Before you begin. Chapter 1: Advising on resource requirements 1

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1 Contents Contents Before you begin What you will learn What is expected of a Certificate III learner Assessment Employability skills How to work through this unit Resources v v vii vii vii ix x Chapter 1: Advising on resource requirements Calculating estimates of future and present business resource needs Ensuring advice is clear, concise and relevant to organisation s needs Providing information on the cheapest and best equipment, 18 materials and suppliers 1.4 Identifying resource shortages and the impact on operations 24 Discussion topics 26 Chapter summary 26 Checklist for Chapter 1 26 Assessment activity 1: Advising in resource requirements 27 Record your employability skills 30 Chapter 2: Monitoring resource usage and maintenance Handling resources according to occupational health and 32 safety requirements 2.2 Using business technology to monitor resource use Consulting with individuals and teams to allocate resources Following organisational policies for resource use Monitoring resource usage 46 Discussion topics 47 Chapter summary 47 Checklist for Chapter 2 47 Assessment activity 2: Monitoring resource usage and maintenance 48 Record your employability skills 51 Aspire Training & Consulting iii

2 Chapter 3: Acquiring resources Acquiring and storing cost-effective resources according to 54 organisation s time lines 3.2 Acquiring resources within required time lines Reviewing resource acquisition processes to identify improvements 58 Discussion topics 66 Chapter summary 66 Checklist for Chapter 3 66 Assessment activity 3: Acquiring resources 67 Record your employability skills 69 Final assessment: BSBADM311A Maintain business resources 71 Employability skills 75 iv Aspire Training & Consulting

3 1.1 Calculating estimates of future and present business resource needs Business resources are the stock, facilities, equipment and staff an organisation needs to operate. They include fixed assets such as buildings, cars or furniture and consumable assets such as paper, pens and kitchen supplies. The type and range of resources vary from one organisation to another depending on its size and what kind of business it conducts. For example, a small panel-beating company with two or three employees may have a computer, a photocopier and a fax machine. In contrast, a large recruitment company may require hundreds of computers and a lot of office furniture, as well as interview rooms and a large staff. There are many categories of business resources. Business resources may include: 1. Facilities and equipment 2. Hardware and software 3. Human resources 4. Stock and supplies 5. Raw materials 1. Facilities and equipment Facilities are the buildings or rooms an organisation uses to carry out its business activities. A business may have various buildings in different areas of a city or in several states. These facilities may be owned, hired or leased by the organisation. An organisation may have large meeting and training rooms. These rooms are usually set up with equipment such as an electronic whiteboard, overhead projector and a DVD player. An organisation may even hire out their meeting room to other organisations. 2. Hardware and software Information technology can make up a large part of an organisation s resources and is used to carry out tasks, as well as to monitor and control other resources. Hardware and software may include: computers and loaded software programs monitors peripherals such as a keyboard and mouse photocopiers printers faxes. 2 Aspire Training & Consulting

4 Chapter 1: Advising on resource requirements 3. Human resources Human resources are the people who work for an organisation. They are an expensive and essential part of its structure. Increasing or decreasing human resources depends on a range of factors including supply and demand for the organisation s products and services, as well as economic and technological circumstances. For example, there may be times when additional casual or part-time staff need to be employed or when jobs have to be restructured and staff numbers reduced (downsized). 4. Stock and supplies Stock includes the trading stock the organisation deals with; for example, books, clothes or music. Stock may also be fixed assets such as machinery or vehicles. Supplies also include consumables such as paper, ink, pens and envelopes. Managing stock and supplies, or monitoring consumption and reordering, is a major part of an organisation s day-to-day operations. 5. Raw materials Raw materials are the materials required for manufacturing finished goods; for example, a building company needs concrete, wood and paint, and a pharmaceutical company needs chemical products. The cost of purchasing raw materials will impact on the sale price of the finished product. For an organisation to price their products competitively, they need to purchase raw products that suit their quality demands and their budget. Practice task 1 Using your workplace, or a workplace you have researched, make two tables similar to the following. List the consumable or fixed assets of the organisation under the categories given. Consumable items Writing materials Paper products Accessories (i.e. scissors, tape) Cleaning materials Fixed asset items Furniture and fittings Kitchen supplies Technical equipment Vehicles How an organisation calculates its resource needs depends on its requirements; for example, a business s paper usage may be estimated over a week or a month and then ordered to suit demand. Purchasing high-value assets, such as computer hardware or motor vehicles, must be factored into annual budgets. You can acquire resources on a daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, biannually or annually basis. This will depend on the nature of the organisation. Aspire Training & Consulting 3

5 Understanding a business s requirements Organisations set out their requirements in a variety of ways, including via their: 1. Mission statement, goals and objectives 2. Business and performance plans 3. Occupational health and safety procedures 4. Quality assurance and procedures manuals 5. Policies regarding legal issues 1. Mission statement, goals and objectives Organisations develop a mission statement to outline their goals and objectives; for example, a mission statement explains an organisation s overall aim and gives a holistic view of the organisation s purpose. An organisation s ethical standards may also be included in their mission statement. For example, an organisation may indicate that it only uses environmentally sustainable resources. All staff should have easy access to the business s mission statement. Practice task 2 Read the case study. Write down, or tell your trainer, your response to the tasks. Case study Mission statement for Silk Flora Silk Flora s mission is to become a recognised importer of quality silk floral items. The company guarantees 100 per cent customer satisfaction and values friendly service. Our purpose is to increase our customers appreciation of handmade silk flowers and other silk products and to provide customers with beautiful, unique and artistic decorations. 1. List some of the resources you think Silk Flora will need to fulfil its mission statement. 2. Why is developing a mission statement useful for calculating future resource needs? 3. Find the mission statement developed by your organisation or one you have researched. List the goals and objectives of the organisation. 4 Aspire Training & Consulting

6 Chapter 1: Advising on resource requirements 2. Business and performance plans An organisation s business plan details how it will accomplish its mission statement. A business plan is usually a written document that describes the business, its objectives, strategies and financial forecast. Business and performance plans should also outline management and accountability channels, which show who is responsible for what and who to contact if you need support. Practice task 3 Read the business plan for Silk Flora. Write down, or tell your trainer, your response to the tasks. Business plan for Silk Flora Silk Flora s business plan is to: achieve sales of $1.5 million in 2009 open a gift shop in Anytown at Third Street with a five-year lease employ another floral designer by December 2009 establish annual growth rate of 25 per cent expand into direct mail catalogues and develop a website in 2010 expand product range by adding 10 different kinds of flowers and flower arrangements in List some of the resources you think Silk Flora will need to acquire to fulfil its business plan. 2. Explain the difference between a mission statement and a business plan. 3. Find the business plan developed by your organisation. List the resources it will need to fulfil its plan. Aspire Training & Consulting 5

7 3. Occupational health and safety procedures Business resources need to match occupational health and safety guidelines; for example, if a business is purchasing office furniture it may need to meet particular ergonomic guidelines. Employees must have a safe working environment. It is against occupational health and safety laws for employees to work in a hazardous or unsafe environment. Staff need access to training that enables them to understand safe working practices. This training may range from working safely at a computer to handling toxic chemicals. It is the responsibility of organisations to provide a safe and healthy workplace by reducing risks wherever possible. Practice task 4 Produce a table similar to the following one. List the health and safety considerations for each resource. An example has been provided to help you. Resource A computer A building Handling stock Operating machinery A kitchen Ergonomic keyboard Disabled access OHS consideration Training in safe lifting procedures Protective clothing Install fire extinguisher 6 Aspire Training & Consulting

8 Chapter 1: Advising on resource requirements 4. Quality assurance and procedure manuals Quality assurance is an ongoing process that ensures the delivery of agreed standards and continuous improvement. It is a commitment by all levels of staff in an organisation to work together to produce the best possible quality product or service for its customers. An organisation may have a procedures manual outlining its quality assurance systems. If the organisation has a commitment to excellence, this may mean it requires the very best resources available. Become familiar with your organisation s resource preferences. For example, an organisation may only purchase one brand of computer hardware or may only choose to buy white cars. An organisation may only deal with a particular supplier because it has a reputation for good quality products. You also need to be aware of any manufacturer and operational specifications that may affect ongoing quality assurance. Practice task 5 Sonia works for an advertising agency and one of her tasks is to buy stationery. She has forgotten to order letterhead paper and envelopes and needs to re-supply quickly. Her organisation s usual supplier could not print the stationery as quickly as she needed so she decides to go with a faster and cheaper company. The letterhead paper arrived but the paper was thin and the printing was too faint. Sonia s manager was very unhappy with the stationery and refused to pay the supplier. Now the organisation has to do without stationery until their regular supplier can print their usual high-quality product. 1. How could Sonia have avoided the stationery problem from occurring? 2. Why do you think organisations need quality assurance regarding resources they purchase? 3. Find the procedures manual for your organisation or one you are familiar with. List three quality assurance measures that the organisation uses. 5. Policies regarding legal issues All organisations have to operate within government legislation; for example, industrial relations laws must be upheld. This means offering staff a standard wage and providing holiday entitlements. When acquiring resources, your organisation will have to operate within certain legal guidelines. This may have implications for the resources an organisation purchases; for example, Australian law states that buildings must have disabled access. Legal issues vary for different organisations, depending on what they produce and where the production takes place. For example, a manufacturing company that buys chemicals will need to be aware of which chemicals it can legally acquire and how it can safely store and transport them. Another important legal consideration is the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth). This act places restrictions on the collection and use of information. It also ensures confidentiality and security of information. Your organisation may also have policies for complying with other industry standards, such as codes of practice, which are recommended industry practices that are not legally binding. Aspire Training & Consulting 7

9 Practice task 6 Read the case study. Write down, or tell your trainer, your answers to the questions. Case study Avanka works as an office assistant for a small physiotherapy clinic. A new therapist is needed in the clinic. Her manager asks her to contact their accountant to find out how much money they have to spend on new staff. However, the available money does not cover the industry standards for physiotherapists salary and leave entitlements. Avanka suggests to the manager that they sub-lease one of their rooms in the practice to a naturopath to generate enough income to hire a new physiotherapist. 1. What was preventing Avanka s workplace from recruiting a new therapist? 2. How has Avanka s idea help to overcome the clinic s resource problem? 3. Find at least three legal requirements that an organisation must comply with regarding human resources. You may need to access one of the websites listed in the Resources section of this unit. Estimating future and present resources An organisation must estimate its future and present resource requirements to operate competitively in its industry. Resources are needed for the daily running of an organisation and to fulfil its future plans; for example, if an organisation intends to relocate it will need new stationery or if it intends to expand, different resources may be required in the future. You may need to advise on the level of existing resources, their cost to the organisation and their rate of usage. When an organisation knows this, it can plan what resources are required and identify cost-efficient ways of purchasing them. Most organisations use a stock-control system, which is designed to accurately record the resources on hand. Such systems may be computerised or manual; however, the basic principles are the same for both. They help maximise efficiency because the stock is available whenever it is required. For example, if an organisation runs out of invoice stationery there could be delays in billing customers, which may affect the organisation s cash flow. Most organisations do regular stocktakes to identify existing resources. This information may be on a computer database or in hard copy, which is kept in a filing cabinet. Different ways of keeping track of stock and valuing stock include: an assets register a perpetual inventory system a periodic (physical) inventory system a valuation of inventories. 8 Aspire Training & Consulting

10 Chapter 1: Advising on resource requirements Assets register Most organisations use a fixed asset register to keep track of their existing resources. This register identifies and lists assets, the date of acquisition and the cost. It also allocates a unique identifying number. When assets are sold or are not used any longer, they are removed from the assets register. Practice task 7 Look at the fixed assets register as at 30 June Write down, or tell your trainer, your response to the tasks. Item description Cost Date purchased ID number Motor vehicles Mitsubishi Magna $20, /6/ Total $20, Hardware Xerox facsimile $2, /4/ Modem $ /3/ Overhead projector $ /9/ Panasonic electric $1, /6/ whiteboard Total $5, Equipment 8 x Daewoo computers $20, /8/ Compaq colour monitor $ /2/ x Pentium computers $12, /2/ Compaq notebook $2, /9/ QuarkXpress software $2, /6/ Total $38, Fixtures and fittings Sliding door cabinet $ /5/ Corner work station $ /5/ Reception desk $ /5/ Carrera chairs $ /9/ Slimline blinds $ /5/ drawer filing cabinet $ /4/ Bookcase/cupboard $ /5/ Total $3, What is the total cost of this organisation s fixed assets? 2. Which assets may need to be updated soon? 3. Why do you think that having a fixed asset register is useful? 4. Locate your organisation s fixed asset register. List at least five items that appear on the list. Describe at least one asset that needs updating soon. Aspire Training & Consulting 9

11 Perpetual inventory system The two most widely used inventory accounting systems are the periodic and the perpetual systems. If you use the periodic system, it means you perform stocktaking periodically; for example, at the end of the financial year. If you use the perpetual system, it means you have to update your inventory continuously: every item of stock that enters and exits the organisation is recorded in the perpetual inventory. The perpetual inventory system requires accounting records to show the amount of inventory on hand at all times. This system uses stock cards to record stock movements. There is a stock card for every line of stock and the balance on the cards should match the stock that is physically on hand at any given time. The stock card is updated each time stock is added or removed. The perpetual inventory system requires more record keeping than the periodic system and is often used by larger organisations. Practice task 8 Look at the following stock card for A4 photocopy paper. Zero Art needs a minimum of 15 reams of paper on hand at any one time. As soon as the stock gets to this level, another 35 reams must be purchase. Note: on the 3 January 2008, Zero Art had only 15 units of paper so more were ordered. On the 6 January 2008, 35 more units were added to the inventory. Write down, or tell your trainer, your responses to the tasks. Zero Art Ltd stock card Item : A4 photocopy paper Date In Out Balance Unit Cost Total Unit Cost Total Total units Unit cost Total cost 03/01/ /01/ /03/ /03/ /04/ /05/ /05/ /05/ /06/08 1. Write down, or tell your trainer, the entry that should appear on 2 June What should a perpetual inventory stock card tell you? 3. Why does a perpetual inventory system stock card need to be constantly updated? 4. At the end of an accounting period, how does a perpetual inventory system reflect all stock bought or sold? 10 Aspire Training & Consulting

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