Development of 590MPa grade DP GA steel for automotive outer panel use

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1 Acciio Development of 590MP grde DP GA steel for utomotive outer pnel use M. B. Moon, S. W. Lee, S. J. Prk Recently high strength steels with high formility for utomotive prts hve een eing developed to meet the demnds of pssenger sfety nd weight reduction of cr ody. Among these high strength steels, dul phse(dp) steels re regrded s one of the ttrctive steels due to their excellent mechnicl properties including high strength nd ductility. However, typicl high strength steels contin strengthening elements tht forms surfce oxide nd thus deteriorte glvnizing property. Glvnizing of high strength steel is required to stisfy corrosion resistnce of utomotive ody. Typicl outer pnel prts requiring nti-dent property re comprised of 340MP grde ke hrdened(bh) steel, ut the trend of lightweight cr ody drives steels to hve higher strength for outer pnel use. 490MP grde DP steel is eginning to e pplied into some utomoiles, nd 590MP grde DP steel is good cndidte for the future outer pnel mteril. In this study, severl kinds of lloys for enhncing glvnizility were produced in the lortory scle, nd the effects of continuous nneling conditions in CGL on the mechnicl properties were investigted. The microstructure nd phse distriution were exmined with SEM, EBSD, TEM nd so on. Line tril production ws conducted with the selected chemicl composition of steel. Formility, weldility nd CAE nlysis of steel sheet ws lso performed. Through the study, the production of 590MP grde dul phse glvnneled steels with good formility nd glvnizility ws shown to e possile. Keywords: Dul phse steel, Automotive, Outer pnel, Glvnneled, Glvnizility INTRODUCTION Cr mkers re mking every effort to enhnce the structurl design of cr ody nd the fuel efficiency to meet the strengthened sfety nd environmentl regultions. And ccording to the diversifiction of the customers' needs, utomotive compnies re looking for dvnced high strength steels with good formility. Therefore severl kinds of new concept high strength steels including dul phse(dp), trnsformtion induced plsticity(trip), mrtensitic(ms) nd complex phse(cp) steels were introduced s shown in Figure 11). Among these steels, DP nd TRIP steels re intensively eing studied y steelmking compnies. These two types of steels hve the dvntge of higher strength nd etter formility thn the similr grde high strength steels. Especilly DP steels re good cndidtes for the utomotive outer pnel ecuse they hve ke hrdening property, which exhiits significnt increse in strength fter press forming nd susequent therml cycle such s pintking opertion. Typicl steel grde for utomotive outer pnel is 340MP BH steel, ut the trend of lightweight cr ody drives steels to hve more strength to e pplied to the outer pnel such s 490MP DP steel. Automotive steels lso require corrosion resistnce ecuse of the extended lifetime of utomoile nd the incresed use of deicing gent on the rod, so hot dip glvnized steel is incresingly pplied to the utomoile prts. High strength steels including DP steels usully contin severl kinds of strengthening elements such s Si, Mn nd so on, ut these strengthening elements lso deteriorte the glvnizing property due to the surfce oxides formed during nneling process, nd these oxides re criticl in surfce defects of outer pnel. In this study, 590MP grde DP GA steels for utomotive outer pnel is eing developed. To e successfully pplied to the u- Mn Been Moon, Sng Wook Lee, Sng Jin Prk Hyundi HYSCO, Kore Keynote lecture presented t the 8 th Int. Conf. GALVATECH 2011, Genov, June 2011 FIG. 1 Trend of dvnced high strength steel nd outer pnel for utomotive use. Tendenz dell utilizzo di ccii d lt resistenz per pnnelli esterni di impiego utomoilistico. L Metllurgi Itlin - n. 3/

2 TAB. 1 FIG. 2 Chemicl composition (wt.%) of steels. Composizione chimic degli ccii (peso %). Schemtic digrm of intercriticl nneling nd isotherml holding process of DP steels. Digrmm schemtico dei processi di ricottur intercritic e mntenimento isotermico degli ccii ifsici. tomotive outer pnel, vrious requirements such s mechnicl properties, weldility nd press formility hve to e stisfied. So, the lloy design ws focused on lowering Si concentrtion down to 0.1wt.% nd dding Cr, Mo, Al insted to stisfy desired mechnicl property nd to enhnce glvnizility. Microstructurl nlyses were lso crried out with scientific equipment such s FEG-SEM nd TEM. EXPERIMENTS Mterils Ten kinds of experimentl ingots were mde in lortory y vcuum induction furnce. They were reduced into 25 mm thick sl, homogenized t 1200 nd then hot rolled to 3 mm. Finishing temperture fter rolling ws 900 nd smples were hold t 620 for 30 minutes to simulte the coiling temperture. After pickling in 10% hydrochloric solution t 80, steel sheets re then cold rolled to 0.7 mm thick. Het tretment simultion To evlute the intercriticl nneling nd isotherml holding temperture, Thermo-clc softwre nd diltometric nlysis were used. With these dt, het cycle for the het tretment simultor(cct-awt-ii, ULVAC, Jpn) were set up. Steel sheets were nneled in the intercriticl nneling temperture(iat) rnge of 760 to 840 nd isotherml holding temperture(iht) rnge of 420 to 540. Anlysis of microstructure Specimens were polished, etched with 2% Nitl nd LePer so- FIG. 3 Effect of lloying elements in equilirium phse digrm nd phse frction; () E1(0.03Al) vs. E3(0.2Al), () E5(2.0Mn) vs. E8(1.8Mn, 0.2Cr). Effetto degli elementi di leg sul digrmm di equilirio di fse e sull frzione di fse; () E1(0.03Al) vs. E3(0.2Al), () E5(2.0Mn) vs. E8(1.8Mn, 0.2Cr). 44 L Metllurgi Itlin - n. 3/2012

3 Acciio FIG. 4 Austenite frction of vrious smples () E1 vs. E3 (effect of Al) () E5 vs. E8 (effect of Mn). Frzione ustenitic dei vri provini. () E1 vs. E3 (effetto di Al) () E5 vs. E8 (effetto di Mn). FIG. 5 Effect of () IAT(760 ~ 840 ) nd () IHT(420 ~ 540 ) on ustenite frction in E1 steel. Effetto di () IAT(760 ~ 840 ) e () IHT(420 ~ 540 ) sull frzione ustenitic nell cciio E1. lution, nd then exmined with opticl microscope. Etching for 5 seconds with LePer solution mde the mrtensite phse right, enling the clcultion of volume frction y imge nlysis. EBSD nlysis ws performed with electrolytic polished smples, TEM ws used for the surfce oxide nlysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Thermodynmic clcultion The lloys were nneled in intercriticl region where oth ferrite nd ustenite phse exist together, followed y quenching. This intercriticl nneling is crucil in determining the ustenite frction, which trnsforms into mrtensite phse. So, we clculted Ae1 nd Ae3 temperture in the phse digrm nd the ustenite frction in intercriticl temperture y Thermoclc softwre. In Fig. 3(), incresed Al concentrtion elevtes oth Ae1 nd Ae3 line, so in the sme nneling temperture, specimen E3 is expected to exhiit less ustenite frction compred with specimen E1. In Fig. 3(), Mn ddition lowers the trnsformtion temperture, ecuse Mn is n ustenite stilizing element. So, specimen E8 exhiit high Ae1 nd Ae3 temperture compred with specimen E5, thus hve less ustenite frction lso. Diltometric nlysis Diltometric nlysis ws performed to exmine the phse trnsformtion ehvior during het tretment. Austenite phse formed during intercriticl nneling prtilly trnsforms into ferrite or inite until cooled down to isotherml holding temperture, followed y mrtensitic trnsformtion of the rest of ustenite in the finl cooling stge. Fig. 4 illustrtes the chnge of ustenite volume frction ccording to the lloying elements mesured y diltometric nlysis when IAT ws 800 nd IHT ws 480. In Fig. 4(), E1(low Al) nd E3(high Al) specimens were compred. Austenite frction of E3 specimen is low in the intercriticl nneling stge, ut it shows less trnsformtion to ferrite during cooling, resulting in higher ustenite frction t the end of isotherml holding stge. In Fig. 4(), E5(high Mn) nd E8(low Mn) specimens were compred. Austenite frction during IA stge ws lmost sme, ut the ustenite stility of E8 specimen ws etter, resulting in higher frction. Effect of het tretment on the phse trnsformtion ws s- FIG. 6 Mechnicl properties of specimens ccording to micro-lloy elements. Proprietà meccniche dei provini second degli elementi microlegnti. sessed y dilttion. Specimen E1 experienced IAT of 760, 800, 840 nd IHT of 420, 480, 560 during dilttion. In Fig. 5(), higher intercriticl nneling temperture promotes lrger frction of ustenite, ut the frction drops rpidly during cooling, thus mking less ustenite thn lower IAT cse. This is ecuse lower frction of ustenite holds more cron, thus hindering ferrite phse trnsformtion during cooling. Fig. 5() shows tht lower isotherml holding temperture mkes less ustenite, ecuse initic trnsformtion is progressed t round 500. Mechnicl properties nd microstructure nlysis ccording to het tretment Fig. 6 shows the mechnicl properties of specimens ccording to micro-lloying elements. Increse in strength is chieved more y ddition of Mo+ (Cr, B, Al) elements rther thn ddition of Mo lone. Especilly, Mo-Cr ddition cn increse oth strength nd elongtion. Mo-B ddition cn increse tensile strength nd yield strength lso, resulting in higher yield rtio which is undesirle in DP steel. Mo-Al ddition cn increse L Metllurgi Itlin - n. 3/

4 FIG. 7 Mechnicl properties of E1 specimen ccording to ) IAT (t IHT 480 C) nd ) IHT(IAT 800 C). Crtteristiche meccniche dei provini di cciio E1 secondo: ) IAT (t IHT 480 C) e ) IHT(IAT 800 C). c d e FIG. 8 Microstructure of E1 specimen (LePer solution etched, right white:mrtensite); () IAT 760 & IHT 480, () IAT 800 & IHT 480, (c) IAT 840 & IHT 480, (d) IAT 800 & IHT 420, (e) IAT 800 & IHT 540. Microstruttur dei provini di cciio E1 (ttcco chimico con soluzione LePer, in inco rillnte: l mrtensite) ); () IAT 760 & IHT 480, () IAT 800 & IHT 480, (c) IAT 840 & IHT 480, (d) IAT 800 & IHT 420, (e) IAT 800 & IHT 540. c d e FIG. 9 EBSD phse mp of E1 specimen5) (yellow:mrtensite); () IAT 760 & IHT 480, () IAT 800 & IHT 480, (c) IAT 840 & IHT 480, (d) IAT 800 & IHT 420, (e) IAT 800 & IHT 540. Mpp di fse con EBSD sul cmpione E1 (mrtensite in gillo) () IAT 760 & IHT 480, () IAT 800 & IHT 480, (c) IAT 840 & IHT 480, (d) IAT 800 & IHT 420, (e) IAT 800 & IHT 540. FIG. 10 Mrtensite volume frction of E1 specimen ccording to IAT nd IHT; () Effect of IAT () Effect of IHT. Frzione in volume dell mrtensite nel provino E1 in funzione di IAT e IHT () Effetto di IAT () Effetto di IHT. tensile strength, ut decrese elongtion. Fig. 7 shows the mechnicl property ccording to IAT nd IHT. Mrtensite volume frction ws evluted y opticl microscope4) nd EBSD nlysis. Microstructure ccording to het tretment ws shown in Fig. 8. In ccordnce with the dilttion results, it is shown tht lower IAT nd higher IHT mkes more mrtensitic trnsformtion. EBSD results re shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 10 shows the summry of mrtensite frction nlysis. Mrtensite volume frction of the specimens using opticl microscope nd EBSD show similr results, wheres non-liner dilttion results2,3) re pproximtely 5% higher thn those. All of these mesurements show the sme tendency tht mrtensite frction is incresed s IAT is lower nd IHT is higher, resulting in higher tensile strength nd lower elongtion. Hot dip glvnizility Surfce oxide formed during het tretment ws nlyzed y TEM, nd crosssection of coting lyer ws nlyzed y SEM. Surfce morphology of specimens contining 0.1wt.% nd 0.2wt.% Si re nneled in tmosphere with dew point of -20, - 35, -50 s shown in Fig. 11. On the surfce of 0.1wt.% Si specimens, mcro crcks re found 46 L Metllurgi Itlin - n. 3/2012

5 Acciio FIG. 11 TEM of surfce oxides nd SEM crosssection ccording to Si concentrtion nd Dew Point. Ossidi superficili l TEM e sezione trsversle l SEM in funzione dell concentrzione di Si e del Dew Point. TAB. 2 Surfce oxide nd wettility ccording to Si concentrtion nd dew point. Ossidi di superficie e gnilità in funzione dell concentrzione di Si e del dew point. t the dew point of -20, wheres crcks re diminished t the dew point of -35. In cse of 0.2wt.% Si specimens, crcks re found t the dew point of -20 nd -35. In oth cses ove, crcks re not found t the dew point of -50. The crcks re due to the oxides formed long grin oundry, nd the oxide nd crck ecome diminished s dew point gets lower. Tle 2 shows the summry of surfce oxide nlysis result ccording to Si concentrtion nd dew point. Chemicl composition nd dew point determine the oxide formed on the surfce, thus ffect the wettility in molten zinc. When dew point is too low, Si oxide forms preferentilly, so tht the wetting ngle cn e incresed. In this study, steel with 0.1 ~ 0.2wt.% of Si in dew point of -20 ~ -35 were shown to e le to suppress the Si oxide formtion, nd improve the wettility6). Weldility Spot welding test ws performed y DC spot welding mchine. Tle 3 shows the welding condition performed. Mny vriles such s welding current, pplying time, pressure nd cycle time ws considered. Tensile test of welded specimens showed tht the welded spot hd enough strength so tht the filure occurred in the sustrte, not in the welding point. Press formility (Computtionl nlysis) Fig. 13 shows the computtionl nlysis result of press forming simultion in ctul process condition(500ton press mchine, cushion press 8.3ton). Auto-Form softwre ws used in this simultion, nd it ws shown tht strin contour is under the for- ming limit re. Good formility nd surfce ppernce ws confirmed y ctul press test s Fig. 13(c). CONCLUSIONS In this study, following results re otined. 1. Influence of het tretment on the mechnicl properties ws investigted. Mrtensite frction is incresed s IAT is decresed nd IHT is incresed, resulting in higher tensile strength nd lower elongtion. This result corresponds with the mrtensite frction mesured y diltion, opticl microscope nd EBSD nlysis. 2. Surfce oxides were nlyzed y TEM. By reducing Si concentrtion to 0.1~0.2 wt.%, it ws shown to e possile to restrin Si oxide formtion on the surfce in the nneling tmosphere with dew point of -20~-35, lso possile to enhnce the wettility in molten zinc nd thus improve glvnizility MP grde DP steel developed in this study ws estimted to hve cceptle properties including formility nd weldility s utomotive outer pnel. REFERENCES 1) Bertrm Ehrhrdt et l. AHSSS Proceedings (Colordo, 2004), p.39 2) J. Z. ZHAO et l. ISIJ Int., 41 (2001), p ) M. Gomez et l. ISIJ Int., 43 (2003), p ) Amr K. De et l. Advnced Mterils & Process (2003) p.27 5) Jun-Yun Kng et l. ISIJ Int., 51 (2011) p.130 6) Mrcel Lmerigts et l. Applied Surfce Science (1999) p.334 L Metllurgi Itlin - n. 3/

6 Acciio TAB. 3 Spot welding condition. Prmetri di sldtur punti. FIG. 12 Tensile test result of spot welded specimens. Risultti dell prov di trzione dei provini sottoposti sldtur punti. FIG. 13 () FLD nlysis, () CAE simultion of Door Outer nd (c) ctul press test result. Anlisi FLD (), simulzione CAE () di pnnello esterno di portier e (c) risultti dell prov di pressione effettiv. Astrct Sviluppo di cciio 590MP grdo DP GA per impiego nei pnnelli esterni degli utoveicoli Prole chive: Recentemente, l fine di soddisfre le esigenze di sicurezz dei psseggeri e i requisiti di riduzione del peso del corpo vettur, sono stti sviluppti ccii d lt resistenz con elevt formilità per prti dell crrozzeri. Tr questi ccii d lt resistenz, quelli ifsici (Dul-Phse - DP) sono considerti prticolrmente promettenti grzie lle loro eccellenti proprietà meccniche, segntmente per l loro elevt resistenz e duttilità. Tuttvi, i tipici ccii d lt resistenz contengono elementi di leg che formno un ossido superficile e ne consegue il deteriormento del comportmento nel trttmento glvnico che, negli ccii d lt resistenz, è necessri per ottenere uon comportmento verso l corrosione dell crrozzeri. Le prti tipiche del pnnello esterno, per le quli sono necessrie crtteristiche nti-indentzione, sono costituite d grdi di cciio 340MP indurito (BH), m l tendenz verso un crrozzeri più legger port d impiegre ccii con mggiore resistenz nei pnnelli esterni. In lcune utomoili si inizi d utilizzre cciio ifsico di grdo 490MP e l cciio ifsico di grdo 590MP è un uon cndidto per divenire il mterile futuro per i pnnelli esterni. In questo studio, diversi tipi di leghe sono stti prodotti su scl di lortorio per migliorre le ppliczioni glvniche, e sono stte investigti gli effetti sulle proprietà meccniche delle condizioni di ricottur continu nell CGL. L distriuzione dell microstruttur e delle fsi sono stti esminti medinte SEM, EBSD, TEM ecc.. E stt condott un prov di produzione in line con l composizione chimic dell cciio oggetto dello studio. Inoltre sono stte eseguite indgini sull lvorilità, sldilità e CAE sul lminto. Attrverso lo studio è stt dimostrt essere possiile l produzione di cciio ifsico 590MP glvnizzto con uon formilità e trttilità superficile. 48 L Metllurgi Itlin - n. 3/2012

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