Comparative Analysis of US and European Approaches on Risk Analysis in Railway Signaling

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1 Comparative nalysis U and European pproaches on isk nalysis in ailway ignaling onja-lara Kurz Technical University Braunschweig, Germany University hode Island, U

2 ail utomation INTODUCTION Transportation systems railway systems are used for person movement for commute, business, or leisure travel as well as to ship goods or freight Industry constantly tries to improve railway safety ystem safety is especially important where current systems are improved by new technology vailability afety ecurity ailway signaling safety: Past: traditional rule-base approach Current: risk-base approach Different procedures for risk assessment process were developed in the U and in Europe Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 2

3 ail utomation ETHODOLOGY eview U and European egulations for ailway ignaling Compare U and European tandards eview isk ssessment ethods Introduce Case tudy: CBTC for New York City ubway ystem pplication isk ssessment ethods for Case tudy vailability afety ecurity Compare isk ssessment ethods tandard isk ssessment ethod United tates merica F ule 49, Part 209/234/236 CP Europe IEC (EN 50126), EN isk Graph Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 3

4 ail utomation U ND EUOPEN EGULTION Federal ailroad dministration (F) F ule 49 CH Part 209/234/236 tandards for Development and Use Processor-Based ignal and Train Control ystems European Committee for Electrotechnical tandardization (CENELEC) IEC (EN 50126) ailway pplications pecification and Demonstration, vailability,, and afety () EN ailway pplications Communication, ignaling and Processing ystems afety elated Electronic ystems for ignaling vailability afety ecurity Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 4

5 ail utomation F ULE 49 ubpart H requires the establishment ailroad afety Program Plan (PP) and Product afety Plan (PP) PP requires isk ssessment to demonstrate that the system interest will not result in a risk that exceeds the previous condition ean Time To Hazardous Events (TTHE) has to be larger for the new system in comparison to the system to be replaced No quantitative safety target is defined vailability afety ecurity isk ssessment Process: CP Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 5

6 ail utomation CENELEC CENELEC standards are a railway-specific adaptation IEC isk assessment process is generic and demands the definition hazards and tolerable hazard rates (TH) IEC (EN 50126): management ystem life cycle concept vailability afety ecurity EN 50129: ystem afety afety case structure Global Process: First a quantitative safety target is established and then qualitative targets are set based on ILs. Both give examples methods but do not prescribe any particular technique or risk tolerability criterion VDV 331: isk Graph for IL assignment Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 6

7 ail utomation COPION F - CENELEC isk based afety management imilarities ystematic approach to hazard identification, hazard reduction assessment and risk assessment, Differences vailability PP has no specific absolute quantitative safety target, but quantitative risk assessment in terms TTHE, IEC and EN set quantitative safety target and then qualitative safety target based on IL, afety ecurity Verification and Validation: Demonstration safety under various conditions, and equirements third-party assessment and final approval. PP quantitative assessment includes human factors, IEC and EN quantitative safety is based on random faults, F ule is open for the public at no cost, and IEC and EN are better structured and have descriptive figures and tables. Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 7

8 ail utomation IK EENT ETHOD CP xiomatic afety-critical ssessment Process Developed at the University Virginia Center ail-afety-critical Excellence upports the U F ule 49, Part 209/234/236 Novel onte-carlo-based risk assessment simulation vailability afety ecurity isk Graph Common technique used for assigning ILs Qualitative method that uses decision tree approach, considering four risk parameters IEC mentions risk graph as example method Procedure is explained in VDV 331 Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 8

9 ail utomation CP vailability afety ecurity [Cutright, E., et al (2004). xiomatic afety-critical ssessment Process (CP) isk ssessment a Transit ignaling ystem. ] Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 9

10 ail utomation IK GPH isk Parameters: = Consequence = Frequency and Exposure Time G = Probability vailability afety ecurity voiding the Hazardous Event W = Probability Unwanted Occurrence [Verband Deutscher Verkehrsunternehmen (1994). VDV 331 icherheitsbetrachtungen und nforderungsklassen fuer ignal- und Zugsicherungsanlagen gemaess BO trab ] Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 10

11 ail utomation CE TUDY New York subway system is fifth largest in the world (regarding annual ridership) Canarsie Line project represents the basis for long-term, total conversion NYCT s signaling system NYCT Canarsie Line is being upgraded to CBTC technology $135 million contract to IEEN Transportation ystems to install CBTC system for Canarsie Line vailability afety ecurity Canarsie Line: 23 miles double track 24 passenger stations 30 trains [ Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 11

12 ail utomation CBTC vailability afety ecurity [CBTC JV (2004). Technical Overview the CBTC ystem rchitecture. ] Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 12

13 ail utomation CP PPLICTION isk assessment for Canarsie Line is performed per U F ule 49, Part 209/234/236 ule requires demonstration that the risk the new system is equal or less than the risk the existing system lthough U F ule formally applies only to railroads, NYCT elected to be compliant to the rule UV performs independent risk assessment Canarsie Line project to support system approval process for CBTC equipment deployment vailability afety ecurity Two primary cases are considered: Base Case Canarsie Line prior to CBTC deployment CBTC Case Canarsie Line after CBTC deployment Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 13

14 ail utomation CP PPLICTION ecurity vailability afety CBTC Case shows 85% risk reduction versus Base Case [Cutright, E. (2005). NYCT Canarsie Line UV Independent isk ssessment tatus ] Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 14

15 ail utomation IK GPH PPLICTION TP - utomatic train protection speed and distance supervision, usually intervening when the driver a train neglects to react to optical signals given from the wayside system. TP receives permitted speed and location information from the track via radio. TP ensures that trains comply with speed restrictions and prevents them from passing signals at danger vailability afety ecurity CBTC TP functions: Train Detection afe Train eparation ssurance Overspeed Protection Brake ssurance Traffic Direction Locking Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 15

16 ail utomation IK GPH PPLICTION isk ssessment for TP: Consequence = 3 Death several people Frequency and Exposure Time = 2 vailability afety ecurity Frequent to permanent exposure in the hazardous zone Probability unwanted occurrence = W3 elative high probability, frequent are likely IL 4 Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 16

17 ail utomation Comparison CP isk Graph Comparison Criteria: Transparency Documentation daptability isk Parameters calability Usage Prile Compliance Hazard ate vailability afety ecurity Cost-Effectiveness Exposure Time ccessibility Latency Time Tool upport isk eduction Factors eproducibility everity Classification Visual epresentation Human Factors pplication Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 17

18 ail utomation UY vailability afety ecurity + positive aspects outweigh negative aspects 0 balanced positive and negative aspects - negative aspects outweigh positive aspects Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 18

19 ail utomation UY isk ssessment ethod CP trengths daptability Compliance eproducibility isk Parameters vailability Weaknesses calability Cost-Effectiveness ccessibility Tool upport afety ecurity isk Graph daptability Cost-Effectiveness Tool upport Visual epresentation calability eproducibility Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 19

20 ail utomation CONCLUION ND ECOENDTION U and European standards coincide in many general concepts but differ in details TH and THHE concepts are similar with respect to setting safety targets Different verification processes for assuring that safety targets are met CP vailability afety ecurity simulation-based approach that replicates the actual behavior a transportation system from a vehicle-centric perspective isk Graph assigns afety Integrity Levels (ILs) to achieve a particular system safety target Further research: possible combination CP and isk Graph based on knowledge strengths and weaknesses Copyright (C) iemens G ll ights eserved. T D I 20

21 QUETION?

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