICT Practitioner Skills CY Cyprus Cyprus lacks a master strategy on e-skills. Efforts by the HRDA (Human Resource Development Authority) to develop a National Qualifications Scheme have not achieved tangible results yet. The 2012 Digital Strategy for Cyprus makes little reference to IT practitioner skills. CZ Czech Republic The government has defined a list of strategic priorities in the e-skills area, but the topic is not high on the policy agenda. Some measures are taken for adapting the education system to the demands of a knowledge-based economy, but little explicit reference is being made to ICT practitioner skills and the need to boost supply of suitably qualified ICT professionals. DE Germany Although little top level commitment towards an e-skills Master Strategy could be detected, a large range of policy and stakeholder initiatives is in evidence in Germany. There is an institutionalised stakeholder summit, and a regular monitoring exercise of e-skills (broadly) demand and supply. Major industry stakeholders are very active in training and certification. The level of activity at the regional (Länder) level has significantly increased in recent years. National policy and stakeholder initiatives on Digital Literacy Cypriot measures include training of teachers in ICT, curricula reform, training measures targeted towards specific groups and certification and support for enterprises acquiring skills. Some support of teachers in the area of methodology and didactics is made as well as support for the usage of ICT in schools. Indirect effects are hoped for through strengthening ICT use in public administration, where a large share of officials has been provided with ECDL training. Strong policy support for lifelong learning in general. Some measures are taken in the areas of promotion/awareness raising, self learning/self assessment tools and broad training measures. IT-Fitness and IT 50 plus are initiatives reaching out to disadvantaged groups. National policy and stakeholder initiatives on e-leadership skills and Digital Entrepreneurship Support of Digital Entrepreneurship is one of six overarching objectives of the 2012 Digital Strategy for Cyprus. The process of identifying e-leadership skill requirements and developing initiatives for promoting them is still in its infancy, though. IT-related entrepreneurship receives support through funding schemes, but little reference is being made to specific e-leadership skills. The Software Campus set up in 2012 is among the first major initiatives in Europe that focuses explicitly on e-leadership skills. It has lead to an increased awareness about the need for e- leadership skills and related training and education offers. 30 / 253

31 National policy and stakeholder initiatives on ICT Practitioner Skills DK Denmark Strategic policy making at national level takes place as part of the egovernment Strategy A range of practical activities driven by universities in cooperation with other national stakeholders. Evidence of substantial success in attracting you people to ICT study courses over the last 10 years. EE Estonia Strong level of activity for promoting careers in ICT and for modernising the education system to enable it to provide the required ICT practitioner skills. Significant policy leadership and vision. EL Greece Greek policies concentrate mainly on digital literacy, and no e-skills policies apart from promotion/ awareness raising measures were reported. National policy and stakeholder initiatives on Digital Literacy For a long time already, Denmark has seen an extensive range of well-integrated measures in for raising digital literacy. These include infrastructure-related initiatives and the "Learn more about IT" programme. Additional initiatives are implemented as demand arises. Strong commitment to improving digital literacy. Strong take-up of ICTs and online public services are understood as key factors for competitiveness and social progress. Wide uptake of public sector e-services and the electronic ID-card are also seen as vehicles to increase digital literacy and positive attitudes towards innovation and ICTs. Greek digital literacy activities include training measures of the workforce, promotion of ICT take-up as well as measures targeted towards the education system. GetBusy is a good example of a multi-stake-holder partnership for motivating young people to improve their e- skills and employability. National policy and stakeholder initiatives on e-leadership skills and Digital Entrepreneurship Denmark has a well-developed system for entrepreneurship training, with e-leadership skills on the way to become a key component of the education programmes. Recent initiatives such as the IT Academy have started to look into skills for e-leadership and digital entrepreneurship. The strong role of the ICT sector for the country's economy and selfimage means that e-leadership is likely to become a widely recognised issue in the near future. e-leadership skills and digital entrepreneurship have not yet entered the policy agenda. Industry-led initiatives such as the Microsoft Innovation Centre have started to provide training in the area, however. The GetBusy initiative represents a promising approach towards teaching entrepreneurial skills to young Greeks. 31 / 253

32 National policy and stakeholder initiatives on ICT Practitioner Skills ES Spain Spanish policies have long concentrated mainly on digital literacy. Initiatives for securing sufficient supply of ICT practitioners have recently gaining ground, most notably in the context of the new Digital Agenda and at Autonomous Community level (e.g. Catalonia). FI Finland The education system for ICT practitioner skills is well developed. The country does not have an e-skills strategy, though, and little in terms of high-profile policy initiatives dealing with the issue. The ICT 2015 Working Groups's proposals, once translated into policy action, will radically improve the situation (as they are mostly still at planning stage at the time of writing, they are not reflected in the score for Finland). FR France Until adoption of the Roadmap on Digital Policy in 2013, France was lacking policy leadership in the e-skills domain, apart from activities for promotion and awareness raising and those focusing on certification, the VET system and the European e- competence framework. The situation is expected to improve much now, also because of the strong engagement of the non-governmental sector CIGREF and Syntec Numérique). National policy and stakeholder initiatives on Digital Literacy Spanish Digital Literacy Activities are extensive and include training measures of the workforce and promotion measures as well as measures targeted towards SMEs. Grassroots initiatives such as Cibervoluntarios have been instrumental for boosting digital literacy as well. Excellent infrastructure for the provision of training in ICT user skills across the country, but few high-profile projects dealing with digital literacy. French Digital Literacy Activities include training measures of the workforce and promotion measures as well as measures regarding ICT equipment kits and Public Access Points (NetPublic programme for Digital Public Spaces). National policy and stakeholder initiatives on e-leadership skills and Digital Entrepreneurship No initiatives have been identified. Initiatives in response to the contraction of the Nokia ecosystem have included large-scale promotion of entrepreneurship predominantly in the digital domain. These have included comprehensive training measures to equip prospective entrepreneurs with e-leadership and traditional business skills. Education providers have responded by developing training in e-leadership skills. The need to enable the education system to provide e-leadership skills is acknowledged by more and more key stakeholders, and some education providers are running or developing course programmes in the area. The Digital Policy Roadmap calls for support to digital entrepreneurship under its Second Pillar ("Reinforcing the Competitiveness of Firms"). 32 / 253

33 National policy and stakeholder initiatives on ICT Practitioner Skills HU Hungary Hungary has little in terms of a master strategy for e-skills, but the Digital Literacy Action Plan includes the objective to "increase competitive-ness of ICT intensive business in Hungary by training IT- Professionals in line with the market demand and high standards". In practice the focus of policy-making has been mainly on infrastructure development in the education system. IE Ireland A Master Strategy is in evidence in Ireland and a whole range of measures are being taken in the areas of promotion/ awareness raising, stakeholder dialogue / summits, certification, monitoring and forecasting of supply and demand, and training measures. Evidence for strong multi-stakeholder partnership. IT Italy Italy lacks a master strategy, and activities are concentrating on infrastructure and teacher training in universities. There is strong industry support, however, for application and mainstreaming of the e-cf. In this respect, the Italian Competence Network for the Digital Economy has been a very important initiative. National policy and stakeholder initiatives on Digital Literacy Hungary has a master strategy for digital literacy, the Digital Literacy Action Plan from The extensive network of PIAPs called ehungary points has been cleverly used as the basis for provision of e-skills to large parts of the population, with a focus on employability. The NetReady scheme has been important for supporting non-profit initiatives targeting disadvantaged communities. A Master Strategy exists, and there is a range of initiatives for providing individuals with ICT user skills, with a clear focus on employability, i.e. enabling citizen to perform successfully on the labour market. There appear to be shortcomings, however, in mainstreaming ICT training in primary and secondary education. Italy has no master strategy for e-inclusion, but a range of activities concentrating on infrastructure and teacher training are in evidence. Computer science is now taught starting from primary school. National policy and stakeholder initiatives on e-leadership skills and Digital Entrepreneurship The Digital Literacy Action Plan (2007) as well as the Digital Renewal Action Plan (2010) include measures for helping raise the competiveness of Hungarian SMEs by providing training in ICTfocused business skills. The process of identifying e-leadership skill requirements and developing initiatives for promoting them is still in its infancy, though. Very little policy or stakeholder initiatives are in place which explicitly deal with e-leadership skills or digital entrepreneurship. No policy initiatives are in place which explicitly deal with e-leadership skills or digital entrepreneurship. The education system, however, has started to develop some course programmes providing such skills. 33 / 253

34 National policy and stakeholder initiatives on ICT Practitioner Skills LT Lithuania Lithuania's activities are concentrating on distance learning education and PIAPs. The Lithuanian Information Society Development Programme for makes explicit mention of ICT practitioner skills, though. In 2013, a National Digital Coalition was launched to step up efforts in developing e- skills and supply of suitably qualified ICT practitioners. LU Luxembourg The country's activities are concentrating on university infrastructure (especially e- learning) and curricula adaptation. Luxembourg s Digital Agenda reflects high strategic importance being given to development of ICT practitioner skills. LV Latvia Latvia has a master strategy to develop e- Skills, but focusing mainly on ICT user skills of groups at risk of exclusion. Activities for improving skill supply from ICT practitioners are concentrating on training measures and awareness raising activities as well as supporting SMEs and other enterprises. National policy and stakeholder initiatives on Digital Literacy Lithuania has a range of activities covering the full spectrum of digital literacy activities, with the Programme for Universal Computer Literacy at its core. The country's activities are concentrating on promoting public awareness and providing basic education in e-commerce and e-security. Latvia has a master strategy regarding digital literacy. Measures include awareness raising, support for disadvantaged groups, training of teachers, self-assessment tools, training measures targeted towards specific groups and support for enterprises acquiring skills. National policy and stakeholder initiatives on e-leadership skills and Digital Entrepreneurship The country has some initiatives that aim to foster digital entrepreneurship but are as yet limited in their scope. Little reference is being made in policy-making to e-leadership or digital entrepreneurship. Education providers have started to offer related training courses, however. No policy initiatives are in place which explicitly deal with e-leadership skills, but digital entrepreneurship is mentioned in some strategic policy papers, and entrepreneurship training has been included in ICT-related university study programmes. 3 / 253

35 National policy and stakeholder initiatives on ICT Practitioner Skills MT Malta Malta has strong policy leadership in the e- skills area. The eskills Alliance Malta, set up in 2010, has been particularly instrumental in bringing together all stakeholders and developing targeted policy actions. The Alliance is currently be re-established in a new format to increase effectiveness and stakeholder buy-in. NL Netherlands The Netherlands have a strong set of measures for securing supply of sufficiently qualified ICT practitioners, including the whole spectrum of instruments awareness raising, stakeholder dialogue / summits, certification, training measures and macro level monitoring of demand and supply. Broad implementation of e-cf in the Netherlands is being pushed by the multistakeholder partnership "Digivaardig & Digiveilig". PL Poland Numerous activities focus on e-skills, based on an understanding that the country needs a sufficient number of suitably qualified ICT practitioners. Poland's education system is being modernised with a view to better align student output with the needs of employers. The recent launch of the Broad Agreement for Digital Skills is expected to improve coordination of the large variety of existing initiatives in the e-skills area. National policy and stakeholder initiatives on Digital Literacy Malta's actions in the area of digital literacy focus on providing training to the workforce, awareness raising, and infrastructure (Public Internet Access Points), all of which have recently been integrated in a new National e- Inclusion Strategy for Currently, a new National Literacy Strategy for Malta is open for consultation, also including digital literacy as a core priority. The digital literacy policy strategy focuses on awareness raising through media campaigning, the establishment of a network of actors and fostering research. The Digivaardig & Digiveilig partnership has built up a national support infrastructure for digital illiterates. The programme has more recently established a focus on the ICT user skills of the working population. Digital literacy features prominently among the Polish government's goals for national development. A large number of initiatives are in evidence. The extensive network of telecentres (currently about 8,000) plays an essential role here, with activities being focused on boosting employability. 35 / 253 National policy and stakeholder initiatives on e-leadership skills and Digital Entrepreneurship Skills for e-leadership and digital entrepreneurship attract increasing attention amongst policymakers and other national stakeholders. The Centre for Entrepreneurship and Business Incubation at Malta University and the Microsoft Innovation Centre have started to provide training in this area. Some first stakeholder initiatives which explicitly deal with e-leadership skills and digital entrepreneurship have been launched in recent years. Examples include integrated business development initiatives such as the Brainport Talent Region; and national campaigns and training schemes targeting SMEs such as Slimmer & veilig ondernemen in 1 minuut. Some programmes seek to boost entrepreneurship in the digital domain, e.g. in the context of the Operational Programme Innovative Economy Moreover, the need to provide e-leadership skills is reportedly taken into account by more and more tertiary education providers in the STEM area.

36 National policy and stakeholder initiatives on ICT Practitioner Skills PT Portugal Although there is a national strategy for the Information Society and the promotion of access to the broadband, e-skills are only touched cursorily. Some efforts going into universities may transpire into increased e- skills supply. RO Romania Very little policy activity apart from participation in the European e-skills Week, to which Romanian stakeholder have shown strong commitment. SE Sweden Strong commitment to efforts for assessing supply & demand dynamics related to ICT practitioners, and for developing adequate policies. An eskills Council was set up and the issue is included as one of the key challenges in both the Digital Agenda for Sweden and the Swedish Innovation Strategy. SI Slovenia Slovenia does not have a master strategy towards e-skills and lacks measures taken with direct regards to e-skills. Existing initiatives in the area tend to focus on ICTrelated modernisation of the country's education system, e.g. the e-education programme. National policy and stakeholder initiatives on Digital Literacy Portugal focuses on educational infrastructure and indirect effects through e-government and infrastructure measures. The Knowledge Based Economy project (KBE) has proven to be effective in spreading ICT user skills among the Romanian population, making good use of resources by targeting people who can act as multipliers: teachers, librarians, entrepreneurs and public sector workers. A well-developed network of adult education providers has been essential for providing the general population with digital literacy skills. Public sector investments in ICT have always been accompanied by investments in user training. The Digidel 2013 campaign is a good example of a broad multi-stakeholder approach for addressing the digital literacy challenge. In the last decade Slovenia's government had implemented a broad range of measures targeted at ICT users, especially disadvantaged groups. Some of these initiatives have continued, but they appear to have lost in priority. Grassroots projects have tried to fill the gap, often with considerable success as in the case of the project. 36 / 253 National policy and stakeholder initiatives on e-leadership skills and Digital Entrepreneurship Development of (digital) entrepreneurship skills is part of the Strategic Program for Entrepreneurship and Innovation. No initiatives identified. There is widespread understanding in the country about the need for e-leadership skills. Entrepreneurship has been included as compulsory component in curricula for upper secondary education, as called for in the government's Strategy for Entrepreneurship in the Field of Education. No initiatives identified apart from some focus on e-leadership within the primary and secondary school system (within the context of the e-education Programme).

37 National policy and stakeholder initiatives on ICT Practitioner Skills National policy and stakeholder initiatives on Digital Literacy National policy and stakeholder initiatives on e-leadership skills and Digital Entrepreneurship SK Slovak Republic Slovakia does not have a master strategy towards e-skills and lacks measures taken for securing future supply of ICT practitioners apart from some university based programmes and general measures targeting improvements in the system for initial education. There is a National Strategy of the Slovak Republic for digital inclusion. Educational measures play a major role, as do indirect measures such as e-government or public infrastructures and SME support. No initiatives identified. UK United Kingdom The United Kingdom has extensive experience in e-skills related policy development. It remains a benchmark for multi-stakeholder partnership building, monitoring & policy design for matching supply + demand for ICT practitioners. A large number of activities addressing ICT user skills are in evidence, the latest major example being the GO ON UK initiative. Increasing emphasis is put on e-leadership skills with the advent of the Information Economy Strategy and Council and the proposed joint action by government, business and academia on digital skills. Education providers have started to develop innovative offers at the interface between ICT and business management. 37 / 253

38 2.1.5 Progress in recent years: E-skills policy activities at Member States level in 2013 Like in the precursor study the assessment of the information gathered resulted in two activity indices, one for digital literacy and one for e-skills computed for each country. It was enhanced by a third index, the e-leadership skills activity index which was developed based on the results from the recent policy analysis for The figure in Exhibit displays the index values for the countries investigated and puts them in the wider context of each country s propensity to exploit the opportunities offered by information and communications technology, data which can be obtained from the country values on the Networked Readiness Index (NRI). In the table a comparison of the results from 2009 and 2013 is provided. The analysis revealed that in 15 of 27 EU Member States an increase in e-skills policy and stakeholder activities between 2009 and 2013 can be observed. In six countries the situation has remained rather stable with activities at about the same level and intensity as in In five countries (Belgium, Hungary, Latvia, Romania, Slovak Republic) a slight decrease of e-skills related policy activities and initiatives could be observed. The corresponding figures for digital literacy policy and stakeholder initiatives show an increase of activities in 16 of 27 EU Member States, a rather stable situation compared to 2009 in five countries, and six countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia) having reduced their activity level, albeit only slightly. Overall and on average, for e-skills as well as digital literacy related policy and stakeholder initiatives, a strong increase in level of activity over the period 2009 to 2013 can be identified. This is encouraging news. A look at Member States positions in the NRI ranking (Networked Readiness Index) reveals that again, those countries with high NRI positions also show high e-skills policy activity levels. Countries like Finland, Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands rank top on all indices. The countries that were able to significantly improve their rank by four or five positions include Germany, Luxembourg and Poland. In contrast, countries falling back include Slovakia, Estonia, Austria, Ireland, the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom. At a first glance there does not seem to be a direct relationship between these developments and changes in the e-skills activity levels. However, this requires further research and analysis to obtain a better and more complete picture.

39 (Draft) Country Exhibit : Comparison of country performance 2009 to 2013 Digital Literacy NRI NRI Rank (total) NRI Rank (EU 27) e-skills Activity Index Activity Index 2009/ / / / / / Austria AT Belgium BE Bulgaria BG Cyprus CY Czech R CZ Germany DE Denmark DK Estonia EE Greece EL Spain ES Finland FI France FR Hungary HU Ireland IE Italy IT Lithuania LT Luxembourg LU Latvia LV Malta MT Netherlands NL Poland PL Portugal PT Romania RO Sweden SE Slovenia SI Slovakia SK U.K UK 39 / 253

40 Using the grouping of Member States according to Network Readiness Index (NRI) carried out on the basis of the 2009 data (see above), the 2013 research allows exploring to what extent different strategies have been used by countries according to their position in Group A included countries with very high levels of digital literacy and e-skills availability in the workforce but only modest level of activity in terms of policy and stakeholder initiatives in the e-skills domain in 2009: Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, and Estonia. All of these have seen sharply increasing levels of policy and stakeholder activity between 2009 and Our research suggests that the Nordic countries have reached a higher level of maturity by now, as initiatives are focusing not on boosting supply of ICT practitioners in general, but rather on channelling ICT students to those segments of the ICT labour market where the risk of shortages is expected to be highest. At the same time, the large number of ICT practitioners in these countries' workforces means that retraining of ICT practitioners has become an issue especially in Finland, where there are now too many people with skills in mobile telephony and too few in parts of the market which are more dynamic. In this situation, efforts are focusing on boosting entrepreneurial activity, which explains why there is increasing debate about the need for the provision of e-leadership skills. Estonia, a country with significantly lower GDP/head than all other ones in this group, has stepped up efforts dramatically, and now has a level of policy activity and stakeholder initiatives in the e-skills domain which is higher than in most Member States. Group B included countries with high levels of digital literacy and e-skills availability in the workforce as well as significant levels of policy and stakeholder activity in the e-skills domain (the U.K. and to a lesser extent Germany, France and the Netherlands). In all of these, levels of policy and stakeholder activity have further increased, especially so in France and the Netherlands, both of which are seeing strong policy leadership. Germany does not have a national e-skills strategy, but benefits from a strong role of stakeholders from industry. The UK's approach in the last decade has relied on strong financial engagement by the state and industry, which the recent economic crisis has made difficult to sustain. Nevertheless, the country's initiatives in the e-skills domain remain a worldwide benchmark for policy intervention in the area, with e-skills UK, the Sector Skills Council for the area, at the core of most activities. The second category had been composed of countries with medium range NRI figures. It had been split in two subgroups: Group C comprised countries with high levels of activity and at the same time large e-skills gaps as reported by industry, which meant that these countries could be expected to close existing gaps over the medium to long term. This included Ireland, Belgium and Malta, which were recommended to continue with high levels of effective activity. These Member States have indeed continued to show strong commitment to the e-skills topic, in spite of considerable challenges in the form of administrative hurdles (Belgium), strong budgetary constraints (Ireland); and break-up of established multi-stakeholder partnerships following a change in government (Malta). Group D included Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Luxembourg, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain with modest levels of policy and stakeholder activity but also smaller e-skills gaps, with the exception of Slovenia. In the period 2009 to 2013, this group has again displayed medium to low levels of policy and stakeholder activity. In all of these countries with the exception of Luxembourg, the economy has been hit hard by the Euro zone debt crisis, leading to high rates of unemployment. This might have resulted in labour shortages being given little priority by policy makers. These countries will require, however, a strong ICT workforce in order to manage the structural shift of their economies towards sectors that offer room for strong growth. 0 / 253

41 The third category of countries was represented by: Group E, with comparatively low NRI figures in the range of.0 to This included some countries with medium levels of activity in the e-skills area (Hungary, Latvia and to a lesser extent Romania and Poland), raising the expectation that policy and stakeholder initiatives would help improve the situation in the years to come. In the period 2009 to 2013, however, three of these four have displayed decreased levels of policy and stakeholder activity, which suggests that governments found it hard to sustain a focus on shortages of ICT practitioners in the face of growing budget deficits. Much of the activity in these countries appears to be related to the use of Structural Funds money for providing unemployed workers with ICT user skills and sometimes to retrain them to become ICT professionals. While this approach may bring short-term benefits in terms of availability of sufficiently e-skilled workers on the national labour market, it is unlikely to be of use for ensuring that employers will have an adequate supply of ICT practitioners in the medium to long term. Positive exceptions in this group are Poland, which has shown increasing efforts to secure future supply of suitably qualified ICT practitioners; and Bulgaria, in which non-government stakeholders mainly from the ICT industry have taken the lead in the absence of policy leadership by the government. Like in the precursor study 5 the assessment of the information gathered resulted in two activity indices, one for digital literacy and one for e-skills computed for each country. These were computed based on data from 2009 and The e-leadership skills activity index was computed only for 2013, as no data had been collected on this topic in In the following the focus will be on the e-skills activity index; we first mapped the e-skills activity index values against the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) 6 for each of the 27 Member States. This allows for putting the results of the e-skills policy and activity analysis in the different countries in the wider context of each country s propensity to exploit the opportunities offered by ICT using data which can be obtained from the country values on the Networked Readiness Index (NRI). The figure in Exhibit 6 allows a comparison of the results from this exercise for 2009 and In the graphical illustrations four quadrants are shown which are built by using the European averages on the NRI and those on the e-skills policy activity index for the respective years in order to group the countries into four main clusters. 5 6 Hüsing, T. and Korte, W.B. (2010) "Evaluation of the Implementation of the Communication of the European Commission 'e-skills for the 21st Century'", URL: final_report_en.pdf The World Economic Forum's Networked Readiness Index (NRI) measures the propensity for countries to exploit the opportunities offered by ICT. It is published annually as part of the Global Information Technology Report. The NRI is a composite of three components: the environment for ICT offered by a given country (market, political and regulatory, infrastructure environment), the readiness of the country s key stakeholders (individuals, businesses, and governments) to use ICT, and finally the usage of ICT amongst these stakeholders. For further information on the NRI see 1 / 253

42 Exhibit 5: European country landscape on e-skills policy activity versus ICT innovation capability III UK IV e-skills activity Index PL BG LV RO SK GR IT I HU CY CZ LT ES MT SI PT BE IE DE FR AT LU EE NL FI II DK SE 0 3,5,5 5 5,5 6 Networked Readiness Index 2009 Exhibit 6: European country landscape on e-skills policy activity versus ICT innovation capability III UK IV e-skills activity Index RO BG GR SK I PL IT HU LV ES CY LT CZ SI PT MT IE FR BE EE AT LU DE DK NL SE FI II 0 3,5,5 5 5,5 6 Networked Readiness Index / 253

43 Overall and for e-skills related policies and initiatives a strong increase of activity levels over the five-year time span can be identified. The unweighted average e-skills policy index score increased from 2. to 2.9 between 2009 and This is encouraging news. Our analysis revealed that in 2009 three of the four quadrants are well populated by different countries with only 7 countries belonging to the group of top performers both, in terms of e-skills policy index as well as NRI, and 11 Member States constituting those best described as low activity countries (bottom left quadrant). Five years later the situation has changed significantly; we are now faced with a situation which can be described as a dichotomy in Europe on these indicators: top performing countries as opposed to countries with low activity levels and NRI performance, with only three countries (Poland, Luxembourg and Finland) in transition phases between these clusters. The group of top performers has grown from 7 to 11 with Sweden, Denmark, Austria and Estonia entering this cluster to which the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Malta, Germany and France already belonged in However, the group of low activity countries is still substantial in terms of numbers of countries with 13 EU Member States almost 50% showing a below average performance on the NRI and on the e-skill skills policy activity index. EU Member States fall into two very distinct groups: 1% of the Member States are top performers, almost 50% are low activity countries, and 11% located between these two clusters. While the former have been successful on the e-skills front and capable of exploiting ICT to become innovative and more competitive the latter group of low activity countries still has a rather long way to go to achieve both. A look at the Member States positions in the NRI ranking (Networked Readiness Index) reveals that again, those countries with high NRI positions also show high e-skills policy activity levels. The countries moving up in terms of migrating into the top performers cluster include Sweden, Denmark, Austria and Estonia, as well as the Netherlands and France which managed to further increase their e-skills policy activity level. Countries at the risk of losing ground include Hungary, Latvia and Romania which dropped down into the first cluster of countries, i.e. those lagging behind. Exhibit 7: European country clusters on e-skills policy activity versus ICT innovation capability 2013 I : low NRI + Low level of e-skills policy activity Romania, Greece, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Portugal, Spain, Cyprus, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Italy, Hungary, Latvia III : Low NRI + high level of e-skills policy activity Poland II : High NRI + low level of e-skills policy activity Luxembourg, Finland IV : High NRI + high level of e-skills policy activity United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden, Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, France, Malta, Austria, Estonia At first glance there seems to be a strong correlation between the e-skills activity level and the number of ICT workers as share of total employment (see figure below). However, further research and analysis is required to obtain a better and more complete picture. 3 / 253

44 Exhibit 8: European country landscape on e-skills policy activity versus Share of ICT Workforce 2013 Evolution of e-skills shortage in different countries There are no comparable historical data on the evolution of any demand supply gap in Member States. The only data available are the number jobs and the number of computer science graduates. However, the relation between number of annual graduates and the size of the workforce is an indication of the structural ability to cope with new ICT job openings and replacement demand. The following graph 7 depicts the averages of annual graduates per ICT workforce. 7 Based on the old ISCO 88 core definition. / 253

45 Exhibit 9: Annual graduates per core ICT workforce (3 year averages) in European countries The European total shows a rate of around 3% of new graduates meaning that per 100 existing core ICT practitioner jobs, 3 new graduates left universities. Taking account of the fact that the broader definition of ICT workforce is about two thirds larger, this is not a sustainable rate, giving way to both the persisting problem of unfilled vacancies and to the number of side entry employees in ICT jobs. While no historical shortage data is available, comparing graduate rates per country can however give an assessment of where the problem of structural shortages is gravest. This also puts into perspective for instance the finding for the UK where the number of graduates has significantly decreased, while it has increased in Germany and France. While France has overtaken the UK, still a greater number of graduates have left universities in relation to the country s workforce in the UK (3.1%) than for instance in Germany (2.2%) 8. Comparing this proxy for the sustainability of new ICT workforce supply from universities with e- skills activity is quite interesting. In the following graph, countries on the left hand side are most unsustainable in their ICT talent supply. This includes Italy, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Portugal Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic and Finland. On the other hand, the most sustainable talent flow seems to exist in Greece, Lithuania and Poland, followed by Malta, Ireland, Cyprus, Romania and Spain. 8 There is however an issue with the break in series of the job classification ISCO after Figures for the UK after 2010 are hardly comparable to pre-break in series figures, as the workforce has grown per difinition it seems by 300,000 in a year, from 67,000in 2010 (old definition) to 97,000 (new definition). 5 / 253

46 Exhibit 10: Annual graduates per core ICT workforce (3 year averages) in European countries 2010 by e-skills activity index Multi-stakeholder partnerships for e-skills Definition and background Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) have been defined and operationalized within earlier EU studies coordinated by empirica, subsequently approved by DG ENTR, as follows: The key feature of MSPs is that private-sector partners (industry, employers from the private sector) take over responsibilities which in traditional education systems have been held (more or less) exclusively by public sector or civic sector institutions. MSPs build on the idea that the private sectors can complement, supplement and extend services provided by the public sector by increasing the available resources. As such, MSPs are closely related to the more well-known public-private partnerships (PPP), which are usually defined as systems in which a government service is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies. As opposed to PPPs, however, MSPs do not necessarily include the public sector participating non industry partners can also come from the civil sector (e.g. trade unions). Another difference between more traditional PPPs and MSPs is the latter s emphasis on involving all key stakeholders which are of relevance for a certain e-skills related issue rather than just a couple of partners who join forces to stem a fixed-term assignment. This is seen as the best way to ensure that progress will be self- 6 / 253

47 sustainable and all-encompassing, as opposed to the piecemeal, uncoordinated approaches which too often dominate the modernisation of systems of vocational education in Europe. From an industry viewpoint, multi-stakeholder partnerships present the possibility of overcoming the traditional polarisation between the public education system, which is the main factor behind supply of (formalised) skills on the labour market, and private sector employers, which exert demand for particular skills. Over the years, multi-stakeholder partnerships on e-skills have been developed for different purposes. In order to identify and categorise the main areas in which these can be active, it is useful to look at the idealised e-skills development process which distinguishes between the following elements: (1) market information (2) design and delivery of education and training (3) e-skills frameworks and certification () job matching (5) support for career development and lifelong learning and (6) awareness raising. A stocktaking exercise undertaken in found up-and-running MSPs mainly of the following types: Industry-driven (Workforce development and e-skills certification of IT practitioners) o MSPs of private sector partners together with partners from the public and civic sector (e.g. trade unions, NGO); o Vendor initiated MSPs and industry-based e-skills training and certifications ( vendor qualifications ). Education system-driven (E-skills development through vendor-based qualification offers, from awareness to courses and certification) o Initiatives of governments, universities, IT companies and associations and the like to create an awareness and promote IT-based studies at universities; o Initiatives of governments and universities together with vendors aimed at considering vendor-based trainings and certifications (e.g. CNAP) in IT studies. Citizen-focused (Digital literacy, basic e-skills development to support employability of individuals) o Digital literacy initiatives Europe-wide Schemes o Specific types of European-wide multi-stakeholder partnerships which indirectly result in e-skills related MSPs. This typology has been used as the starting point for the investigations of the current state-of-play in MSPs across Europe. Institutional and governance frameworks concerning the development of MSPs in the field of e- skills can take many different forms and have for the first time been analysed in a more structured way for the European Commission in 2009 with the study on Financial and fiscal incentives for e- skills in Europe. The study identified a number of financial and fiscal incentives of relevance in such frameworks. The prerequisites for a good incentive are described as: It should be cost effective and the returns from the input should be reasonable It should demonstrate a high level of internal as well as external efficiency and should be capable of being targeted to address the needs It should be scalable, and 9 Korte, W.B. et al. (2007) "Benchmarking Policies on Multi-stakeholder Partnerships for e-skills in Europe", URL: 7 / 253

48 To assure its continuity, there should be a reasonable level of sustainability. The major financial incentives identified include: subsidised courses, cost reimbursement, educational/training loans, training grant, training vouchers/individual Learning Accounts, educational leave schemes whereas the key fiscal incentives mentioned are: tax incentives for employers, human capital investment tax credits, tax incentives for individuals, reduced social contributions. The study concluded that as far as financial incentives are concerned, subsidising training courses and reimbursing the cost of training expenses are most likely to be effective. Among fiscal incentives, providing tax breaks for enterprises that invest in staff training is seen as the best incentive Stock-taking of MSPs on e-skills in Europe: A great variety of approaches Our research on multi-stakeholder partnerships on e-skills showed that existing initiatives can be placed in eight clusters according to their main focus: Awareness raising activities: These initiatives are based on the premise that there is limited understanding about ICT practitioners, their role within the economy in quantitative and qualitative terms, their relevance for the performance of SMEs, career prospects in ICT, etc. Typical target groups include young people prior to taking decisions which have a bearing on their later career, i.e. students in primary, secondary and tertiary education. There is a huge variety of approaches being used to address this particular target group across Europe, ranging from competitions and event-type "meet your future employer" activities to tools and platforms that seek to make ICT a "cool" career choice among teenagers. Providing the basis at early age: This includes initiatives for adapting primary and secondary education in order not only to provide basic ICT user skills at an early age, but also to raise interest in continuing with computing related studies after secondary school. In recent years all Member States have been engaged in a updating and modernising school curricula and ICT infrastructure to fit the rapid pace of technical innovation as well as the evolving needs of industry and society. The success has been variable and depends to some extent, of course, on the ability of each country to finance investments in its education system. Some countries have subjected their complete system of primary and secondary education to scrutiny and developed ways to mainstream pupils' exposure to STEM related subjects, as a means to increase interest in technological subjects from an early point onwards. Curricula have been overhauled with the purpose of embedding ICT use and media literacy within all segments of the learning process. Denmark, for example, has introduced a new school subject "Computational thinking and practice" which represents the state-of-the-art in the didactical approach to teaching computing related issues at school. Initiatives focussing on girls/women: A sub-group of the former type of MSPs targets school age girls and young women. With very few exceptions, women are significantly underrepresented among both current ICT practitioners and ICT students. Some of the longestrunning initiatives mentioned in the present report have the objective to make ICT-related study fields more interesting for young women. In both Germany and Austria, these programmes have started in the early years of the last decade already. Many other Member States have initiatives specifically targeting girls and young women as well, often using mentor programmes through which female ICT students or graduates are sent into schools as role models. Development and provision of tailored education & training according to the needs of the labour market: In the face of, on the one hand, increasing rates of unemployment and, on the other hand, hard-to-fill vacancies for ICT practitioners, many Member States have attempted to channel graduates and other jobseekers towards particular ICT jobs for which their is strong 8 / 253

49 demand. The Republic of Ireland has been especially successful in this area. New approaches to VET are being sought as well: Some initiatives seek to provide students and workers with alternative channels of educational achievement and to offer improved means for on-thejob and just-in-time learning. Career support, lifelong learning and e-leadership training: The fact that the ICT profession is less clearly defined as other, more established professions means that the transparency of the ICT labour market for employees seeking to make career choices is less than optimal. Initiatives for career support of ICT practitioners have been set up to help improve this situation. Often such programmes provide users with market information tailored to their individual needs. They also intend to help individuals who look for (re)training in professional e-skills by supplying advice for finding appropriate training offers on the market. e-skills competence frameworks, certification and job matching: The development of widely recognised e-skills frameworks and definitions has been taken place at the national level in the 1990s already (e.g. AITTS with APO-IT in Germany; SFIA in the U.K.; Les métiers des Systèmes d Information dans les grandes entreprises Nomenclature RH in France). It received a strong push in recent years with the development of the European e-competence Framework (e-cf). A large number of schemes for education and certification of e-skills in Europe make use of, or are closely aligned with, the e-cf. There also is increasing activity at sub-national level to establish coherent systems to steer relevant professional skills to where there is demand for ICT practitioners, and to counsel job seekers in issues concerning re-skilling and certification. Facilitating geographical workforce mobility across regions and countries is an important element in this, as shown by the example of CompeTIC, a cross-boarder project between the Belgian Walloon Region and the French Region North-Pas-de-Calais. Related measures include the implementation of strongly user-centred Internet portals/knowledge databases plus campaigns for raising awareness among employers, especially SMEs with limited HRM capabilities. Comprehensive, national e-skill partnerships with strong government role : In addition to the focused initiatives discussed above, a number of Member States feature strongly governmentsupported partnerships that are engaged in a whole range of e-skills related measures and initiatives, based on a long-term strategical approach in close alignment with policy-making. The most well-known example is e-skills UK, which as Skills Sector Council for the ICT sector is subject to control by the government, but has also benefitted from significant public funding as well as from strong policy support. Budget cuts have made it more difficult to maintain this kind of governance model, in the U.K. but also elsewhere. Comprehensive, national e-skill partnerships with limited government role : In other countries, such comprehensive partnerships in the e-skills domain have been established with little or no government influence. One example is France's which enjoys strong support from the business sector as well as the relevant trade unions, but is not embedded in the government's policy agenda to the same degree as this is the case with e-skills UK Selected Good Practices The research conducted for the present study identified a number of good practice cases in multistakeholder partnerships for e-skills, understood here as focusing on securing a sufficient supply of suitably qualified ICT practitioners and development of e-leadership skills. These are briefly presented in the following. More detailed information on each of the cases can be found in the Annex (section 7.2). Coder Dojos Coder Dojos is an example of social innovation driven by a grassroots movement rather than a centrally initiated strategy of established stakeholders in the e-skills area. In 2011, high school 9 / 253

50 student James Whelton gained some popularity for hacking a popular digital player gadget. Consequently, some of the younger students at his Cork school became interested in learning how to code. Whelton set up a school code club for teaching basic HTML and CSS skills. Once this became known through social networks, requests from other parts of the county came in to extend the courses beyond Cork. A meeting with angel investor Bill Liao, co-founder of Xing, led Whelton to set up an initiative and brand it as Coder Dojos, the Japanese word dojo meaning a training place for Japanese martial arts. The first Coder Dojos was opened in Cork in June Since then the initiative has extended to 28 other countries. More than 16,000 children have received training already. The initiative follows a strictly open source policy, meaning that the training material can easily be utilised by other people and places for their purposes. Dojos can be set up by anybody who is interested, but need to be approved by the organisation to maintain a common identity and protect the initiatives core values. These values include that Dojos shall pursue a community-based approach by showing children that Computer Science can be "cool", and that it comprises more than text documents and spreadsheets. Detailed instructions are available for volunteers on how to set up their own Dojo sessions. The website offers a growing range of teaching materials from which local organisers can select for designing their own training sessions. Dojos focus on the young participants own ideas for what kind of programming task they want to pursue; this can be a website, a mobile app, a computer game or any other piece of software. The target group are school children of all ages. Participants younger than 12 years are required to be accompanied by a parent during the sessions, which might have the side effect of influencing the family members' attitudes to a career in ICT. The initiative wants to spread free and enjoyable computer science activities to as many children as possible and also promote ICT as a possible career choice. Another emphasize is on community work, i.e. developing applications which help address social challenges at community level. The principle is that the initiative expands in line with interest, with very little requirements in terms of resources and without central funding. While having little in terms of a major budget, the initiative is supported by a number of industry stakeholders including Hays Consulting, Intel, Plunkett Communication and Enterprise Ireland. Public sector supporters include the Lumingh Institute of Technology and the Gaisce President s Award, Ireland's National Challenge Award for young people. Much of the support comes in the form of premises, training staff and practical support for the training sessions carried out at the different localities around the world. Key figures from the ICT world have been won as guest lecturers and spoken to young Dojos participants at local training events. The initiative has been intensely featured first in the Irish and then the international media. In April 2013 a Coder Dojo Conference united some of the stakeholders as well as speakers from other organisations engaged in activities for making programming attractive to children. T h e b o t t o m l i n e Initiatives for boosting interest in ICT among school children do not necessarily require central planning and a big budget. Coder Dojos, a grassroots initiative with its origins in Ireland, makes best use of the open source concept and social networks to organise programming sessions for school children of all ages in 28 countries around the world. By helping to make ICT skills of major appeal to youngster, Coder Dojos presents a powerful example of digital social innovation for e-skills. 50 / 253

51 New High School Subject 'Computational Thinking and Practice' Like most Member States, Denmark's curricula for secondary education include the subject computer sciences. Dissatisfaction with the current situation has been strong in recent years, mainly because of a steadily decreasing number of students choosing ICT subjects in high schools, at a time when ICT is becoming ever more all-pervasive and the country's industry badly needs well-qualified ICT practitioners. In this situation, the decision was taken to develop a new, consolidated subject. The conceptual framework was derived from ideas related to computational thinking, with a strong focus on creativity and the principle of co-creation instead of simply covering ICT user skills and digital literacy. The foundational theses for the development of the subject were the following: In general, young people do not consider computing a proper subject, and they certainly do not realise the importance and potential of computing in modern society. For this reason, they need to learn that, through computing, people can create, share, and handle thoughts, processes, products and services that create new, effective, and boarder-crossing opportunities which would be impossible without the digital technology. There exists a common and shared foundational set of computational concepts, principles and practices, which can be applied purposefully within science & technology, business and social science, arts and humanities, and health and life sciences. Thus, the subject's design represents the state-of-the-art in didactical principles for teaching of computational thinking 10, strongly guided by the ambition to offer a course that inspires pupils to continue with computing studies after high school. The learning materials developed for the subject is offered on the website of the Danish Association of High School Teachers in Computing in the format of "learning activity packages", for which an open source approach is being applied. Teachers are encouraged to develop and share their own learning activity packages. Using Wiki methodologies, the content can continuously be updated and improved by teaching staff as well as by students and other involved parties. This innovative, bottom-up approach to material development encourages diversity and multiplicity, which appears highly appropriate for this subject area as it stimulates creativity and co-operation. It does, however, provide a challenge to traditional understandings of how to develop learning content and equip school students with knowledge. Establishment of a new subject in Denmark's secondary education system is closely regulated and follows a number of steps, including a -year evaluation period in which the subject is offered to schools with experiences being evaluated towards the end of the period. The government does not, however, makes available funds for the development of the subject's content. This means that funding for development of learning content (online textbooks etc.) and teacher training needs to come from somewhere else. To address this challenge, a multi-stakeholder partnership (MSP) was set up in 2011 to take charge of development of new learning resources and teacher training. The MSP consisted of the Centre for Science Education at Aarhus University; It-vest Networking Universities; Egaa Gymnasium; Danish Association of High School Teachers in Computing; and the Region Midtjylland, plus the Association of Technical Colleges' High School Department, the Association of Private High Schools, the Organisation of Principals in High Schools and two industry organisations, ITB and ITEK. Once a new subject has been established as an elective subject, Danish high schools have discretion whether to offer it or not, which means a new subject has to appeal to head teachers and teaching 10 Caspersen, M.E. and Nowack, P. (2013) 'Computational Thinking and Practice A Generic Approach to Computing in Danish High Schools', in: Carbone, A. and Whalley, J. (Eds.) 'Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology (CRPIT), Vol / 253

52 staff as much as it has to be attractive to the students themselves. In the first year of the test period ( ), 18% of the high schools taught the new subject; the number increased to 26% in the second year, which is a very high figure given that this is still the test phase. Feedback received from teachers, examiners and pupils has been very positive. Likewise, industry has responded enthusiastically to the innovative approach taken. T h e b o t t o m l i n e Many countries are introducing or modernising ICT curricula for secondary education, but arguably none has gone as far as Denmark in re-thinking how education in "computational thinking" needs to be conceptualised to make the subject appealing to students. Denmark's new high school subject focuses on computational thinking and practice with a strong emphasis on creational and constructional competencies as opposed to mere computer literacy. Feedback so far has been strongly positive. e-cf NL Work Group, Netherlands For a number of years, various stakeholders in the Netherlands had undertaken attempts to get broad support for implementation of the European e-competence Framework (e-cf), with limited success. This only changed in 2011 when the Taskforce e-skills, set up in 2009 at the initiative of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation, published a much-discussed report about e-skills supply and demand in the country's labour market. The Taskforce's analysis indicated a substantial shortage of ICT practitioners and the risk that the situation will worsen dramatically over the coming years. The Taskforce predicted a significant shortage of ICT practitioners by 2015, both within the ICT sector and in other companies using ICT. The main underlying causes are an increase in business sectors in which ICT is used intensively in combination with the dynamics in the ICT sector in which knowledge becomes obsolete quickly. Furthermore, the report pointed out insufficient intake in ICT training courses, a lack of alignment between course content and the needs of the labour market, and insufficient coordination between supply and demand on the labour market for ICT professionals. This concerned both outdated skills as well as opaque qualifications of workers. Based on this evidence, the Taskforce made a number of recommendations. In particuar, it called for a national ICT professionals e-skills strategy, at the core of which should be the e-cf as the key reference model. The national stakeholders responded swiftly. They sat up up the e-cf NL Work Group, which began operation in early 2012 based on strong cooperation between government, education and certification providers, professional societies, industry associations, and individual business partners, including Capgemini, IBM Netherlands and Eneco. The main aim of the e-cf Work Group is to facilitate job matching on the ICT market through broad implementation of the e-cf framework in the Netherlands. The e-cf Work Group considers the e-cf as a tool to systematically eliminate information asymmetries. Standardizing ICT functions is seen as indispensable to improve coordination of the various points of the market finding appropriate personnel for employers, choosing the right training and adapting education to the needs of the market. The e-cf also makes it easier to assess foreign applicants, which is especially important for a small country like the Netherlands. To reach its aim, the MSP acts on two fronts. First, it translated and adapted the framework to the Dutch situation, and has conducted awareness raising campaigns throughout the country. Second, its stakeholders have been pioneering in using the competence catalogue for their own activities in recruitment and self-assessment of employees. 52 / 253

53 This method of combining the establishment of the framework with concrete implementation in the member institutions has been very effective. In November 2013, 21 of the main stakeholders signed an agreement declaring that the framework is being or will be used in their organisations. There are already a number of institutions which adapted the e-cf. Eleven Dutch Ministries, the National Police, IBM as well as Pinkelephant, a major Dutch IT Training and IT Service Management Consultancy, use the framework in shaping ICT vacancies and drafting employee resumes. HBO-I, a cooperation between 69 ICT programmes within Higher Professional Education in the country (Universities of Applied Sciences), is in the process of mapping its course offers to the e-cf. Experience so far has been positive, with most of the participating stakeholders declaring that they will use the e-cf as a reference or conduct a mapping of their existing framework onto the e-cf. Expansion is expected as a result of companies as well as parts of the public sector using the e-cf in applications or services for clients or in procurement. Real progress has been achieved, but additional efforts will be needed in the coming years to keep up the momentum and to achieve full buy-in from all key stakeholder groups across the country. T h e b o t t o m l i n e When a taskforce, backed by all major stakeholders in the Netherlands, found that the country is affected by a substantial and growing shortage of suitably qualified ICT practioners, the response was not long in coming: By making best use of the European e-competence Framework (e-cf), the e-cf NL Work Group has demonstrated how buy-in for e-cf implementation can be obtained from a large group of national stakeholders within a short period of time. The Work Group is driven by a strong partnership between government, education sector and industry, all of which pioneer use of the e-cf for their own purposes, e.g. design and promotion of education and certification offers, recruitment, job analyses, and procurement. This is likely to have knock-on effects that go much beyond the organisations directly affected, preparing the ground for broad take-up of the e-cf in the Netherlands. e-skills UK The UK's Sector Skills Councils (SSCs) are independent, employer-led organisations that aim to empower employers to invest in skills which are to push forward their companies, thereby create new jobs and drive sustainable economic growth. Founded in 2003, e-skills UK, the SSC for the ICT labour market, was one of the first Councils to be supplied with a 5-year license by the UK government. The license is an identifier to the government and employers that they are a focal point for addressing the current and future needs of the ICT sector. In 2009, e-skills UK was assessed for re-licensing by the National Audit Office, which rated it outstanding and noted breadth and depth of employer involvement; strategic vision; excellence in research; innovation in standards and qualifications; and the pioneering programmes address the most important ICT skills issues facing the UK. e-skills UK is a not-for-profit organization, licensed by the UK government, limited by guarantee and led by its constituency. There is a very high level of commitment from all board members, who represent leading companies and organisations in the UK. The strategic plans are developed in close cooperation with employers and stakeholders, following in-depth, primary research plus analysis of secondary sources. In this way, e-skills UK can address issues companies find difficult to handle on their own. England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales each have their individual fiveyears strategic plan. The dual strategy of e-skills UK consists of first individual programmes for reaching particular targets, based on clear strategic goals; and second integration of the various activities by companies, the education system, and individuals. Benefitting from the support from a large 53 / 253

54 network of employers and training providers, e-skills UK has been able to develop a large variety of programmes to foster supply of suitably qualified ICT practioners today and in future. These reach out to different target groups, ranging from school children over ICT practitioners to higher education and SMEs. Employers and ICT practitioners can find high quality training with the National Skills Academy for IT. The Behind the Screen project let secondary level students choose modern applications of ICT as a subject in some schools. University students can kick-start their career with the ITMB (Information Technology Management for Business) degree. Younger school girls make first steps in ICT basics at the Computer Club for Girls, preparing the ground for increasing levels of participation of women in the ICT labour force. e-skills UK offers various options for stakeholders to get involved. For example, companies can train young apprentices in ICT and offer placements for students. ICT professionals and academics can share their passion for ICT with teenagers by acting as so-called IT Ambassadors. Also SMEs with a small budget can make a change in ICT education through sponsoring a local Computer Club for Girls for a fee of about 600 per year. Bringing ICT Skills into different areas of economy and society requires is a challenge requires a holistic approach, buy-in from as many key stakeholders as possible and a long breath. This is amply demonstrated by e-skills UK's experience. When cuts in government funding for the UK's Sector Skills Councils were announced earlier this decase, some observers claimed that this would endanger e-skills UK's ability to operate successfully. Today most national experts seem to agree, however, that the organisation's role for e-skills related developments in the UK has not been affected by cuts in government funding (i.e. increased reliance on project funding). T h e b o t t o m l i n e e-skills UK remains the European benchmark for comprehensive initiatives addressing the e-skills challenge, in spite of recent cuts in government funding and increased reliance on project funding. The partnership benefits from strong government backing, formalised through its status (since 2003) as a Sector Skills Council. Other success factors include effective coordination of all main national stakeholders, while being driven by the requirements of employers. The range of activities cover nearly all types of initiatives discussed in the present report. The programmes offer companies, institutions and individuals a wide range of opportunities to participate and benefit. EVOLIRIS ICT Reference Centre for the Brussels region, Belgium Evoliris is a non-profit organization that aims at promoting ICT careers and education in the Brussels region. It wants to ensure that the number of ICT practitioners, as well as the training offered, meet the demand of the job market. In 2006, the ICT Reference Centre for the region was set up following the initiative of Benoit Cerexhe, Minister of the Government of the Brussels Region. Given a situation with many unemployed individuals without an adequate qualification on one hand and a huge number of ICT companies on the other, the idea to use e-skills education to link both sides emerged. Training in Computing should be coordinated, evaluated and advertised by one single entity. This reference centre has the objective to improve the quality of training offers and provide adequate and up-todate equipment. The target group for this training offer were unemployed individuals. In 2009, this reference centre merged with other ICT training unities and included also the observation of the labour market and job matching in its work. Nowadays, Evoliris also targets employees and young students (potentially) involved in ICT. It is funded partly by its members and partly from the government. It involves stakeholders from companies, trade unions, the government and the educational sector. Partners include the employment agency ACTIRIS, the regional government, social partners such as unions and company associations, Brussels 5 / 253

55 universities, education providers and the Microsoft Innovation Center Brussels. It supports the activities of employers, school and other education in the sector. Its activities have shown remarkable impact on different levels. For example, in 2012 an ICT workshop for teenagers reached over 1,000 pupils, making 60% of them change their opinion on ICT professions from predominantly negative to positive. Over 100 adult training courses are scheduled for Ensuring a good communication between these actors, Evoliris wants to adapt ICT education to the required profile for ICT practitioners. This also involves the development of new training schemes according to the market s needs. In addition, the MSP is keeping track of unemployed ICT professionals in the region, creating a data base of ICT formations and professions and raising awareness for a career in the sector. Thus, Evoliris broadened its focus, now including not only job-seekers but also other potential ICT practitioners. It joins the different stakeholders in ICT professions in the region and helps avoid mismatches in qualification and job offers. This is a demanding task in a region with two official language zones and with a high number of ICT companies. Evoliris addresses both Flemish and French speaking industry and individuals by appliying bilingualism throughout all its activities. Evoliris has been pursuing these goals with a variety of approaches. Apart from information and job matching tools, it created a serious online game for teens that simulates the daily challenges of an ICT company. This has proven highy popular among youngsters in the region and beyond. T h e b o t t o m l i n e Evoliris has proven that it is possible to overcome the inefficienes typical for the highly heterogenous e-skills market, made more challenging because the Brussels region is bilingual. It offers a platform for ICT which helps eliminating information asymmetries by boosting transparency on the market for ICT education, training and the ICT practitioner labour market. Evoliris carefully studies existing initiatives of relevance to the ICT sector and on this basis develops and offers tailored services to its different target audiences. Its success is based on a long-term approach underpinned by a strong partnership between all major stakeholders in the area, with effective coordination at all levels. Finish IT, Germany The ICT labour market is characterised by a high number of individuals who do not have a formal ICT degree, or who have a foreign degree that is not recognised by the German education system. In the region of Karlsruhe, a medium-seized city in the south of Germany, around 15,000 students start an ICT degree every year. Around 30% of them leave university without a degree, equalling,500 individuals per year. In fact, a lot of skilled ICT practitioners are not fully integrated in the ICT labour market in a satisfactory way. This contributes to a job mismatch which is not caused by lack of the required skills, but by lack of a valid certification. Available data suggest that the other European countries face this problem as well. Against this background, various stakeholders in Karlsruhe, a medium-sized German city with a high share of ICT and high-tech companies, noticed that a lot of well-qualified ICT dropouts, as well as immigrants, are interested in fast-track vocational education in order to obtain a valid degree. At the same time, companies are open towards this kind of candidates. However, these informal ICT practitioners often underestimate their potential and do not recognise themselves when employers voice demand for ICT professionals. To tackle this dilemma, a concept addressing advanced university dropouts and ICT skilled immigrants was developed in 2010 by CyberForum and the Karlsruhe Chamber of Commerce, in cooperation with the city of Karlruhe, the local public employment service, local companies and an 55 / 253

56 education provider. To qualify for participation, candidates have to be at least 25 years old and a minimum of one year of experience in an ICT job. In the German tradition of dual vocational training, the course combines classroom teaching with extensive on-the-job training in employer organisations. The course duration is only about one third compared to a regular vocational training, and remuneration considerably higher. This means that candidates are more likely to afford to participate in spite of the effort involved and the possible loss of earnings from their regular job. The first class started in Since it was launched, the program has received more than 200 applications, 30% of which came from immigrants. In 2013, 31 of 0 participants had already graduated from the programme. The training is financed on a case-by-case basis depending on circumstances; most funding comes from the German public employment service and the companies that take on apprentices; in some cases, participants themselves contribute to the costs. From 2010 to 2013 Finish IT is being evaluated within the project Perspektive Berufsabschluss. The evaluation report is not yet available, but initial feedback from local stakeholders has been very positive; most observers realised that the scheme creates a real win-win situation for all parties concerned. Most applicants, who typically have not been able to exploit their full potential in career terms before, are showing strong motivation when offered fast-track training for a vocational degree. Participating companies praise the candidates qualification and state that Finish IT is allowing them to broaden their competence portfolios. They acknowledge, in particular, that graduates with previous work experience can be integrated more easily into their organisations in comparison to university graduates. In addition, due to their previous knowledge, participants already during their apprenticeship spend less time for studying and contribute more on the job. From the perspective of the region, Finish IT is able to contribute more ICT practitioners to the local economy in a shorter period of time compared to traditional ICT education at universities. T h e b o t t o m l i n e ICT practitioners without a formal degree or with a foreign degree which is not recognised by the German education system represent an important segment of the ICT labour market. These individuals are, however, faced with serious barriers affecting their long-term employability and labour mobility. Finish IT offers a fast-track training programme to allow such ICT practitioners to gain a formal degree, opening the door to full integration in the labour market. The programme is designed to attract candidates with knowledge gained through employment. Frauen in die Technik (Women Into Technology, FIT) Women Into Technology (FIT) is an initiative for gaining young women's interest in studying technical subjects, commonly referred to in Austria as MINT (= STEM) subjects. For this purpose education opportunities and professional perspectives are being demonstrated to students at secondary schools. Much use is made of role models (called "ambassadors"), who are university students or graduates who explain their choice of a technical subject of study in direct interaction with pupils. FIT has been operating for over 20 years now. Started as a countrywide initiative, today FIT operates in the larger provinces (Länder) only after the federal government stopped its funding in 2010 because of budgetary pressures. In the Steiermark, Upper Austria and Vienna regions, regional stakeholders pushed for a continuation of activities as FIT was considered to play a vital role for further increasing the share of young women in STEM. While ICT is only one focus among other subjects that are being promoted, the reference to the STEM area appears more suitable for German speaking countries both the government and employer representatives usually speak of 56 / 253

57 the shortage of STEM practitioners also when referring to the more narrowly defined field of ICT professionals. The observation which originally triggered the initiative is still very much valid today Austrians girls tend to perform better than boys in natural sciences at school, but are much underrepresented among STEM students and graduates. This is a situation which in the face of a growing shortage of STEM practitioners in general and ICT professionals in particular cannot any longer be tolerated. Means are needed for changing the mindset of young Austrian women so that they not only gain interest in STEM subjects but also develop the confidence that they can perform successfully in a related job, e.g. as ICT practitioner. One of the main lessons learned through FIT's long-term experience concerns the need to address not only girls and young women directly, but also their social context such as parents and teachers, who often play a crucial role in career decisions of young persons. FIT is communicating through ambassadors and information days at universities. The former are female STEM students who promote technical subjects to girls in secondary schools. This peergroup approach has proven very effective in the past, since students pass on their own experiences while still being young enough to empathize with the feelings of girls at school age. Information days at universities are used to let regional education providers present themselves and promote their STEM course programmes. In addition, HR Manager of local employers are invited to discuss with students about career prospects in highly practical terms. The initiative is organized in Styria by the Office for Gender Equality and Affirmative Action of the Technical University in Graz in cooperation with the regional government, industry associations, the public employment service, and individual companies. These are also jointly funding the initiative. In Vienna, the coordinator is the Verein Sprungbrett, in Upper Austria the Policy Unit for Equal Opportunities of the Johannes Kepler University Linz. Over the years, the initiative has developed extensive networks at regional level which ensure that changing employer demands are translated directly into new FIT activities. FIT, together with other related initiatives across Austria, has contributed to numbers of female ICT students rising steadily. In 199, the share of female STEM graduates was 1%, while it is about 25% today. T h e b o t t o m l i n e Over many years, the FIT initiative has shown a lot of resourcefulness in developing effective approaches to enhance the share of female students in STEM education, with a particular focus on ICT. FIT uses mentoring and peer-networks (via so-called "FIT ambassadors") and related techniques to address girls and young women within their local social environment. In addition to directly communicating with school pupils, the initiative targets teachers and parents groups which have proven to play a key role in influencing career decisions of persons at school age. FIT is organised at regional level in close collaboration with local partners from industry and the education sector. Get Qualified Scheme This scheme, the successor of the MyPotential programme, offers grants to individuals who seek qualifications which are in strong demand by Maltese employers. The incentive is applicable to individuals following a course of studies leading to a certification, diploma, degree or post-graduate degree which is categorised as eligible by the Local Qualifications Council. This incentive is mainly intended to support persons who have completed formal education and who now seek to further their education in areas that are relevant to Maltese Industries including the ICT industry. 57 / 253

58 The Local Qualifications Council takes decisions based on the government's long-term industrial policy, which has been translated into a number of sectors which are given priority for the development of Malta's economy. While the MyPotential scheme, which was launched in 2006 in the face of increasing signs that the country suffers from a shortage of ICT practitioners, was limited to ICT related qualifications, GetQualified has a broader sectoral focus. This is due to the fact that the ICT industry was particularly hit by the economic crisis that set in at the end of the last decade, which made policy-makers seek additional growth sectors to base the country's economic development on. Still, more than half of the grants are currently allocated to persons choosing a qualification in ICT, as industry demand for ICT practitioners has rebounded. This programme has proved to be an extremely important action that contributed to an increase in the number of ICT professionals in the country. The number of providers enrolling their ICT courses under the scheme has increased on a yearly basis. The courses which are eligible today for support under the scheme provide a wide range of options for professional development, including; industry-based training and certification courses, vocational courses and academic degrees. The grant is provided in the form of a tax incentive. When successfully completing the program, students receive a tax credit covering 80% of the costs occurred (which can range from about 2,000 to more than 20,000). The approach ensures that individuals can choose on their own (or jointly with an employer) which qualification they want to obtain. The latter are not limited to qualifications offered by Maltese providers of education and training course programmes from foreign universities or business schools are supported as well. This is necessary because Malta does not offer all kinds of often highly specialised qualifications demanded by Maltese employers. Because grants are paid in the form of tax incentives, only graduates who choose to work in Malta (within a time span of 10 years after graduation) can enjoy the subsidy. This reduces the risk of free-riding, thereby safeguarding the programme's impact on the national economy. From 2006 to 2012, more than 3,300 students have been granted over 13 million in tax credits. In September 2013, the list of courses eligible for the incentives counted over 200 offers from more than 30 providers. Get Qualified is administered by Malta Enterprise, a national development agency for international investment on the Maltese Islands and national enterprises. It is funded by the government via MITA, the Maltese IT Agency. The success of MyPotential is partly grounded in the strong partnership between all key stakeholders, including the Chambers of Commerce, the education providers, and larger companies. Feedback obtained from employers is strongly positive. While the scheme is formally scheduled to last until the end of 2013 only, there is strong demand from employers to keep it running over the coming years. T h e b o t t o m l i n e GetQualfied is a funding programme for students who choose qualifications required by industry, with a focus on persons who completed formal education. Qualifications that are eligible for funding (mainly ICT) are selected based on government strategy for development of the country s economy. Since grant are paid in the form of tax incentives, free-rider effects are avoided: graduates must seek employment in Malta to benefit from the tax deductions. IT Academy Programme, Estonia IT Academy Estonia is an MSP coordinated by the Estonian Information Technology Foundation (EITF) in cooperation with the government and the country s main universities with the goal to boost the quality of Estonian higher ICT education. 58 / 253

59 Like many other countries, Estonia is facing a gap in ICT practitioners for the local labour market. Despite being a country that has ICT at the very core of its development strategy, it struggles with too few students choosing a Computer Science degree and high drop-out rates. In 2009, EITF, Tallinn University of Technology, University of Tartu, Tallinn University, Estonia and the Estonian Information Technology College and the Estonian Development Fund signed a cooperation memorandum "Estonian IT Academy". This is the umbrella name given to a joint initiative, which aims at bringing Estonian ICT to a new, internationally competitive level. A second aim is to reduce the dropout rate in these curricula. The original idea was to establish a new university. Later, the form of the umbrella project, involving single courses from different universities, was preferred. Its objective is to create a world-class ICT education, which is: 1. Interdisciplinary; 2. Attractive to talented national and international students; 3. Attracts top professors and researchers;. Contributes to the Estonian companies with international ICT or ICT-based business; 5. Prompt a new wave of foreign investments in Estonia. The IT Academy programme started in 2012 and today comprises four different Master s degrees at different universities, receiving a total of 00 students. In 2013, the campaign had an annual budget of 2.7 million, which is spent on separate programmes of the different universities and also on scholarships for students showing promise. Each year the IT Academy invests 680,000 on scholarships for Bachelor, Master and PhD students in computer science. Skype Technologies and LHV Bank Skype have been won as cooperation partners; they provide scholarships as well as internships. In the academic year of 2012/2013 four curricula. Nearly half of the students in the participating master s courses are from abroad, contributing to an international atmosphere in the Academy. The curricula are entirely or partly in English. A further goal is to retain exchange students for the local labour market and also to attract more international lecturers. This equally benefits the local students, who train to work in an international context. Furthermore, the grants are expected to lower dropout rates, since a lot of aspiring ICT graduates used to abandon their studies because of a lack of income. Universities have discretion to decide how to apply the funds. This can range from purchasing better equipment to inviting guest lecturers and supporting individual projects. The initiative thus leaves a lot of space for the participating institutions to develop their own profile. Through its coordination body EITF, the programme has the advantage of joining all relevant players in ICT practitioner questions at one spot. Companies know their recruitment needs in ICT. Universities educate these professionals and the government sets the framework for those activities. Thus, the initiative is governed by one entity that represents all relevant stakeholders and works to supply more ICT practitioners to the labour market. T h e b o t t o m l i n e The IT Academy Estonia is a joint effort of government, higher education and industry to boost the quality of ICT curricula and to streamline and better promote existing education offers. It also seeks to make Estonia more competitive as a place to study ICT. The initiative benefits from being well embedded in government policy for using the ICT sector as a cornerstone of the country s economic development. A strong coordination body that joins all relevant stakeholders safeguards the initiative s efficiency. 59 / 253

60 ITMB Degree, United Kingdom Around 2003 e-skills UK, the country's Skills Sector Council for the ICT industry, together with a number of employers, discussed measures against the skills gap in ICT. The priority was to adapt the relevant academic curriculum to industry needs. Particular emphasis was placed on the need for employees with sufficient competence to be able to blend into the workplace without extensive additional training and education. To address this need for instantly work ready graduates who are able to immediately contribute to business, employers There was strong interest from ICT supply companies (and vendor certification providers) such as IBM and Cisco alongside ICT user companies such as Procter & Gamble and Sainsbury s to cooperate in creating a new degree meeting these needs. The result is the ITMB Degree programme, managed by e-skills UK, which coordinates the collaboration between universities and companies. The ITMB (Information Technology Management for Business) bachelor degree education programme has been running since 2005 and is today available at 1 universities across the UK. The ITMB does not simply merge existing vendor education with publicly recognised education curriculum; it reverts to basics and establishes a highly innovative approach to building a curriculum based upon industry needs. Industry partners worked together to create a fresh curriculum unbounded by the constraints of vendor certifications or existing ICT bachelor degree programs. The unique feature of the ITMB is that the conceptual roots were based upon industry requirements with programme content created by the ICT industry. Universities then provided the disciplines and structures necessary to formulate a formal publicly recognised degree. The ITMB is designed to supply graduates with the technical capacity to perform in an enterprise ICT function and to develop the business acumen that allows them to engage with clients, understand business needs and network successfully. It also provides opportunities to regularly meet and network with industry leaders from over 60 leading organisations though structured network events. The format of the ITMB contains a number of features that add value to the student experience: Guru Lectures from industry experts (at least 10 employer lectures per academic year); Team- - - based work overseen by business mentors; and a significant amount of project work. Available evidence suggests that the degree program is producing graduates that are in high demand. According to an investigation by e-skills UK in 2011, 85% of ITMB graduates found employment within six months of leaving university, with the remainder continuing with more higher education. Since it was developed, the number of applications to the programme has risen on average by 2% every year. Awareness of the ITMB degree is rising with nearly 50% of current ITMB students stating that they applied to ITMB at more than one university. 33% of the current students are female more than double the amount of females across all computing degree courses. Student satisfaction amongst ITMB was found to be significantly higher than the national average. In 2012, the number of active ITMB students was 1,029. T h e b o t t o m l i n e The ITMB degree is a tailored education programme that meets the very core of e-leadership. It does not leave this special mix of competences to masters or PhD training. ICT and management skills are taught in a demanding bachelor s degree that forms the basis for future e-leaders. This is an example for a successful co-operation between the industry and the academic world. By putting employers in the driving seat, the design process applied for the ITMB fully reflects the ICT practitioner related requirements of major private sectors employers in the U.K., and has helped fill a gap for graduates who combine ICT practitioner with business and leadership skills. 60 / 253

61 Level 8 Conversion Programme Level 8 Conversion Programme is a one year scheme that leads honours bachelor graduates from non ICT areas to a higher diploma in ICT. It was initiated by the Higher Education Authority in cooperation with 1 Irish universities and different companies Ireland made it a priority to remain a favourite destination for foreign ICT investments. Yet, during the last years the country has been facing a situation with a job mismatch in the ICT branch. On one side, there is a gap of high-skilled ICT practitioners. On the other, a lot of talented university graduates from areas other than ICT find difficulties in getting employed due to the economic recession. Recognizing this potential, the Higher Education Authority encouraged higher education providers to develop programmes addressing skills conversion needs. The objective was to launch a shortterm response to convert engineering or other graduates to e-skills careers as the country waits for mainstream provision of higher education in ICT to catch up with growing demand. The Industry was intensely involved in elaborating the scheme. Courses started in March The courses qualify graduates with numerical skills to be an ICT professional for a certain area. This certainly does not substitute a full computing degree, but qualifies skilled ICT practitioners for special topics, such as Cloud Computing and Multimedia Programming. Tuition fees are paid for by the Higher Education Authority, with a total budget of 5 million. Partner companies offer internships as part of the course. Candidates are required to work hard to complete the scheme, but can be sure to have much better career perspectives once they graduated. On the demand side, the scheme supplied around 800 graduates with relevant skills to the labour market in The scheme can supply a relatively large number of ICT practitioners in only one year. This is possible because of the participants previous knowledge and cognitive skills. Furthermore the participating companies already get to know the students during internships that are part of the programme. It is therefore not only an education- but potentially also a recruitment programme. Overall, this approach is innovative because it specially targets individuals with a high learning curve, but with an education that is not valued by the market. The fast-track and high quality upskilling relates both to participants and companies needs. Level 8 Conversion Programme is rooted in the educational sector and managed by the official policy development body in this field. Industry participates in the elaboration and implementation. It is impressive how the curricula have been created in a short time in way that is suitable for the economy as well for participants. Also, participants can choose from a variety of courses all over the country. One of the main lessons learned from the programme is the need for addressing the risk of noncompletion by participants: When encouraging a participant to undertake a reskilling journey it is important to have a realistic employment opportunity at the end of it. To do this well the reskilling has to be intensive so that the skills levels are appropriate to employers needs. While the prospect of excellent employment opportunities on completion is usually motivating enough to keep participants from dropping out, candidates need to be made fully aware during the application process of the effort expected from them. T h e b o t t o m l i n e Ireland's Level 8 Conversion Programme is an outstanding example of how to boost numbers of ICT professionals in the short term via close collaboration between government, employers and education providers. It makes best use of the untapped potential of unemployed academics from non ICT areas without compromising the quality of the education. The programme has been very successful in swiftly addressing shortages in the ICT practitioner area. This is of particular 61 / 253

62 importance for Ireland's economy with its high share of employers from the ICT sector, including many multinationals which have chosen this location partly because of a good supply of ICT practitioners. NOKIA Bridge, Finland & worldwide Bridge is a programme for supporting employees dismissed by Nokia following a major wave of restructuring since the start of this decade. Nokia downsized its workforce in Finland by 5,000 employees in The company expressed a strong feeling of responsibility for its employees and thus chose to set up a scheme assisting those who had been laid off. Launched in April 2011, Bridge has been applied at 20 different R&D and manufacturing locations in 13 different countries, but most intensively in Finland. The programme offers outplacement services such as career coaching and CV clinics as well as skill specific training and university collaboration for learning opportunities for increasing chances for re-employment. Bridge also offers start-up funding, exposure to angel investors and venture capitalists, and entrepreneurship training to those with a new business idea in need of backing. The programme has resulted in over 1,000 business start-ups worldwide, over 00 of which in Finland alone. This is of special relevance given the country's traditional lack of enthusiasm for entrepreneurship, particularly when compared to the United States but also many European countries. National experts report that it is increasingly becoming 'cool' in Finland to set up a business; a lot of excitement has been generated around the topic. The entrepreneurship programme comprised grants normally in the range of 10,000 25,000 (subject to income tax) being awarded to former employees who were found to have a strong potential for successful starting a business. Of an overall budget of several tens of millions Euros, between one third and one half has been spent on entrepreneurship grants. Extensive education packages have been designed in cooperation with different educational institutions, and offered to laid-off employees free of charge (e.g. in Finland co-funded with the state). For example, a training programme (LIKE) at Tampere University of Technology and the University of Tampere has been offered to help former Nokia employees develop their leadership and business skills as they pursue other career options or entrepreneurship. While the circumstances of the Nokia Bridge programme are bound to remain unique, many of the lessons learned have broad applicability to European Member States that seek to boost digital entrepreneurship. The programme was designed to offer easy-to-understand decision support to anybody with an interest in starting a business. Close collaboration was sought with local stakeholders such as start-up incubators, city authorities, public employment services and providers of business education to supply every candidate with a support package tailored to her or his needs and the local context. One practical finding was that most education offers available from Finnish universities and public sector business schools were found to be too comprehensive to be of direct applicability for the purpose of supplying prospective entrepreneurs with the skills required. In 2012 the Bridge program won a European Excellence Award in the Change Communication category. The programme's impact in Finland and elsewhere is currently evaluated by external researchers, with results becoming available in late T h e b o t t o m l i n e Nokia Bridge is a major programme for enabling former Nokia employees to find re-employment or to succeed as entrepreneurs. In close collaboration with local stakeholders including public employment services, business incubators and providers of business education, persons with the potential and interest to set up a business are supplied with e-leadership skills and tailored support, 62 / 253

63 including start-up funding. This has resulted in more than 00 digital start-up in Finland within a short period of time, giving a significant boost to entrepreneurial culture in the country. While the circumstances of the programme are unique the need for a major restructuring of Nokia, the by far largest employer of ICT practitioners in the country many of the lessons learned have broad applicability to European Member States that seek to boost digital entrepreneurship. Association, France is a co-operation of over 1,200 companies, two ICT trade unions and over 75 higher education institutions. Its main aim is to boost the attractiveness of ICT professions and develop a method for assessing e-skills. The main motivation to establish was the future members wish to have an evaluation method for e-skills. Each engineer school could then develop this method according to its courses special focus, such as industrial ICT, robotics, information systems etc. The approach does not merely aim at creating a catalogue of skills. It rather wants to establish a methodology to adapt the competences required by the industry to higher education. This is considered to be a necessary evolution, due to the need for certification on a national and European scale. targets ICT practitioners as well as (future) ICT students and the respective education institutions. Its aim is to have a good connection to all individuals and entities that focus on e-skills and reach an overall consensus in measuring the competences. The recent guidelines for this method have been produced in 2011 and 2012 by s commission. In adapting the scheme, s principal drawback was the unwillingness of academic professors to pass on the new competences to their students. In addition to this framework initiative, the MSP has been promoting ICT careers for high school students. One of the measures is a series of videos presenting different professions. Another important step was the introduction of ICT as an A-levels school subject in 2012 in high schools, with s support. This combination of awareness raising and framework activities characterized and insures that ICT education and job matching are always close to the industry s needs. This focus has been maintained since the initiative s creation. Yet, there are new focuses in the future. One of them is e-leadership, with a focus on engineers in ICT. Furthermore, is participating in the CEN workshop for ICT skills. The principal initiators for s methodology were the universities and companies who are members of its pedagogic commission. Around ten representatives participated in monthly meetings to establish the concept. Decisions are made by the commission s co-presidents. Thus, the roles are not institutionalised. The initiative works with a few full-time employees, supported by volunteers from its member organisations. Since is funded by its members contributions only, it is independent from government finances. Thus, the companies are free to shape their activities according to the employers priorities. T h e b o t t o m l i n e is a platform for effective cooperation between industry and higher education to match the profile of ICT graduates with employer needs. runs a range of programmes at different levels, from programmes targeting high school students to initiatives for development of e-leadership skills of managers. has taken a long-term approach to improving supply of suitably qualified ICT practioners and e-leaders in France, made possible by strong commitment of 63 / 253

64 the large number of participating stakeholders from industry, the education sector, and trade unions. Coordination with government policies, however, has been limited so far. RETE Competenze per l'economiadigitale - Italian Competence Network for the Digital Economy, Italy The e-cf is still in an early stage of dissemination in Italy. The Fondazione Politicnico de Milano has been working with the framework since 200. Recently, it became clearer that disseminating e-cf further would facilitate ICT culture and job matching in Italy. The starting point was the CEN project e-cf into SMEs (2011), carried out by some of the future founders of Rete. After that, FPM started to recruit partners for setting up a national MSP in this field. The initiative s aim is to introduce the e-cf to Italy and assist especially SMEs in being internationally competitive in ICT. RETE was set up in July The stakeholders, who are otherwise competitors, agreed to engage in a joint approach to disseminate the framework and further objectives of the Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs. It targets ICT and end user companies as well as public administration. In Italy an overall ICT culture has not emerged yet. Especially SMEs are little embedded in a context based on e-leadership competences. Also, the ICT labour market is influenced by skills mismatches, further complicating the employment situation. Rete considers the e-cf to be a good lever to disseminate ICT culture and job matching. The network promotes the e-cf in workshops and presentations, but also created a job matching tool for ICT practitioners. Thus, it addresses entrepreneurs and employees likewise. This approach contributes to further networking between the different players on the ICT labour market, including supply and demand side as well as companies of different scale. A precompetitive framework is regarded to be the most productive approach to the challenges. The stakeholders work together to apply initiatives and activities in favour of the e-cf and be part of the European Dialogue. The initiative is facing difficulties in securing funding due to Italy s budgetary crisis. However, RETE s member companies continue to contribute in the form of man hours. The main decision-makers are the five industry representatives, Assintel, Assinter Italia, CAN Comunicazione, Confindustria and Unimatica-Confabi. FPM advices the members and provides consultancy. T h e b o t t o m l i n e RETE is a collaboration between a group of major Italian companies for the support of the European e-competence Framework (e-cf) and e-skills across Italy. The initiative is based on the understanding that Italy s economic difficulties demand rather than impede implementation of an effective e-skills framework. Strong personal engagement by members companies has ensured that Italy is now well placed to become one of the first EU Member States to widely implement the e-cf, thus benefitting from significant increases in efficiency on the market for ICT qualification, certification and the related labour markets. 6 / 253

65 Software Campus, Germany Software Campus is a unique cooperation between government, education and industry that supports young researchers in ICT. Each participant works on an academic project, which is funded by Software Campus. Apart from that, the candidates receive high quality leadership training. Therefore, they collaborate with a partner company, where they are mentored by an experienced manager and contribute with their research. In addition, training for leadership and social competences is an important part of the scheme. Software Campus was originated from the idea to create a new generation of managers with an advanced ICT background. These competences are of great importance since all classical industrial domains are influenced by the evolution of ICT nowadays. New players enter the scene, new rules apply and disruptive scenarios might occur. Classical business economists might not anymore have the relevant knowledge to assess these new developments and decide what is appropriate for their company. In this way, the new leaders have to have both economic competences and excellent ICT skills. A total of 18 stakeholders, consisting of universities, companies and research institutions, contribute to the MSP. Industry partners include major names such as DHL, Siemens, SAP and Robert Bosch GmbH. It was a major priority to include companies from different economic sectors and foster a platform for precompetitive work. The first steps for Software Campus were taken at the German National IT Summit in The working group for Education and Research, together with SAP CEO Jim Hagemann Snabe, developed the idea of a scheme that brings ICT researchers closer to industry. In a next step, academic and industrial partners were recruited. One important aspect was to include companies from different branches. In 2011 the project entered into a pilot phase that was launched at that year s IT Summit. An evaluation is planned for 201/2015 and should be conducted by one of the partner universities. Software Campus s approach is unique in the European ICT landscape. It addresses the very core of e-leadership, providing participants with an academic and an industrial partner. Also the financial support is exceptional, totalling up to 100,000 per candidate and project. EIT Lab Berlin coordinates the initiative. During the application process, the universities and companies both assess the candidates qualifications. After the participants are selected, the grants are required with the Ministry of Education and Research. Software Campus daily business is managed by EIT Lab working groups, who receive contributions from the industrial and academic partners. T h e b o t t o m l i n e Software Campus is an innovative scholarship programme for excellent PhD and Master students in ICT, focusing on outstanding individuals who show promise to address a shortage in suitably qualified e-leaders, as it is widely perceived in Germany. Apart from the scholarship grants, which are generous (up to 100,000 per candidate and project), the initiative is providing the infrastructure for systematically supporting acquisition of e-leadership skills. Software Campus also offers career support via measures for networking and mentoring. Participants are to develop skills as researchers and managers at the same time, acquiring high quality working experience at several of the participating employers. 65 / 253

66 Research Programme Sparkling Science, Austria With Sparkling Science, Austria's Federal Ministry for Science and Research has established an unconventional way of promoting young talent. Since 2008, 3.5 million have been invested in the programme in the form of subsidies to individual projects which have successfully applied for funding. The result is a highly innovative and unique approach to raising young people's interest in research & technical development, mostly with a strong ICT component. The initiative also sees teenagers as excellent promoters for science. The long term objective of the scheme is to build a lasting institutional partnership between, on the one hand, primary, secondary and vocational schools and, on the other hand the country's universities and research institutions. All projects funded should bring school children in close contact with the world of universities, thereby triggering increased interest in tertiary education in general, and in choosing a STEM study programme (including computer sciences and other ICTrelated courses) in particular. Moreover, the projects should help identify talent among school children and enable them to participate in real-world research efforts while still at school. Examples of successful endeavours include the two-year AAS Endurance project, which built a robotic sailing boat for research on marine mammals. In another project, a Vienna school, an Austrian institute and a US university developed a multi-sensor platform that completed a severalday-mission in the Baltic Sea. The projects resulted in a number of scientific publications as well as pupils term papers. By 2013, scientists have been working side by side with youngsters in a total of 211 projects, 156 of which have already been completed, involving 60,000 children and adolescents. In addition, 102 partners from industry and society have been involved already. The scheme will run until 2017, with an annual budget of 3 million. Projects are selected carefully in order to ensure not only an excellent scientific quality of the research output but also a productive participation of the pupils. The initiative is supervised by a scientific board assembling highly experienced university professors. Universities or research institutions apply with their projects; the administration selects the initiatives and assists institutes in finding partner schools and companies. The projects selected afford children experiences that go far beyond what is offered in schools. Grants of up to 187,000 are given to each project. A total of 211 projects have been conducted up to May of these were research projects, 5 were school projects. 55 are currently running now. Altogether, 763 scientists cooperated with 60,000 pupils either directly by engaging them in the research process or indirectly by letting them contribute and participate through interviews, project presentations and exhibitions as well as discussions of research results. ICT in the narrow sense of the term accounted for 13% of all projects, including many highly relevant topics. Those range from robotics over geoinformation software to audio study materials for blind school children. Furthermore, many of the engineering projects also rely heavily on ICT skills. T h e b o t t o m l i n e Sparkling Science is a funding programme for collaborative projects between research institutions, universities and schools (primary, secondary, vocational). In these projects, children make contact with the world of science in real-world settings. The initiative has been outstandingly successful in lowering thresholds between science, school and industry in Austria, and in making research much of it directly or indirectly relying on ICT appealing to youngsters of all ages. It has included the launch of "Children Universities" at a number of high-profile Austrian high education institutes. 66 / 253

67 Womentor, Sweden Probably more than in other parts of Europe, the EU's Nordic Member States demonstrate a strong conviction that the ICT labour market needs a higher share of women across all levels of hierarchy and in all parts of the sector. Already in 2006, a small but highly focused project was implemented in Sweden to address the top end of the labour spectrum, i.e. to help get more women into upper management positions within the ICT sector and media sector. For this purpose, the then Minster of Industry Ulrica Messing commissioned a pilot project which was orchestrated by the National Post and Telecom Agency (PTS), involved 30 companies and supported by a steering committee composed of high level representatives (mostly CEOs) from the ICT industry, the trade association and government institutions in Sweden. Mentoring expertise was provided by a subcontractor, Ardida. The target audience is composed of companies seeking to develop and utilise women's skills in order to secure their future supply of managers and their future competitiveness in a world market increasingly characterised by diversity. After the success of the pilot project, the Trade Association for the Swedish ICT sector, IT&Telekomföretagen, decided that the sector should take over ownership of the programme and thereby ensure its continuation. This has turned out to be a great success. Womentor has an annual lifecycle at the time of writing, the 8 th programme is underway. Womentor is for women leaders in companies who have taken their first steps as managers and want to move on. Apart from training in leadership and learning from the personal mentor, the programme is strongly focussed on networking by offering possibilities for the female managers involved to broaden and develop their professional networks. Mentors are selected from those having at least ten years experience as managers and are willing to share their experiences. The availability of bigger share of mentors than mentees ensures that mentees match up with a suitable mentor from other companies. Each participating company has to contribute at least one mentor. The programme is funded mainly from cost-based fees paid by the participating companies. The programme includes a total of six full days and ongoing mentor calls each month. The mentees should have or have had at least one post as first line manager. Furthermore, they should wish to continue the managerial career and have a potential to achieve a higher management position. Since 2007, over 50 companies and more than 00 women have participated in consecutive rounds of the programme. The fact that the programme has run successfully since then without significant funding apart from the participating companies' fees demonstrates that is has reached long-term sustainability. Key success factors have been (a) the ownership of the programme by companies rather than individual female managers who seek to get ahead in their career; and (b) companies' engagements through their own overall goal setting for increasing the share of female leaders within their organization according to their own potential and ambition. T h e b o t t o m l i n e Most if not all Member States are running programmes that aim to increase the share of women among ICT students and the ICT workforce. Sweden, however, goes one step further: Womentor uses a one-year mentoring programme for helping women in first-level management positions to develop their leadership skills and to build up their professional networks. The programme has met with a very positive response from the participating ICT companies as it helps fill an important gap in efforts to promote women's position within the sector's organisations. 67 / 253

68 2.3 Cross-national initiatives by industry ICT vendor-based initiatives and programmes aiming at closing the e-skills gap already exist for a longer period of time. These need to be mentioned since they can make a significant contribution to help closing the e-skills gap and shortages in Europe. Certificates based on IBTC (Industry based training and certification) are a must-have selection criterion for 30% of HR/CIO respondents (weighted by employment) for at least some of their ICT vacancies or promotions. Another 5% see certification as asset for the applicant. Industry based certification is especially important in the UK, while it seems to be least important in France. Exhibit 11: Relevance of certifications for recruitment or promotion of ICT professionals Must-have for all or most ICT jobs Must-have for someict jobs Asset but not a must-have Source: Empirica, HR/CIO survey Apr-Jun Note that figures are weighted by ICT employment, meaning percentages should be read as respondents representing x% of ICT employment. In essence, this means 75% of CIOs see IBTC as very relevant or relevant and 25% do not see it as useful. There are also some country differences, with CIO s from the UK seeing certification most important and CIO s from Sweden or France least. Nevertheless, despite some variance across countries there is huge recognition of IBTC across the board. The same applies for sectors where requirements are highest in the public sector, probably because personnel decisions have to be justified on easily recognisable objective proofs, but nevertheless importance is recognised across all sectors. Some of the best known vendor programmes are presented in the present chapter. Please note that this is only a selection of ICT-vendor based training and certification programmes. At present several thousand of such programmes exist in Europe and the world making it next to impossible for stakeholders to get an overview and orientation of what could be the most suitable to follow in order to upgrade ones skills or advance the career. Online software tools like the which has been developed as a prototype as part of a European Commission DG ENTR service contract in (www.eskills-quality.eu) can be seen as a first steps towards providing the urgently needed orientation and guidance in this area. 68 / 253

69 Cisco Network Academy Program The objective of the Cisco Networking Academy is to improve career prospects around the world, therefore addressing the growing demand for ICT professionals. With 10,000 academies in 165 countries, the Cisco Networking Academy Program helps individuals prepare for industryrecognized certifications and communication technology (ICT) careers. Students develop fundamental skills in ICT simultaneously obtaining essential up-to-date career skills in problem solving, collaboration, and critical thinking. The Academy s students gain skills needed to build, design, and maintain computer networks, therefore filling the gap of networking professionals. In order to get practical skills, students complete hands-on learning activities and network simulations. The Networking Academy uses a public-private partnership model. Cisco partners are educational institutions, nonprofits, nongovernmental organizations, and community centres that provide classroom space, computer lab equipment, and qualified instructors. Cisco provides in its turn online curricula, instructional support, teacher training, and professional development opportunities for instructors. Networking Academy assists students to prepare for entry-level ICT jobs, additional education or worldwide recognized certifications by giving them knowledge on maintaining networks which became basis of global economy. The learning model combines classroom instruction with online curricula, interactive tools, handson activities, and online assessments that provide prompt feedback. What is more, the courses are offered in multiple languages. CISCO s learning model includes several innovative technologies: Cisco Packet Tracer: a visualization and simulation tool enables users to design, build, experiment with virtual networks and to explore complex technical concepts in a safe, virtual environment. Cisco Passport21 to Entrepreneurship: case studies, simulations, and interactive tools to develop critical business and financial skills. Cisco Aspire: an educational game designed to solve business and technical challenges for projects. Online Assessments: provide prompt, interactive, personal feedback to students. Social Media Tools: resources like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and the NetAcad Instructor Community site connect students and instructors worldwide to stimulate collaboration and learning outside the classroom. Cisco Meets APO is a cooperation initiative between the German state backed (APO IT) and the vendor backed (Cisco Networking Academy Programme, CNAP) qualification system for lifelong learning addressed to IT practitioners. It is run by the German trade union IG Metall together with the Cisco Networking Academy. It aims at skills improvement of employees in the IT industry and the achievement of both e-skills qualifications and certificates in one. In recent years, however, the initiative has ceased to be active with the exception of a smaller programme in the Saarland region. Microsoft IT Academy The Microsoft IT Academy (ITA) program provides leading-edge technology skills to reduce the skills gap and involves globally over 7.5 million students. ITA delivers to institutions a digital curriculum and industry-recognized certifications on crucial technology skills as well as courses essential for students to become successful in the world of technology. Educators and staff acquire professional development and a full curriculum for teaching technology courses and learning tools. Students 69 / 253

70 gain technology skills and certifications and therefore get qualified for the job market. ITA offers training not only on fundamental technology skills but also technical courses for those who are interested in pursuing a career in IT after graduation. Altogether.500 Academies are active in Europe, addressing a complete IT education solution that is relevant for the market demand. Microsoft Certifications aims to broaden students employment opportunities: Microsoft Office Specialist (MOS) exams enable students productivity in school and business careers. It is the recognized standard for Microsoft Office proficiency. Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) exams enable to explore diverse technical careers on entry-level. Microsoft Certifications Solutions Associate/Expert (MCSA/MCSE) exams validate student's competence in respect to innovative solutions across multiple technologies. Micosoft has also started several additional programmes in the e-skills and related start-up domains described below. Microsoft BizSpark Microsoft established a BizSpark which is a free programme dedicated to support smaller companies and entrepreneurial start-ups. BizSpark is an international network of entrepreneurial startups and partners. Startups get an access to 900+ present, full-featured software development tools, platform technologies and server products to build software applications. Furthermore, they also get free monthly Windows Azure benefits enabling them to quickly build, deploy, and manage Web applications. Additionally, startups become part of the BizSpark ecosystem and get access to investors, advisors, and valuable offers to help run their businesses, find expertise, and obtain financing. Startups also get access to technical, product and business training and support. To conclude, BizSpark members receive free one-year Windows Store and Windows Phone developer accounts where they can promote and distribute their apps around the world, offer trial versions to create an interest, track sales and customer feedback in the dashboard and more. BizSpark also helps startups gain market interest by giving a chance to promote their apps on the BizSpark website and gain further visibility through the Featured BizSpark Startup series. All in all, BizSpark provides free software, support and visibility to help startups succeed. Microsoft YouthSpark Hub YouthSpark Hub is a company-wide, global initiative designed to empower 300 million young people in more than 100 countries with opportunities for education, employment and entrepreneurship by YouthSpark Hub is an online space where young people can examine all the services, programs and resources offered by Microsoft and choose non-profit partners for education, employment and entrepreneurship. This initiative is meant to help youth gain better opportunities in education and entrepreneurship through partnerships with governments, non-profit organizations and businesses. The program intends to encourage youth by means of latest technologies as well as to give them understanding of its full potential by providing them with the access to various tools and resources. It should be pointed out that the initiative was designed to close the opportunity divide between countries with the lack of resources, jobs and training to find an employment after school. Oracle The Oracle Certification Program (OCP) has been designed for hiring managers who want to distinguish among candidates for critical IT positions. Most certified OCPs have found that their 70 / 253

71 financial investment in training and certification is paid off over a short nine month period by gains in salary, job opportunities, or expanded roles. Oracle Certification has become integrated into colleges and universities worldwide through the Oracle Academy and Workforce Development programs. Oracle Academy students gain entry-level skills and obtain the knowledge to go on and pursue certification on the Associate level. This is a jumping off point for higher skilled certifications. With the Workforce Development Program, Oracle University provides education and certification programs that give students relevant job skills in an increasingly competitive work environment. In general, Oracle programs address the growing shortage of skilled employees in global technological industry. There are over 200 Oracle certifications available: database certifications such as database administration, security management and application development; application certifications in functional areas such as HR, Finance, and customer relationship management; industry-specific certifications in areas such as transportation, retail and utilities; java programming, operating systems, and hardware certification tracks are also available. Whatever certification path a student or professor chooses, knowledge and hands on skills with the Oracle products and technology for the path that they are pursuing is requisite. This is usually achieved through a combination of formal training and exposure to project work and/or job experience. Certification is being offered globally, predominantly available in English. Other supported languages are Japanese, Korean and Chinese. All certifications require passing a proctored exam. Some entry-level exams are available as non-proctored/online. Testing centres are globally available to schedule and take certification exams. SAP SAP is an independent software manufacturer with focus on enterprise applications. It provides multi level certifications: associate certification which covers a fundamental knowledge for a SAP consultant and professional certification which implies proven project experience, business process knowledge and the more detailed understanding of SAP solutions. SAP E-Academies represent a flexible learning program, offering comprehensive training in a userfriendly and cost effective manner. Students are provided between one (1) and five (5) months of virtual self-training which enables them to attain expertise in different SAP areas and to get ready for a certification exam. All courses are adapted to various subject-matter requirements and professional needs (e.g. needs of end users, experienced consultants, project team members, support professionals and executives). The SAP University Initiative, which in cooperation with the Steinbeis Center of Management and Technology (SCMT), the SRH Heidelberg and the Technical University of Munich (TUM), offers training for young managers and professionals. The SAP Corporate Master Programme trains and promotes outstanding young firms and consulting companies from various business fields. SAP also has as Bildungspartner (Training partner) programme in cooperation with Germany's Public Employment Service (BfA). This works as follows: The unemployed are eligible for receiving a voucher from the BfA which they can redeem for a training measure. Moreover, ICT training courses are provided by SAP-certified partners, to which SAP provides training systems and materials. In 2011, almost 900 people attended SAP consultant training and 1,000 attended end user training courses. There was ~70% placement rate into jobs after completion of SAP training. SAP launched the SAP Global Certification Program in the mid-nineties and the program has been continually enhanced to address customer needs. The SAP Global Certification Program is based on the solid foundation of a state-of-the-art certification exam development process and comprises 160 certification exams in 16 SAP Solution areas and in up to 20 languages. The program certifies 71 / 253

72 the skills of individuals (whether customer or partner employees or freelancers) involved with implementing, enhancing or running SAP solutions and is based on two levels. The primary Associate level validates the knowledge and skills of individuals gaining their first experience in a new solution. For the secondary or Professional level, exams are written by leading SAP professionals in their field and validate extensive and broad project experience, addressing integration topics. Exams are offered at more than,000 locations around the world in a proctored environment. To prepare for certification, there are classroom trainings available in 0 countries at SAP Education Centers. In addition there are numerous training partners delivering SAP training. With Virtual Academies and elearning options 300,000 individuals are trained each year. In addition to the training partners, SAP also works together with more than 1,300 universities around the world within the framework of the University Alliance program, which supports universities in getting graduates and undergraduates certified in SAP knowledge and skills. SAP considers it a key to build up the IT-skilled workforce to support customers and partners around the world and has initiated many programs, working together with local authorities to help enable the unemployed or students. One such European initiative is the Academy Cube, which is a Job and Advanced Training Platform in collaboration with such partners as Robert Bosch, Microsoft and the German Federal Employment Agency, to help job seekers to prepare for Industry.0, which is merging production, mechanical engineering and IT. The platform provides training and links them to important job opportunities in leading European companies. HP Accredited Technical Associate (ATA) certifications The HP Institute program was created to address the IT skills gap and lacking expertise in trending technologies, such as cloud computing as well as know-how on how to align IT with business objectives. HP Institute, partnered with Certiport a leader in performance-based certification program management to help co-develop and distribute a full learning solution that includes course material, practical hands-on lab experience, practice exams, and certifications mapped to the e- Competence Framework. To that end, the HP Accredited Technical Associate (ATA) certifications were developed specifically for academia (secondary and tertiary) to better prepare students with business acumen and architect-level skills for modern data centres, based on open standards that spans across the enterprise. ATA validate the knowledge of HP, industry technologies and business expertise and provide with practical business and IT skills by means of learning solution composed of courseware, hands-on labs, practice tests, and certification exams. Students are being prepared for key IT job roles such as network administrator, support technician, systems engineer, solution architect, and information architect. To prepare students for employment in small and medium business environments, HP Institute delivers the industry s first architect-level certification, which insures the job-ready IT skills. This certification signifies to employers a knowledge excellence and demonstrated skills to adapt business and IT objectives. Students of this course study to use key IT solution elements in order to solve business challenges. They acquire information on how to identify business problems, opportunities and specific technologies that support those business objectives, as well as how to evaluate various solutions from a business perspective. By means of business scenarios students gain practical experience in defining business-side responsibilities in a technology project, learning where technology can go off track. Moreover, HP offers the comprehensive HP Institute learning suite for adoption to academic, vocational and government training programs. For teachers HP Institute offers free HP Certified Educator certification, Train-the-trainer experiences, and global subject matter expert forums. 72 / 253

73 Certification Paths are made up of Technical Certification (IT Architect, Cloud, Connected Devices, Networks, Servers and Storage) and Business Certification (IT Architect, IT Business). The IT Architect is expected to be able to successfully identify, recommend, plan, implement, and manage IT technology solutions based on proper business principles. In order to get certified as an IT Architect one should achieve the HP ATA - Cloud and the HP ATA - IT for Business certifications. HP ATA Cloud certifies the understanding of a customer s business objectives and of how to optimize, adjust and support a complete IT cloud deployment for small to medium size businesses. HP ATA IT for Business certifies the ability to identify key IT solutions and how they are used to solve business challenges. HP ATA - Connected Devices certifies the ability of installation, replacement procedures, configuration and upgrading of client solutions. Furthermore, one should be able to perform a version control, maintenance tasks and backups. HP ATA Networks certifies the capability to manage, administer and optimize a network for small and medium size businesses as well as adapt these technologies to customer needs. The associated training give instructions on how to install, configure, upgrade, and troubleshoot wired and wireless networks. HP ATA - Servers and Storage certifies the capability to administer, manage, and operate server and storage solutions. Additionally, it verifies that one is able to create appropriate server, data storage, and application hosting solution that meets small to medium size business requirements. HP Institute is available globally and in Europe. Early academic adopters of the program consist of University Politehnica of Bucharest, De Montfort University, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, IUT France, University of Maribor, Belfast MET, just to name a few. Specifically in the UK, the program is also embedded in apprenticeships that combine work and training. Young people gain on-the-job technical skills and expertise to start successful ICT careers. For business, utilizing apprentices is a cost-effective way to bring on high-calibre staff. HP Institute partners with: Firebrand Training: IT apprentices spend 6 full weeks per year with an employer gaining the proper work experience and training spread throughout the year and ultimately achieving HP ATA certification. Firebrand has training centres in the UK; DACH (Germany, Switzerland, Austria); Nordics (Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland); and Benelux (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg). QA Apprenticeships: two HP apprenticeship programs are available through QA one for technical and the other for technical sales to build on young people who have passion for technology. The 12-month apprenticeship with training has been offered in London, the Thames and Leeds, and eventually will be offered across the UK. In addition, the HP LIFE learning initiative for entrepreneurs helps unemployed youth gain business and IT skills through an open, cloud-enabled learning platform. Students years of age can learn online at their own pace with e-mentorship from HP employees. In 9 countries around the globe, HP LIFE works with more than 30 partner organizations. HP LIFE has reached more than 1.2 million people with online and face-to-face training and has helped create or retain almost 57,000 jobs and 25,000 businesses worldwide. HP Institute and HP LIFE represent HP s commitment to developing the job-ready skills in demand, while also fostering the spirit of entrepreneurship. Further, HP Institute is the academic arm of HP ExpertOne, provider of a broad range of skills-based IT training, certification training and training services with over 600 courses, more than 60 certifications, and a network of 800 instructors in 90 countries with 5 languages. Students become part of the HP ExpertOne community of more than 73 / 253

74 650,000 technology experts to continued development of expertise and are encouraged to join the HP ExpertOne LinkedIn community of over 1 million members for networking opportunities. LPI Linux Professional Institute/The LPIC Program The LPI program in Linux and Open Source certification in Central Europe certifies the competency of IT professionals to use the Linux operating system and its associated tools. LPI s mission is to provide a global scheme, industry leadership and services to enhance and develop professional careers in Linux and Open Source technologies. Furthermore, it should meet the requirements of both, IT professionals and organizations that would employ them. The LPI Certification Program is created by the community of Linux professionals, volunteers and vendors. It is available at thousands of test centres around the world or at special events and consists of multiple levels. Each level is designed according to the "Job Task Analysis" (JTA) survey to ensure its relevance. LPIC-1 Junior Level Linux Certification implies the ability of working at the Linux command line, performing easy maintenance tasks, install and configure a workstation. LPIC-2 Advanced Level Linux Certification requires the ability to administer a small to medium-sized site, plan, implement and maintain a small-scale network. Additionally, one should be able to supervise assistants and to advise management on automation and purchases. LPIC-3 Senior Level Linux Certification represents the highest level of professional, distributionneutral Linux certification within the industry. LPI Approved Academic Program (LPI AAP) Schools and Universities can profit from various noticeable advantages of the academic partner program LPI AAP. High quality training materials are made available to the partner without a special limit inside the institution. Exam prices of the LPI AAP program is considerably lower than the standard price of the LPI exam. LPI started this program in 2006 in Central Europe and it was adopted in 2008 worldwide. Typical cooperation partners are vocational schools and universities. Cooperation partners hold a partner contract with the responsible LPI Master Affiliate institution in the region. LPI Master Affiliate institution in the region is responsible for program implementation. In some countries there exist cooperation on a national basis between national ministries or appropriate agencies and the responsible LPI Master Affiliate. The main objective of the program was to give a better support to the appropriate courses in schools and universities as they could better combine their Linux and Open Source trainings with the globally recognized Certificate LPIC-1 from LPI's Professional Certification Track. Since LPI started the LPI Linux Essentials programme in 2012, schools can prepare classes for this globally recognized Certificate of Achievement. Currently, there are about 250 LPI Approved Academic Partners worldwide. LPI Academy program LPI Academy is a program for accredited degree / diploma-granting academic institutions, high schools, middle schools, as well as internal government and military training programs. The LPI Academy helps to prepare students and employees for lucrative and productive careers in Linux and Open Source. LPI started this program in North America in The LPI Academy program allows teachers and trainers to offer their students an entry level LPI Linux Essentials course, a globally recognized Certificate of Achievement, and the opportunity to continue on a career path as a Systems Administrator via LPI's Professional Certification Track. Up to date there are about 50 LPI Academy partners in North America. 7 / 253

75 The LPI Approved Academic Program (LPI AAP) is often integrated into current and already established standard schools and university courses. These courses provide the appropriate knowledge in Linux and Open Source technologies. In addition to the established courses, LPI Approved Academic Partners extend the curricula of their courses to the objectives of the LPI Linux Essentials and the LPIC-1 certifications. In this way the LPI Approved Academic Partners prepare students for passing LPI exams and getting LPI certification. Further LPI initiatives with the relationship to e-skills include: Apprenticeship programs in a number of countries. Participants support at the contests Skills Germany/Skills Austria in 2012; preparation for the WorldSkills 2013 and EuroSkills 201 contests Other ICT skills certification programmes EXIN Academic Programs EXIN is an independent international exam institute offering ICT-related certificates and associated services (including accreditation of training providers and competency assessment of professionals) offering both examinations of third parties (e.g. ITIL ) and certification programs developed by EXIN in cooperation with partners and experts in the field. The Foundation programme has developed out of the introductory part of the AMBI programme which was very successful in the Netherlands in the second half of the 20th century, at the time the higher education institutes hardly had their own ICT curricula. EXIN offers two types of certification programs used in higher education institutions: Foundation programme Expert programme The Foundation programme consists of introductions to ICT related subjects like IT Service Management, Information Security, Application Management and Business Information Management. The programme covers the subject overview, core concepts and main connections to other subjects. Some examples of EXIN Foundation certificates are: Cloud, Agile Scrum, IT Service Management, Green IT, Information Security and Learn IT, Business Information Management, Application Management, Testing (TMap Next) and IT Project Management. The target group for the Expert programmes are professionals aiming to develop and prove their competencies in ICT-related domains. These programs use one or more Foundation modules as a starting point and add two or three levels: Practitioner, Expert/Manager and Executive. The Practitioner level certificates prove the ability to apply knowledge. The Expert level aims at the ability to create new solutions, define processes and manage them. The Expert level targets those in a position to lead or advice at a strategic level. The main Expert programmes are: EXIN IT Service Management EXIN Information Security EXIN TRACKS The current EXIN portfolio consists of 37 certificates, most of them available in English and Dutch, several also in Spanish, French and German, some also in Japanese and Chinese. The EXIN programmes, except for TRACKS, are offered worldwide. Most prominent markets are Western Europe, Asia, Latin America and the USA. EXIN s target group are ICT professionals willing to develop themselves further and prove their capabilities by obtaining a certificate. Ever since EXIN certificates became known and popular in the ICT industry, starting in the Netherlands, higher education institutes started to include parts of the 75 / 253

76 EXIN programme to provide their students with an advantage of having practice oriented recognized certificates, in addition to the diploma of the institute. Cooperation with higher educational institutes was intensified when some of the Dutch training commercial providers responsible for preparation to the EXIN exams, obtained accreditation and started bachelor programmes. Recently, several of these commercial higher education institutes founded a platform (SPIH) for cooperation on a core curriculum for their ICT related programmes. Moreover, they decided to involve EXIN into development of independent examinations. This core programme expected to offer an opportunity for other training providers to prepare learners for these exams and thereby facilitate dual learning (combining work and study). The core programme is planned to be developed not only for the Dutch market, but also made available in other countries, e.g. via the partners of EXIN and educational institutes. The European e-competence framework e-cf will be used to improve the transparency of the learning outcomes and the competency focus of the programme. Development and recognition of e-skills is EXIN s mission. To facilitate this, EXIN has cooperated with partners all over the world both in developing certification programs and in improving the ecosystem supporting the improvement of e-skills. EXIN is an active member of the CEN ICT Workshop on ICT Skills, the European e-skills Association and contributed to several national and international projects and initiatives. EXIN supports the development and dissemination of the e- CF, e.g. by talks on this subject during conferences and seminars. Furthermore, e-cf is used in the EXIN e-competence assessment of professionals. CompTIA CompTIA is a non-profit trade association fostering the overall interests of IT professionals and companies. It comprises more than 2,000 IT companies around the world, ranging from large organizations such as Cisco, Verizon and Symantec to small and medium-sized companies. CompTIA is focused on educating the IT channel, certifying the IT workforce, advocating on behalf of the IT industry, and giving back through philanthropy. CompTIA is the leading provider of vendor neutral IT certifications in the world. It offers certification exams in PC support, networking, servers, Linux, security and more. CompTIA has been delivering certification exams for more than 20 years. The focus is first of all on e-education in IT sector, including deployment of online guides, webinars, market research, business mentoring and open forums which foster the growth of its members businesses. The courses are designed for IT professionals in project management with respect to their busyness. E-learning courses include interactive scenario-based exercises and a course assessment at the end. Among Channel Training Categories are Cloud Computing, General Business, Government IT, Healthcare IT, IT Security, Legal IT Services, Managed Services, Vendor & Distributor Education etc. Secondly, CompTIA certifies the IT workforce. Its executive certificates enable professionals to widen their skills and knowledge to rich organizational goals as well as to enhance their businesses with best practices. These certificates have been developed by senior experts in the IT industry and transferred by CompTIA Authorized Channel Instructors. Among CompTIA Professional Series are: CompTIA A+ : Long acknowledged as the starting point for a career in IT, the A+ focuses on the skills required by an entry level technician. The current A+ focuses on how to manage multiple devices within a network, including the topics of virtualisation and mobility. To date over 900,000 professionals worldwide are CompTIA A+ certified. CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI: Validates the fundamental knowledge and skills required of junior Linux administrators. The exams cover system architecture, GNU and UNIX commands, user interfaces and desktops, Linux installation and package management. 76 / 253

77 CompTIA Network+ : Delivers the principles of networking and aligns to the following job roles: network administrator, network technician, helpdesk technician, cable installer. The curriculum covers important topics such as virtual networking and network security. Designed to help students become entry-level networking professionals. CompTIA Security+ : Security has been identified as the largest of the IT skills gaps. This certification, covering topics such as identity management and cryptography, represents a valuable credential to kick start a security career. Thirdly, CompTIA brings together small- and medium-sized IT businesses and lastly its foundation supports disadvantaged groups in acquiring IT skills for employment. To CompTIA Basic Series belong CompTIA Strata IT Fundamentals - an introduction to technology and computing basics and allows students to test their aptitude for IT. Strata is often used as a stepping stone to A+. CompTIA s offices are located in the United States, India, Japan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. CompTIA is currently involved in a multitude of European initiatives to promote ICT professionalism and address the ICT skills gap at EU level. Some examples of this include: EU e-skills strategy: participation in several on-going initiatives led by the EC CEN ICT Skills Workshop: participation in the creation of the e-cf 3.0 Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs: signatory to the EeSA pledge e-competence Stakeholder Platform: participation in the promotion of the e-cf 3.0 CompTIA welcomes partnerships with all educational and training entities seeking the goal of providing IT professionals with necessary skills to support the ever-evolving technology landscape. CompTIA sets forth specific guidelines for participation in the Authorized Partner Program. Any partner who fulfils all program requirements is eligible to be accepted into the program and therefore receive program benefits. As concerns country specific initiatives, CompTIA is a sponsor of the UK government backed CyberSecurity Challenge, which aims to attract more people into the information security professions. Furthermore, Armed for IT is a CompTIA led, new initiative to assist UK Forces Service Leavers evaluates and kick-starts a second career in IT. Authorized Partner programmes include: Training Delivery Partner Program: Through association with the CompTIA Authorized Partner Program, delivery partners are offered revenue generation opportunities, supported by economic and strategic resources. This includes financial incentives as well as sales, marketing, and operational assistance that promote certification of trained IT professionals and improve partner financial performance. The goal is to work collaboratively with partners to increase market impact, customer satisfaction and revenue. Academy Partner Program: The CompTIA Authorised Academy Programme offers an educational programme designed to assist academic institutions, non-profit organisation, and government retraining agencies. It is designed to extend the reach and impact of education and enhance the learning experience to prepare learners for careers in information technology (IT). CompTIA examinations represent technology-neutral certification curricula that provide a substantial knowledge and skills foundation for students who want to pursue a career in IT. CompTIA offers baseline international standards to help prepare and identify qualified and knowledgeable IT professionals. CompTIA s certifications serve as the core for expanding to other vendor specific certifications. Several of the certifications are mandated by the U.S. Department of Defense and recommended by top companies such as Microsoft, HP, and Cisco. 77 / 253

78 2. Recent developments and emerging approaches 2..1 Grand Coalition Pledges About the Grand Coalition Following the Employment Package of April 2012 VP Kroes called for the formation of a multistakeholder partnership, the Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs, to tackle the twin issues of a (depending on the scenario used) projected shortfall of up to 372,000 to 86,000 ICT professionals in Europe by 2015, exacerbated by a decline in computing science graduates. Hence, its aim is to increase the overall supply of digitally skilled professionals and to better match supply and demand of digital skills. On -5 March 2013 the Commission launched the Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs at a Conference in Brussels, which was hosted by President José Manuel Barroso Vice Presidents Neelie Kroes and Antonio Tajani, Commissioners László Andor and Androula Vassiliou as well as Richard Bruton, Irish Minister for Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation. At the launch conference a number of organizations made concrete pledges to the Grand Coalition. Additional pledges were presented at the Digital Agenda Assembly on 19 and 20 June in Dublin. Key priorities - Concrete short-term actions The Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs is supposed to deliver concrete actions, which can be implemented in the short-term and have high local impact. It will build on on-going programmes and best practices that could be scaled-up. The following are some of the objectives of the actions: Improve the image and attractiveness of ICT careers 78 / 253

79 Offer training packages co-designed with the ICT industry Offer more aligned degrees and curricula at vocational and university level education that will respond to the needs of the students and the industry Improve recognition of qualifications across countries by stimulating take-up of a European certification scheme for digital skills of ICT professionals, based on the existing e-competence Framework Reduce labour market mismatches by stimulating mobility Stimulate digital entrepreneurship by liaising with Startup Europe, a single platform for tools and programmes supporting people wanting to set up and grow web start-ups in Europe The Grand Coalition will help accelerate and intensify efforts initiated by European policies, such as the Digital Agenda for Europe, the e-skills Strategy, the Employment Package, the Opening up Education Initiative, the Rethinking Education Strategy, the Youth Opportunities Initiative and the EU Skills Panorama. Pledges of stakeholders to the Grand Coalition During the launch conference of the Grand Coalition on -5 March 2013, several pledges were presented by stakeholders. The second milestone for taking stock was 31 May 2013 and further new pledges were presented at the Digital Agenda Assembly in Dublin on June An overview of pledges of stakeholders to the Grand Coalition submitted by late October 2013 is provided below, pledges are listed by policy theme. Exhibit 12: Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs - Overview of pledges by late October 2013 No Promoter Pledge Reach / country 1. Training and matching for Digital Jobs 1 SAP Create the Academy Cube, an online learning platform for ICT practitioners open to all ICT companies 2 TELEFONICA Create a Career Fair at Campus Party 2013; roll out across Europe a programme of teaching Digital Literacy Skills and launch a pan-european start-up internship scheme 3 CISCO_SMART GRID HEWLETT PACKARD Develop education curriculum addressing smart grid networking skills and enable usage of CISCO Networking Academy programme to train smart grid professionals Scale up HP programmes to develop up to 1 million students and professionals with entrepreneurial and technology skills by the end of MICROSOFT Increase the number of high quality apprenticeships and internships by 50% over 3 years, from the current 9000, thus providing an early career lever to help European youth into digital jobs 6 ACER Offer up to 50 internship in 2013 in every EU country with interns working in ACER and touching all the aspects of ICT industry 7 ALTEN Six-month internship programme in Italy or Spain where people will be trained in ALTEN Solution Centres of Excellence; then they will transfer to countries that are EU Spain, UK, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ireland and Peru, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil, Chile EU Multinational EU Multinational EU 79 / 253

80 No Promoter Pledge Reach / country lacking ICT skills to work in the Alten Group. 8 DIGITAL SKILLS ACADEMY Reskill 20,000 jobseekers by 2016 in Ireland and other EU countries experiencing high youth unemployment rates, including Spain, Portugal and Greece. 9 TELERIK ACADEMY Offer a free, 1-year professional cutting-edge ICT education program. By 2015: provide online training to 500,000 to 1 million EU people in all MS; create a school training program to include 600 to 2,000 Bulgarian schools, thus increasing the scale of its school edu initiative by 80 times its current size. 10 DC PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 11 CLOUD CREDENTIAL COUNCIL 12 STICHTING VROUWEN AAN HET WERK Grant access to their four core online course modules to up to 500 users Professional Cloud Training and Certification Program enabling training partners and technology vendors in countries across Europe to Cloud-Ready the European workforce. 1. Develop the next World Smart College to educate 100 people and match them to ICT labour market, from November 2013 to Build a Creative Innovation Center at primary schools of disadvantage neighbourhoods with aim to revise curricula. 13 FAST-TRACK TO IT Apply the FIT training and support model to secure employment for 12,000 marginalised job seekers in Spain, Portugal, Greece and Ireland by Innovative Learning and Teaching 1 European Schoolnet Create Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) for secondary school teachers, to support students in acquiring science and technology skills and increase the attractiveness of ICT jobs 15 ORACLE Hold a pan-european roundtable among ICT vendors, Ministries of Education and other stakeholders to share best practices for training in computer science and ICT skills 16 THE CORPORATE IT FORUM 17 BCS, THE CHARTERED INSTITUTE FOR IT Fund a programme of work in 2013 ( ) that will bring together major employers in the UK to provide input on ICT curricula so as to align education and training with the needs of businesses Digital Literacy for Life Programme: bring together an alliance of organisations that have a stake in digital literacy in the UK to promote the need for digital literacy in schools, colleges and private training organisations 18 SAMSUNG 1. Provide equipment & solutions for underprivileged children. 2. Provide vocational ICT training designed to increase employability in unemployment hotspots, and to spur entrepreneurship. 19 INLEA 1. Increase the use of ICT Industry Education and Certification programs among Vocational and Higher Education institutions. 2. Involve the ICT Instructors community in the Grand Coalition for digital jobs. 20 INFORMATICS EUROPE Platform to share educational knowledge and best practices across different countries and coordinate national initiatives to finally establish informatics as a compulsory subject in schools. Multinational EU EU EU global Netherlands Ireland EU and worldwide Multinational UK UK Multinational Multinational EU 80 / 253

81 No Promoter Pledge Reach / country 21 DIDASCA DIDASCA offer free MOOCs - Mass Open Online Courses to Italy fight digital literacy gap in Italy. 22 GOOGLE 1. Reach 20,000 entrepreneurs across Europe in 2013 through partnerships under the Google for Entrepreneurs initiative. 2.Work with 6 STEM education organisations across EU, to increase their reach from 32,000 to 100,000 young people by the end of 2013(as part of the RISE programme). 3. Launch 25 MOOCs in collaboration with universities across Europe, reaching tens of thousands of people across EU. 23 University of Piraeus 3. Certification 2 EUROPEAN E- SKILLS ASSOCIATION 25 European Computer Driving License Foundation (ECDL) 26 Council of European Professional Informatics Societies (CEPIS) 27 RETE COMPETENZE PER L ECONOMIA DIGITALE 28 WePROMIS - ECWT, BCWT The Department of Digital Systems of the Piraeus University offers updated courses, seminars and curricula on advanced ICT topics based on the requirements of strong industrial companies. The Undergraduate Programme has two main directions: Communication Systems and Networks and Electronic Services. The Postgraduate Programmes have five main directions: E-Learning, Network-Oriented Systems, Digital Communications and Networks, Techno-economic Management of Digital Systems and Digital Systems Security. Set up national roundtables, push for an European standard and a European platform for the e-competences Framework governance Launch the new ECDL, a flexible certification that allows the creation of profiles matching individual or organisational needs Launch the CEPIS e-competence Benchmark, a free online interactive tool for ICT professionals to identify their competences Disseminate the European e-competence Framework, e-cf, all over the national territory, and enhance the culture of competences for ICT within Italian enterprises. Offer for free the present WePROMIS solution structuring STEM knowledge to the needs of female entrepreneurs and those who want to be more competitive in the job market.. Awareness raising 29 YouRock YouRock is a new employability platform for young people across Europe that will help them to become more employable by encouraging them to use their existing online content creation activities as evidence of their latent skills and aptitudes. 30 CIONET 10,000 hours of passion for ICT: Organize CIO information tours to schools, universities or other relevant places. 31 Hellenic Professionals Informatics Society (HePIS) HePIS is committed to run the project Getbusy.gr with the aim of benefitting up to 65,000 young people, motivating them to improve their e-skills and employability, increasing their entrepreneurial skills and learning about new EU Multinational EU EU EU, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey Italy EU EU Greece 81 / 253

82 No Promoter Pledge Reach / country technologies. 32 SHEFFIELD COMMUNITY NETWORK 33 UNIVERITY OF SHEFFIELD Create a network of community-based Digital Media Centres across the city of Sheffield which will become hubs for digitally-enabled business and job creation. Establish a Computer Science Ambassador Scheme for secondary school pupils, initially for 5 pupils aged 1-15, involving 60 hours guided experience of digital opportunities. 3 EVERIS-UPF Noa & Max, stuck in Electronia", a project aimed at 8 to 12 year-old students that involves the production and dissemination of cross media content designed to promote innovative talent and creative ICT and Science learning. 35 ZEN DIGITAL Initiate pan-european Digital Woman of the Year Award. EU 5. Mobility 36 MAKE IT IN IRELAND 6. National & Local Initiatives 37 AMSTERDAM METROPOLITAN AREA (AMA) 38 TELECENTRE - EUROPE 39 SPANISH GRAND COALITION 0 BASQUE EIT COALITION 1 DIGITALLY SKILLED AND DIGITALLY SAFE 100% industry-led programme to showcase opportunities in the technology sector in Ireland and provide information for people to moving there. Invest million to organize Amsterdam Metropolitan Solutions, a design contest for an applied technology institute in Amsterdam, to stimulate economic development and job creation in applied ICT (also open for organizations outside the Netherlands. Lead and facilitate Local Coalitions for Digital Jobs (LCDJ) across EU (i.e. local governments, industry, employment services, educational and social actors). Launch a coalition for ICT job creation in Spain with public and private actors. Launch a Coalition for Digital Competence in Basque region with platform of evaluation, certification and recognition of digital competence Year-plan to enhance digital skills of the labour force (Digitally Skilled) and internet safety (Digitally Safe) in public-private collaboration. UK UK Spain Ireland Netherlands EU Spain Spain Netherlands Further descriptions of these pledges can be found here: https://ec.europa.eu/digitalagenda/en/current-pledges 2..2 Other new and emerging initiatives As our country-by-country analysis shows, many Member States have shown an increased level of activity in recent years, partly triggered by widespread evidence that the challenge related to shortages in sufficiently qualified ICT practitioners has been little affected by the economic slowdown following the financial crisis. In the present section we are presenting initiatives which have been started recently and which already now seem to have a huge potential for helping to close the e-skills gap. These have not (yet) been included into the group of good practices since they first need to demonstrate their potential in real-life and show that they can became sustainable and scalable activities with a potential for being transferred and implemented into other national contexts and countries. 82 / 253

83 Two new/emerging initiatives which promise to be of major relevance for the discussion in the present report are briefly described below. École 2, France 2 is a free Web Developer School created in France by Xavier Niel, one of France s most famous e- entrepreneurs. He created France s major internet service provider Free. According to him, France is currently the 5 th strongest economy in the world, but only on rank 20 in ICT economy. His concept argues that the country will lose its position as a major economic force if it does not invest more in its e-skilled workforce. Nowadays, young people are having difficulties finding employment while the ICT branch cannot occupy its vacancies. In this context, the initiative aims at counteracting skills gap and youth unemployment simultaneously. It is funded by the enterprises and situated in Paris. It harshly criticizes the ICT education in national schools and offers a concept based on self-study, peer-to-peer education, projects and challenges. École 2 has the ambition to be the best Computer Science school in France and promote excellence in programming. Individuals aged can apply, even without a school diploma. During the professional qualification pupils can also deepen their e-leadership skills, attending a two year specialization on entrepreneurship and management. Although the courses do not lead to an officially recognized degree, graduates should not encounter problems in getting employed. Recruiting company Ametix already offered a job to all first 1000 graduates. Ècole 2 explicitly wants to tackle youth unemployment and skills gap at the same time. For this purpose, it also addresses applicants without a high school diploma. Admitting students according to their talent rather than official credentials, the schools aims at including also disadvantaged groups. Yet, the focus is clearly on sophisticated ICT practitioner skills. 2 gives everybody the chance to apply, but emphasizes that they will have to be very dedicated. This approach is unique, since it combines inclusion and high-profile training. The school aims at guaranteeing an employment for their young participants and at supplying the labour market with highly skilled professionals. It wants to be an alternative to both public universities and expensive private schools specialists are to be educated every year. Computer Scientist programme is going to take 3 years. A further 2 years qualification specializes interested students in ICT research or in innovation entrepreneurship. The latter focuses on developing business ideas related to ICT. In this way, the MSP is innovative in its goals: it delivers a solid ICT education which can be combined with e-leadership topics. The school was created in march of 2013 and has not acted yet. The school was created by major entrepreneur Xavier Niel. Other companies have been expressing their support, but are not contributing financially yet. Since the campaign is heavily criticizing the national education system, there are no such stakeholders involved. Thus, since the school is operated by one entrepreneur only, it cannot be considered a MSP yet. With its plan to supply the French labour market with young developers, the initiative actually ties in with the national Digital Roadmap. The project, however, is completely independent from government policy. Founder and major entrepreneur Xavier Niel funds the school personally. He is reported to have invested about 70 million private capital in the project, and has announced that he is going to invest his personnel savings over the next ten years into it. Ècole 2 has a frequently updated a very informative website directed at candidates, parents and entrepreneurs. Students can apply to the school directly online. It is also networking on Facebook and YouTube. National and international have been intensely featuring 2 s opening. The school is led by five directors for different sectors. A further staff of 2 individuals ensures the day-to-day business. 83 / 253

84 The initiative is being met with enormous interest, since the program received more than 50,000 applications for this year. 1,000 students will start their first year in November, when the school will officially open. Two assessment centres with a -weeks-duration where conducted. In this intense test phase, the 2 team wants to select the final participants who will be entirely accepted. For this purpose, participants completed long rows of programming examinations. Since the initiative is not operating yet, this point is difficult to access. The schools premises are very sophisticated and well equipped. Every student is provided his or her own Apple PC. Until now, one major critique point is that the graduates will not receive a diploma that is recognized by the French education system. Critics reflect, that graduates might be fine in the short term, but might have difficulties because of their lack of certification later. The school is just about to enter the operational phase by the end of Xavier Niel has been emphasizing that 2 has a solid financial foundation, given his personal support. It still has to be seen whether this is enough. Yet, it is likely that the school s new concept might put pressure on the traditional education system and thus contribute to a more dynamic ICT education in France. In any case, the following years will have to show the school s impact and potential sustainability. On the long run, the lack of skilled workers only might not be enough of a pull factor to keep the school working. Academy Cube, Germany Academy Cube is an online platform targeting academics, young professionals and job seekers from across Europe. The platform provides job offers and information about what courses will qualify them best for their desired job. Immediately they can attend those courses online, for free. In particular, e-learning-based training courses for professionals in the ICT and engineering area are provided. The Academy-Cube initiative is an alliance of international companies, e.g. DFKI, BITKOM, EIT ICT Labs, Festo Didactic GmbH, Society for Computer Science e.v., LinkedIn Germany GmbH, Microsoft Germany, Robert Bosch GmbH, SAP AG, Software AG, ThyssenKrupp AG, University Duisburg-Essen etc. and public institutions, e.g. the Federal Employment Agency. Academy Cube explicitly targets unemployed graduates especially from southern Europe. It wants to improve job matching on a European scale. It focuses on ICT, but addresses STEM professionals in general. Qualified applicants can register to the platform from their home countries and prepare for the needs of the job market. This approach is innovative, since it reacts to the current economic crisis in some member states. Academy Cube s target is to provide relevant qualifications to 100,000 young people. The target for 2013 is to enrol 250 students in the online courses. The e- courses are available in English and cover the following areas: 1. Big data, 2. Data management and business analytics and 3. Enterprise resource planning, logistics and production organization. Academy-Cube involves international companies, e.g. DFKI, BITKOM, EIT ICT Labs, Festo Didactic GmbH, Society for Computer Science e.v., LinkedIn Germany GmbH, Microsoft Germany, Robert Bosch GmbH, SAP AG, Software AG, ThyssenKrupp AG. Other partners are public institutions and universities both in Germany and in southern European countries as well as chambers of commerce. Academy Cube ties in with the German policy to counteract the gap of ICT and STEM professionals. It also relates the efforts of the European Commission to reduce youth unemployment in southern Europe. SAP contributed to the program with 3 million. The core of Academy Cube is its online platform. It informs on the campaign and offers the job matching tool and training basis that characterize the academy. Interested job seekers can easily find vacancies and adequate training for their qualification. The initiative was also presented on CeBIT 2013 by Neelie Kroes and SAP. Furthermore, the partners in the targeted countries also promote the campaign. It has also been featured in the German and European press. Thus, Academy Cube is communicating efficiently both to the target group, industry and policy makers. 8 / 253

85 The platform has been operating since September students already participated in a pilot phase. A further pilot program worked with 10 participants in Greece. Since the program commenced in March 2013, the number of partners has doubled. Further pilot projects are planned in France, Ireland and Italy. As of October 2013, the platform provides three different curricula: Big Data, Data Management and Business Analytics and IT-Base BPM, logistics and production optimization. All courses are offered in English and available for unemployed graduates only. The training is sponsored by the industry partners and offered at a reduced fee. So far, the program structure is very appealing. The fact that half of the partners joined the campaign since it was launched indicates that it relates to the actual needs of industry. Academy Cube is supported by big group of stakeholders from industry, universities and job agencies, which is likely to ensure its long-term sustainability. However, since all courses are offered in English and enrolled students do not commit to working at one of the partner companies once they completed the course, a free rider problem might arise. Nevertheless, the initiative promises to become an excellent example of a flexible qualification and job matching programme with a truly European outlook. 85 / 253

86 3 Assessment and validation of e-skills policies in Europe Results from a Stakeholder Survey 3.1 Objectives In a further round of expert consultation empirica carried out an assessment and validation of different types of existing policies, initiatives and multi-stakeholder partnerships which had been derived from those identified and analysed in previous phases. Besides questions directly relating to the above expert policy assessment and validation further topics addressed included the expert s expectations as to the development of the supply of ICT practitioners and professionals from the education sector on the one hand and the industry demand of these until 2020 on the other. Finally, questions on the role of the European Commission in the future regarding e-skills and those for the national governments and other relevant stakeholders where asked. 3.2 Approach and methodology Data gathering was carried out mainly through an online survey accompanied by telephone interview which was addressed to around 1000 experts from different types of institutions. The targeted experts included experts from national governments or governmental institutions which had already been involved as part of the activities for the identification and description of relevant e-skills policies, initiatives and multi-stakeholder partnerships in their countries, experts from higher education, research and academia, industry and ICT industry, associations of different type, consultants and other types of experts including those from social partners. The response rate of was 17% with 171 experts getting involved and responding. From these responses 111 could actually be included in the analysis. The experts were asked several sets of questions including the following on: A) Appropriateness and effectiveness of different types of policies and initiatives for securing adequate supply of ICT practitioners and professionals as required by employers in the years until Experts had to specify for each whether establishing and carrying out these types of policies and initiatives: has been appropriate and effective, will (still) be relevant in the near future, has revealed tangible benefits already, whether and to what extent they are satisfied with these policies and initiatives, as they have been executed in practice. They were asked to respond to these questions in relation to types of policies and initiatives at European level (where appropriate). National level in their country. Altogether responses had to be given for 18 types of policies and initiatives Activities for raising awareness about the opportunities offered by a career in ICT, including Europe-wide and national activities like those carried out within the European e-skills Week activities. 86 / 253

87 Development and provision of ICT education & training: Industry-based training and certification addressed to ICT practitioners to further develop and update their skills and / or improve their career opportunities (life-long-learning) Measures for mainstreaming ICT training in primary & secondary education, e.g. revision of curricula, introduction of dedicated subject "ICT", etc. Development and provision of ICT education & training: Higher education: (new) curricula and programmes in areas of high demand in the market at: Universities for traditional higher education programmes (Bachelor and Master programmes) Development and provision of ICT education & training: Higher education: (new) curricula and programmes in areas of high demand in the market at: Business schools offering dedicated (executive) (part-time) MBA and Master programmes to those in work Development and provision of ICT education & training: Higher education: new curricula and programmes in areas of high demand in the market at: Business schools offering condensed, short-term programmes (duration: approx. 6 weeks or several months in parallel to job) Development and provision of ICT education & training: Vocational education: taught as dedicated subject in vocational schools (including apprenticeships) with the aim to become an ICT practitioner. Development and provision of ICT education & training: Re-training and up-skilling measures for ICT practitioners with outdated skills. Development and provision of ICT education & training: Re-training and conversion courses for unemployed offering them a job opportunity in the ICT area. Career support addressed to STEM students, graduates and employees but also those from other disciplines interested in an ICT professional career e-skills frameworks and associated online tools for vendor-based certifications mapping onto e-competences allowing individuals for a self assessment of their competences and match to ICT job profiles and for employers in recruitment processes to identify suitable candidates matching their competence profiles demanded to fill vacancies Job matching for ICT practitioners through implementing the European Vacancy Monitor, EURES etc. Provision of market information on current and future supply of and demand for (different types of) ICT practitioners and professionals Financial and fiscal incentives ranging from subsidised courses, training grants to tax incentives for employers and employees Programmes addressed to increase immigration of ICT practitioners from third countries ICT Professionalism initiatives making the ICT profession more transparent and attractive for a broader range of (potential) students at vocational schools and in higher education Institution building: establishment of a dedicated (possibly government funded) institution (like eskills UK) to promote and support the ICT profession through a multitude of activities Dedicated policies and initiatives that aim to raise the share of women in the ICT workforce. B) Expectations as to the development of the supply of ICT practitioners and professionals from the education sector and the industry demand of these until Responses had to be given on a five-point Likert scale for each, demand and supply (drastically increase, increase, neither nor / remain stable, decrease, drastically decrease) for the following types of ICT professionals: Management, such as CIO, ICT operations managers, project managers etc. 87 / 253

88 Planning and Strategy, such as enterprise architects, systems analysts, and ICT consultants Design, development, and integration such as software, web and multimedia developers and test specialists Design, development, and integration such as database designers and administrators Design, development, and integration such as hardware and network specialists and systems administrators Design, development, and integration such as security specialists Design, development, and integration such as Big Data specialists Design, development, and integration such as embedded system designers / developers Service delivery and operation, such as operations, control or equipment technicians etc. Any other ICT professionals (please specify below). C) The role for the European Commission in the future regarding e-skills. D) The role for the national government and other relevant stakeholders in your country in the future regarding e-skills. 3.3 Survey results Distribution of responses by country and affiliation The distribution of responses by country and affiliation from which experts came can be obtained from the following figures. Altogether experts came from 27 countries including almost all major EU Member States. For Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Estonia, Belgium and Ireland we received a sufficient number of responses which allow for an analysis at national level. Exhibit 13: Stakeholder survey Respondents by country 2% of the experts came from universities, academia and research, 17% from industry (incl. ICT industry), 19% from government institutions and 9% from associations. 9% can be classified as consultants and % as representatives from social partners. 88 / 253

89 Exhibit 1: Stakeholder survey Respondents by affiliation Appropriateness and effectiveness of policies, initiatives and MSPs Positive and negative expressions of experts on the appropriateness and effectiveness of e-skills policies and initiatives in Europe differ widely depending on the type of policy and initiative. Between 18% and % of experts expressed positive, and between 20% and 3% negative opinions on policy appropriateness and effectiveness with any of the policies and initiatives discussed. However, also between 25% and % do not want to take a position and respond neutrally. This shows that a substantial number of experts remain uncertain as to a final judgement on appropriateness and effectiveness of e-skills policies. On a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = fully, 5 = not at all appropriate and effective) the values range around 3 which is an indication of a tendency of the majority of experts towards judging the current policies rather more inappropriate and not effective. 89 / 253

90 Exhibit 15: Stakeholder assessment of the appropriateness and effectiveness of e-skills policies and initiatives in Europe Those e-skills policies most positively perceived as appropriate and effective include the provision of market information on current and future e-skills supply and demand, activities by universities on new ICT curricula and programme development for Bachelor and Master courses (note: with around 0% of respondents coming from universities and academia, there may be a bias in these results), vocational school activities teaching dedicated subjects for students to become an ICT practitioner, the initiatives around e-skills framework and associated online tool development and 90 / 253

91 institution building: establishment of a dedicated (possibly government funded) institution (like eskills UK) to promote and support the ICT profession through a multitude of activities. 91 / 253

92 Most negative expressions concerning the appropriateness and effectiveness of policies and initiatives can be found with respect to programmes addressed to immigration of ICT practitioners from third countries and dedicated policies followed by initiatives that aim to raise the share of women in the ICT workforce and ICT re-training and conversion courses for unemployed. 92 / 253

93 A more detailed analysis is provided below. Awareness raising policies and initiatives When being asked about activities for raising awareness about the opportunities offered by a career in ICT, including Europe-wide and national activities like those carried out within the European e-skills Week activities, 1% of the experts expressed these to be appropriate and effective while 35% expressed a negative opinion. Industry-based training and certification addressed to ICT practitioners Development and provision of ICT education & training in form of industry-based training and certification addressed to ICT practitioners to further develop and update their skills and / or improve their career opportunities (life-long-learning) as a means to help close the e-skills gap and address skills shortages mostly received neutral responses (0%). Around 33% of the experts express positive 27% negative views Measures for mainstreaming ICT training in primary & secondary education Measures for mainstreaming ICT training in primary & secondary education, e.g. revision of curricula, introduction of dedicated subject "ICT", etc. receive more negative responses (38%) than positive ones (31%). (New) curricula and programmes at universities for traditional higher education programmes (Bachelor and Master programmes) The development and provision of (new) curricula and programmes in areas of high demand in the market at universities for traditional higher education programmes (Bachelor and Master programmes) is seen as the most appropriate means for closing the e-skills gap although a high share of 39% of experts express a neutral view. Even more, 1% are of a positive opinion as opposed to just 20% expressing a negative view. New curricula and programmes at business schools for dedicated (executive) (part-time) MBA and Master programmes to those in work Negative views are articulated by 26% and positive expert responses are at around 3% when judging on the appropriateness and effectiveness of development and provision (new) curricula and programmes in areas of high demand in the market at business schools offering these as dedicated (executive) (part-time) MBA and Master programmes to those in work. The majority of experts remain neutral in their judgement (0%). 93 / 253

94 New curricula and programmes at business schools for condensed, short-term programmes A similar picture only slightly more negative - emerges when it comes to judging on new curricula and programmes at business schools for condensed, short-term programmes (duration: approx. 6 weeks or several months in parallel to job). ICT education & training taught as dedicated subject in vocational schools (including apprenticeships) Almost 0% of the experts see the development and provision of ICT education & training taught as dedicated subject in vocational schools (including apprenticeships) with the aim to become an ICT practitioner as an appropriate and effective means. One third of the experts express a neutral opinion. Re-training and up-skilling measures for ICT practitioners with outdated skills Slightly more experts express negative views as to the effectiveness of re-training and up-skilling measures for ICT practitioners with outdated skills, but most experts refrain from any judgement and express a neutral opinion. Re-training and conversion courses for unemployed offering them a job opportunity in the ICT area In general re-training and conversion courses for unemployed to enable them to get a job opportunity in the ICT area are seen as one of the least appropriate and effective measures for closing the e-skills gap. 1% of experts express this opinion with Irish experts being the most sceptical ones. Career support addressed to STEM students, graduates and employees but also those from other disciplines interested in an ICT professional career Slightly less experts (31% compared to 33%) see the career support activities addressed to STEM students, graduates and employees but also those from other disciplines interested in an ICT professional career as suitable for helping to close the e-skills gap. Again the majority (37%) does not want to express a value judgement. e-skills frameworks and associated online tools Activities addressed to e-skills frameworks and associated online tools for vendor-based certifications mapping onto e-competences allowing individuals for a self assessment of their competences and matching these to ICT job profiles and for employers in recruitment processes to identify suitable candidates matching their competence profiles demanded to fill vacancies receive a much more positive feedback from experts than many other types of policies and initiatives. Interestingly in the UK and Ireland negative responses pre-dominate. Job matching for ICT practitioners Policies for job matching for ICT practitioners for instance through implementing the European Vacancy Monitor, EURES etc. are mostly not judged as appropriate and effective means by a majority of 33% of the experts interviewed. However, another 30% see some positive aspects with these to help closing the e-skills gap while 36% do not provide any value judgement and remain neutral 9 / 253

95 Market information provision The provision of market information on current and future supply of and demand for (different types of) ICT practitioners and professionals is appreciated by 5% of the experts. Only 23% express reservations with around 50% of the experts in the Netherlands and Germany expressing this negative opinion. In the other countries levels of appreciation range are mostly well above 50% With this result, this policy belongs to those with highest levels of endorsement. Financial and fiscal incentives Financial and fiscal incentives ranging from subsidised courses, training grants to tax incentives for employers and employees receive rather low levels of approval as appropriate policies helping to close the e-skills gap. 32% disapprove of them while the majority of % of experts does not want to provide any judgement. Immigration policies Programmes addressed to increase immigration of ICT practitioners from third countries receive highest levels of resistance. More than 0% of the experts do not judge them as suitable means. Only 18% are in favour of these, while 0% remain neutral in their judgement. ICT Professionalism initiatives Policies addressed to ICT Professionalism making the ICT profession more transparent and attractive for a broader range of (potential) students at vocational schools and in higher education create an interest and positive responses among some experts (33%) but also negative ones (32%) with differences among the countries where a country-specific analysis is possible. This will be further elaborated on in later sections. Institution building Institution building, i.e. the establishment of a dedicated (possibly government funded) institution (like eskills UK) to promote and support the ICT profession through a multitude of activities finds a good number of supporters (37%) but also opponents (32%) with 9% of all experts seriously questioning the appropriateness and effectiveness of this policy for closing the e-skills gap. Policies and initiatives that aim to raise the share of women in the ICT workforce Current policies and initiatives that aim to raise the share of women in the ICT workforce receive low levels of appreciation among experts. Only 20% see these as appropriate and effective while 37% object to them and 3% remaining neutral Level of satisfaction with European and national policies and initiatives It is striking that on average between 0% to 50% of experts remains neutral in their level of satisfaction with the appropriateness and effectiveness of actual European e-skills policies and initiatives. The highest figure with 65% of expert expressing neutral levels of satisfaction is achieved with 65% for initiatives of business schools offering dedicated (executive) (part-time) MBA and Master programmes to those in work. The lowest neutral figure is with 37% for initiatives addressed to e-skills frameworks and associated online tools. On a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = fully, 5 = not at all satisfied) the values range around 3 which is an indication of a tendency of the majority of experts not so much satisfied with the current policies at European level. Satisfaction is even worse with respect to national policies and initiatives (see next chapter). 95 / 253

96 Exhibit 16: Stakeholder satisfaction with European e-skills policies and initiatives 96 / 253

97 Exhibit 17: Stakeholder satisfaction with national e-skills policies and initiatives 97 / 253

98 Highest levels of satisfaction are reached with 6% for initiatives addressed to s-skills frameworks and associated online tools. 3% are satisfied with initiatives providing market information on current and future e-skills supply and demand. Lowest levels of satisfaction can be found with initiatives for re-training and conversion courses addressed to the unemployed (38% express low or very low levels of satisfaction), re-training and up-skilling measures for ICT practitioners with outdated skills (36%) and those for mainstreaming ICT training in primary and secondary education (33%). The situation is different when it comes to expressing satisfaction or dissatisfaction with national policies and initiatives. Here the picture is much clearer with experts not remaining at a neutral level when expressing levels of satisfaction but clearly expressing an opinion on almost all types of policies and initiatives. These are mostly negative and show rather low levels of satisfaction with the national e-skills policies and initiatives in the different countries reaching figures of between 0% and up to 58% of experts expressing dissatisfaction: 58% negative responses for programmes addressed to increase immigration of ICT practitioners from third countries, 52% for conversion courses for unemployed and 51% for initiatives addressed to institution building. Higher levels of satisfaction expressed by around on third of the experts could only be achieved for two types of policies and initiatives: activities addressed to the development of new curricula for traditional higher education programmes (Bachelor and Master programmes) (32%) and initiatives addressed to vocational schools (30%) Impact of European and national policies and initiatives at country level The experts draw a rather negative image when it comes to the impact of European and national eskills policies and initiatives at country level. Depending on the policy type, negative judgements range from around one third of the experts and up to 59%. Retraining and conversion courses for unemployed are those where almost 60% argue that these did not have any or very little impact and benefit. Initiatives for job matching for ICT practitioners follow with 5%. Dedicated policies and initiatives that aim to raise the share of women in the ICT workforce come third with 8%. On average only around one third of the experts express positive views as to the impact and benefits of existing policies and initiatives at country level. With just 12% these positive judgements are lowest with respect to dedicated policies and initiatives that aim to raise the share of women in the ICT workforce and highest for initiatives providing new curricula for relevant Bachelor and Masters programmes (38%). Around a third of experts remain neutral in their judgement on impact of policies and initiatives at country level. 98 / 253

99 Exhibit 18: Stakeholder assessment of the impact of e-skills policies + initiatives at country level 99 / 253

100 3.3.5 Tangible benefits in Europe The vast majority of experts shy away from a judgement on whether existing policies and initiatives have revealed tangible benefits in Europe. It appears as if it is too early to ask this question since many of the policies and initiatives are still at a very early stage and have only been launched recently. This picture may become different in the incoming years. However, those experts expressing an opinion are more negative than positive as to the visible and tangible impact of policy measure achieved. One third of the experts express negative views as opposed to one fifth being more positive. At the level of policy type the results show a high correlation to those on the impact at country level or level of satisfaction. Exhibit 19: Stakeholder assessment of the tangible benefits of European e-skills policies and initiatives in Europe 100 / 253

101 3.3.6 Relevance of e-skills policies for the future The experts almost unanimously state that all the types of e-skills policies and initiatives asked for will be of high or even very high relevance in the near future. The figures reached range from 80% to 90%. On average only around 10% see starting and continuation of such policies as superfluous. This is also reflected in the high scoring which is in most cases around 2 on the five-point Likert scale (1 = fully, 5 = not at all relevant) for almost all policy types. Exhibit 20: Stakeholder assessment of the relevance of European e-skills policies and initiatives in the future 101 / 253

102 Only with respect to very few policy types a significant number experts refrain from giving a judgement and stay neutral. This applies to policies addressed to immigration from third countries (38% of experts stay neutral), those addressed to raising the share of women in the ICT workforce (27%) and others addressed to the provision of financial and fiscal incentives (27%) Development of e-skills supply and demand until 2020 The interviewed experts and stakeholders are optimistic with respect to the overall supply of ICT graduates and e-skilled individuals coming from the education systems in Europe over the coming years. Two third of the experts expect an increase or even drastic increase of suitable candidates from the national educations systems up until Supply and demand show the same profile for each of the different job types. However, even with the expected increases of e-skills supply demand for e-skills will by far not be met since 92% expect the demand to increase beyond the supply level and many experts also believe demand to even increase very drastically. Demand is likely to exceed supply throughout all professions and occupations asked for even at the low-end of ICT jobs including the service delivery and operation domain with operations, control and equipment technicians. Exhibit 21: Stakeholder assessment on the e-skills supply and demand until / 253

103 Not surprisingly, the highest discrepancy between e-skills supply and demand can be found in the following domains and occupations: Planning and strategy: enterprise architects, systems analysts and ICT consultants (6% expect an increase in supply but 93% an increase in demand) Design, development and integration: security specialists (68% increase in supply compared to 90% increase in demand, with 5% expecting a drastic increase in demand) Design, development and integration: Big Data specialists (72% increase in supply compared to 89% increase in demand, with 0% expecting a drastic increase in demand) The role of the European Commission, national governments and other stakeholders When it comes to the role of the European Commission and the national governments in Europe experts and stakeholders would strongly like to see both to continue in pursuing these as already started. However, the vast majority would like to see both especially the national governments to play a much more active role. While for the European Commission 16% argue that their policy activities should continue as before and 6% argue for a more active role, the corresponding figures for Member States governments are 5% and 7% respectively. Discontinuation of activities is not at all an issue. Only a very low 5% of experts ask for this. 103 / 253

104 The message is clear: experts and stakeholders in Europe strongly expect the European Commission to continue with its activities and leading role in the development and implementation of suitable policies and initiatives in Europe and guiding national governments while national governments are expected to whole heartedly and much more strongly become active at national level. The future role of the European Commission When analysing the comments made by the interviewees (see box below) and as already mentioned above, experts and stakeholders see the European Commission s role as the one of guiding and providing orientation to the national governments with a clear vision and targets and less academic discussions. The expectation is that activities move away from pure awareness raising initiatives to competence building ones with a specific focus on high-end skills and those needed for innovation (e.g. e-leadership skills) and also focussing on the needs of SMEs. Experts also state that there is no one size fits all approach towards national policies and initiatives. These need to consider and be developed and implemented within the different national contexts and levels of maturity. Further comments made by experts and stakeholders emphasise the necessary leading and driving role of the European Commission and the need for creating a learning environment enabling different national stakeholders and actors to learn from experiences made elsewhere. Many experts re-emphasise the urgent need for national governments and stakeholders to become more active and move away from talking to action. 10 / 253

105 Expert statements on the future role of the European Commission in the area of e-skills policies and initiatives: The focus must change from large organisations to more support at the SME level. Orientation to specific projects planned for Europe, executed by country Move from awareness to competence building approach More clear vision and targets, less academically discussions and surveys Major focus on ICT needs, linking academic skills with professional needs Importance of Professionalism etc Further explicate the different career options in ICT Focus on high end skills Focus exclusively on awareness raising e-leadership skills Differentiated maturity per country ask for differentiated and focused roles Be less rigid in defining the solutions to challenges Finally, and in order to best monitor activities and achieve a measurement of success experts asks for setting agreed targets and key performance indicators (KPIs) against which to regularly measure progress and make initiators and policy makers fully accountable for target achievement. Further expert and stakeholder comments on the role of the European Commission: In my country the role of European Commission is not observed In convincing and stimulating the national governments to apply and integrate in the policies the results of the work of EC like e-cf, EQF, EQAVET etc. ICT (e-skills) is not just about a connected world and the way citizens and administration or companies are related, but also about developing good and safe services. For such reason, it is important to emphasize the need for correct ICT skills, [...] I think the events are good, but somehow we lack momentum in showing real progress that is measured against some agreed KPIs and accountability. I have seen efforts on the "title" level but very few on the national and/or organizational level. More deeds, less talk. I have no clear ideas about what European Commission is doing... and this is probably a problem (maybe on my side) Force national governments to take some core actions Focus more to linkages to the professional bodies of engineer associations like FEANI, VDI, VDE and encouraging their youth organisations as multipliers for ICT occupations Financing, under close scrutiny of application of funds, should be increased, allowing citizens and not the ICT skills development providers to take advantage of funding EC should keep on driving eskills in order to keep the discussion neutral and not high-jacked by (USA based) vendors Consistency is the key to success the Commission should continue and build upon existing policies Be more open in your policies. Create an environment where the different countries can learn from each other. Instead of these fixed programmes with an industrial set of mind: Problem solution - implementation. 105 / 253

106 The future role of national governments and stakeholders Stakeholders and experts interviewed believe that national governments and other stakeholders should put a strong emphasis on vocational training and life-long-learning for teaching e-skills, an issue which has already become apparent from the analysis of the survey results above. They also argue for the need to more intensively involve and commit national key policy makers at top policy level to such policies and activities to increase the likelihood for a long-lasting and sustainable impact. Expert statements on the future role of national governments and other stakeholders in the area of e-skills policies and initiatives: To focus more on ICT skills upgrade for professionals; need specialist and practitioners The policies and practices are not enough research/evidence based. Requirements and programs content update, complement ICT programs with business and other industries content, support for vocational training and LLL... Not only think for their country Need more senior involvement More focus on flexible skills and career motivation More attention to ICT in non-ict sectors Matching supply/demand individual development of peoples skills Focus more on technical/vocational education Co-operation, transparency, continuity Changing focus from career aspects to intrinsic motivation Further comments made by experts and stakeholders as to the role of national governments and stakeholders emphasise that a drastically increased level of activity at national level is urgently required and will have a much stronger impact in the country itself than any European policy could have. Experts argue for a discontinuation of delegation of action to third parties and the need at national policy level show a much stronger political commitment including the need to get top government officials involved to spearhead such policies and initiatives. Experts also point to the possibilities of using Structural Funds for activities in this area. Finally, the ask for reliable statistics as to the demand and supply of e-skills today and in the future, which requires a continuous monitoring and measurement and what one expert describes as an eskills observatory on national policies and initiatives and empirical evidence and statistics on eskills supply and demand at Member State level. Further expert and stakeholder comments on the role of national governments and stakeholders: There is a lack of a joint programme for the ministries involved. Their activities are the most important ones as they - in principle - are near to the needs of employees and organizations. The same message as for the Commission except that national policy will have an even greater effect on supply and demand through influence in national education systems and through tax incentives. 106 / 253

107 The Italian agency for digital agenda is going to set up a multi-stakeholder national plan aimed to develop digital literacy initiatives and build up training plans on digital competencies The focus the government in Italy is placing on e-skills is to my opinion irrelevant The Agenzia Digitale Italia has to start an hopefully concrete role: 3 actions has been announced, now have to be implemented Short-term initiatives don't seem to make much difference - they might be expensive, loudshouting and visually hard-punching, but are mostly one-day-wonders. Continuous efforts, including plenty of serious stakeholders seems much more sustainable. Right now more of the financial support goes for unemployed for basic ICT courses that doesn t match the European quality standards Political decisions prevail, the principle of equal opportunities is sometimes neglected. Need to utilise all potential levers to increase the quality and quantity of the supply of ICT talent, including through the domestic education and training system, continuing professional development of those at work, improved ICT talent retention [...] Need to get the top government officials to speak on the need for e-skills. At the moment, too much on operational level en too much delegation to 3rd parties. National governments could provide bigger support for organizing and coordination in definition of industry demands and development of policies for adequate supply of ICT professionals and practitioners. Most countries have no active e-skills & education policy for ICT. It is still need seen as important. I hope more EU countries will develop e-skills & education programs for ICT, linked to the EC programs. More programs that combine academic qualifications with industry certifications More joint policy planning between University and Government. No budget cuts for Universities! More focus on pupils outreach in ICT section More activities and financial support needed from government (EU programs) and stakeholders for different activities, also cooperation between government and stakeholders should be more efficient. Government and relevant stakeholders are doing quite a lot in the area of e-skills, but these issues should be addressed even more broadly and systematically. Develop national policy and strategy, use Structural Funds (RIS3, HRD, etc), stimulate private investments and cooperation academia-industry, etc. At country level, they should not only focus on their respective countries, but have in mind that they can benefit from also thinking "Europe". At a national level, more attention should be paid to obtaining better understanding of real demand so that supply can be matched appropriately. Currently much is anecdotal, rather than underpinned by real statistics. As at the European level, the focus must change from large organisations to more support at the SME level. As an example, the Experts Committee in Spain for the Digital Agenda does not include any ICT professional, just experts coming from the Telecommunications sector. Digital Society in Spain (and I-m afraid that in other countries) is intended as p [...] An e-skills observatory must be predicted in every country in order to coordinate better the European and National initiatives 107 / 253

108 3.3.9 Recommendations The interviewed experts and stakeholders have articulated a large number of recommendations addressed to the European Commission, national governments and other stakeholders. A complete overview is provided in the following sections. In the present report we can only highlight some of those which experts believe to be most urgent in terms of implementation in the short-term. Recommendations addressed to the European Commission Experts and stakeholders would appreciate a better or more visible coordination of e-skills related activities of the different Directorate Generals at European Commission level. They have recognised and are fully aware of the importance and value of the European e-skills Strategy developed as part of the e-skills Communication and endorsed by the Council of Ministers in 2007 already. This has been the basis for the e-skill initiatives to follow and key to success in subsequent years culminating in the recently launched Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs. Experts also demand national policies and activities to be closely linked to and coordinated with Commission policies. They have the vision of Europe to become a global leader in ICT training and e-skills geared towards market / industry needs, an opportunity which should be grasped and not be missed by Europe. Experts and stakeholders argue that over the past years and initiated by the European Commission Europe has developed and implemented several prerequisites which can build the basis for the successful Europe-wide e-skills policy and initiative with implementations in each Member State. These include the development of the European e-competence Framework (e-cf) and a series of associated online support tools (e.g. The next consequent step in order to reap the benefits of these would be a Europe-wide promotion of the e-cf and the associated support tools with the aim to put them to use at all levels (e.g. industry recruiting ICT staff, ICT staff further advancing their career, ICT graduates leaving universities, others interested in pursuing an ICT career, employment agencies and staffing industry matching vacancy competence profiles to those of individuals) and in all Member States. Experts call for a higher speed of action in this area since the challenges are striking and ask for immediate and fast action. They ask for a European Action Plan agreed on with Member States. Further recommendations some of which already sketched above - address the need: For a European good practice learning platform To start initiatives already in early education (vocational schools or coder training activities in secondary schools...) To develop new university / business school curricula better matching market needs To spend more attention on e-leadership and entrepreneurial education and A European guide to funding of ICT training initiatives. 108 / 253

109 Expert recommendations addressed to the European Commission: Try more and better to involve the EU countries in the e-skills & education programs. Grand Coalition might be a good shot to get this better settled. Too many programs that look alike: e-skills, e-inclusion, media literacy, film literacy, digital agenda, information literacy, digital literacy, 21th century skills, ICT skills etc. etc. What's the cohesion of all these different programs? More operative connection / interaction with national government Develop and implement better marketing policy of the competence and qualification frameworks. Support national governments in development and implementation of common European policies for supply the necessary quality and quantity of ICT [...] There are indications that modern technologies (particularly ICT) may be destroying more jobs than it is creating. This issue is being ignored but needs urgent attention. The work of the EU Commission has greatly advanced the knowledge re the impending ICT professional skill shortage across Europe. This has helped to focus national attention re what needs to be done domestically against this backdrop. The Grand [...] The main issue is not skills. The focus should be in ensuring high end ICT jobs in Europe by developing an European ICT cluster that aims to develop ICT solutions for European citizens and business reaping in the full benefits of a common market. The Government s involvement will be critical. More commitment needed. The European Commission should pay more attention to the distance education and e-skills which would help citizens to become lifelong learners who flexibly respond to change, are able to pro-actively develop their competences and thrive in collaboration [...] The European Commission could articulate all the pro-active actors to work jointly in the design of a European plan to be implemented locally by country and region. The Commission needs to strengthen its policies and related programmes for Member States, to gear the EU towards becoming a leader in ICT training and industry relevant at international and global level Spread Digital Skills in basic education (coding, instead of using). Define clearly, at the same level than other critical professional services, ICT services that can affect security of citizens and information. "Raise the stakes! ICT will determine the competitiveness of our future workforce. More transparency and guidelines from the Commission to member states about how to make funding available to employers and commercial training companies. Push tools like e-skills framework out to member countries. Make sure they use it as a tool in their policy making. Provide frameworks which can be adopted by the market like OCG did in the past Perhaps a naive recommendation, but none the less, I feel that there is very little representation from national governments in the highly relevant meetings and activities that take place in Brussels. Centralized policies or activities have a mu [...] Need for more speed of action Need for an action plan with money in each measure. European Action Plan, specific and concrete measures to carry out. Each measure must have European funding and national governments Agree with national governments action plan More cooperation through the countries, dissemination of results, new e-skills frameworks More attention to the labour market of ICT professionals in small and medium-size countries Leave more room for stakeholders to suggest solutions, rather than having a fixed idea of what is needed, even before analysis of current situation is carried out. 109 / 253

110 Keep raising the issue, even if solutions are at national level If we want more women in the ICT field there has to be a broad, good financed activity. It is very sad to see that there are some low level activities with a small group of girls and some studies without any impact at all. There is so much to do [...] I would increase activities on the organizational level. Most of the resources seem to go to the institutional education, though most of the learning takes place by the job. Focus on pupils outreach. Focus on business benefits / economic benefits of ICT for the business users of ICT. Too much focus on suppliers of ICT solutions. Also, get the SME market / i.e. the long tale more involved. See too much the 'usual suspects' at the table. European Commission should arrange special programs dedicated to educators/universities focused on faculties which educate in ICT. Don't change course but continue to spread good practice and collect reliable data to guide national initiatives. Develop recommendations for Member States, put more attention on e-leadership and entrepreneurial education, put more attention on ICT professionals in other areas - health, ecology, education, etc. Develop and implement coherent strategy and policies for the ICT sector. Continue driving forward, supporting and encouraging overall consistency of frameworks, concepts and tools to be elaborated by multi-stakeholder parties as done in the past. A currently disturbing element from my broader Consulting perspective i [...] Communicate more, using media and methodologies suitable to the target groups Collect, analyze/generalize and share best practices. Circulate some more structured information about action progress and results in different countries Monitor where, how and when available money is used Be more open in your policies. Create an environment where the different countries can learn from each other. Instead of these fixed programmes with an industrial set of mind: Problem - solution - implementation. An e-skills observatory must be predicted in a European Level and in every country in order to coordinate better the European and National initiatives. Recommendations addressed to national governments and stakeholders Many of the recommendations addressed to the European Commission are being re-iterated and find a counterpart in those addressed to national governments and players. Like for the European Commission the interviewees strongly argue for an application and use of the European e-competence Framework (e-cf) and associated online support tools (e.g. throughout the European Union. Again experts call for a higher speed of action in this area and ask for immediate and fast action building on national strategies and action plans urgently needed. Further recommendations can be found below. 110 / 253

111 Expert recommendations addressed to national governments and stakeholders: What is applicable at the European level must also apply at the national level. There are indications that modern technologies (particularly ICT) may be destroying more jobs than it is creating. This issue is being ignored but needs urgent attention. We should invest more in education. I think ICT professionals should spend some of their time in the schools preparing the ICT professionals of the future. My son in high school is studying C Language: I think this would be OK 20 years ago... We hope to see applied the e-cf as official framework in job matching and more ICT education in scholastic environment. Use to tools developed by the Commission like e-skills framework, and integrate it in all national policy regarding supply and demand of ICT workforce Create unified system of distance learning for pupils. Focus on retraining and certification There is demanding need to think more about ICT education in other sectors. Support people and organization with incentives to standardize but also in personal development, books, college $$ is often a blocker for individuals. Setting up a National Commission where all stakeholders plan and take decisions together after carrying out research on the current situation at National level : University, government, social partners and NGO centres of learning to evaluate and [...] Need for more speed of action Need coordinated action - between different initiatives as well as with private sector National policies; integration and cooperation; e-inclusion; use of European framework More senior government officials should be involved, get the ministry of Education at the table to help with ICT image and schooling. More attention to flexible ICT skills, allowing for career variety and flexible career development More attention to digital literacy, not addressing to e-skills area as only dedicated to ICT professionals. It is not only about talking, local Governments should execute and also make "noise" about what is needed and what is done. Involve ALL stakeholders in policy development and implementation. Implement rules to support application of the recently approved national certification system -extend the system to all level of professionalism (not only for apprenticeship) Unify the regional policies and build up a national ICT competence [...] I would increase activities on the organizational level. Most of the resources seem to go to the institutional education, though most of the learning takes place by the job. Further develop national qualifications framework for ICT and widen the functions of ICT sector skills council to cover monitoring, analysis and forecast of the sector's skills demand both in quantitative and qualitative aspects. Ensure that ICT becomes embedded in education systems, not to be regarded as an industry phenomenon but as a skills issue that affect all industries from medicine through to construction and beyond. Develop national strategies and action plans, integrate e-skills strategies in RIS3, stimulating PPPs, etc Continue with the e-skills & education programs. Try more to cooperate on European level to work together with other countries on the exchange of students & ICT workers. Make the ICT labour market more mobile on European level. Actively support the initiatives coming out of mainland Europe, both showcasing and funding. 111 / 253

112 e-skills supply and demand in Europe Definitions The ICT workforce in Europe in 2012 comprises 7. million workers, or 3.% of the European workforce. 5.9 million of these can be classified as ICT practitioners and 1.5 million as ICT professionals at management level and include CIOs, ICT operations managers, project managers but also those ICT workers responsible for planning and strategy such as enterprise architects, systems analysts and ICT consultants. Broadening up the definition further, ICT mechanics and manual workers skills would add 1.36 million ICT workers, to a European Labour Force of 8.8 million ICT workers. The ICT workforce is here defined according to occupational categories from the ISCO International Standard Classification of Occupations 2008 and quantifications will make use of the figures from the Labour Force Surveys (LFS) of the EU-27 Member States provided by Eurostat. We have carried out a mapping of ISCO-08 codes to the European e-competence Framework (e-cf) based ICT job profiles since data based on e-cf definitions is not directly available. The workforce of ICT professionals as used in this report includes: Management, architecture and analysis level positions (ISCO level 1+2) ICT practitioners in professional level positions (ISCO level 2) ICT practitioners in associate or technician level positions (ISCO level 3) Our usage of the term ICT professionals will usually not include: ICT mechanics and manual workers skills 11.(ISCO level 7+8) Non-ICT professionals working in the ICT sector. Exhibit 22: CEN ICT job profiles based on e-cf Source: CEN 11 ICT mechanics and manual workers skills are not included in the ICT professional category and are not included in the vacancy calculations. They comprise: 721: Electronics mechanics and servicers; 722: Information and communications technology installers and servicers; 8212: Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers. 112 / 253

113 Exhibit 23: ICT profiles as a definition template of the ICT profession 2012 ICT managers 280,200 Software developers 672,00 Other SW/app developer/analyst Systems analyst /architect 680,200 ICT consultants 517,100 Web / multimedia dev 1,700 Database design/ admin 9,300 Electronics Telco eng engineers 263,00 292,300 Applications programmers 592,100 Web technicians 52,900 Syste ms admins 23,00 ICT user support technicians ICT operations technicians ,00 Process control Medical records technicians technicians; Broadcst/audio-vis tech Other Db/ntwk pro 85,700 Computer network 192,600 Electronics engineering and systems technicians Medic. imag. technicians 31 9, ,300 Network professionals /therap. eqmt techn Telco eng techn 132, , Air traffic safety electronics technicians ICT sales professionals 183,000 ICT trainers 36,800 Source: empirica The relevant ISCO codes are as follows: Management, architecture and analysis positions Information and communications technology Management and organization analysts 12 Systems analysts service managers ICT Practitioners ICT practitioners, professional level ICT practitioners, technician or associate level Electronics engineers Telecommunications engineers Information technology trainers Information and communications technology sales professionals 3511 Information and communications technology operations technicians 3512 Information and communications technology user support technicians 3513 Computer network and systems technicians 351 Web technicians Software developers Web and multimedia developers Applications programmers Software and applications developers and analysts not elsewhere classified Database designers and administrators Systems administrators Computer network professionals Database and network professionals not elsewhere classified Electronics engineering technicians Process control technicians not elsewhere classified Air traffic safety electronics technicians Medical imaging and therapeutic equipment technicians 3252 Medical records and health information technicians 3521 Broadcasting and audio-visual technicians 3522 Telecommunications engineering technicians Source: empirica. Occupations in bold font are part of the narrow definition of ICT workforce used for time series analysis. 12 According to the ISCO code 221 Management and organization includes non-ict consultants as well as ICT consultants. Our estimation based on limited empirical evidence for Germany is that at least 50% are ICT consultants; therefore the number of jobs is multiplied with / 253

114 As far as possible a distinction will be drawn in the subsequent quantifications between the management level skills and ICT practitioner skills. Exhibit 2: ICT workforce in Europe in 2012 i ii Management, Business Architecture and Analysis level skills iii iv ICT ICT Total ICT practitioners, practitioners, professionals (i+ii+iii) professional technician level and associate (ISCO level 2) level (ISCO level 3) v vi vii viii Total (iv) as share of workforce ICT mechanics and manual workers skills Total ICT workers Total (vii) as share of employed workforce (i+ii+iii+v) (ISCO levels 7+8) UK 358, , ,000 1,661, % 96,000 1,758, % DE 295, , ,000 1,261, % 263,000 1,52, % FR 130, , , ,000 3.% 102, , % IT 69,000 10,000 5,000 65, % 153, , % ES 6, ,000 27,000 79, % 113, ,000 3.% PL 69, ,000 13, , % 123, , % NL 130, ,000 7, , % 26, ,000.2% SE 88,000 85,000 77, ,000 5.% 3, , % BE 51,000 78,000 59, ,000.1% 20, ,000.6% CZ 10,300 56,000 87, , % 51,000 20,000.2% AT 30,000 6,000 8,000 12,000 3.% 17, , % FI 0,000 68,000 28, , % 23, ,000 6.% DK 25,000 57,000 53, , % 7,900 13, % RO 25,000 59,000 6, ,000 1.% 96, ,000 2.% HU 8,300 6,000 33, , % 7, ,000.6% PT 12,000 38,000 6,000 97, % 19, , % IE 12,600,000 18,600 75,000.1% 17,900 93, % SK 6,000 22,000 1,000 69, % 2, ,000.7% BG 12,700 2,000 29,000 66, % 16,800 82, % GR 12,200 26,000 2,000 61, % 11,00 73, % SI 6,100 12,700 7,600 26, % 12,000 38,000.2% LT 6,900 11,100 6,100 2, % 6,300 30,000 2.% LV 5,000 10,000 8,500 2, % 1,00 25, % EE,600 12,000 6,700 23, % 7,900 31, % LU 3,700 7,00 3,100 1, % , % CY 1,900,500 2,00 8, % 1,600 10, % MT 1,500 2,500 2,600 6, % 1,800 8,500.9% 1,77,000 3,393,000 2,532,000 7,03,000 3.% 1,36,000 8,766,000.1% EU27 Source: empirica calculations based on an LFS data retrieval done by Eurostat. 11 / 253

115 ICT practitioners are working in almost all industries of the economy and not just in the ICT industry sector, and it appears reasonable to assume that almost full employment 13 of this occupational group exists in Europe. Looking at the European ICT professional workforce as a whole, it becomes apparent that three countries already account for half of today s jobs, namely the United Kingdom, Germany and France. Adding Italy, Spain, Poland and the Netherlands already this group of seven would reflect already three quarters of the European ICT professional workforce. Exhibit 25: ICT professional workforce 2012 ICT professionalworkforce 2012 MT - 6,700 CY - 8,900 LU - 1,300 EE - 23,000 UK - 1,661,000 LV - 2,000 LT- 2,000 SI - 26,000 GR - 61,000 DE - 1,261,000 BG - 66,000 SK - 69,000 IE - 75,000 PT - 97,000 HU - 105,000 RO - 130,000 DK - 135,000 FR - 888,000 FI - 135,000 AT - 12,000 CZ - 153,000 BE - 187,000 SE - 251,000 IT - 65,000 NL 328,000 PL - 399,000 ES - 79,000 Source: empirica The share of the ICT professional workforce within the total workforce is 3.% in Europe and varies significantly across the European countries. Sixteen EU Member States show shares below the EU27 average with Greece, Lithuania and Romania below 2% and Portugal, Cyprus and Bulgaria at levels below 2.5%. The other extreme includes the United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with a share of above 5%. There is a slightly positive correlation between the share of management levels skills among professionals and the share of ICT professionals in the workforce. While on average one in five (20%) ICT-professional jobs is in ICT management, architecture and analysis, countries with an overall large ICT workforce tend to have seen a trend towards higher-level skills in the ICT workforce. In the Netherlands which features the largest share of management, architecture and analysis jobs, their share is 0%, followed by Sweden (35%), Finland (30%,) Lithuania (29%), Belgium (27%) and Luxembourg (26%). Countries with a share below 15% are, in ascending order, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Italy, Portugal, Spain and France. 13 As for the forecast model, we assume that full employment is reached at an unemployment rate of 2%. We model this as a natural rate of unemployment that will not be fallen short of. 115 / 253

116 Exhibit 26: ICT professional workforce as share of employed Labour Force in Europe % 5.0% 3.7% 1.2% Management, Business Architecture and Analysis level skills ICT practitioners, professional level ICT practitioners, technician and associate level Total ICT professionals LT 0.5% 1.6% 0.7% 0.6% 0.5% 0.9% 0.8% PT 1.% 0.3% 0.6% BG 1.6% 0.3% 0.7% CY 1.9% 0.5% PL 0.3% LV 2.1% 1.0% 1.0% 0.% 0.8% 0.6% 1.2% 1.0% 0.9% 0.5% ES HU 1.1% 0.8% IT 1.3% 1.0% SI 2.3% 2.2% 0.6% SK 1.7% 1.% 0.8% 1.9% 1.% 0.9% CZ 2.6% 0.% DE 0.2% AT 0.% FR 1.7% 0.7% 1.7% 1.8% 1.2% 1.1% NL MT EE 0.3% 0.6% IE 0.7% BE 0.3% DK 0.7% SE 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.8% 2.7% 2.7% 0.2% FI 0.7% UK 0.5% 1.5% 0.7% 1.1% 0.0% LU 1.5% 1.9% 0.7% 1.% 1.5% 0.9% 2.% 1.7% 2.1% 0.9% 1.9% 1.6% 1.2% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0% 3.% 3.1% 3.1% 1.5% 1.5% 3.% 3.% 1.8% 2.7% 1.8% 3.2% 3.1% 3.0% 3.9% 3.9% 1.1%.1%.1% 1.3%.0% 0.6% 2.0% 1.7% 5.0% 5.5% 5.% 1.0% 1.3% 1.3% 5.6% 1.1% 6.0% GR RO EU27 Source: Eurostat LFS: based on ISCO-88 codes 213, ICT workforce in Europe today and developments from The development of the ICT workforce in Europe between 2000 and 2012 has been very dynamic. The size of ICT workforce naturally depends on the definition used. If using a minimum definition, that only includes a core set of practitioners, in the first decade of the millennium, from , we have seen an average compound growth rate of.26% and of 3.9% between 2011 and 2012 (with a break in series 2010/11). 116 / 253

117 million Exhibit 27: Development of ICT employment and average annual growth rates in Europe m : 1.82% : 3.9% :.11%* :.77% p.a..5 m : 2.65% p.a : 0.89% p.a. * break in series Narrow definition Broad definition (data only ) Broad definition (until 2010: "backcasting" based on narrow definition growth rates) Source: Eurostat LFS. Narrow definition: ISCO-88 groups 213, 312: Computing professionals and Computer associate professionals. Break in series 2011: ISCO-08 groups 25 ICT professionals, 35 Information and communications technicians. Broad definition: see elsewhere in this document. In a broader definition, today s ICT workforce in Europe amounts to 7. million workers 1, the growth of workforce according to this broader definition has however been 1.8% between 2011 and A growth rate of.26% means a doubling of stock every 17 years. It is arguably the case that continuous percentage growth (exponential growth) cannot be taken as trend-extrapolation in the longer to very long term, but for the short term horizon it will be a good heuristic to compare to 16. Europe and the world have seen two major economic crises in the first decade of the millennium. After the dot-com bubble burst in 2000, many firms in the ICT sector went bankrupt, were slashing employment or at least putting on the brakes in terms of new hiring. Consequently, ICT employment suffered as can be seen in the above diagram with only marginal increases for the years The banking crisis began to show in 2008, evolved into an economic crisis and sovereign debt crisis Europe is still trying to cope with today. Crass unemployment has been building up in many countries after 2009 until today. In terms of ICT employment, however, nothing similar seems to have happened. Between 2008 and 2010, ICT employment increased by on average 2.65% per 1 See definitions in the previous chapter. 15 There are no data available before 2011 for the broader definition; therefore the above figure uses an estimated backcast, applying the core definition growth rate retrospectively to a 2011 baseline. 16 As an anticipation of the next chapter: the three main scenarios developed here feature compound annual growth rates of demand (not jobs!) of 1.3% (stagnation), 1.8% (main) and 2.6% (disruptive boost). Job growth, which is obviously restricted by the assumptions about supply developments, in these cases would be 0.6, 0.8 and 1% respectively. 117 / 253

118 year. Between 2011 and 2012 we see rapid job growth, with different segments of the ICT labour market benefiting more than others. Comparing growth rates of ICT employment with IT market growth (globally as per EITO 2013), it becomes obvious that there is a correlation between the two, but also that ICT workforce growth is more resistant to crisis than total IT spending. IT employment growth never turned negative, while the IT market did so twice in the observed period. Exhibit 28: Global IT market and EU ICT jobs (growth in %) 10 % growth 8,5 8 5,9 5,0 6 6,5,6 5,5 6, 3,2 3,5 3,5 2 2, 0 1, 0,3 2,6, ,9 3,9 2,7 1, ,6 -, Global IT market EU IT jobs Linear (Global IT market) 2012 Linear (EU IT jobs) Source: Empirica based on EITO 2013 and Eurostat LFS data.3 ICT graduates in Europe The major inflows into the ICT workforce would obviously come from the ICT graduates from Higher, and in some countries Vocational, Education. The e-skills supply in Europe in 2012 from ICT graduates from Higher Education can be estimated to sum up to 115,000 ICT graduates 17. A closer look at the developments over the past 10 years shows a trend indicating decreasing numbers throughout Europe for the past years, but especially in the United Kingdom and Sweden. After a 17 This figure represents a count of first degrees in ISCED 5A and first qualifications in 5B. The number of students entering the labour force in a given year does not equal but is approximated by this number of graduates, as many will go on to second or further degrees (master, PhD). However, also counting second degrees would mean that every student is counted more than once, even if in different years. By counting only first degrees/qualifications, every graduate will be counted only once (except the supposedly very rare cases of doing both a 5A and 5B degree), even if labour market entry may be at a later point in time. However, there may be an issue of double counting with initial vocational degrees (ISCED 3 and ), to which individual learners may later add an ISCED level-5 degree. Another issue with this method lies in a poor representation of those graduates who earn a second (master s) degree but switch subjects. On the one hand, ICT related bachelors may switch to other subjects and not enter the workforce as ICT professionals, while on the other hand there are numerous ICT related masters that are addressed to non-ict bachelors. 118 / 253

119 continuous increase and a peak of 129,000 ICT graduates leaving universities in 2006 the figures went down. Exhibit 29: Enrolment in and Graduates from Computer Science studies (ISCED 5A and 5B) in Europe (EU27) Enrolment in Computer Science (in ISCED 5A and 5B) Thousands 10 Thousands Computer Science graduates (first degrees/ qualifications in ISCED 5A and 5B) Source: Eurostat, some imputations and assumptions apply The interest in pursuing ICT careers seems to have been diminishing since the middle of the last decade, when the number of graduates had reached a peak. The number of computer science graduates grew even after the dot com bubble burst, but has been in decline in Europe since The effect of the decrease in the number of graduate entrants to the ICT workforce is intensified in Europe by an increasing number of retirements and exits, as ICT practitioners leave the workforce. The most dramatic decrease of graduate numbers can be observed in the UK, where the number of graduates today is down to just 63% of the number it used to be in Decreases can also be observed in the other countries except Germany and France. France has meanwhile overtaken the United Kingdom in terms of ICT graduates from university and now contributes 18% of all European graduates. The UK comes in second with 17%, and Germany third (15%) of the European computer science graduates to the labour market. The shares have changed dramatically, if compared to ten years earlier when the UK produced almost a third of Europe s Computer Scientists (30%) and Germany just 7%. Enrolment has also reached a peak in 200 and 2005, but figures have stabilised recently and a slight increase is visible since / 253

120 Exhibit 30: ICT graduates (first degrees in ISCED 5A and first qualifications in 5B) in Europe 2011 Luxembourg - 28 Malta - 17 Cyprus Estonia - 13 Slovenia - 53 Latvia Portugal- 78 Lithuania - 82 Ireland Bulgaria - 1,095 Finland - 1,119 Belgium - 1,373 Slovakia - 1,378 Denmark - 1,26 Austria - 1,56 Sweden- 1,620 Hungary - 1,972 France - 20,31 United Kingdom- 19,535 Romania - 2,013 Germany - 16,526 Greece - 2,32 Italy - 2,20 Czech Republic- 2,86 Netherlands - 3,651 Poland - 12,315 Spain - 1,790 Source: empirica Exhibit 31: Tertiary level computer science graduates in European countries Total number ,918 9, , ,96 125,71 128, ,99 121, ,965 11, ,918 1,81 15,61 16,081 18,088 20,09 19,673 18,09 17,551 19,136 20,31 20,31 21,918 2,992 27,009 30,767 27,670 29,557 28,239 25,156 23,802 19,15 19,180 19,535 5,630 5,860 6,617 8,368 11,090 12,767 1,238 16,092 16,515 17,19 16,800 16,526 EU-27 72,366 France 11,7 United Kingdom Germany Spain ,963 13,727 16,152 19,323 19,718 18,559 17,298 15,760 1,551 15,071 15,068 1,790 Poland 1,912 3,52,112 5,879 10,681 13,116 1,788 1,209 13,023 12,06 12,535 12,315 Netherlands 1,308 1,5 1,65 1,75 3,611 3,969,650,385,083 3,928 3,858 3,651 Czech Republic 2,328 2,676 2,73 1,215 1,98 1,63 2,133 2,06 2,909 3,07 2,939 2,86 Italy 1,626 1,519 2,23 2,83 3,211 3,59 3,51 3,385 2,933 2,870 2,778 2,20 19 other Member States 16,596 18,09 20,087 22,126 2,572 2,767 25,621 25,056 25,751 21,159 20,976 20,0 Relative to peak EU France United Kingdom Germany Spain Poland Netherlands Czech Republic Italy other Member States Source: Based on Eurostat, some estimates. 120 / 253

121 Exhibit 32: Vocational graduates in Computing in European countries Total number EU-27 28,978 51,622 5,328 67,777 7,516 97,385 65,116 62,307 50,087 63,063 65,267 67,330 Poland 5,93 11,867 1,206 17,563 16,21 3,070 16,81 12,068,996 17,329 19,81 20,7 Germany 8,20 12,512 17,062 22,551 2,000 21,600 20,636 21,028 17,752 16,89 1,33 1,169 Spain 3,216 1, ,335,387 3,955 7,011 9,81 11,088 Netherlands 1,395 3,20 5,11 6,873 8,289 8,76 6,602 5,809 5,77 5,833 5,706 5,987 Hungary 0 12,086 5,180 5,13 5,131 5,156,761,378 3,92 3,136 3,278 3,9 Slovakia 3,797 2,616 2,271 1,685 2,529 2,61 2,62 2,63 2,171 2,171 2,171 2,171 Austria ,022 1,213 1,03 1,59 1,785 1,797 1,636 1,858 1,911 Finland 969 1,620 2,151 2,338 2,506 2,185 2,07 1,957 1,783 1,700 1,68 1,99 Belgium 789 1, , , ,306 1, ,720 5,39 11,763 1,30 2,753 3,75 3,330 2,288 1,26 1,26 Bulgaria Slovenia ,271 1,336 1,181 1, Greece Latvia Romania Estonia Malta Portugal Sweden France Lithuania ,679 1, , Ireland Luxembourg Czech Republic Denmark Italy Cyprus United Kingdom Source: Based on Eurostat, some estimates.. E-skills demand in Europe ICT skills shortages Today, like in almost all recent years except for the aftermath of the dotcom-bubble bursting, the demand for ICT workers is outstripping supply. The results of a representative empirica survey of CIO s and HR managers in eight European countries in 2012 show that the demand for e-skills, i.e. ICT professionals and practitioners, extrapolated to the whole of Europe (EU-27) can be estimated at around 27,000 in This is based on the numbers given by CIOs and HR managers in European organisations for the number of vacancies in ICT-related occupations. 18 Count of Computing graduates in Upper secondary education (level 3) - pre-vocational and vocational programme orientation and Post-secondary non-tertiary education (level ) - pre-vocational and vocational programme orientation 121 / 253

122 Among these, we find a demand of about 73,000 vacancies for the EU-27 for ICT management and business architecture skills and about 201,000 for Core ICT practitioners and Other ICT technicians jobs. Of these vacancies, 82,000 are reported in Germany, which exhibits the by far largest excess demand of all countries. With the economic situation currently differing as it does between Member States, differences are visible with regards to national levels of demand. With 201,000 open posts, the number of vacancies is significantly higher for ICT Practitioners compared to the ICT management and business architect level professionals with around 73,000 vacancies. As percentage of existing workforce, there are 3.% open positions for practitioners and 5.0% for management and architecture jobs..5 ICT professional workforce forecasts Three scenarios have been prepared in the course of the study. The main forecast scenario represents the most likely future as we foresee it, while a stagnation scenario assumes a slightly less favourable future and a disruptive boost scenario is meant to describe a future of increased demand due to ICT based disruptions of one or several industries of yet unknown kind. Scenarios are meant to span the space of likely possible futures..5.1 Methods The forecasting models differentiate between stocks and flows, or between a baseline market and dynamic entries and exits. The baseline basically consists of a number of existing jobs, number of vacancies and number of unemployed ICT practitioners. Flows are modelled as entries of graduates and exits of professionals. Supply side model The availability of individuals with the different types of e-skills who are either gainfully employed or seeking employment is termed e-skills supply to the labour market. As mentioned above, the eskills supply stock includes individuals in ICT practitioner positions and unemployed ICT practitioners. The scope of e-skills supply depends on the scope of the e-skills definition used and is obviously not static. The supply total for 2012 is estimated at 7.59 million, of which 7.0 million are in employment and 188,000 unemployed. E-skills inflows and outflows to/from the labour market need to be identified and statistically measured and future developments modelled to gain a comprehensive and complete picture of eskills supply in the market. To capture market dynamics, i.e. the inflows and outflows of individuals in the pertinent e-skills categories, specific approaches need to be developed. New market entrants typically are computer science graduates of tertiary education entering the labour market. In many countries (Germany and Poland in particular) also (post-) secondary vocational training plays a major role as supply pool. Anecdotal evidence supports the observation that the share of computer science graduates has increased in ICT recruitment over the last decade 19, yet other graduates, from mathematics, 19 A UK study of 2001 still found that the majority of graduates working in ICT jobs do not hold a degree in an ICT related subject. While the most common degree subject is maths or computing (0 per cent), others include engineering and technology (21 per cent), physical sciences (11 per cent) and business studies (nine per cent). Graduates employed as computer analysts/programmers display the greatest range of degree subjects. Also, female graduates working in ICT occupations are more likely to have degrees in non-ict or non-technical subjects (e.g. social 122 / 253

123 natural sciences, engineering or social sciences who possess the IT skills demanded still today fill ICT positions that would otherwise remain vacant. While it is relatively easy to approximate an adequately accurate annual supply of university leavers and vocational school leavers with a major in ICT, any attempt to distil a supply pool from the official statistics about natural science, maths, or social sciences graduates has to rely on evidence based assumptions and auxiliary hypotheses about the share of outsiders entering the ICT workforce. Also career changers originally coming from a non-ict background may take on ICT positions, furthermore re-entrants who had been out of the labour market previously. While recent research (e-skills QUALITY Study: shows that certification has become crucial for ICT practitioners across all backgrounds, it can be assumed that especially for educational outsiders certification and re-skilling programmes play a crucial role in adapting the workforce skills to the demand side requirements. Finally, immigration is a source of additional supply to the market. Certifications and re-skilling programmes play a crucial role in adapting the workforce skills to the demand side requirements. Supply side exits may be due to retirement, temporary leave (e.g. parental leave) and emigration of ICT workers as well as promotion or other career change to non-ict jobs ( or jobs at least not statistically captured as ICT jobs). The necessary statistical data regarding university graduations is publicly available from Eurostat. Further inflow indicators of relevance - which could be considered subject to availability of the necessary data - include data from immigration and career changers or market re-entrants. Outflow data would mainly include statistics on retirements, emigration, career changers or reentrants. This kind of data is hardly available across countries and estimates have to be based on analogies. Demand side model Conceptually, demand given as a specific figure, i.e. not as a function of wage (as in textbook economics), is the size of the workforce that the market would absorb shortly given that the current wage level prevailed. Markets tend to adjust via the price or quantity offered of the commodity. However, certain limitations apply in the labour market in the short term as regards the availability of skills, and obviously also with regards to the wages employers are willing to pay. While a short-term demand can be computed by adding existing and open posts, future demand will be highly path dependent. A planned demand that cannot be satisfied today and over a longer period and where prospects of filling it are meagre will eventually lead to evasion on the demand side, i.e. changes in the production structure. Therefore it is crucial to understand the concept of future demand potential which will be a demand given the supply available is not actually too distant from the plans of the enterprises. It should therefore be noted that an extremely high projected number of vacancies in a distant future will probably not actually be realised, but derives from a demand potential for potential jobs which could be created if Europe manages to produce the skills needed for these jobs. Demand potential up until 2020 is calculated and estimated using the following observations: The long term trend of ICT workforce growth over the past decade sciences). (THE INSTITUTE FOR EMPLOYMENT STUDIES (2001): An Assessment of Skill Needs in Information and Communication Technology.) ) 123 / 253

124 Annual growth of ICT employment has remained very robust throughout the crisis The correlation between the ICT workforce growth rates, GDP growth rates and IT investment growth rates have been disappearing somewhat during recent years There seems to be less influence of economic cycles and a stronger indication of a megatrend Consequence for foresight: Heavier weighting of trend in favour of economic situation The approach contains the following inputs: Market insight data on enterprise IT spending Market insight data on hardware, software, services: IT Budgets Market insight data on Consulting Budgets (Semi-) Official Statistics on IT spending / IT investment (EITO, Eurostat) An evidence based estimate on the split of IT budgets into hardware, software, services Estimation of Labour costs, internal and external Correlation with GDP growth, IT investment and IT labour market Scenario outputs on the assumptions of GDP growth, IT investment which leads to estimations of IT labour demand (costs) Assumptions on wage developments and IT labour costs result in an estimation of IT labour headcount Cloud computing is included to take massive effect from 2015 on, together with a beginning maturity of some markets in terms of outsourcing and offshoring. Other major markets yet are still catching up through this period. Scenarios furthermore deliver assumptions on the distribution of IT labour costs into a) management / business architecture level, b) core ICT practitioners and c) ICT technicians. Cloud computing mainly puts pressure on ICT practitioner demand, while lifting demand for management / business architecture type of skills. As is inherent in the concept of demand potential, adjustments to supply shortage need to be made in the scenarios. Assumptions for forecasting future e-skills developments Several assumptions for forecasting the future e-skills developments in Europe have been developed which build the basis for the calculation of e-skills demand and supply for the period up until These relate to the: Entry rate of ICT graduates, both from tertiary and vocational education (ISCED 3-5) into the ICT workforce; Development in the numbers of ICT graduates from tertiary education from 2012 to 2015 and 2020 varying between the different scenarios; Development in the numbers ICT graduates from vocational education from 2012 to 2015 and 2020; Entry rates of STEM graduates entering the ICT workforce; Upgrading of skills of outsiders and career changes through IBTC (estimated number of awarded industry-based ICT training certifications); Replacement demand of ICT practitioners and ICT management staff leaving the workforce annually (Cedefop based); 12 / 253

125 Expansion demand varying according to scenario with a baseline based on applying historical correlations of GDP and ICT investment and a trend component; ICT Management recruitment 20 (ICT managers, enterprise architects, ICT consultants) specifying a percentage of individuals from the ICT practitioner pool getting promoted to management level and those coming from the business management pool; Excess demand baseline 2012 based on empirica CIO / HR manager survey on ICT vacancies, 2012; Intra-EU migration from excess supply to excess demand countries (only in those years and from those countries where excess supply exists)..5.2 First scenario: Main forecast scenario The first scenario features an economic growth scenario based on ECFIN forecasts until 201 and a slow recovery afterwards. GDP growth across Europe is assumed at an average of 1.0 % compound annual growth rate between 2012 and 2015 and increases to 1.7 % on average annually between Moderate IT investments will be reflected in 2.2 % p.a. growth until 2015, with an increasing trend from 201 on, so that the second half of the decade will see a growth rate of 3.0 % on average. IT investments will not least build upon a rapid diffusion of mobile devices and apps and of cloud services and other new IT delivery models. Big data applications and services are expected to grow considerably over the complete period of the forecasting. SME investments in IT innovation will increase only very slowly because of the slow recovery and persistence credit crunch. In the education domain, and this is assumed for all scenarios alike, we will see a slight increase in the number of ICT graduates (2% increase per year on average). Labour mobility increase to on average cross border movements per year, from countries of low demand to countries with excess demand. Data driven commercial services on the web, also driven by mobile devices, will imply some big brother risks. Politically we will see a continuing incremental process of building Europe step by step. Continuing negotiations between Member States will bring about gradual and cumulative progress in European cohesion. 20 Advanced positions, especially ICT managers, can be recruited from the pool of ICT practitioners or through side entries of non-ict practitioners (e.g. managers from other departments). In both cases, there are no statistical concepts of the pools of suitable candidates available, as is the case with university or vocational graduates for practitioner labour market entries. Seasoned practitioners are an obvious source for management jobs, but both working experience and life-long learning credentials have to match with the position. While bottlenecks are reported to exist by employers who claim to have a hard time finding good e-leaders, it is hard to model exact evidence-based parameters for these bottlenecks into our labour market model. We finally resorted to assuming external side entries to be 33% of new demand for management positions (with an unlimited pool), and 67% to be tried to recruited from the existing practitioner pool. For practitioners, a bottleneck of no more than 1.25% of existing practitioner workforce annually was introduced into the model. The breakdown of total number of vacancies into management and practitioner positions therefore has to be taken with a pinch of salt, as it is likely to underreport management vacancies and over report practitioner vacancies. 125 / 253

126 Exhibit 33: Main forecast scenario : Real GDP growth France 0.0% -0.1% 1.1% 1.% 1.6% 1.2% 1.3% 1.5% 1.7% Germany 0.7% 0.% 1.8% 1.5% 1.6% 1.3% 1.% 1.6% 1.8% -2.% -1.3% 0.7% 1.0% 0.8% 0.8% 0.9% 1.1% 1.3% Poland 1.9% 1.1% 2.2% 3.8% 3.6% 3.5% 3.6% 3.8%.0% Spain -1.% -1.5% 0.9% 1.5% 1.9% 1.2% 1.3% 1.5% 1.7% 0.3% 0.6% 1.7% 1.9% 1.5% 1.3% 1.% 1.6% 1.8% EU21-0.6% -0.1% 1.5% 2.0% 2.1% 1.8% 1.9% 2.1% 2.3% EU % -0.1% 1.% 1.7% 1.7% 1.% 1.5% 1.7% 1.9% Italy UK Source: IDC Europe Exhibit 3: Main forecast scenario : IT spending growth 2012 France Germany Italy Poland Spain UK EU21 Total 0.1% 2.1% -2.1% 1.0% -.0% 1.6% 1.2% 0.8% % 2.2% -2.9% 2.5% -8.% 1.6% 1.8% 0.9% % 2.6% 1.1% 2.6% 1.0% 2.2%.0% 2.7% % 2.7% 1.7%.7% 1.5% 2.3%.% 3.0% % 2.8% 2.2%.9% 1.9% 2.7% 3.% 2.9% % 3.3% 2.1% 5.1% 2.7% 2.5% 2.9% 3.0% % 3.6% 2.8% 5.2%.3% 2.1% 2.3% 2.9% % 3.7% 5.1% 5.3%.1% 1.7% 2.3% 3.1% % 3.7% 5.1%.6% 3.1% 1.2% 2.1% 2.9% Source: IDC Europe The following analysis is courtesy of IDC Europe: IDC surveys of 2012 in France, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom in December 2012 see 2% of West European organizations expecting to increase their total external IT spend in 2013, slightly more than the 0% said they increased their spend in On the other hand, 23.1% are budgeting for a decrease in their total IT spend in some three percentage points lower than the percentage of organizations that actually reduced their spend in So, compared to actual 2012 spending outcomes, organizations in Western Europe are a little more bullish in 2013, both in terms of the increased number planning to expand their external IT spend and the decreased number planning to reduce it. However, if we compare the external IT spend budgets set for 2013 with the budgets previously set for 2012, there is a more mixed picture. For while IDC sees a higher percentage of organizations budgeting for external IT spend growth in 2013 than was the case in 2012 (2% versus 0%), they also see a higher percentage of organizations budgeting for a reduction of spend in 2013 than was the case in 2012 (23% versus 17%). The difference of course comes from the middle - those organizations expecting to hold total external IT spend steady, which declined as a percentage from 3% of 2012 budget respondents to 35% of 2013 budget respondents. So, with a "two speed Europe" comes a "squeezed middle". If we look at the level of IT spend expansion, we find that 20% of organizations are planning to increase their total IT spend by more than 5% in That is just under half a percentage point 126 / 253

127 less than the percentage of organizations that actually increased their spend in Interestingly, however, it is double the percentage (9.8%) that budgeted for total IT spend increases of more than 5% for Meanwhile, the percentage of organizations planning smaller budget increases of 15% this year is down by eight percentage points (at 22%, versus 30%) compared to this time last year. So among those organizations planning to increase total IT spend, we see an apparent core of organizations significantly more bullish about relatively rapid (>5% growth) expansion of IT spend now than in early 2012, but with other organizations planning growth being more cautiously expansionary than they were this time last year. We then did our European Enterprise Services Survey at end of February These are some of the results: A majority of IT services spend in Western Europe remains focused on supporting the existing IT infrastructure, but almost half of all IT services spend is around technologies and services that drive new value for the organization. Some 5% of IT services spend in 2013 in Western Europe will go to projects or technologies that drive revenue growth, increase customer-citizen satisfaction, or otherwise help the organization to meet its business goals, while 55% of IT services spend will be allocated to running and maintaining existing IT systems. The main finding in strategic terms is that "business is back": using IT to support the business (rather than to cut costs) is now the strategic priority for a clear majority of organizations. 60% of organizations say that their strategic IT priority for 2013 is either to improve overall IT service levels to the business or to improving the alignment of IT with business needs. That is an improvement from last year's survey, when 52% or organizations said their top strategic priority was one of these two business-oriented priorities. Cost control nevertheless remains important as a strategic driver of IT spending and is still cited as the main strategic driver by two fifths of respondents. But support for cost-oriented strategic priorities declined (by seven percentage points) since It appears that some organizations that focused heavily on using IT to cut running costs in 2012 have now shifted their focus on driving revenue growth for the organization, or at least to supporting it better by (for example) driving up customer/citizen satisfaction or making the business more agile and efficient. Forecasting results In the Main Forecast Scenario, the ICT workforce in Europe will grow from 7. million in 2012 to 7.9 million in 2020, of which 5.9 million will be ICT practitioners and 2 million ICT management level employees. Exhibit 35: e-skills Jobs Main forecast scenario : Development ICT Professional e-skills Jobs in Europe EU27 (millions) ICT Management ICT Practitioners Total Source: empirica model forecast. Demand is increasing despite the modest economic circumstances, to over 8 million in 2015 and 8.9 million in / 253

128 Exhibit 36: e-skills Demand Potential - Main forecast scenario : Development of ICT Professional e-skills Demand Potential in Europe EU27 (millions) ICT Management ICT Practitioners Total Source: IDC Europe The excess demand or shortage (calculated as the number of open posts) 21 amounts to 509,000 in 2015 and 913,000 in This figure can best be described as demand potential or job potential for ICT jobs. It should be seen as a (theoretical) figure describing the demand potential for new ICT jobs which under the above assumptions could theoretically and additionally be created in Europe due to an e-skills demand likely to occur especially in the years closer to Recalling the definition of demand potential, in 2020 the labour market would be able to absorb 630,000 potential additional jobs which could be created in ICT practitioner occupations and around 283,000 at ICT management level. Exhibit 37: e-skills Vacancies Estimate- Main forecast scenario : Summing-up of National ICT Professional Excess Demand in Europe EU ICT Management 73,000 12,000 17,000 20, ,000 29, , , ,000 ICT Practitioners 201, ,000 27, , ,000 37, , , ,000 Total 27, ,000 22, , , , , , ,000 Source: empirica model forecast. Note: this is a summing up of national excess demand figures, not balanced with oversupply in other countries, but after migration. While currently a relative majority of vacancies exists in Germany, the comparably lower graduate figures in the United Kingdom and in Italy suggest that the problem of skills shortages will severely aggravate in these countries. While in absolute figures increasing from 80,000 to over 150,000, the share of German vacancies in the European total decreases from 30% in 2012 to 17% in By contrast, the number of vacancies grows immensely in the UK from 7,000 to almost 250,000. In Italy, the number of vacancies is expected to rise from 22,000 to almost 180,000. This figure of course strongly depends (of course among other factors) on the cross border mobility of IT workers into countries of highest demand. 21 This model simply adds up the national balances of supply and demand, but only where they reveal an excess demand. It should be noted that this is still a very conservative estimate, as within countries a perfect geographical match is assumed. Mismatches thus only occur between countries. Migration, which alleviates the geographical mismatch, is already built into the model, as described in the assumptions section. Apart from geographical mismatches, skills mismatches only exist between management and practitioner level skills, but the assumptions on management level recruitment out of the pool of practitioners are also conservatively estimated, rather overestimating the mobility between these categories. 128 / 253

129 Exhibit 38: e-skills Vacancies Estimate- Main forecast scenario : Distribution of vacancies per country Source: empirica model forecast. The model has been built cautiously to include some migration, but figures by no means contribute strongly to alleviation of shortages. We foresee a net immigration of ICT workers into the UK in the order of magnitude of 3,000 over eight years and 19,000 to Italy. Poland and Spain are the main countries of origin, the reason being that the supply outstrips demand in these countries. While in Poland the reason is a comparatively strong supply, in Spain it is rather a very cautious new demand as the country slowly experiences recovery from the economic crisis. 129 / 253

130 Exhibit 39: Main Forecast Scenario: ICT Professional Jobs and Demand in Europe (EU-27) EU27 - Main Forecast Scenario 9,300,000 8,863,000 8,800,000 8,703,000 8,532,000 8,33,000 8,300,000 8,169,000 8,013,000 7,873,000 7,800,000 7,677,000 7,950,000 7,757,000 7,752,000 7,503,000 7,51,000 7,03,000 7,19,000 7,300,000 7,571,000 7,88,000 7,657,000 Demand Potential Total Jobs Total 6,800, United Kingdom - Main Forecast Scenario 1,950, France - Main Forecast Scenario Germany - Main Forecast Scenario 1,650,000 1,100,000 1,075,781 1,900,000 1,888,60 1,865,653 1,850,000 1,600,000 1,550,000 1,800,000 1,025,8 1,0 01,8 76 1, 52,0 00 1,7 8,6 90 1,50,000 1,763,708 1,350,000 1,700,000 1,000,000 1,36 2, ,000 1,396,000 1,32,000 1,6 6,0 00 1,639,000 1,636,000 1,6 35,0 00 1,636,000 1,63 7,00 0 1,637,000 1,639,000 1,250,000 1,261,000 1,26 9,00 0 1,282,000 Demand Potential Total Jobs Total 900, Demand Potential Total Jobs Total , , , , , , ,8 8 79,000 65,000 69,000 6, , , , , Poland - Main Forecast Scenario 560,000 89,862 85,000 92, , , ,000 87, , ,11 53,000 91,000 6, ,000 98,90 50,000 50,00 0 0,215 28, , ,26 18,255 81, , , ,000 60, ,092 50,015 52, , , , ,000 70, ,000 Jobs Total 550, , ,000 Demand Potential Total , , , ,000 Spain - Main Forecast Scenario Italy - Main Forecast Scenario 850, , , , , ,000 1,100,000 1,500, ,000 92,000 1,299,000 1,150, , , ,01 1,200,000 1,550, , ,963 1,36 9,00 0 1,33,000 1,3 20,0 00 1,661, , ,9 0 1,25,000 1,300,000 1,600, ,910 1,20,000 1,390,000 1,00,000 1,7 23,7 2 1,7 08, ,000 1,050,000 1,89,000 1,500,000 1,72,725 1,750,000 1,0 51,8 09 1,52 1,00 0 1,83 8,66 6 1,811,678 1,650,000 1,582,000 1,551,000 58,000 6,00 0 3,000 2,0 00 1,000 00, , , ,000 00, , ,000 Demand Potential Total Jobs Total 500, , EU21 - Main Forecast Scenario ,000 2,08,270 2,36 8,2 5 2,350,000 2,300,000 2,229,172 2,213,000 2,18,000 2,1 32,1 1 DE IT PL ES UK 913 2,050,000 2,0 65,0 00 2,073,000 Austria Finland Denmark Belgium N etherlands Sweden 338 France -0,000 Italy 200 2,020,000 Germany -60,000 U nited Kingdom 1,950,000 Demand Potential Total 1,900, Spain Jobs Total Other 15 Poland ,1 05, EU21 2,128,000 2,087, ,000 2,15 6,00 0 2,100, FR 2,1 56, ,189,151 2,200,000 2,000, ,2 69,1 95 2,250,000 2,150, ,000 2,311, Vacancies 1,000 2,5,298 2,00, Net migration Main Forecast Scenario 2,500,000 2,50,000 Jobs Total 300, ,000 Demand Potential Total Jobs Total Thousands Demand Potential Total ,000 Source: empirica model forecast 130 / 253 EU total

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