1 Producing Accessible Slide Presentations for Scientific Lectures: a Case Study for the Italian University in the Mac OS X Environment Valeria Brigatti - Ab.Acus, Milano, Italy Cristian Bernareggi - Biblioteca di Informatica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy Enrico Pontelli - Dept. of Computer Science, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, USA
2 Introduction I've been helping blind students for years making accessible study material out of what teachers give them Why not a university support service? too slow they lack some competences for adapting advanced scientific contents for blinds lack of full time personnel
3 Why not the university support services? Contracts take too long to be signed (1 or more months) Students are not followed by the same person through their studies
4 Why Mac OS X Market share: 10% (increasing) Widely spread and increasing in the academic environment Much more stable than Windows machines and much more user-friendly than Linux computers My PC died and finally bought a Mac (one of the best deal of my working life :) )
5 The Student's Requirements Course: "Multimedia Systems" for the Computer Science Faculty, Università degli Studi di Urbino, Italy Transforming a set of PDF of PowerPoint slides full of inaccessible mathematical expressions (inserted with an old version of Equation Editor) into a set of RTF files with the math formulae transcribed in LaTeX
6 Easy... If I had some PPT files, I would have copied and pasted all the text into a RTF file opened the formulae in MathType and converted them to LaTeX and then pasted the LaTeX into the RTF file.
7 ...Not that much! Unfortunately I had PDF files
8 Looking for Guidelines: no reference to the Mac Environment WebAIM: "PowerPoint Accessibility" Literature about producing accessible math content But I found nothing that fitted my requirements
9 The Workflow
10 The Workflow Slide presentation with formulae Open with Adobe Acrobat Reader Save as text (accessible) At the end of a trial and error process, I elaborated an efficient workflow (as far as I am concerned) TXT File (no formulae) IWork Pages 09 RTF File Open with Export to RTF Manually insert formulae Open with OOffice.org Writer Save As Copy/Paste MathType expressions in LaTeX Create MathType RTF accessible file with LaTeX formulae
11 The Workflow (step 1) Open the original PDF document using Adobe Acrobat Reader
12 The Workflow (step 2) In Adobe Acrobat Reader. choose "Save as text (accessible)". This outputs a TXT file
13 The Workflow (step 3) Open the TXT file in iwork Pages '09
14 The Workflow (step 4) In iwork Pages, select the "Export" option, and choose the RTF format.
15 The Workflow (step 5) Open the RTF file and edit it with OpenOffice.org Writer. This resulting RTF file will contain all the text that was present in the original PDF slides, except for the formulae, which are imported as a meaningless set of characters.
16 The Workflow (step 6) Now we need to manually type all the formulae in the original PDF into MathType LaTeX is the chosen translator in MathType Copy the expression in MathType and paste it into the RTF file in OpenOffice.org Writer.
17 Production Times Number of Slides Total Number of Formulae Production Time h36' h52' h34' h24'
18 Conclusions We depicted a possible workflow to convert nonaccessible slide presentations with math contents into an accessible RTF file with LaTeX formulae. The student subject of this study case was satisfied and has been able to take the Multimedia System exam.
19 Future Developments Explore Office Open XML (OOXML): it offers a collection of markups for the description of all components of a PPT document (charts, doc structure). Math formulae are encoded in OOXML using MathML. Since MathType is capable of handling MathML content, we can envision the possibility of automatically extracting MathML formulae from OOXML documents, and generate LaTeX via MathType conversions, further enhancing the production times.
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