The Future European Constitution

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1 Flash Eurobarometer European Commission The Future European Constitution Fieldwork : January 2004 Publication : February 2004 Flash Eurobarometer TNS Sofres / EOS Gallup Europe This survey was requested by the Secretariat General and coordinated by Directorate General Press and Communication This document does not represent the point of view of the European Commission. The interpretations and opinions contained in it are solely those of the authors.

2 FLASH EUROBAROMETER 159 The future European Constitution Conducted by EOS Gallup Europe upon the request of the European Commission (Secretariat General) Survey organised and managed by Directorate-General Press and Communication (Opinion Polls, Press Reviews, Europe Direct) This document does not reflect the views of the European Commission. Any interpretations or opinions expressed in this report are those of the authors alone. SURVEY: January 2004 ANALYTICAL REPORT: February 2004

3 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 1 PRESENTATION Information on the draft of the future European Constitution Level of information related to the future European Constitution Means of accessing information Detailed knowledge of key issues contained in the draft of the European Constitution Will the position of a minister of foreign affairs of the EU be created? Can one million citizens of the EU invite the European Commission to submit a proposal? Will the president of the European Council be elected by direct universal suffrage? Will a European army be created? Adherence to the adoption of a European Constitution Should the European Union adopt a Constitution? Is a Constitution vital to the functioning of the EU institutions? Acceptance of concessions Is a two-speed Europe acceptable in the opinion of the public? Adherence to the creation of an EU Foreign Affairs Minister CONCLUSION...33 ANNEXES TECHNICAL NOTE QUESTIONNAIRE

4 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 2 PRESENTATION The draft of the future European Constitution, drawn up by the Convention on the future of Europe, was submitted for final approval to the intergovernmental conference of Rome that opened in October During the summit of heads of states and governments, on the 12 th and 13 th of December 2003, it was however concluded that it was not possible for the intergovernmental conference to reach an overall agreement on the draft constitutional treaty at this stage. Due to disagreements on specific issues of the draft, the constitutional process has, until this day, not been able to draw to a close, and a final agreement has not been reached among leaders of the EU member states. Furthermore, with just 4 months to go before the enlargement of the European Union to 10 new member states, the European Union finds itself in need of reaching a compromise in order to put into place the much needed reforms which will allow the European institutions to function with 25 member states. In this context, the Secretariat General was interested in knowing how the European public opinion positions itself on this issue. What do Europeans think about a possible European Constitution, and how well informed are they on key issues this text represents? From the 14 th to the 23 rd of January 2004 (four weeks after the failure of the intergovernmental conference to reach an agreement) the EOS Gallup Europe network conducted a survey among over 25,000 citizens aged 15 years and over throughout the 15 current EU member states and the 10 acceding countries. Hence, the citizens of the 25 future members of the enlarged European Union had the opportunity to express their opinion on this highly important European issue. The main objective of this study is to analyse the awareness and the level of information of European citizens concerning the future European Constitution, and whether they accept to see a Constitution put into place for the European Union. The following points will be analysed in this report: - the level of information related to the future European Constitution - the knowledge of issues contained in the constitutional text - the adherence to the adoption of a European Constitution The main results will be analysed in the following pages. We will present the results for each separate country, the average of the future European Union of 25 Member States as well as the averages of two sub-totals, namely, the current European Union comprising 15 Member States and the 10 acceding countries. Furthermore, results by socio-demographic characteristics, consisting of gender, age, level of education, occupation and locality type will also be presented in this report. The sample sizes amount to approximately 1000 respondents in each country. The methodology used for the current 15 Member States is that of Flash Eurobarometer. In the acceding countries, telephone interviews were conducted with the exception of the Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia, where face-to-face interviews were conducted due to low telephone penetration rates. A technical note indicating the manner in which the 25 EOS Gallup Europe institutes conducted interviews can be found at the end of this analysis. It provides further details on interviewing methods as well as statistical margins of error.

5 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p Information on the draft of the future European Constitution In this first chapter, we will analyse the level of information citizens consider having received concerning the future European Constitution. First, we will see how well European citizens consider themselves informed on questions relating to the draft of the future European Constitution. Then, in a second part, we will see which sources of information citizens prefer in order to be informed about the future European Constitution Level of information related to the future European Constitution - Only one fourth of citizens in the enlarged European Union consider themselves well informed on questions relating to the draft of the future European Constitution - The results for the average of the 25 countries participating in this survey, which represents the enlarged European Union of May 2004, clearly indicates that the public feels it lacks information on questions relating to the draft of the future European Constitution. Indeed, only 25% of all respondents indicate being well informed on this issue. When comparing the averages of the 15 current EU member states and that of the 10 acceding countries, we can note that the rate of persons considering themselves well informed is significantly higher in the acceding countries than in the EU member states, at respectively 31% against 24%. Q1. Do you consider yourself as being very well informed, rather well informed, rather badly informed or very badly informed on questions relating to the draft of the future European Constitution? Total 'Well informed' Total 'Badly informed' [DK/ NA] TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) 25% 24% 31% 71% 73 % 64% 3% 3% 5% SI CY MT L HU A LT PL DK IRL B F D CZ UK I NL SK LV EE EL E S P FIN 48% 43% 37% 35% 34% 34% 33% 32% 31% 28% 27% 26% 26% 26% 24% 24% 24% 23% 23% 23% 22% 20% 19 % 17% 13 % 51% 55% 56% 64% 64% 65% 66% 61% 67% 71% 68% 71% 72% 70% 71% 76 % 73 % 70 % 74 % 74 % 77% 74 % 79% 80% 87% 7% 7% 5% 4% 5% 6% 5% 4% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Results by country show us that Slovenians feel the best informed with a rate of 48% (They nevertheless still represent a minority in this country). This rate is 17

6 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 4 percentage points above the acceding countries average (31%) and 23 percentage points above the enlarged European Union s average (25%). The rates in Cyprus and Malta follow, with respectively 43% and 37%. Among the current EU member states, we can observe that Luxembourg (35%) has the highest rate of respondents feeling well informed on questions relating to the draft of the future European Constitution. Austria (34%) and Denmark (31%) follow with slightly lower rates. On the opposite side of the graph we can observe that Finland has the lowest rate of respondents feeling well informed on questions relating to this draft, with a rate of 13%. This result is 11 percentage points below the current EU average (24%). Portugal (17%), Sweden (19%) and Spain (20%) follow with slightly better rates of information, but still remain very deficient. Among the acceding countries, Estonia, Latvia and Slovakia seem to have the lowest rates of respondents who indicate being well informed on this draft, with identical rates of 23%. Breakdown by socio-demographic characteristics

7 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 5 When observing results by socio-demographic categories, we can clearly distinguish disparities between results for populations in the European Union and those in the acceding countries. Among genders, men seem better informed than women in both sub-totals. However, this difference is more accentuated in the EU member states, where 7 percentage points separate these two categories, compared to 4 points in the acceding countries. In the age category, the eldest populations seem somewhat more informed than the rest of the population. This is somewhat more the case in the EU member states, where over 8 percentage points separate this category from the others. The education level shows us that, while in the EU member states there are no discrepancies as to the information on the draft of the future European Constitution, results in the acceding countries clearly show that those with the highest level of education have a significantly higher rate than the populations with the lowest education. Over 8 percentage points separate these categories. Furthermore, the rate of the highest educated is 7 percentage points above the acceding countries average. In the occupation category, while employees seem to be the least well informed in the current EU (21%), they have, on the contrary, the highest rate in the acceding countries (33%). Finally, the locality type shows us that there are no significant discrepancies between categories in the current EU, while as in the acceding countries, those living in urban areas indicate being somewhat better informed than in the other two categories, with a difference of over 5 percentage points. Q1. Do you consider yourself as being very well informed, rather well informed, rather badly informed or very badly informed on questions relating to the draft of the future European Constitution? %Total"Well Informed" TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) TOTAL 25% 24% 31% SEX Male Female 29% 28% 33% 23% 21% 29% AGE % 23% 33% 21% 19 % 31% 22% 22% 27% 32% 55&+ 31% 34% EDUCATION 25% 15& - 25% 29% &+ 25% 24% 30% 26% 24% 38% OCCUPATION Self-employed 25% 24% 31% 22% Employee 21% 33% M anual worker 22% 22% 24% 28% Currently not working 28% 32% LOCALITY TYPE Metropolitan Other Town/ Urban Rural 24% 23% 28% 27% 25% 34% 25% 25% 29% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

8 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p Means of accessing information - National television channels or radio stations are the most preferred means of getting informed about the future European Constitution - Q3. You personally, through which means would you like to be informed the most about the future European Constitution? TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) Through national television channels or radio stations Through the national written press Through regional or local television channels or radio stations Through the regional or local written press Through informational documents or brochures Through the Internet Through an organised meeting in your town [DOES NOT WISH TO RECEIVE ANY INFORM ATION] [OTHER] 43% 44% 41% 29% 31% 16 % 28% 30% 20% 28% 28% 25% 23% 23% 20% 13 % 12 % 17 % 1% 2% 1% 65% 65% 64% [DK/NA] 1% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% When asked through which means they would like to be informed the most about the future European Constitution, both citizens in the EU member states (65%) and those in the acceding countries (64%) are a majority to indicate national television channels or radio stations as their most preferred information source. The national written press follows with almost identical rates in both sub-totals, 44% in the EU and 41% in the acceding countries. Disparities between the two sub-totals can be observed concerning the regional information sources: while 31% of respondents in the current EU indicate the regional or local television channels or radio stations, only 16% of respondents in the acceding countries do the same. Furthermore, 10 percentage points separate the rate in the current EU (30%) from that of the acceding countries (20%) when it comes to the regional or local written press. The Internet and informational documents/brochures also have lower rates of preference. It is interesting to note that concerning Internet, there are no major disparities between the two sub-totals. Only 3 percentage points separate the EU average (23%) from the acceding countries average (20%). The means of accessing information that are the least preferred are organised meetings in respondents towns. The rate for this information source seems to be 5 percentage points lower in the current EU member states (12%) than in the acceding countries (17%).

9 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 7 In other words, this low rate of preference for getting information through organised meetings in peoples towns, shows that citizens seem more ready to receive information than to try to get this information in partaking in such meetings for example. And yet we know from other studies that personal involvement can be of great help to understand the issues related to such topics. Country results for the two main means of information show significant discrepancies: Q3. You personally, through which means would you like to be informed the most about the future European Constitution? "Through national television channels or radio stations" TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) I LT CZ DK HU IRL P SI SK UK LV FIN NL EL MT B CY L EE F D S A PL E 65% 65% 64% 87% 80% 80% 78% 76% 76% 75% 73% 72% 70% 70% 70% 67% 64% 63% 63% 62% 60% 60% 56% 56% 54% 54% 53% 52% Italy has the highest rate when it comes to getting information on the future European Constitution through national television channels or radio stations, with a rate of 87%. This rate is 22 percentage points above the EU member states average. The Czech Republic and Lithuania follow with both 80%. The lowest rate can be found in Spain with 52% of Spanish respondents indicating that they use this means of information. Poland has the lowest rate among the acceding countries, with 53%.

10 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 8 As for the national written press, respondents in the Czech Republic indicate the highest rate for using this means as a source of information on the European Constitution, with 70%. This rate is 29 percentage points above the acceding countries average. Italy follows with 67%. On the other side of the graph, we can note that Cyprus has by far the lowest rates of preference for this means of information. Only 19% of Cypriots indicate the national written press, a rate that is 22 percentage points below the acceding countries average (41%). Respondents in Poland and Spain also have very low rates of usage of the national press to get informed, with both 28%. TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) CZ I SK L IRL LT LV DK FIN UK EE HU B A NL SI EL MT D P S F E PL CY Q3. You personally, through which means would you like to be informed the most about the future European Constitution? "Through the national written press" 43% 44% 41% 70% 67% 60% 56% 56% 51% 50% 50% 49% 49% 48% 48% 45% 44% 44% 44% 41% 37% 34% 34% 34% 32% 28% 28% 19 % When crossing these two items of question 3, we can note that in the enlarged European Union of 25 member states, those who indicate that they would like to be informed about the future European Constitution through the national press are 72% to indicate that they would also like to be informed through the national television channels or radio stations. We can therefore suppose that informing oneself on the future of the European Constitution is in general a passive reasoning.

11 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 9 Q3. You personally, through which means would you like to be informed the most about the future European Constitution? Through national television channels or radio stations Through the national written press Through regional or local television channels or radio stations Through the regional or local written press Through informational documents or brochures Through the Internet Through an organised meeting in your town TOT 25 EU15 AC10 TOT 25 EU15 AC10 TOT 25 EU15 AC10 TOT 25 EU15 AC10 TOT 25 EU15 AC10 TOT 25 EU15 AC10 TOT 25 EU15 AC10 TOTAL 65% 65% 64% 43% 44% 41% 29% 31% 16% 28% 30% 20% 28% 28% 25% 23% 23% 20% 13% 12% 17% SEX Male 64% 64% 64% 46% 47% 42% 25% 27% 15% 27% 28% 19% 27% 28% 23% 27% 27% 23% 12% 12% 16% Female 66% 66% 65% 41% 41% 41% 32% 35% 17% 29% 31% 22% 29% 29% 27% 19% 19% 19% 14% 13% 18% AGE % 64% 57% 38% 39% 37% 26% 29% 15% 20% 21% 13% 27% 28% 24% 44% 45% 44% 15% 14% 21% % 66% 65% 45% 45% 42% 26% 29% 15% 28% 29% 22% 33% 34% 28% 27% 28% 26% 12% 11% 18% % 66% 63% 46% 46% 45% 28% 30% 17% 31% 32% 25% 29% 29% 26% 22% 23% 15% 13% 13% 17% 55&+ 65% 64% 69% 43% 43% 40% 32% 35% 16% 30% 31% 20% 24% 24% 22% 9% 10% 4% 13% 13% 15% EDUCATION 15& - 69% 69% 69% 39% 40% 34% 39% 41% 21% 27% 28% 21% 21% 21% 18% 11% 11% 9% 14% 14% 14% % 65% 64% 42% 43% 39% 29% 32% 16% 30% 32% 21% 28% 29% 26% 26% 27% 20% 13% 12% 19% 21&+ 64% 64% 64% 51% 50% 53% 20% 21% 12% 26% 27% 17% 34% 34% 29% 28% 28% 30% 11% 11% 12% OCCUPATION Self-employed 62% 62% 62% 49% 50% 45% 27% 30% 16% 30% 31% 22% 29% 30% 23% 25% 26% 18% 14% 13% 20% Employee 67% 67% 66% 48% 48% 51% 24% 25% 14% 31% 32% 21% 33% 33% 29% 30% 30% 31% 11% 11% 14% Manual worker 66% 65% 69% 41% 41% 43% 32% 35% 17% 30% 31% 27% 27% 28% 24% 22% 24% 10% 12% 11% 16% Currently not working LOCALITY TYPE 65% 65% 63% 40% 41% 37% 31% 34% 16% 26% 27% 18% 25% 25% 24% 18% 18% 19% 15% 14% 18% Metropolitan 62% 62% 67% 43% 42% 52% 24% 26% 12% 26% 27% 13% 32% 33% 28% 25% 25% 28% 10% 10% 8% Other Town/ Urban 68% 69% 64% 46% 47% 41% 29% 32% 16% 28% 30% 22% 27% 28% 25% 24% 24% 22% 13% 12% 17% Rural 64% 64% 63% 41% 41% 37% 31% 35% 17% 30% 32% 22% 25% 25% 24% 19% 20% 15% 16% 15% 21%

12 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 10 Breakdown by socio-demographic characteristics The results by social and demographic categories reveal certain disparities among the categories and between the two sub-totals concerning the preferred means of information. Among genders, men (47%) seem to prefer the national press somewhat more than women (41%) in the current EU member states, since 6 percentage points separate these categories. In the acceding countries rates among genders are almost identical. On the other hand, women (35%) are far keener than men (27%) on getting informed through local television channels or radio stations in the current EU, with a difference of 8 percentage points. Once again, this discrepancy is almost inexistent in the acceding countries. Finally, Internet seems to be significantly more preferred as an information source by men (27%) than women (19%) in the EU, with 8 percentage points separating these categories. In the acceding countries, only 4 percent separate men from women. The age categories show that, while rates are identical in the EU member states when it comes to being informed through national television channels or radio stations, the eldest populations (69%) in the acceding countries rely much more on this source of information than do the youngest populations (57%). 12 percentage points separate these two categories. Information through Internet is far more preferred by the youngest populations, and rates clearly decrease with age. This is the case in both sub-totals, although it is more accentuated in the acceding countries, where 40 percentage points separate the rate of those aged 15 to 24 (44%) with those aged 55 years and older (4%). The education level reveals that there are important disparities between populations with the highest education level and those with the lowest. This concerns the national written press (10 percentage points of difference in the EU, 19 points in the acceding countries), informational documents/brochures and the Internet, which are far more preferred by populations with the highest level of education. On the other hand, regional or local television channels or radio stations seem to be more preferred by those with the lowest level of education. This is especially the case in the EU member states where 20 percentage points separate these two categories. This is also, to some extent, the case for national television channels or radio stations: 5 percentage points separate the rate of those with the lowest level of education from the most educated populations. Rates are identical in both sub-totals.

13 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p Detailed knowledge of key issues contained in the draft of the European Constitution In this second chapter, we will test the public s knowledge on some key aspects of the future European Constitution by analysing if respondents are able to distinguish whether the statements, which are supposedly planned in the draft of the future European Constitution, are true or false Will the position of a minister of foreign affairs of the EU be created? - EU citizens somewhat more aware than those in acceding countries that the position of an EU Foreign Affairs Minister will be created - Q4. It is planned in the draft of the future European Constitution elaborated by the Convention on the future of Europe that a) the position of a M inister of Foreign Affairs of the European Union will be created True False [DK/NA] TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) 63% 64% 59% 15 % 20% 21% 17 % 15 % 27% I IRL CY EL L D LT A SI PL F B FIN HU UK E CZ DK MT NL S EE LV P SK 76% 73% 73% 73% 72% 70% 65% 64% 64% 62% 61% 60% 59% 58% 57% 56% 54% 54% 53% 51% 50% 49% 48% 46% 45% 19 % 5% 14 % 13 % 8% 19 % 18 % 10 % 15 % 13 % 22% 8% 12 % 23% 17 % 19 % 14 % 22% 18 % 20% 23% 16 % 24% 16 % 29% 12 % 10 % 32% 25% 18 % 17 % 28% 11% 35% 28% 18 % 9% 38% 26% 23% 27% 23% 17 % 35% 8% 44% 22% 32% 14 % 41% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% A solid majority of Europeans throughout the 25 future member states of the enlarged European Union indicate the correct answer to the statement that the position of a Minister of Foreign Affairs of the EU will be created: 63% of respondents throughout the 25 countries answer True. We can however note that there are slight differences between the rates of the two sub-totals, where correct answers are somewhat lower in the acceding countries (59%) than in the current EU member states (64%). We can also note that the rate of respondents who did not know or who refused to answer is significantly higher in the acceding countries (27%), with a difference of 12 percentage points compared to the average of the EU member states (15%).

14 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 12 Country results show us that Italy has the highest rate of correct responses, with 76% of respondents indicating that the position of a EU Foreign Affairs Minister will indeed be created. This rate is 12 percentage points above the European Union average (64%).This could be explained by the Italian presidency during the last 6 months of Ireland and Greece follow with 73%. Among the acceding countries, we can note that Cyprus has the highest rate, with 73%. This rate is 14 percentage points above the acceding countries average (59%). Lithuania follows, but with a significantly lower rate, at 65%. On the opposite side of the graph, we can note that Slovakia has the lowest rate of correct answers (45%). Its rate is 14 percentage points below the acceding countries average. Portugal (46%), Latvia (48%) and Estonia (49%) also have low rates of correct answers. In these four countries less than half of the population is aware that the position of a Minister of Foreign Affairs of the European Union will be created if the future European Constitution is adopted. We must however take into count the high levels of respondents in these countries who did not know or who refused to answer. In Latvia, this rate reaches 44%, which is another indication of the poor level of information about this issue in this country. Breakdown by socio-demographic categories Q4. It is planned in the draft of the future European Constitution elaborated by the Convention on the future of Europe that a) the position of a Minister of Foreign Affairs of the European Union will be created % "True" TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) TOTAL SEX Male Female AGE &+ EDUCATION 15& &+ OCCUPATION Self-employed Employee Manual worker Currently not working LOCALITY TYPE Metropolitan Other Town/ Urban Rural 63% 64% 59 % 66% 67% 59% 61% 61% 59 % 67% 66% 69% 65% 67% 59% 61% 62% 57% 61% 62% 53% 61% 62% 53% 65% 66% 61% 64% 65% 56 % 65% 66% 57% 63% 65% 55% 61% 61% 58% 63% 64% 61% 63% 64% 55% 64% 65% 58% 62% 63% 61% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

15 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 13 Among genders, we can note that men seem more aware than women of the correct response in the current EU member states, with respectively 67% against 61%. This is not the case in the acceding countries, where we can observe identical rates of 59%. The age categories reveal that younger populations have higher rates of correct answers than older populations. This is especially the case in the acceding countries where 69% of populations aged 15 to 24 give the correct answer compared to only 53% among those aged 55 and over Can one million citizens of the EU invite the European Commission to submit a proposal? - Close to a half of all citizens in the enlarged European Union indicate the correct answer Q4. It is planned in the draft of the future European Constitution elaborated by the Convention on the future of Europe that b) at least one million citizens of the European Union can invite the European Commission to submit a proposal True False [DK/NA] TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) 42% 43% 38% 28% 35% 36% 23% 20% 34% LT A CY D I EL S EE IRL B PL FIN HU UK L F P E NL MT SI LV DK CZ SK 60% 55% 54% 54% 53% 47% 47% 46% 45% 44% 42% 41% 40% 39% 39% 37% 34% 34% 32% 32% 31% 31% 27% 25% 22% 23% 26% 18 % 18 % 20% 20% 16 % 35% 35% 37% 37% 16 % 30% 36% 31% 39% 25% 33% 34% 41% 32% 36% 42% 50% 38% 51% 48% 53% 52% 19 % 25% 30% 12 % 13 % 16 % 16 % 37% 25% 20% 27% 19 % 35% 28% 27% 23% 34% 30% 26% 31% 25% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Results show that 42% of the population of the 25 European countries indicate the correct answer for this statement answering that it is True that at least one million citizens of the EU can invite the European Commission to submit a proposal. Once again, we can note that respondents in the 15 EU member states (43%) have a higher rate of correct answers than the 10 acceding countries (38%). We must also take note of the significant levels of respondents who did not know or who refused to answer, namely in the accession country average where this rate reaches one third of the population (34%). We can therefore suppose that

16 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 14 there is a certain lack of information concerning European issues and more precisely about the future European Constitution in the acceding countries. Results by country show us that Lithuania has the highest rate of correct answers, with 60% of its population indicating that this statement is True. Austria (55%), Cyprus (54%), Germany (54%) and Italy (53%) also have high rates. In all of these countries, over half of respondents indicate the correct answer. Among the lowest rates of correct answers, we find Slovakia (22%), the Czech Republic (25%) and Denmark (27%). While results in Slovakia and the Czech Republic can be explained by the very high rates of non-responses (respectively 52% and 53%), The poor result in Denmark is due to a very high response rate of incorrect answers, since 48% of Danish respondents answered that the statement is False. Other high rates of non-responses can be observed in Latvia and Malta, where respectively 51% and 50% of the population does not know if this statement is true or false.

17 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 15 Breakdown by socio-demographic categories Among the different age categories, we can note that while in the EU members states there seem to be no significant differences, the category of populations aged 25 to 39 in the acceding countries has a far lower rate of correct answers (32%) than the other categories. This rate is 6 percentage points below the acceding countries average (38%). Another remark can be made for the occupation category, where employees in the acceding countries have a significantly lower rate of correct answers (33%) than the other categories of occupation. Q4. It is planned in the draft of the future European Constitution elaborated by the Convention on the future of Europe that b) at least one million citizens of the European Union can invite the European Commission to submit a proposal % "T rue" TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) TOTAL SEX Male Female AGE &+ EDUCATION 15& &+ OCCUPATION Self-employed Employee Manual w orker Currently not w orking LOCALITY TYPE Metropolitan Other Tow n/ Urban Rural 42% 43% 38% 43% 43% 39% 42% 43% 36% 45% 46% 42% 42% 44% 32% 41% 42% 38% 42% 43% 40% 44% 45% 36% 43% 45% 38% 40% 40% 38% 41% 42% 39% 40% 42% 33% 46% 47% 39% 43% 44% 40% 42% 42% 37% 44% 45% 37% 41% 42% 39% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

18 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p Will the president of the European Council be elected by direct universal suffrage? - Knowledge considerably lower in the acceding countries than in the member states on whether the President of the European Council is elected or not by direct universal suffrage - Q4. It is planned in the draft of the future European Constitution elaborated by the Convention on the future of Europe that c) the President of the European Council is elected by direct universal suffrage False True [DK/NA] TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) 29% 41% 44% 45% 40% 40% 18 % 17 % 26% FIN S DK I F NL UK IRL B D PL P L SI EL E A SK EE MT LT HU LV CZ CY 63% 61% 57% 55% 52% 27% 29% 29% 38% 33% 10 % 11% 15 % 7% 15 % 42% 40% 19 % 40% 39% 37% 35% 35% 35% 34% 34% 33% 33% 27% 32% 40% 47% 56% 47% 36% 46% 42% 53% 41% 47% 27% 21% 16 % 10 % 19 % 29% 20% 25% 14 % 26% 26% 27% 28% 45% 24% 23% 43% 39% 33% 37% 23% 67% 10 % 22% 52% 26% 21% 43% 36% 20% 33% 48% 12 % 69% 19 % 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Europeans in the 25 countries participating in this survey seem divided on whether this statement is True or False. Indeed, the correct answer to the statement whether or not the President of the European Council is elected by direct universal suffrage is given by only 41% of the European public who claim that this statement is False. When observing results for the averages of the two sub-totals, we can note that respondents in the current European Union have a significantly higher rate of correct answers than those in the acceding countries, at respectively 44% against 29%. The rate of respondents who did not know or who refused to answer is also somewhat higher in the acceding countries (26%), with a difference of 9 percentage points compared to the EU average (17%). Country results show us that Finland has the highest rate of correct answers, with 63% of respondents answering that the statement is False. This rate is 19 percentage points above the European Union average (44%). The two Scandinavian neighbouring countries, Sweden and Denmark, follow with respectively 61% and 57% of correct answers. Italy (55%) and France (52%)

19 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 17 also have high correct answer rates, which represent a majority of their populations. The country with the lowest rate of correct answers is Cyprus, with a rate of only 12%. This result is mainly due to the high rate of incorrect answers, which represents 69% of all respondents in that country. The Czech Republic follows with 20% of correct answers. Here, the result is due to a very high rate of non-responses, equalling 48% of respondents. This is also the case in Slovakia (45%). Among the EU countries, Austria seems to have the lowest rate of correct answers, at 27%. This rate is 17 percentage points below the EU average (44%). Breakdown by socio-demographic categories Men have somewhat higher rates of correct answers than women for this statement. This difference is however slightly more accentuated in the European Union than in the acceding countries. The age categories show us that the eldest populations aged 55 and over are somewhat less aware of the correct answer than the younger populations. This is the case in both sub-totals. Results by education level show us that the rate of correct answers to this statement increases with the rise in the level of education. This phenomenon can be observed in both sub-totals. Q4. It is planned in the draft of the future European Constitution elaborated by the Convention on the future of Europe that c) the President of the European Council is elected by direct universal suffrage % "F A LSE" TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) TOTAL SEX Male Female AGE &+ EDUCATION 15& &+ OCCUPATION Self-employed Employee Manual w orker Currently not w orking LOCALITY TYPE Metropolitan Other Tow n/ Urban Rural 29% 41% 44% 44% 47% 31% 39% 41% 27% 44% 48% 29% 47% 49% 34% 42% 45% 31% 35% 38% 24% 36% 38% 21% 40% 43% 28% 50% 51% 40% 43% 44% 36% 47% 49% 35% 41% 43% 28% 38% 41% 26% 44% 45% 29% 43% 46% 30% 38% 40% 27% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

20 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p Will a European army be created? - The confusion seems particularly high - Q4. It is planned in the draft of the future European Constitution elaborated by the Convention on the future of Europe that d) a European army is going to be created False True [DK/NA] TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) 44% 44% 43% 34% 43% 45% 13 % 11% 24% FIN 56% 36% 9% S NL D UK PL IRL HU I SI F B DK A LT E EE P CZ L SK MT EL LV CY 53% 51% 51% 51% 49% 48% 44% 43% 42% 41% 40% 38% 37% 35% 35% 33% 33% 33% 32% 31% 27% 26% 23% 21% 39% 34% 42% 36% 33% 42% 31% 53% 40% 48% 52% 52% 47% 51% 41% 37% 43% 27% 56% 33% 39% 66% 42% 64% 8% 15 % 7% 14 % 17 % 9% 25% 4% 19 % 11% 8% 10 % 16 % 14 % 24% 30% 24% 40% 12 % 36% 34% 8% 35% 15 % 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Here again, the European public seems divided as to whether a European army is going to be created or not. Among the total of the 25 countries, 44% of respondents give the correct answer, namely that this statement is False, but equally, 43% are sure of the contrary. The rates of correct answers between the two sub-totals are practically identical, with 44% and 43%. However, we can note once again that the rate of respondents who did not know or who refused to answer is twice as high in the acceding countries (24%) compared to the European Union average (11%). Results by country show us that, yet again, we find the two Nordic countries, Finland and Sweden, at the top of the graph with the highest rates of correct answers (respectively 56% and 53%) to the statement whether or not a European army is going to be created. Finland s result (56%) is 12 percentage points above the European Union average (44%). Results in the Netherlands, Germany and the United Kingdom follow with 51% in each country. Out of the 25 European countries participating in this survey, a majority of respondents indicating the correct answers can only be found in these five countries. Among the acceding countries, Poland has the highest rate with 49% of correct answers.

21 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 19 Once again, respondents in Cyprus have the lowest rate of correct answers, at 21%. This rate is 22 percentage points below the acceding countries average. Latvia follows with 23%. Greece has the lowest rate of correct answers among the current European Union member states, with 26%. This rate is 17 percentage points below the EU average. Greece can also be distinguished for its rate of incorrect answers (66%), which is the highest among all 25 countries. Breakdown by socio-demographic categories A significant difference in results between the two sub-totals can be observed for the category of genders: while in the EU countries women (49%) have a significantly higher rate of correct answers than men (39%), it is quite the opposite in the acceding countries where men (45%) have a somewhat higher rate of correct answers than women (40%). The age categories show us that in the EU countries, the youngest aged populations (54%) are far more aware of the correct answer to this statement than the eldest populations (39%). The rate of those aged 15 to 24 is 10 percentage points above the EU average. This difference is not as accentuated in the acceding countries, where we can note however, that the eldest populations have the lowest rate of correct answers (35%). Q4. It is planned in the draft of the future European Constitution elaborated by the Convention on the future of Europe that d) a European army is going to be created % "FALSE" TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) TOTAL SEX Male Female AGE &+ EDUCATION 15& &+ OCCUPATION Self-employed Employee Manual w orker Currently not w orking LOCALITY TYPE Metropolitan Other Tow n/ Urban Rural 44% 44% 43% 40% 39% 45% 48% 49% 40% 52 % 54 % 45% 46% 46% 46% 44% 44% 46% 39% 39% 35% 38% 39% 29% 47% 47% 44% 45% 45% 48% 43% 42% 47% 48% 48% 48% 43% 43% 43% 42% 43% 39% 44% 44% 47% 44% 45% 44% 43% 44% 39% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

22 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 20 Cross-tabulating: When crossing two questions, we will try to see whether there is a correlation between the fact of declaring oneself well informed on questions relating to the draft of the future European Constitution and the fact of having a detailed knowledge on issues concerning this document, as seen above for the four different statements. Q4a: the position of a Minister of Foreign Affairs of the European Union will be created True* False DK/NA Total EU 25 63% 20% 17% Total well informed 67% 20% 13% Total badly informed 62% 20% 18% Q4b: at least one million citizens of the European Union can invite the European Commission to submit a proposal True* False DK/NA Total EU 25 42% 35% 23% Total well informed 48% 34% 18% Total badly informed 41% 36% 23% Q4c: the President of the European Council is elected by direct universal suffrage True False* DK/NA Total EU 25 40% 41% 18% Total well informed 47% 39% 14% Total badly informed 38% 43% 19% Q4d: a European army is going to be created EU 25 True False* DK/NA Total EU 25 43% 44% 13% Total well informed 45% 43% 11% Total badly informed 43% 45% 13% *correct answers in bold characters Results show us that there are only slight differences in the rates of correct answers concerning the detailed knowledge on the European Constitution between respondents who declare themselves being well informed about the draft of future European Constitution and those who declare themselves badly informed about it. We can therefore suppose that citizens who believe they are well informed in general about the future European Constitution, still lack detailed knowledge of this important text. Question 1: Do you consider yourself as being very well informed, rather well informed, rather badly informed or very badly informed on questions relating to the draft of the future European Constitution? crossed with Question 4a,b,c,d: For each of the following statements, tell me if, in your opinion, it is true or false

23 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p Adherence to the adoption of a European Constitution In this third chapter, we will analyse how the European public positions itself towards issues concerning the future European Constitution Should the European Union adopt a Constitution? - A clear majority of European citizens believes the European Union must adopt a Constitution - Q2. a) The European Union must adopt a Constitution Rather agree Rather disagree [DK/NA] TOTAL (25) 77% 15 % 8% EU (15) AC (10) 78% 73% 15 % 15 % 7% 12 % I EL HU SI L B E D LT P F IRL CY NL PL SK A FIN LV CZ MT EE DK S UK 92% 89% 87% 86% 86% 85% 85% 83% 81% 81% 81% 80% 80% 75% 72% 70% 68% 68% 66% 64% 61% 60% 60% 58% 51% 7% 1% 9% 2% 5% 8% 5% 8% 11% 3% 10 % 5% 7% 8% 14 % 3% 9% 10 % 10 % 10 % 14 % 6% 11% 8% 11% 9% 20% 5% 18 % 10 % 13 % 18 % 23% 9% 20% 12 % 11% 23% 17 % 19 % 15 % 24% 10 % 30% 29% 11% 26% 16 % 30% 19 % 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% When asked whether or not respondents agree that the European Union must adopt a Constitution, results show that respondents in both the current EU member states (78%) and in the acceding countries (73%) are an overwhelming majority to rather agree with this statement. Only 5 percentage points separate the two sub-totals. However, we can also note that the rate of non-responses is slightly higher in the acceding countries (12%) than in the EU countries (7%). Country results reveal that Italy has the highest rate of respondents supporting the necessity of adopting a Constitution for the European Union, with 92%. This rate is 14 percentage points above the European Union average (78%). The rate in Greece follows with 89% of its population rather agreeing with this statement.

24 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 22 Hungary has the highest rate of agreement among the acceding countries, at 87%, which is 14 percentage points above the acceding countries average (73%). Slovenia follows with 86%. The EU average hides nevertheless big discrepancies between current Member States. At the bottom of the graph we find the United Kingdom (51%), Sweden (58%) and Denmark (60%), which are often the more sceptical member states towards the EU, as past events may have shown. The United Kingdom s rate is 27 percentage points below the EU average. It is also interesting to note that the rate of respondents in this country disagreeing with the adoption of a Constitution represents a rate of 30%, meaning the double of that of the EU average (15%). However low these rates may be, the results show, nevertheless, that a majority of the population in these countries agrees that a Constitution must be adopted for the European Union. Estonia (60%) has the lowest rate of agreement among the acceding countries. This result can be explained by the high rate of non-responses, reaching 30% in this country.

25 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 23 Breakdown by socio-demographic categories Q2. a) The European Union must adopt a Constitution % "Rather agree" TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) TOTAL SEX Male Female AGE &+ EDUCATION 15& &+ OCCUPATION Self-employed Employee Manual w orker Currently not w orking LOCALITY TYPE Metropolitan Other Tow n/ Urban Rural 77% 78 % 73% 79 % 80% 75% 76 % 76 % 72% 78 % 79% 76 % 78% 79% 73% 78 % 79 % 73% 76% 76 % 73 % 74 % 75% 66% 77% 77% 74% 83% 83% 76 % 78 % 80% 69% 79 % 80% 75% 74% 74% 73% 77% 78% 73 % 79% 80% 74 % 78% 78 % 76 % 74 % 76 % 69% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% The only significant discrepancies can be observed among the education levels. For both sub-totals, we can note that the rate of agreement with the necessity of adopting a Constitution for the EU rises with the level of education. This rise is significantly sharp in the acceding countries: while 66% of those with the lowest level of education rather agree with this statement, those with the highest level of education have a 76% rate of agreement. In the categories of occupation we can note that while in the EU the selfemployed are, along with employees, the most to agree with the statement, the self-employed in the acceding countries are the ones to agree the least (69%). Finally, we can note that persons living in rural areas agree somewhat less with this statement than those living in other locality types. This is particularly the case in the acceding countries.

26 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p Is a Constitution vital to the functioning of the EU institutions? - A majority of the European public agrees that a Constitution is vital to the functioning of the EU institutions - Q2. b) Without a Constitution, the European Union may well experience a block of its institutions Rather agree Rather disagree [DK/NA] TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) 67% 69% 61% 19 % 20% 21% 12 % 11% 20% HU CY I L SI F LT B D EL IRL NL FIN A E LV S P PL EE CZ DK UK SK MT 84% 80% 79% 74% 74% 73% 73% 72% 71% 71% 71% 69% 65% 65% 64% 62% 61% 58% 56% 55% 55% 53% 51% 48% 45% 5% 11% 10 % 10 % 18 % 3% 18 % 8% 11% 15 % 18 % 9% 12 % 16 % 21% 7% 23% 6% 26% 3% 16 % 13 % 24% 8% 22% 14 % 22% 13 % 20% 16 % 11% 27% 20% 18 % 25% 17 % 24% 19 % 12 % 33% 20% 25% 30% 17 % 25% 25% 21% 31% 21% 34% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% A majority of Europeans in the 25 countries, namely 67%, agrees that without a Constitution, the European Union may well experience a block of its institutions. When comparing the two sub-totals, we can note that respondents in the EU countries (69%) are somewhat more to agree with this statement than those in the acceding countries (61%), with a difference of 8 percentage points. Here again, we can see that the rate of non-responses is considerably higher in the acceding countries than in the EU member states. When observing the results by country, we can note that Hungary has the highest rate of agreement. Indeed, 84% of the Hungarian population rather agrees that a Constitution is vital for the functioning of the EU institutions. The result in Cyprus follows, with 80%. The highest rate among the EU member states is found in Italy, where 79% of the population rather agrees with the statement. The lowest rates of agreement can be found in Malta and in Slovakia, where respectively only 45% and 48% of the population rather agree with the statement. These are the only two countries among the 25 surveyed where a majority of the population does not express its agreement with this statement. The particularly high rate of non-responses in these countries is an explanation for this.

27 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p. 25 Among EU countries, the United Kingdom (51%) and Denmark (53%) have the lowest rates of agreement. The United Kingdom s result is 18 percentage points below the EU average. Breakdown by socio-demographic categories Q2. b) Without a Constitution, the European Union may well experience a block of its institutions % "Rather agree" TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) TOTAL SEX Male Female AGE &+ EDUCATION 15& &+ OCCUPATION Self-employed Employee Manual worker Currently not working LOCALITY TYPE Metropolitan Other Town/ Urban Rural 67% 69% 61% 70% 71% 64% 65% 66% 59% 66% 66% 66% 68% 69% 63% 70% 72% 61% 66% 67% 56% 61% 62% 52% 68% 70% 61% 73% 74% 67% 70% 70% 67% 71% 72% 66% 65% 66% 58% 65% 67% 59% 69% 70% 64% 69% 70% 63% 64% 66% 57% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Among genders we can see that men tend to agree more than women with the fact that, without a Constitution, the EU may well experience a block of its institutions. This can be observed in both sub-totals. The age categories show certain discrepancies between the results of the two sub-totals: while in the EU countries, the youngest population has the lowest rate of agreement, it is the contrary in the acceding countries, where those aged 15 to 24 (66%) have a rate of agreement 10 percentage points higher than populations aged 55 and over (56%). The category of education reveals, in both sub-totals, that the rate of agreement rises with the level of education. In the acceding countries, 15 percentage points separate those having studied up to the age of 15 or less from those having studied until the age of 21 and over. Results for the locality type show us that populations living in rural areas agree less with the statement than those living in other locality types. This is somewhat more the case in the acceding countries than in the EU countries.

28 EOS Gallup Europe Flash EB 159 «Future European Constitution» p Acceptance of concessions - Citizens in the EU member states are more ready to see their country make concessions than citizens in the acceding countries - Q2. c) Our country must be ready to make concessions in order not to prevent the adoption of a new Constitution for the European Union Rather agree Rather disagree [DK/NA] TOTAL (25) EU (15) AC (10) 62% 64% 55% 28% 27% 32% 10 % 9% 13 % L B I IRL HU D E F NL P A DK CY PL LT S UK EL SK FIN MT LV CZ SI EE 76% 73% 71% 70% 70% 66% 65% 65% 63% 62% 59% 59% 59% 56% 54% 54% 52% 51% 49% 49% 47% 47% 46% 41% 38% 20% 4% 20% 6% 24% 5% 20% 10 % 17 % 13 % 28% 6% 20% 15 % 27% 8% 32% 5% 23% 15 % 31% 10 % 30% 11% 27% 14 % 34% 10 % 32% 13 % 30% 16 % 33% 16 % 44% 4% 35% 16 % 41% 11% 23% 30% 31% 22% 36% 18 % 46% 13 % 36% 25% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% The result for the total of the 25 European countries shows us that 62% of all respondents rather agree with the statement that their country must be ready to make concessions in order not to prevent the adoption of a new Constitution for the EU. However, when observing results of the two sub-totals, we can note that there is a significant difference in results: in the EU member states 64% of the population rather agrees with the statement. In the acceding countries, the majority is somewhat weaker since only 55% of the population indicates that their country is ready to make concessions. Country results show us that Luxembourg has the highest rate of agreement with 76% of its population rather agreeing with this statement. Belgium and Italy follow, with respectively 73% and 71%. Among the acceding countries, Hungary has by far the highest rate of agreement with 70%. This rate is 15 percentage points higher than the acceding countries average. Cyprus follows with a significantly lower rate (59%). At the bottom of the graph we find Estonia, with a rate of 38% rather agreeing. This rate is 17 percentage points below the acceding countries average. Slovenia and the Czech Republic follow, with respectively 41% and 46%.

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