1 110 Yakimenko Revista Mexicana et al. de Ciencias Geológicas, v. 21, núm. 1, 2004, p Upper Permian paleosols (Salarevskian Formation) in the central part of the Russian Platform: Paleoecology and paleoenvironment Elena Yakimenko 1,*, Svyatoslav Inozemtsev 2, and Sergey Naugolnykh 3 1 Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Science, Staromonetny per. 29, Moscow, Russia, 2 Moscow State University, Department of Soil Science, Vorobjevi Gory, Moscow, Russia, 3 Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Pyzhevsky Per.7, Moscow, Russia * ABSTRACT Ten to twelve pedosedimentary stages were identified within the Upper Permian red clayey sediments of the Sukhona and North Dvina drainage basins. Paleosols formed at these stages are generally similar in their profile arrangement and pedogenic features. The main pedogenic processes occurring in the area during the Upper Tatarian appear to have been: (1) eluviation and gleying (reduction and mobilization of non-silicate-bound iron and removal of some fine clay) in the upper parts of soil profiles; (2) illuvial accumulation of iron, and some clay in the subsoil; (3) formation of secondary carbonates; and (4) generation of complex soil structure. These processes are interpreted to have taken place in a semiarid climate with sharp seasonal and long-term fluctuations in precipitation. Upper Tatarian plant communities at that time probably consisted mostly of shoreline hygrophytes and halophytes, and xerophyllous conifers living on relatively elevated areas. Key words: paleoclimate, sediments, paleosols, soil horizons, plant macrofossils, Upper Permian, Russian Platform. RESUMEN Se identificaron de diez a doce etapas pedosedimentarias en los sedimentos arcillosos rojos del Pérmico Superior de las cuencas de drenaje de Sukhona y North Dvina,. Los paleosuelos formados durante estas etapas generalmente son similares en perfil y características pedogénicas. Los principales procesos pedogénicos que ocurrieron en el área, durante el Tatariano Superior parecen haber sido: (1) eluviación y gleización (reducción y movilización de hierro libre y remoción de alguna arcilla fina) en las partes superiores del perfil del suelo; (2) acumulación iluvial del hierro y alguna arcilla en el subsuelo; (3) formación de carbonatos secundarios; y (4) generación de la estructura compleja del suelo. Se interpreta que estos procesos tuvieron lugar en un clima semiárido, con fluctuaciones agudas estancionales y de larga duración en la precipitación. En ese tiempo, las comunidades de plantas del Tatariano Superior, probablemente consistieron principalmente en higrófitos y halófitos de costa, y de coníferas xerofilosas presentes en áreas relativamente elevadas. Palabras clave: paleoclima, sedimentos, paleosuelos, horizontes de suelo, macrofósiles de plantas, Pérmico Superior, Plataforma Rusa.
2 Upper Permian paleosols in the central part of the Russian Platform 111 INTRODUCTION The Late Permian has attracted scientific attention for a long time because it marks the beginning of the longest nonglacial period in the Earth s history, and one of the main crises in the history of the biosphere occurred between the Permian and Triassic (Wang, 1993; Ziegler et al., 1997; Zharkov and Chumakov, 1998). The crisis was reflected in a catastrophic decrease in biodiversity, but the cause of this is still uncertain. Historically, interdisciplinary investigations of paleosols have focused mostly on the Quaternary. Investigations of more ancient paleosols, especially in Russia, are very scarce and unsatisfactory, even though studies of paleosols may provide additional and valuable information about environments of the deep past. Only in recent decades, pre-quaternary paleosols have been studied in detail on regional scales (Allen, 1974a, 1974b; Retallack, 1986; Freytet et al., 1992), along with attempts to classify the main types of Paleozoic and Mesozoic soils (Pfefferkorn and Fuchs, 1991), and to characterize general trends of paleosol development during the geological past (Retallack, 1981, 1986). In Russia, investigations of paleosols have been focused mainly on those of the Quaternary. There is little information on pre-quaternary paleosols, and often questions arise as to whether a feature is a buried soil or diagenetically transformed sediments. However, being developed from unconsolidated parent materials under the action of climate and biota, a soil can record in its memory (i.e., soil properties) information about environmental conditions at the time of their initial formation, later evolution, and transformation following burial (diagenesis). This is why reconstruction of terrestrial paleolandscapes is satisfactory only with evidence derived from paleosols. Permian and Triassic deposits are well represented and almost unaltered in the extended area of the Russian Platform and Central Urals, and contain numerous paleosol layers. These layers not only mark depositional discontinuities, but also indicate terrestrial (at least temporarily) environments (Minikh and Minikh, 1981; Strock et al., 1984; Tverdokhlebov, 1996; Arefjev and Naugolnykh, 1998). Records of paleosols in the red clayey sediments of the Late Permian are briefly described in many papers discussing the geology and stratigraphy of this region (Ignatjev, 1963; Lozovskiy and Yesaulova, 1998), however detailed investigations on these paleosols have never been undertaken. The main objectives of this investigation are: (1) to identify pedogenically processed layers in the Upper Permian geological sequences; (2) to distinguish the most persistent soil properties containing information about the paleoenvironment; (3) to understand the nature of these paleosols and the main processes formed them; and (4) to reconstruct the paleo-environment before and after soil burial. SITES DESCRIPTION Investigations on paleosols were undertaken in the stratotype region of the Upper Tatarian sub-stage of the Late Permian, in the Sukhona and North Dvina River Basins (Figure 1). The Salarevskian Formation contains the largest number of well-expressed pedogenically processed layers within the Upper Tartarian, and we studied these paleosols in more detail. In this area, the Salarevskian Formation is m thick and consists largely of non-laminated red clayey sediments that are variably calcareous. Limestone and marl layers rarely occur in the section (Figure 2). Sandy lenses varying from 15 cm to a few meters in thickness and tens to hundreds of meters wide cut deeply into underlying deposits. The origin of these polymineral sand lenses is related to the deposits of temporary riverbed floods (Arefjev and Naugolnykh, 1998). Most likely, the Salarevskian formation was formed on an alluvial plain that was repeatedly over flooded (Ignatjev, 1963). The Salarevskian Formation contains abundant fossils of terrestrial and fresh shallow water organisms, including ostracods (Sukhonellina parallel), fishes (Amblypterina, Tojemia, Mutovina, Palaeoniscumc), Stegocephalian amphibians (Dvinosaurus, Jugosuchus), reptiles (Scutosaurus, Kotlassia, Dicynodon, Figure 1. Geographic map of the region and location of the studied sites. 1: Mutovino; 2: Skorjatino; 3: Klimovo; 4: Salarevo; 5: Zavraje; 6: Sokolki.
3 112 Yakimenko et al. Figure 2. Stratigraphy of the studied sites. a: sand; b: limestone; c: shales; d: paleosol horizons; e: plant macrofossils; f: fossil roots; g: carbonate nodules; h: layer number. Inostrancevia), and plant macrofossils. Paleosols lie between marker beds of limestone (above) and sandstone (below). Ten to 12 individual profiles of varying morphological expression were marked out and described. The whole sequence is well preserved, has not been disturbed tectonically or glacially, and is represented by multiple uniform red colored, bleached and mottled layers (Figure 3). Paleosols were studied in two well-correlated exposures on the left bank of the Sukhona River, where they occur in the middle part of the exposed section. They differ from the uniform red sediments by their mottled appearance. The most detailed investigations were carried at Klimovo, the most complete and representative section. Specimens of fossil roots and paleosols were collected in the layers 4 11 (Figure 2) and from sediments above and below at the Klimovo, Salarevo, Sokolki, and Zavraje localities. METHODS Part of the section containing soil layers was subdivided into sediment layers and what we presume to be soil profiles composed of soil horizons. The pattern of root channels was the main criteria used to distinguish the top and bottom of each paleosol. Mesomorphological features were described in the field and under binocular microscope; micromorphological characteristics were studied in thin sections of intact samples. Bulk samples taken from soil
4 Upper Permian paleosols in the central part of the Russian Platform 113 others are not fully preserved or developed enough to be subdivided into genetic horizons. All the soils in the sequence could be divided into two groups: calcareous and those almost free of carbonates. In the sections studied, older soil profiles (the approximately five lower paleosols) are enriched in carbonate (up to 35 38%), while the younger paleosols have much lower concentrations of carbonates (ordinarily 1 2%), but are overlain by a highly calcareous clay layer and limestone. In our descriptions, we use g to indicate that Fe reduction and mobilization has occurred, without connotation of the percentage of soil volume with low chroma colors. Morphology Figure 3. General view of the Upper Permian sediments in the Sukhona river basin (Klimovo). horizons and soil parent materials beneath were analysed for: (1) Particle-size composition, performed in decalcified samples (treated with HCl, ph 3), dispersed in 25% sodium pyrophosphate (Na 4 P 2 O 7 ). (2) Total chemical composition (silicate analysis). (3) Non-silicate iron by dithionite extraction (Mehra and Jackson, 1960). (4) Mineralogical composition by immersion method; mineral grains were identified using a petrographic microscope with specimens immersed in a liquid with refraction index of (5) Plant macrofossils (roots and compressed leaves, and generative organs or impressions) were studied with a binocular microscope and by SEM (Stereoscan). The profiles of studied paleosols do not have the surface organic horizons typical for the most modern surface soils, an observation commonly attributed by paleopedologists to later erosion or post-burial mineralization. However, we consider the possibility that humic horizons did not exist at all in these soils, as the herbaceous vegetation known to be mostly responsible for their formation had not yet evolved in the Upper Permian. Figure 5(a f) shows the variety of paleosol profile arrangements described at this area. Only one paleosol profile had a bluish-grey horizon of lower density (Aeg), similar to a paleohumic or histic horizon (Figure 5a). The strongest developed and well preserved buried soils, regardless of the carbonate content, have a thick, variously bleached E horizon, interfingering into the underlying B horizon. The thickness of both transitional and B horizons may vary across a wide range (cm m). Some parts of the sections described contain overlapping, incomplete or poorly developed soil profiles (sub-profiles), or individual horizons (Figure 5-f). However all of the soil horizons from studied paleosols, fit into one of the following four major RESULTS Paleosol characteristics Ten to twelve profiles, likely representing different pedosedimentary stages, were separated in the sections. Some profiles are well developed (Figure 4), multihorizontal (3 4 horizons could be distinguished), whereas Figure 4. Detail of the Klimovo section (middle part). Well expressed genetic paleosol horizons (layers 7 8).
5 114 Yakimenko et al. Figure 5. Typical profiles of the Late-Permian paleosols in the Sukhona river basin. Coloration: 1: dark gray; 2: bluish-gray; 3: red-brown. Features: 4: drab-haloed root traces; 5: multi-ordered prismatic-blocky angular structure; 6: slickensides; 7: clay coats; 8: carbonate nodules. Composition: 9: calcareous; 10: ferruginous zones. morphological types: 1) Eg (eluvial-gley) bleached horizons, which do not exist in every profile. Varying in thickness from 10 to 20 cm, they are completely bluish-grey or contain a few palered residual spots of altered red clay material. Paleoroot channels, which are partly filled with lighter colored material, can be distinguished in the soil mass. These soil horizons are massive or have weak platy structure, are dense, and usually have silt loam texture. The finest material is represented by calcareous (in the case of calcareous sediments) clayey or iron-clayey plasma with weak birefringence. Silt and fine-sand fractions are composed mostly of quartz, feldspars, and muscovite, with a mixture of epidote, analcime, and rarely calcite, amphiboles and pyroxene. Accumulation of sandy grains can occur in the pore space, but more often pores of these horizons are not filled, and free of any coatings. Typically there is an interfingering contact with the subjacent horizon. 2) EBg (transitional) horizons are usually cm thick and stand out because of their strong mottling. Against a background of red, bluish-grey (gleyed) zones develop mainly along root traces, creating a sub-vertical branching net of bleached tubes depleted in iron and clay. The red matrix of the horizon has a complex multi-ordered prismaticangular blocky structure with rare coatings on the ped faces. Material of the near-root tubes (varying in diameter from 1 to 15 mm) is composed of loamy, bleached, gleyed (pedogenic or post-pedogenic) clay. In thin sections, plasma of the non-calcareous red zones is optically well oriented (flake-stream or orientated around skeleton grains), has good birefringence, and partly forms micro-aggregates enriched in iron. In the red material of highly calcareous layers, the plasma has weak optical orientation. Fabric of the bleached zones within calcareous layers is free of iron, impoverished in clay, also weakly oriented, and has cross-fibrous orientation. Skeleton grains are free of films. Bleached zones of non-calcareous EBg horizons have more complicated microstructure. Their fabric is better aggregated, and porous microstructure is typical for the plasma, unlike dense microstructure of the surrounding red material. Solid carbonate nodules (0.5 x 1.0 cm) occur in some of these horizons. They are located both within the soil mass, and in the pore space, possibly indicating a different origin. A smooth irregular boundary with the underlying horizon is typical. Irregular gleyed zones within horizons occur in some cases between roots, indicating other natural gleyzation processes (possibly abiotic). 3) Btg (illuvial) horizons (40 cm to 1 m thick) are uniformly red with rare thin bleached tubes. B-horizons are the densest in the profiles; they are relatively enriched in clay and have fewer skeleton grains. In less calcareous soil material, often aggregated and enriched in iron, plasma has high birefringence; the presence of carbonates causes a significant decrease in plasma birefringence and optical orientation. The soil mass of Btg horizons has a multiordered prismatic-angular blocky structure with slickensides and clay coatings on the surfaces of structural units. Clay coatings have an iron-clay composition, non-laminated, thin, and usually do not demonstrate high plasma birefringence. Slickensides are characterized by abundant well microoriented clay material. In some profiles, the B-horizon can be subdivided on the basis of differences in coloration, density, or structure. Carbonate nodules of 0.5 x 1.0 cm and 1.0 x 2.0 cm are more common in these horizons, and occur in the soil mass, and pores. 4) BC or C layers are represented by a nearly pedogenically unaltered clay mass, structureless, solid, and free of any new formations. Several of the paleosols were characterized by abundant fossil roots of Radicites erraticus Aref. et Naug.,
6 Upper Permian paleosols in the central part of the Russian Platform 115 with drab-colored haloes. In part of the profile, these root systems form a dense branching three-dimensional net. The roots gradually diverge downwards and decrease in diameter. Some of the root channels are filled with secondary carbonates. The distribution patterns of roots and other plant macrofossils suggests that one of the main plant communities in the region during the Upper Tatarian were water-proximal associations, consisting of ephemerals and halophytes such as Acanthopteridium spinimarginalis Naug. et Aref., and including a dense root net of Radicites sp. type (Arefjev and Naugolnykh, 1998). Some anatomical details, including well-preserved roots containing tissues and peridermal structures occur (Figure 6). Another type of plant communities is a xerophyllous association, including Geinitzia and other gymnosperms, which are well adapted to arid or even extra arid climates. Substantial paleosol composition The paleosol profiles studied are nearly uniform in their particle-size composition (Table 1). In general, the paleosols are silty clays containing very little sand (1%). There are no significant differences within the soil profiles except for slight increases in the clay content of the illuvial horizons, and (within the same horizons) red coloured zones, which also show some increase in the content of particles <0.005 mm. In the fractions of and mm, quartz predominates (Figure 7a), and feldspars, muscovite, and analcime are less abundant. Minerals less resistant to weathering, such as epidote, pyroxenes and amphiboles are present only in the mm size fraction of certain paleosol layers (Figure 7b). Traces of analcime occur in both the silt and fine sand fractions of almost all the samples. Illite and smectite predominate in the <0.001 mm fraction for most of the selected samples (Figure 7c). Chlorite usually does not exceed 25%. Mineral composition of the selected samples did not show any difference in mineral distribution among the soil profiles. Despite the horizontation of the paleosols, the downprofile chemical composition is irregular (Figure 8). The older profiles are significantly more calcareous, even containing ostracods that were probably inherited from the parent material. Carbonates consist mostly of low-mg calcite. There are no notable trends in the soil chemical composition across profiles and within horizons except for iron. Bleached horizons or zones within horizons are impoverished in non-silicate iron, while Bt (illuvial) horizons or red masses within others are enriched in iron (Figure 8). The most altered areas within soil horizons are located along root traces. Root traces are tubes that usually penetrate paleosols to depths of cm or more, with some extending downward into the underlying paleosol. In horizontal cuts it is obvious that the material composing these root tubes is different from that of the soil matrix and often has different zones. The central parts of the tubes (2 3 mm wide) are hollow or filled with authigenic white, pure, coarsely crystalline secondary calcite (Figure 9a,c) while the outer parts (1 2 to 5 cm from the center of the tubes) are bleached bluish-grey matrix, impoverished in iron and clay. In some cases, analcime grains occur in the intermediate positions in between the calcite zone and the pore walls (Figure 9c). The contact of the bleached zones of the tubes with the enclosing red material is irregular and ranges from diffuse to sharp. In thin sections, the ferruginous and calcified zones are clearly separated, especially with increasing distance from the large channels (Figure 9b). They partly alternate, indicating that processes of iron removal and calcification were temporally separated during pedogenesis. DISCUSSION Our study shows, that the most pronounced features of the described paleosols, and consequently the most persistent properties allowing us to distinguish soils from sediments, were: (1) dense, branching fossil root channels; a) b) c) Figure 6. Fragments of plant residues from paleosols in the Klimovo section observed under a SEM. a) Mineralized root fragment of Radicites sp. preserved in situ in the B1g horizon, scale bar: 30 µm; b) Epidermal structure of the root Radicites sp., the epidermal cells are clearly visible, scale bar: 10 µm; c) Microstructure of the root containing tissues of Radicites sp., scale bar: 5 µm.
7 116 Yakimenko et al. Table 1. Granulometric composition of the Upper Permian paleosol sequence, %. Layer No. Horizon Thickness Particle size classes (mm) <0.001 Klimovo 7 Eg (red) (bleach) BЕg EBg BEg EBg B1g B2 (red) (bleach) Salarevo 6 AEg Bg EBg (red) (bleach) (mixed) B1g B (2) repetitive soil horizonation; (3) complex soil structure; (4) slickensides; and (5) clay coatings. Multiple occurrences of plant macrofossils (vegetative shoots, leaves and regenerative organs) of a water-proximal mode of preservation, and intact terrestrial tetrapods, together with the observed paleosol characteristics indicate a continental origin for the sequence, and contradict the suggestion of Verzilin et al. (1993) of a marine environment of deposition. During the Tatarian, the study area was probably covered with temporary lakes and rivers, and repeated flooding deposited sands and clayey sediments with varying carbonate content. The bimodal particle size distributions, with clay (<0.005 mm) and silt ( mm) particles predominating, suggest a mixture of flood sediments and possibly wind-blown dust. The hierarchical pattern of the gradual vertical root distribution (root channels), without any reorientation or breaks, indicates relative landscape stability and likely the absence of paleo-hardpans or water bearing layers in the profiles. Repeated, overlapping soil profiles, with similar sequences of homologous horizons, indicate episodic sedimentation at that time, with intervals of different duration, resulting in varying degrees of morphological expression. However, differences in the soil or horizon development could also result from varying aridity at the time. More arid conditions, especially coupled with shorter discontinuities in sedimentation, could lead to formation of more weakly expressed paleosols. The variety in thickness and arrangement of the paleosols and the absence of full paleosol profiles may have arisen also from erosion, or phases of accretionary pedogenesis. Some paleosol horizons were evidently formed under conditions of continuing, but reduced sedimentation rates, during which pedogenic processes reworked incoming sediments. According to the mineral composition of the different soil layers, sediments apparently were already well weathered before they served as a parent material for the paleosols. Regardless of their carbonate content, the paleosols are of the same general morphological type and have very similar pedological features. Soil coloration evidently results mostly from iron mobilization. Both bleached horizons (Eg) and bluish-grey zones (along root and other channels) within illuvial horizons show similar chemical composition except for soluble (and consequently) total iron, which occurrs in smaller amounts in these zones. Carbonate nodules occurr mostly in the subsoil horizons of the paleosols, indicating the possibility of recurrent, mainly vertical water flow within the paleosol profiles. As these carbonate concentrations occur only in genetic soil horizons (regardless of the carbonate content distribution) and not throughout the section, it is reasonable to assume that these features are pedogenic. Our investigation show, that carbonates, and their distribution in the paleosol sequences can provide information on the succession of processes during pedogenesis and in post-pedogenic time, possibly indicating some paleoevents and changes in environmental conditions. Carbonates in the studied sequence could have originated from different sources: (1) inherited from the parent material, (2) allocthonous, (3) pedogenic, and (4) accumulated postburial. The younger paleosols are impoverished in
8 Upper Permian paleosols in the central part of the Russian Platform 117 a) b) c) Figure 7. Mineral composition of some paleosol layers (Klimovo section) in the fractions: a) mm; b) mm; c) <0.01 mm. carbonates, overlie older paleosols with high carbonate content, and are overlain by calcareous sediments. Thus, it is possible, that the carbonates in the paleosols did not result from diagenetic processes. We believe that these carbonates are pedogenic and likely indicate drier climate conditions. In the paleosols and sediments studied, carbonates are present in several forms, such as shell residues, calcite grains, carbonate nodules, clay-carbonate substances, and pure crystalline calcite. Primary carbonates, like shell remains, and calcite debris likely were inherited from the parent material, but it is difficult to determine the origin of carbonates dispersed in the soil mass. Within the soil profiles, no steady trends in carbonate distribution coincident with the soil mass coloration are observed. However greater amounts of carbonate concretions in the lower horizons may indicate carbonate redistribution due to vertical water flow either during pedogenesis or after. Pure crystalline calcite fillings, accumulated in the center of root channels likely have a post-pedogenic origin. Calcite filled central pore (or channel) parts are represented by one pure crystalline generation, which we presume formed when the soil was buried and rates of water movement were slow enough to allow calcite crystallization. Furthermore, some pores (channels) filled with pure crystalline calcite cross through two profiles, suggesting that these floods did not happen at every pedosedimentary stage.
9 118 Yakimenko et al. Figure 8. Chemical composition of the Upper Permian paleosol sequence (Klimovo). The presence of analcime suggests alkaline and saline conditions in the soils, although the low total amount of Na2O and K2O indicate current low salinity (Figure 8). The stratigraphic occurrence of analcime grains between two calcite generations in some pores could suggests more alkaline conditions with higher salinity at the later stages of the soil formation, or immediately after burial. The combination of total carbonation, bright red color, and gley bleached tubes along the deep root systems allow us to suggest that these paleopedosediments developed in strongly contrasting climatic and hydrological environments. The sedimentation likely occurred in an arid climate with oxidizing geochemical conditions followed by stages of pedogenesis governed not only by general climate aridity but also by rainy seasons with periods of surface and subsurface saturation. CONCLUSIONS In the Sukhona and North Dvina drainage basins, the Salarevskian Formation was deposited in a terrestrial environment, possibly in a zone of shallow-water lakes. Part of the red sediments formed during the Tatarian were repeatedly exposed and processed pedogenically, resulting in the formation of overlapping paleosols with varying a) b) c) Figure 9. Micromorphological features of paleosols studied, plane polarized light, scale bar: 0.2 mm. a) Carbonate concretion (1) and pure crystalline calcite (2) adjacent to the bleached groundmass (3). b) Boundary of bleached (gleyed) and red (ferruginious) zones in EB horizon. c) Pure crystalline calcite within the pore space (1), crystals of analcime on the pore wall (2), clay calcareous bleached groundmass (3).
10 Upper Permian paleosols in the central part of the Russian Platform 119 morphological expression. Soil macro- and microfeatures indicate similar trends in the soil formation during subsequent pedosedimentary stages, apparently due to similar climate and landscape conditions. In our opinion, the observed variable morphological expression represents variations in the duration of pedogenesis. Paleosols studied within the Tatarian sediments evidently were developed by the action of (1) eluvial-gley processes (reduction and mobilization of non-silicate iron and slight removal of fine clay from the upper part of the soil profile; (2) illuvial accumulation of iron and some clay in the subsoil; (3) formation of secondary carbonates; and (4) generation of complex soil structure. Apparently this paleosol sequence was formed in arid or semi-arid climate conditions, and was repeatedly over flooded following burial. AKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Prof. E. Derbyshire and J.A. Catt for valuable comments on an earlier draft of this paper, and Prof. N.M. Chumakov and Prof. V.O. Targulian for helpful discussions. This research was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Researches, grants , and REFERENCES Allen, J.R.L., 1974a, Sedimentology of the Old Red sandstone (Siluro- Devonian) in the Clee Hill area, Shropshire, England: Sedimentary Geology, 12, Allen, J.R.L, 1974b, Studies in fluviative sedimentation; implication of pedogenic carbonate units, Lower Old red sandstone, Anglo- Welsh outcrop: Geolical Journal, 9, Arefjev, M.P., Naugolnykh, S.V., 1998, Fossil roots from the Upper Tatarian deposits in the basin of Sukhona and Malaya Severnaya Dvina rivers; stratigraphy, taxonomy, and orientation paleoecology: Paleontological Journal (Moscow), 32(1), Freytet P., Aassoumi, H., Broutin J., El-Wartiti, M., Toutin-Morin, 1992, Presence de nodules pedologiques a structure cone-in-cone dans le Permien continental du Maroc, d Espagne meriditionale et de Provence. Attribution possible a une activite bacterienne associee a des racines de Cordaites: Comtes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences (Paris), Serie II, 315, Ignatjev, V.I., 1963, Formations and Paleogeography, Part II,Tatarian sub stage of central and eastern regions of the Russian Platform (in Russian): Kazan, Kazan University Publications, 337 p. Lozovskiy, V.R., Yesaulova, N.K. (eds.), 1998, Permian-Triassic boundary in terrestrial series of Eastern Europe (in Russian): Moscow, GEOS, 246 p. Mehra, O.P., Jackson, M.L., 1960, Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate: Clays and Clay Mineralogy, 7, Minikh, A.V., Minikh, M.G., 1981, Descripton of the representative section of the Tatarian sub stage within the Sukhona river basin (in Russian): Saratov, Saratovsky University Publications, Pfefferkorn, H.W., Fuchs, K.A., 1991, Field classification of fossil plant substrate interaction: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, 183, Retallack, G.J., 1981, Fossil soils: indicators of ancient terrestrial environments, in Niklas, K. (ed.), Paleobotany, Paleoecology and Evolution: New York, Praeger Publishers, Retallack, G.J., 1986, The fossil record of soil, in Wright, V.P.(ed.), Paleosols, their Recognition and Interpretation: Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, Strock, N.I., Gorbatkina, T.I., Lozovskiy, V.R., 1984, Upper Permian and Lower Triassic deposits of Moscow syneclise (in Russian): Moscow, Nedra Publications, 140 p. Tverdokhlebov, V.P., 1996, Terrestrial arid formations of the Eastern part of European Russia, at the border of Paleozoic and Mezozoic era (in Russian): Saratov, Saratovsky University Publications, Doctoral dissertation, abstract, 57 p. Verzilin, N.N., Kalmikova, N.A., Cuslova, G.A., 1993, Large Sand lenses in the Late Permian deposits of the northern part of Moscow syneclise: St. Petersburg, Society of Natural Scientists, 83(2), 112 p. Wang, Z-Q, 1993, Evolutionary ecosystem of Permian-Triassic red record of natural global desertification, in Lucas, S.G., Morales, M. (eds), The nonmarine Triassic: Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Sciences, 3, Zharkov, M.A., Chumakov, N.M., 1998, Paleogeography and climate of Permian-Triassic biosphere crisis (in Russian), in International Symposium Paleoclimates and evolution of paleogeography in the Earth s geological history, Abstracts: Petrozavodsk, Kazan State University (KNC) Publications, p. 34. Ziegler, A.M., Hulver, M.L., Rowley, D.B., 1997, Permian world topography and climate, in Martini, I.P. (ed.), Late Glacial and Postglacial Environmental Changes; Quaternary, Carboniferous Permian, and Proterozoic: New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press, Manuscript received: February 25, 2002 Corrected manuscript received: September 12, 2002 Manuscript accepted: January 29, 2003
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Classification of the soil at CIMMYT s experimental station in the Yaqui Valley near Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, Mexico Nele Verhulst 1,2, Jozef Deckers 2, Bram Govaerts 1 Summary The soil at the experimental
EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY DR. WOLTEMADE NAME: SECTION: MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY INTRODUCTION The identification of minerals and rocks is an integral part of understanding our physical
Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks Deposited at the earth s surface by wind, water, glacier ice, or biochemical processes Typically deposited in strata (layers) under cool surface conditions. This is
Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers
Name: PLSOIL 105 & 106 First Hour Exam February 27, 2012 Part A. Place answers on bubble sheet. 2 pts. each. 1. A soil with 15% clay and 20% sand would belong to what textural class? A. Clay C. Loamy sand
Rock Type Identification Flow Chart SEDIMENTARY AMORPHOUS No Crystals or Clasts fairly hard very soft hard & cherty vague crystals SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS - VOLCANIC CLASTS Broken pieces of rocks or minerals
Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a, substance which has a What would be the opposite of this? KEY CONCEPT #2: What causes minerals to have different physical properties?
Relative Age Dating Comparative Records of Time Nature of the rock record principles of stratigraphy: deposition, succession, continuity and correlation Stratigraphic tools biological succession of life:
Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 11 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors
NAME DATE WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST 1. The diagram below shows a meandering stream. Measurements of stream velocity were taken along straight line AB. Which graph best shows the
1 Igneous Geochemistry What is magma phases, compositions, properties Major igneous processes Making magma how and where Major-element variations Classification using a whole-rock analysis Fractional crystallization
Shoreface and Fluvial Reservoirs in the Lower Grand Rapids Formation, Taiga Project, Cold Lake Oil Sands Garrett M. Quinn and Tammy M. Willmer Osum Oil Sands Corp. Introduction The Lower Grand Rapids (LGR)
Summary of Basalt-Seawater Interaction Mg 2+ is taken up from seawater into clay minerals, chlorite, and amphiboles, in exchange for Ca 2+, which is leached from silicates into solution. K + is taken up
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LABORATORY 1 SOIL TEXTURE I Objectives Determine soil texture by mechanical analysis using the pipette method. Estimate soil texture by the feel method. II Introduction A General Soil texture is the relative
Vulnerability Assessment VULNERABILITY As used in this report, vulnerability refers to the sensitivity of groundwater to contamination, and is determined by intrinsic characteristics of the aquifer. It
Geology Administered by the Department of Physical Sciences within the College of Arts and Sciences. The Bachelor of Science degree in Geology prepares students for entry-level positions in Earth- Science-related
Chapter 2 Flash Flood Science A flash flood is generally defined as a rapid onset flood of short duration with a relatively high peak discharge (World Meteorological Organization). The American Meteorological
Soil quality testing Soil Core A soil core is useful when conducting the following tests for soil quality. It allows you to see and test soil properties that you otherwise would not have access to. You
Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals
REGULATIONS FOR THE POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EARTH SCIENCES (PGDES) (See also General Regulations) The Postgraduate Diploma in Earth Sciences is a postgraduate diploma awarded for the satisfactory completion
REGULATIONS FOR THE POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN EARTH SCIENCES (PGDES) (See also General Regulations) The Postgraduate Diploma in Earth Sciences is a postgraduate diploma awarded for the satisfactory completion
Weathering, Erosion, and Soils 1 The Grand Canyon, a landscape shaped by weathering and erosion 2 Weathering vs. erosion Types of weathering Physical Chemical Rates of weathering and erosion Climate Rock
Crust: low density rocks Mantle: high density rocks Core: very high density metal core mechanical) layering mechanical layers lithosphere: rigid & strong asthenosphere: plastic & weak mesosphere: plastic
Soil Characterization: Following this protocol, you and your students will: 1. expose the top 1 meter of soil 2. describe the exposed soil profile 3. take samples of each soil horizon 4. prepare soil samples
APPENDIX B Geotechnical Engineering Report GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING REPORT Preliminary Geotechnical Study Upper Southeast Salt Creek Sanitary Trunk Sewer Lincoln Wastewater System Lincoln, Nebraska PREPARED
WEATHERING, EROSION, and DEPOSITION REVIEW Weathering: The breaking up of rock from large particles to smaller particles. a) This Increases surface area of the rock which speeds the rate of chemical weathering.
Limestone, dolomite (or dolostone), and marble are often collectively referred to as carbonate rocks because the main mineral is calcite. The chemical name of calcite is calcium carbonate. Limestone, dolomite,
A GIS BASED GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR LONG TERM MINERAL PLANNING Mauro Prado, Hydrogeologist - SRK Consulting, Perth, Australia Richard Connelly, Principal Hydrogeologist - SRK UK Ltd, Cardiff, United
Sedimentary Rocks Find and take out 11B-15B and #1 From Egg Carton Erosion Erosion is a natural process where rocks and soil are Broken and Moved We will focus on 4 types of erosion; Wind, Rain, Ice and
Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or
Geologic Site of the Month February, 2002 The Geology of the Marginal Way, Ogunquit, Maine 43 14 23.88 N, 70 35 18.36 W Text by Arthur M. Hussey II, Bowdoin College and Robert G. Marvinney,, Department
Results of academic research for use in the daily business of geological survey Case Study Lower Main Plains Hannah Budde (1), Christian Hoselmann (2), Rouwen Lehné (2), Heiner Heggemann (2), Andreas Hoppe
Geologic Time Newcomer Academy Visualization Three Chapter Subtopic/Media Key Points of Discussion Notes/Vocabulary Introduction Title NA NA Various Pictures of Geologic Time It s About Time Personal Timeline
Basic Soil Erosion and Types 2015 Wisconsin Lakes Convention Stacy Dehne DATCP Engineer Types of Soil Erosion Rain drop or splash erosion: Erosion preceded by the destruction of the crumb structure due
A3 NATURAL RESOURCES & NATURAL FEATURES INTRODUCTION This chapter will discuss the topography, geology, soils, and other natural features found in Casco Township. The identification of the natural features
NJ650.1404 Interception Drainage Interception drainage is used to intercept surface and subsurface water. The investigation, planning, and construction of surface interception drains follow the requirements
1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were
GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Examining the Terrestrial Planets (Chapter 20) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and your geology
Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes 3.4 How are the rock classes related to one another? The Rock Cycle Smith & Pun, Chapter 3 Processes link types Plate tectonics is driving force If we look closely we see
Standards Addressed Lesson 13: Plate Tectonics I Overview Lesson 13 introduces students to geological oceanography by presenting the basic structure of the Earth and the properties of Earth s primary layers.
Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling PURPOSE OF THIS CHAPTER To explain how to plan and schedule your irrigation program CHAPTER CONTENTS factors affecting irrigation intervals influence of soil water using
Unit 5: Formation of the Earth Objectives: E5.3B - Explain the process of radioactive decay and explain how radioactive elements are used to date the rocks that contain them. E5.3C - Relate major events
An Interdisciplinary Response to Mine Water Challenges - Sui, Sun & Wang (eds) 2014 China University of Mining and Technology Press, Xuzhou, ISBN 978-7-5646-2437-8 Treatment Practice for Controlling Water
MINERAL COMPOSITION OF THE AVERAGE SHALE By D. H. YAAtON Department of Geology, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem. [Received 7th October, 1961] ABSTRACT Mineralogical compositions have been calculated from
Composition Physical Properties Summary The Earth is a layered planet The layers represent changes in composition and physical properties The compositional layers are the Crust, Mantle and Core The physical
USE OF GEOSYNTHETICS FOR FILTRATION AND DRAINAGE Prof. G L Sivakumar Babu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012 Functions of a Filter Retain particles of the base
GEOL 414/514 CARBONATE CHEMISTRY Chapter 6 LANGMUIR SOLUBILITY OF CALCITE CaCO 3 in nature: calcite & aragonite Reaction with strong acid: CaCO 3 + 2H + Ca +2 + H 2 O + CO 2 Reaction with weak acid: CaCO
Mapping of salinity distribution in an unconfined aquifer overlying rock salt bodies with an electromagnetic survey Peangta Satarugsa, Kriengsak Srisuk, Sakorn Seangchomphu and Winit Youngmee Department
DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer. Use GEOLOGIC VOCABULARY where APPLICABLE!
CURTIN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Applied Geology Western Australia School of Mines Applied Sedimentology, Coastal and Marine Geoscience Group GERALDTON EMBAYMENTS COASTAL SEDIMENT BUDGET STUDY
History of Life Evolution Q: How do fossils help biologists understand the history of life on Earth? 19.1 How do scientists use fossils to study Earth s history? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Fossils give
CHAPTER 11 GLOSSARY OF TERMS Active Channel The channel that contains the discharge Leopold where channel maintenance is most effective, sediment are actively transported and deposited, and that are capable
RIPRAP From Massachusetts Erosion and Sediment Control Guidelines for Urban and Suburban Areas http://www.mass.gov/dep/water/laws/policies.htm#storm Definition: A permanent, erosion-resistant ground cover
SLOPE AND TOPOGRAPHY What are Slope and Topography? Slope and topography describe the shape and relief of the land. Topography is a measurement of elevation, and slope is the percent change in that elevation
UNIT 3 EXAM ROCKS AND MINERALS NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire FRANCONIA, N.H. Crowds
OBJECTIVES: LAB 2: MINERAL PROPERTIES AND IDENTIFICATION 1) to become familiar with the properties important in identifying minerals; 2) to learn how to identify the common rock-forming minerals. Preparatory
GUIDELINES FOR SOIL FILTER MEDIA IN BIORETENTION SYSTEMS (Version 2.01) March 2008 The following guidelines for soil filter media in bioretention systems have been prepared on behalf of the Facility for
DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed
GE 441 Advanced Engineering Geology & Geotechnics Spring 2004 Introduction NOTES on the CONE PENETROMETER TEST The standardized cone-penetrometer test (CPT) involves pushing a 1.41-inch diameter 55 o to
MANAGING ALFALFA NUTRITION BY SOIL ANALYSIS IN THE DESERT SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES By Aron A. Quist and Michael J. Ottman 1 Introduction: High producing alfalfa responds well to phosphorus and potassium
Project 1: Sedimentology of the Jackfork Group, DeGray spillway near Caddo Gap, Arkansas Due: September 30, 2003 Over the next month or so, we will use the Pennsylvanian age Jackfork Group (JFG) to get
GEL 113 Historical Geology COURSE DESCRIPTION: Prerequisites: GEL 111 Corequisites: None This course covers the geological history of the earth and its life forms. Emphasis is placed on the study of rock
Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Before You Read Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements. 1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.
Geological Visualization Tools and Structural Geology Geologists use several visualization tools to understand rock outcrop relationships, regional patterns and subsurface geology in 3D and 4D. Geological
Deserts, Wind Erosion and Deposition By definition, a desert has less than 10 in (25 cm) of precipitation per year. Deserts occur at 30 o and 60 o in regions of descending air. Deserts can be hot or cold.
Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Section 1: Community Ecology Section 2: Terrestrial Biomes Section 3: Aquatic Ecosystems Click on a lesson name to select. 3.1 Community Ecology Communities A biological
The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Achieve, Inc. on behalf of the twenty-six states and partners that collaborated on the NGSS Copyright 2013 Achieve, Inc. All rights reserved. Correlation to,
GEOL 104 Dinosaurs: A Natural History Geology Assignment DUE: Mon. Sept. 18 Part I: Environments of Deposition Geologists can use various clues in sedimentary rocks to interpret their environment of deposition:
Chapter 9: Earth s Past Vocabulary 1. Geologic column 2. Era 3. Period 4. Epoch 5. Evolution 6. Precambrian time 7. Paleozoic era 8. Shield 9. Stromatolite 10. Invertebrate 11. Trilobite 12. Index fossil
FIRST GRADE ROCKS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing solids, gases, liquids, and plasma. LAB: Exploring how states of matter can change.
CIVL451 Soil Exploration and Characterization 1 Definition The process of determining the layers of natural soil deposits that will underlie a proposed structure and their physical properties is generally
Estimating Soil Moisture by Feel and Appearance Revised 8/01 Evaluating soil moisture using feel and appearance is a simple low cost method that may be used to: Determine when irrigation is needed. Estimate