A global analysis of neutrino masses, mixings and phases: entering the new era of leptonic CP violation searches

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1 XCVIII Congresso Nazionale Napoli Settembre 2012 A global analysis of neutrino masses, mixings and phases: entering the new era of leptonic CP violation searches Gian Luigi Fogli Dipartimento di Fisica & INFN - Bari Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre 2012

2 Outline 1. Why global analyses? 2. From first hints to evidence of q 13 > 0 3. Global 3n analysis: metodological issues 4. Global 3n analysis: results 4.1 (q 13, q 23 ) correlations 4.2 (q 13, d CP ) correlations 5. Conclusions Mainly based on recent and earlier work done in collaboration with: E. Lisi, A. Marrone, D. Montanino, A. Palazzo, A.M. Rotunno Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

3 1. Why global analyses? Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

4 In general, global analyses of data from different experiments are necessary when some physical parameters are not (precisely) measured by any single experiment. In this case, the parameters may be at least constrained by a joint, careful comparison of various datasets. Even when measurements become available, global analyses often remain useful to perform consistency tests of theoretical scenarios, where possible tensions may eventually emerge from the comparison of different datasets. Of course, such analyses have obvious limitations: they cannot replace the experimental measurements! Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

5 2. From first hints to evidence of q 13 > 0 Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

6 A few years ago (2008), the good agreement of solar and KamLAND data in 2n analyses was one of the main highlights agreement obtained assuming n e = cosq 12 n 1 + sinq 12 n 2 But the agreement could be even improved by going beyond the 2n approximation and allowing 3n mixing For 3n: n e = cosq 13 (cosq 12 n 1 + sinq 12 n 2 ) +e -id sinq 13 n 3 [figure taken from the official KamLAND site (2008)] mixing angle q 13 possible CP phase d CP Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

7 Indeed, nonzero q 13 generally improves the convergence of the two data sets sin 2 q 13 = 0 sin 2 q 13 = 0.03 [GLF, Lisi, Marrone, Palazzo, Rotunno, Proc. of NO-VE 2008 ] [Balantekin & Yilmaz, J.Phys. G 35, (2008), arxiv: ,] Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

8 The solar+kamland hint for θ 13 > 0 can be plotted in the plane of the two mixing angles, where the different correlations of the two datasets are more evident: Best fit more than 1 sigma away from zero sin 2 θ 13 = (Solar + KamLAND) 2008: first hint of n e as a superposition of three states. [GLF, Lisi, Marrone, Palazzo, Rotunno, PRL 101, (2008), hep-ph/ ] Note: even though statistically weak (~1.5 s), this hint was quite clean, as it involved very simple oscillation physics. Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

9 In addition, the solar + KL hint was consistent with a previous preference for q 13 > 0, found from our 3n analysis of atmospheric + LBL + Chooz data [GLF, Lisi, Marrone, Palazzo, Progr. Part. Nucl. Phys. 57, 742 (2006), hep-ph/ ] mainly due to subleading solar term effects which help fitting atmospheric electron event data (especially sub-gev). best fit ~ 1 sigma away from zero [However, atmospheric n physics and data analysis are admittedly more involved; statistical significance of the atmospheric hint somewhat debated in the literature.] Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

10 Our summary in 2008 Hints of q 13 > 0 from global neutrino data analysis [GLF, Lisi, Marrone, Palazzo, Rotunno, PRL 101, (2008), hep-ph/ ] Hint significance: 90% C.L. sin 2 q 13 = ± Large literature and debate ! Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

11 June 2011 breakthrough: new T2K and MINOS appearance results Both experiments favored sin 2 q 13 ~ few %! T2K MINOS P μe = sin 2 q 23 sin 2 (2q 13 )sin 2 (Dm 2 L/4E n ) + subleading solar & CP terms (wiggles in the plots) So, it makes sense to combine these with all the other oscillation data Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

12 2011 data: Evidence of q 13 > 0 from global neutrino data analysis [GLF, Lisi, Marrone, Palazzo, Rotunno, arxiv: ] Note: ATM + LBL + CHOOZ now more significant that Solar + KamLAND Very good agreement of two totally independent sets of data on sin 2 q 13 sin 2 q 13 = ± ( old reactor fluxes) sin 2 q 13 = ± ( new reactor fluxes) In conclusion, evidence for sin 2 q 13 > 0 at > 3s (with small changes for new/old reactor fluxes assumed in the fit) Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

13 The 2011 evidence for sin 2 q 13 > 0 sin 2 q 13 = ± (old reactor fluxes) sin 2 q 13 = ± (new reactor fluxes) should be compared with the very recent (2012) SBL reactor data: Double Chooz (far detector): Daya Bay (near + far detectors): RENO (near + far detectors): sin 2 q 13 = ± sin 2 q 13 = ± sin 2 q 13 = ± we find a spectacular agreement! Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

14 Status of 3n oscillation parameters, one year ago (2011) Global data analysis in terms of Ns = Dc 2 (the more linear and symmetric, the more gaussian errors) small dm 2 ( solar n) mixing angles q 12, q 13, q 23 large Dm 2 ( atmospheric n) [G.L.F., E. Lisi, A. Marrone, A. Rotunno, A. Palazzo, Phys. Rev. D84 (2011) , arxiv: v2] [Similar results in Schwetz, Tortola and Valle, arxiv: and in Gonzales-Garcia, Maltoni and Salvado, arxiv: , and Maltoni talk at EPS-HEP 2011] Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

15 Still open problems (2011), apart from d CP 1 3ν mass-mixing hierarchy no hints so far 2 sin 2 q 23 : n m -n t mixing, maximal or not? weak hints?... Gonzalez-Garcia et al Our analysis, 2011 Nearly maximal Slightly nonmaximal Slightly more nonmaximal It includes now SK I+II+III data with both q 13 0 and dm 2 0 Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

16 3. Global 3n analysis: methodological issues Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

17 disappear. There is an interesting interplay between LBL appearance + disappearance data, SBL reactor data, and octant degeneracy, as pointed out long ago [GLF & Lisi, Phys. Rev. D54 (1996) 3667, hep-ph/ ] 1 appear. For (slightly) non-maximal mixing, LBL appearance + disappearance data give rise to two quasi-degenerate solutions with a (slight) anticorrelation between q 13 and q 23. [In our 1996 notation: j = q 13, y = q 23 ] Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

18 2 On the other hand, SBL reactor data, or any other constraint on q 13 (eg, solar + KamLAND data), may select or at least prefer one of the two solutions, lifting (part of) the degeneracy. As we shall see in a moment, this hypothetical 1996 scenario seems to emerge from 2012 data even though only at the level of hints! Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

19 This interplay is simply an effect of 3n oscillation physics: in first approximation, Dm 2 -driven vacuum oscillation probabilities are generalized as (2ν 3ν): LBL appearance: P μe = sin 2 q 23 sin 2 (2q 13 )sin 2 (Dm 2 L/4E n ) + corrections NOT octant symmetric, anticorrelates q 23 and q 13 : the lower q 23, the higher q 13 SBL reactors: P ee = 1 sin 2 (2q 13 )sin 2 (Dm 2 L/4E n ) + corrections So, they may distinguish high from low q 13 3n combination of LBL accelerator and SBL reactor data may already provide some slight preference for one q 23 octant versus the other. Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

20 In order to reveal a similar effect, one needs a full 3n analysis of LBL accelerator data (appearance + disappearance). In particular it is important that T2K & MINOS abandon their (no longer defensible) 2n approximation in disappearance mode: OBSOLETE! We suggest: On the x-axis, put sin 2 q 23, NOT sin 2 2q 23 On the y-axis, put some 3n (NOT 2n) definition of Dm 2 We use: 1 2 Dm 2 = (Dm 2 + Dm 2 ) in both normal and inverted hierarchy (the sign just flips) Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

21 it is also important that T2K and MINOS combine their own disappearance + appearance data in a full-fledged 3n analysis without approximation or assumption a priori. T2K These LBL contours may be shifted to the left (right) for higher (lower) q 23, due to the anti-correlation effect seen before Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

22 it is also important that T2K and MINOS combine their own disappearance + appearance data in a full-fledged 3n analysis without approximation or assumption a priori. T2K These LBL contours may be shifted to the left (right) for higher (lower) q 23, due to the anti-correlation effect seen before this introduces obvious consequences for the comparison with q 23 independent SBL reactor data Suggestion: never assume maximal mixing a priori, let the data decide! Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

23 Final methodological note : We prefer to group LBL accelerator data with solar + KamLAND data, since the latter provide the solar parameters needed to calculate the full 3n LBL probabilities in matter So, the sequence of contraints will be shown as: (LBL + Solar + KamLAND) + (SBL reactor) + (SK atm) Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

24 4. Global 3n analysis: results * (updated including the data presented at Neutrino 2012 by Daya Bay, Reno, T2K and MINOS) * G.L.F., E. Lisi, A. Marrone, D. Montanino, A. Rotunno, A. Palazzo, Global analysis of neutrino masses, mixings and phases: entering the era of leptonic CP violation searches, Phys. Rev. D 86, (2012) Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

25 4.1 (q 13, q 23 ) correlations Let us remind the 1996 hypothetical example [hep-ph/ ], in which two quasi-degenerate solutions from LBL app + disapp. data are solved in favor of higher q 13 and 1 st q 23 octant by SBL reactor data Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

26 From 2012 LBL appearance + disappearance data plus solar + KamLAND data: we obtain for both hierarchies, NH & IH: normal hierarchy including n 2012 data two quasi-degenerate and anticorrelated solutions (merging above 1s) inverted hierarchy Moreover: a weaker constraint on q 13 for inverted hierarchy (as already known from T2K, MINOS) Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

27 Adding SBL reactor data (Chooz, Double Chooz, Daya Bay, RENO): normal hierarchy including n 2012 data inverted hierarchy for both NH & IH large q 13 preferred! NH further preference for the solution with higher q 13 lower q 23 (1 st octant) IH only a marginal preference for 1 st octant Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

28 Adding SK atm data: some preference for q 23 in the 1 st octant normal hierarchy including n 2012 data inverted hierarchy Note: overall goodness of fit very similar in NH and IH. No hint about hierarchy yet Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

29 We find a significant role of SK atm data in favoring q 23 in the 1 st octant. To this regards let us note that: The SK collaboration had found no significant hint of non-maximal mixing in their official 3n data analysis of [ditto for Forero, Tortola & Valle 2012, which however is not a full 3n for atmospheric data]. However, another recent, full 3n data analysis also find a (weaker) preference for the 1 st octant in atmospheric data: [T. Schwetz with Gonzalez-Garcia and Maltoni] Therefore, concerning (non)maximal q 23 : The possible preference for the 1 st octant is still a fragile feature, but worth of further studies in both LBL and ATM data analyses, provided that full 3n oscillation probabilities are included! Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

30 4.2 (q 13, d CP ) correlations We reproduce well the T2K and MINOS contours under their same assumptions: T2K MINOS Let us note that an analysis of (q 13, d CP ) has been performed by Minakata et al. using the recent LBL + SBL reactor data (Machado, Minakata, Nunokawa, Zukanovich Funchal, arxiv and update 2012). [We agree under the same inputs and priors.] Similarly Forero, Tortola & Valle 2012 [but ignoring d CP 0 and dm 2 0 effects in atmospheric data]. Our analysis includes all data and treats all 3n parameters as free (no prior assumptions). Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

31 With only LBL + solar + KamLAND data: normal hierarchy including n 2012 data no significant sensitivity to d CP yet inverted hierarchy Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

32 Adding SBL reactor data: normal hierarchy NH at most ~ 1s sensitivity including n 2012 data inverted hierarchy IH not yet sensitivity at ~ 1s Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

33 Adding SK atmospheric data: normal hierarchy including n 2012 data inverted hierarchy We find a ~ 1s preference for q ~ p as in the early analysis of hep-ph/ Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

34 We note that d ~ p is compatible with previous SK atmospheric official results presented at Neutrino 2010 by Y. Takeuchi, favored d ~ 1.2 p in both hierarchies Let us remind you our interpretation, proposed in hep-ph/ : d ~ p enhances the interference oscillation term and gives extra electron appearance for atmospheric events O(GeV), explaining part of the persisting SK electron excess. Once more: this is a fragile feature, but worth further studies with current and near-future data. Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

35 5. Conclusions Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

36 Ns Ns N s Synopsis of global 3n oscillation analysis NH including n 2012 data Previous hints of q 13 > 0 are now measurements! (and basically independent of old/new reactor fluxes) dm -5 /10 2 ev Dm /10 ev IH d/p Some hints of q 23 in the 1 st octant are emerging at ~ 2s, worth exploring by means of atm. and LBL+reac. data 3 2 A possible hint of d CP ~ p is emerging from atm. data [Is the PMNS matrix real?] sin q sin q 23 sin q 13 So far, no hints for NH IH Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

37 Numerical 1s, 2s, 3s ranges: Note: above ranges obtained for old reactor fluxes. For new fluxes, ranges are shifted (by ~ 1/3 s) for two parameters only: sin 2 θ 12 / and sin 2 θ 13 / Fractional 1s accuracy [defined as 1/6 of ±3s range] dm 2 sin 2 q 12 sin 2 q 13 sin 2 q 23 Dm 2 2.6% 5.4% 10% 14% 3.0% We were already in the precision era for n physics! Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

38 Thanks for your attention! Gianluigi Fogli XCVIII CONGRESSO NAZIONALE della SIF, Napoli, 20 settembre

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