The CGM around Dwarf Galaxies

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1 The CGM around Dwarf Galaxies Rongmon Bordoloi STScI + the COS-Halos Team

2 What is the CGM? Shen et al. 212 jectedcolumndensityinacubeof5(proper)kpc Diffuse gas, including metals and dust, o2en on extending the side to from a few the hundred Eris2 simulation kpc, largely at z =2 II, SiIV, andovi. bound to Intervalsofcolumndensityintherange the dark ma<er halo of the galaxy cm 2 for H I and 11 1 n the panels with different colors.

3 The Problems in Galaxy Evolution Exchange of gas between galaxy and its surroundings. The Spatial extent of this gaseous halo. Chemical enrichment of the CGM. Hidden mass of the CGM.

4 The Problems in Galaxy Evolution Exchange of gas between galaxy and its surroundings. The Spatial extent of this gaseous halo. Chemical enrichment of the CGM. Hidden mass of the CGM.

5 The Problems in Galaxy Evolution Exchange of gas between galaxy and its surroundings. Inflows? The Spatial extent of this gaseous halo. Chemical enrichment of the CGM. Hidden mass of the CGM.

6 The Problems in Galaxy Evolution Exchange of gas between galaxy and its surroundings. Inflows? The Spatial extent of this gaseous halo. Outflows? Chemical enrichment of the CGM. Hidden mass of the CGM.

7 How can we study the CGM? (Image:-M. Murphy, Swinburne University of Technology)

8 How can we study the CGM? (Image:-M. Murphy, Swinburne University of Technology)

9 How can we study the CGM? STATISTICALLY

10 How can we study the CGM? STATISTICALLY 1. Blind survey mix bag of galaxies, misidentifications, expensive to study the innermost CGM. 2. Galaxy selected better control of selected galaxies, we know where to look, can probe the CGM close to the galaxy.

11 COS-Dwarfs COS-Halos z =.2 -. logm* = 8 - optimal for CIV z = logm* = optimal for OVI ALL GALAXIES SELECTED PRIOR TO ABSORPTION

12 COS-Dwarfs COS-Halos z =.2 -. logm* = 8 - optimal for CIV z = logm* = optimal for OVI ALL GALAXIES SELECTED PRIOR TO ABSORPTION

13 The COS-Dwarfs Survey log ssfr [yr 1 ] kpc kpc kpc log [M /M ] 2 2

14 What do we use Morphology of the host galaxies from SDSS J _5

15 What do we use Morphology of the host galaxies from SDSS J _5 SDSS Spectra of the foreground galaxies 5 4 Relative Flux λ [Å] log M * 9.53 ρ = 38 kpc SFR =1.11 M /year Z gal = z QSO =.365

16 What do we use HST-COS spectroscopy of quasars Morphology of the host galaxies from SDSS 2 Relative Flux J _ λ [Å] SDSS Spectra of the foreground galaxies 5 4 Relative Flux λ [Å] log M * 9.53 ρ = 38 kpc SFR =1.11 M /year Z gal = z QSO =.365

17 What do we use HST-COS spectroscopy of quasars Morphology of the host galaxies from SDSS 2 Relative Flux J z QSO = _5 z sys = SFR = 1.11 halpha u r = 1.67 λ [Å] R = logm* = 9.53 HI ±.11 62± ±.4 45±6 Good Bad Blend Non detection Saturated.5 W r = 1+/ CII 36 f = CII ±.8 53±14 f =.416 f = W r = 26+/ CIII 977 f = CIV 1548 W r = 65+/ 28 CIV 155 CIV 1548 z =.18 W r = 459+/ 3 element_stack: plots/j _234_5_ _carbon_bin3.ps Tue Apr 23 13:22: ±.13 27± ±.13 27± ±.6 38± ±.6 38±6 f =.191 CIV 155 z =.18 f =.95 Relative Flux J _5 SDSS Spectra of the foreground galaxies λ [Å] log M * 9.53 ρ = 38 kpc SFR =1.11 M /year Z gal = z QSO =.365

18 How does the CGM look spatially?

19 Density Ionization Potential plot_rb_test: dwarfs_1_1 vs_rhokpc.eps Thu Jan 2 12:38: Temperature ρ /R vir HI =. 1.5 HI 1215 [må] HI

20 Density Ionization Potential plot_rb_test: dwarfs_1_1 vs_rhokpc.eps Thu Jan 2 12:38: plot_rb_test: junk_tt.eps Thu Jan 2 12:59: Temperature ρ /R vir HI =. 1.5 CII ρ /R vir =. 1.5 HI 1215 [må] CII 1334 [må] HI CII

21 Density Ionization Potential plot_rb_test: dwarfs_1_1 vs_rhokpc.eps Thu Jan 2 12:38: plot_rb_test: junk_tt.eps Thu Jan 2 12:59: Temperature plot_rb_test: dwarfs_14_3 vs_rhokpc.eps Thu Jan 2 13:9: ρ /R vir HI =. 1.5 CII ρ /R vir =. 1.5 SiIII ρ /R vir =. 1.5 HI 1215 [må] CII 1334 [må] SiIII 126 [må] HI SiIII

22 Density Ionization Potential plot_rb_test: dwarfs_1_1 vs_rhokpc.eps Thu Jan 2 12:38: plot_rb_test: junk_tt.eps Thu Jan 2 12:59: Temperature plot_rb_test: dwarfs_14_3 vs_rhokpc.eps plot_rb_test: dwarfs_14_4 vs_rhokpc.eps Thu Jan 2 13:9: Thu Jan 2 13:15: ρ /R vir HI =. 1.5 CII ρ /R vir =. 1.5 SiIII ρ /R vir =. 1.5 SiIV /R vir =. 1.5 HI 1215 [må] CII 1334 [må] SiIII 126 [må] SiIV 1393 [må] [kpc] HI 15 SiIII SiIV

23 Density Ionization Potential plot_rb_test: dwarfs_1_1 vs_rhokpc.eps Thu Jan 2 12:38: plot_rb_test: junk_tt.eps Thu Jan 2 12:59: Temperature plot_rb_test: dwarfs_14_3 vs_rhokpc.eps plot_rb_test: dwarfs_14_4 vs_rhokpc.eps Thu Jan 2 13:9: Thu Jan 2 13:15: plot_rb_test: dwarfs_6_4 vs_rhokpc.eps Thu Jan 2 13:16: ρ /R vir HI =. 1.5 CII ρ /R vir =. 1.5 SiIII ρ /R vir =. 1.5 SiIV /R vir =. 1.5 CIV ρ /R vir =. 1.5 HI 1215 [må] CII 1334 [må] SiIII 126 [må] SiIV 1393 [må] CIV 1548 [må] [kpc] HI SiIII SiIV CIV

24 Lets have a closer look... Global view... how does it behave with R vir?

25 Density Ionization Potential plot_rb_test: dwarfs_1_1 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:27: Temperature ρ /R vir HI =. 1.5 HI 1215 [må] HI

26 Density Ionization Potential plot_rb_test: dwarfs_1_1 vs_rvir.eps plot_rb_test: dwarfs_6_2 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:27: Thu Jan 2 13:3: Temperature ρ /R vir HI =. 1.5 ρ /R vir =. 1.5 CII HI 1215 [må] CII 1334 [må] HI CII

27 Density Ionization Potential plot_rb_test: dwarfs_1_1 vs_rvir.eps plot_rb_test: dwarfs_6_2 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:27: Thu Jan 2 13:3: Temperature plot_rb_test: dwarfs_14_3 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:32: ρ /R vir HI =. 1.5 ρ /R vir =. 1.5 CII ρ /R vir =. 1.5 SiIII HI 1215 [må] CII 1334 [må] SiIII 126 [må] HI CII SiIII

28 Density Ionization Potential Temperature plot_rb_test: dwarfs_1_1 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:27: plot_rb_test: dwarfs_6_2 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:3: plot_rb_test: dwarfs_14_3 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:32: plot_rb_test: dwarfs_14_4 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:35: ρ /R vir HI =. 1.5 ρ /R vir =. 1.5 CII ρ /R vir =. 1.5 SiIII SiIV ρ /R vir =. 1.5 HI 1215 [må] CII 1334 [må] SiIII 126 [må] SiIV 1393 [må] HI CII SiIII SiIV

29 Density Ionization Potential plot_rb_test: dwarfs_1_1 vs_rvir.eps plot_rb_test: dwarfs_6_2 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:27: Thu Jan 2 13:3: Temperature plot_rb_test: dwarfs_14_3 vs_rvir.eps plot_rb_test: dwarfs_14_4 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:32: Thu Jan 2 13:35: plot_rb_test: dwarfs_6_4 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:43: 214 ρ /R vir HI =. 1.5 ρ /R vir =. 1.5 CII ρ /R vir =. 1.5 SiIII SiIV ρ /R vir =. 1.5 CIV ρ /R vir =. 1.5 HI 1215 [må] CII 1334 [må] SiIII 126 [må] SiIV 1393 [må] CIV 1548 [må] HI CII SiIII SiIV CIV

30 How do the CGM of dwarf galaxies stack up? plot_rb_test: dwarfs_1_1 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:27: ρ /R vir =. 1.5 HI 1215 [må] HI is ubiquitous Metals are patchy & observed out to ~.5 R vir plot_rb_test: dwarfs_14_3 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:32: plot_rb_test: dwarfs_6_4 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:43: 214 ρ /R vir =. 1.5 ρ /R vir =. 1.5 SiIII 126 [må] CIV 1548 [må]

31 The High Ions

32 B-band luminosities of the galaxies range from L \.3 to 2.5 L. A complete list of the measured properties B of the galaxies Bp and C IV absorbers is presented in Paper II. CIV absorption!!! 3.3. T he Extent of C IVÈAbsorbing Gas Around Galaxies To determine the extent of C IVÈabsorbing gas around galaxies, we examined the relationship between rest-frame C IV j1548 equivalent width W and galaxy impact parameter o. Figure 2 shows W versus o for the 14 galaxy and absorber pairs and the 36 galaxies that do not produce corresponding C IV absorption to within sensitive upper limits. Circles represent early-type elliptical or S galaxies, triangles represent early-type spiral galaxies, and squares For L* galaxies... Chen et al 21 FIG. 2.ÈLogarithm of C IV rest-frame equivalent width W vs. logarithm of galaxy impact parameter o. Circles represent early-type elliptical or S galaxies, triangles represent early-type spiral galaxies, and squares represent late-type spiral galaxies. Closed points indicate detections. Open points with arrows indicate 3 p upper limits of nondetections. gaseous envelopes of radius R B h~1 kpc, with abrupt boundaries between the C IV absorbing and nonabsorbing regions T he Relationship between Properties of C IV Absorption Systems and Properties of Galaxies To determine how properties of the C IV absorption systems depend on properties of the galaxies, we examined the relationship between rest-frame C IV j1548 equivalent width W and galaxy impact parameter o scaling for various properties (luminosity, surface brightness, and redshift) of the galaxies. Motivated by the apparent abrupt boundary between the C IV absorbing and nonabsorbing regions and the apparent lack of a W versus o anticorrelation described in 3.3, we modeled the distribution of C IV clouds in the extended gaseous envelopes of galaxies by uniform spheres of radius that depends on some property of the galaxy. Then the number n of C IVÈabsorbing clouds intercepted along the line of sight is proportional to the path length through the sphere: CIV 1548 [må] n \ 2l [R2(x) [ (1) where l is the number density per unit length of the clouds, R is the radius of the sphere, and x is some property of the galaxy. Because C IV equivalent width is correlated with the number of individual absorbing components intercepted along the line of sight (Wolfe 1986; York et al. 1986; Petitjean & Bergeron 1994), we take W \ nk, where k is the equivalent width of a typical absorbing component. Combining equations (1) and (2), the C IV equivalent width W expected at impact parameter o is given by CIV 1548 [må] o [ R(x), o Z R(x), W \ kl [R2(x) [ ρ /R vir =. 1.5 ρ /R vir =. 1.5 as a functionof some property of the galaxy x. First, we established a Ðducial Ðt of the model described by equation (2) to the observations ρ for / Rthe vir case in which the radius of the sphere does not depend on any property of the galaxy, i.e., for R \ R, where R is the absorbing radius of (2) plot_rb_test: dwarfs_6_4 vs_rhokpc.eps Thu Jan 2 13:16: plot_rb_test: dwarfs_6_4 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:43: 214

33 How does CIV absorption depend on SFR? plot_rb_test: dwarfs_6_4 vs_sfr.eps Thu Feb 27 12:18: R /R vir =..5 CIV 1548 [må] log SFR [M sun yr 1 ]

34 What about Mass? ρ /R vir =..5 CIV 1548 [må] log M * [M sun ]

35 Dichotomy between ssfr and presence of CIV ρ /R vir =..5 CIV 1548 [må] log ssfr [yr 1 ]

36 plot_rb_test: junk_tt.eps Thu Jan 2 12:51: COS-Dwarfs ρ /R vir =..5 COS-Halos CIV 1548 [må] log ssfr [yr 1 ] Bordoloi+14 Tumlinson+11

37 Kinematics log M * HI log M * CIV 2 2 v [km s 1 ] v [km s 1 ] 2 Bound 2 Bound 4 Unbound log [M Halo / M sun ] 4 Unbound log [M Halo / M sun ] Bordoloi+14

38 How Much Carbon is Out There?

39 (Almost) As Much Carbon in the CGM as in the ISM! MCIV = πr 2 NCIV 12mH fc M... then apply ionization correction fciv... MCarbon 1.2 x 6 (.3/fCIV) M This is a conservative CIV ionization correction: Masses could easily be x higher! Bordoloi et al. f CIV.1.. f CIV.1 ρ/ ρ ρ/ ρ = 5 ρ/ ρ ρ/ ρ = 5 ρ/ ρ = ρ/ ρ = ρ/ ρ = 5 ρ/ ρ = M carbon [M sun ] 7 M carbon [M sun ] log T log T Bordoloi+14 FIG.7. MassestimateforCarbonintheCGMofsub-L galaxies compared to their galactic reservoirs. Left Panel: Thecurvesshowthefractionofga arbon in the C IV ionization state ( f CIV )asafunctionoftemperature,forfouroverdensitiesrelative to the cosmic mean (ρ/ ρ). All values of ρ/ ρ e black curve on which collisional ionization dominates, whereas for lower values, photoionization by the extragalactic background can increase f CIV a

40 Total Inventory of Galactic Metals Adapted from Peeples et al. (214) arxiv:

41 Total Inventory of Galactic Metals Adapted from Peeples et al. (214) arxiv: Typical star forming galaxies have ejected at least as many metals as they have retained.

42 Total Inventory of Galactic Metals C II+IV CGM Adapted from Peeples et al. (214) arxiv: Typical star forming galaxies have ejected at least as many metals as they have retained.

43 .1 ρ/ ρ ρ/ ρ = 5 ρ/ ρ = ρ/ ρ = 5 8. W CIV 1548 [må] f CIV. 7 M carbon [M sun ] log [R / kpc] log T Bordoloi+14

44 .1 ρ/ ρ ρ/ ρ = 5 ρ/ ρ = ρ/ ρ = 5 8 W CIV 1548 [må] f CIV.. 7 M carbon [M sun ] log [R / kpc] log T Bordoloi % increase in mass if we integrate from.5 Rvir to 1 Rvir. MCGM ~ MISM in carbon also suggests enrichment over ~ Gyr or more:

45 Testing Feedback Models Wind Model Wind Velocity Mass-Loading Factor Fiducial v2 energy driven scaling for dwarfs (ezw) Vw = σ gal / 15 km/s σ gal > 75 km/s, η σ gal -1 σ gal < 75 km/s, η σ gal -2 Constant Wind (CW) Vw =68 km/s η=2

46 Testing Feedback Models 12 Bordoloi et al. 8 9 EZW 1..8 Stellar Mass selected (star forming galaxies) W [må] W 3 [må] EZW log ssfr [yr 1 ] 11 C f [CIV].6.4 log N [CIV] [cm 2 ] log M * /M sun R [kpc] 8 9 CW 1..8 Stellar Mass selected (star forming galaxies) Bordoloi+14 W [må] W 3 [må] CW [yr 1 ] V].6 ] [cm 2 ]

47 log N [CI Cf [C log ssfr Testing Feedback Models log M*/Msun Cff [CIV] Bordoloi et al. R [kpc] Stellar Mass selected (star forming galaxies) W [må] W 3 [må] CW EZW 1. CW EZW 1 log ssfr [yr 1 ] 2 2 log N [CIV] [cm 2 ] log M*/Msun R [kpc] ] [cm 2] V] [yr 1] F IG. 9. Comparison of two different feedback prescriptions in hydro simulations with observations. The d 8 Mass selected (star forming 1. for 117 galaxies with different feedback prescriptions (diamonds) andstellar 43 COS-Dwarfs galaxiesgalaxies) (blue and red sq Bordoloi+14 CW [må] fraction estimates for star-forming galaxies are shown in the middle panels. The coloredw bands represent c W 3 [må] prescriptions. The error bars represent the 68% confidence intervals. Right Panels: The C IV column dens 9.8 compared to the simulations. The hashed regions represent the 1σ spread of column density in thecwmodel sight the mean column density radial profiles in the simulations.

48 Conclusions HI is ubiquitous Uniformly distributed! plot_rb_test: dwarfs_6_4 vs_rvir.eps Thu Jan 2 13:43: 214 ρ /R vir =. 1.5 Metals are bound and patchy, seen up to 1/2 Rvir CIV 1548 [må] plot_rb_test: junk_tt.eps Thu Jan 2 12:51: ρ /R vir =..5 Dichotomy between ssfr and presence of CIV. CIV 1548 [må] There is at least as much Carbon in the CGM as in the ISM. f CIV log ssfr [yr 1 ] ρ/ ρ ρ/ ρ =5 ρ/ ρ = ρ/ ρ =5 8 log Mcarbon[M ] log T 5.5 6

49 Thank You!

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