State of. Drunk Driving. Fatalities in America

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1 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America 2011

2 Board of Directors Bacardi U.S.A., Inc. Beam, Inc. Brown-Forman Constellation Brands, Inc. DIAGEO Hood River Distillers, Inc. Pernod Ricard USA Advisory Board The Honorable Thurbert E. Baker Former Attorney General, State of Georgia Partner, McKenna, Long & Aldridge Charles G. Curie Prinicipal & Founder, The Curie Group, LLC The Honorable Michael R. Fields Judge, Harris County Criminal Court Number 14 Carley Graham Garcia Global Industry Relations, Google, Inc. Lisa Graham Keegan Keegan Company, Former Superintendent of Public Instruction State of Arizona Robert L. King, J.D. President, Kentucky Council on Post Secondary Education J. Neal Insley Chairman, National Alcohol Beverage Control Association (NABCA) Dr. Anthony Wolf Clinical Psychologist and Best Selling Author

3 The Century Council 2011 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America 1 Overview A leader in the fight to eliminate drunk driving and underage drinking, The Century Council is a national, independent, not-for-profit organization funded by the distilled spirits industry and founded in Building upon a longstanding history of corporate social responsibility and the concept that collective actions have a greater impact than individual efforts, our funders Bacardi U.S.A., Inc.; Beam, Inc.; Brown-Forman; Constellation Brands, Inc.; DIAGEO; Hood River Distillers, Inc.; and Pernod Ricard USA, have demonstrated their support of The Council s mission over the past 22 years by investing in the development and implementation of innovative programs, public awareness campaigns, and research. An independent Advisory Board of distinguished leaders in business, government, education, medicine, and other relevant disciplines assists us in these efforts. Since The Century Council s inception, we have been a recognized leader in the fight against drunk driving and underage drinking two of society s top safety concerns. During this period of time alcohol-impaired driving fatalities reached a record low level, declining 38% and declining 53% since record keeping began in And among our nation s youth, the decline in drunk driving fatalities among those under 21 has been even more significant, decreasing 57% since The Council s formation and 76% since Furthermore, according to the 2012 Monitoring the Future Study underage drinking among teens continues to decline, reaching the lowest levels since the survey began measuring prevalence rates for underage drinking. While we cannot claim sole responsibility for these reductions, The Century Council has played a significant role helping reach these historic low levels of drunk driving fatalities and underage consumption. Despite this progress we still have more work to do. In 2011, nearly seven out of ten drivers involved in a fatal drunk driving crash had a BAC level of.15, and these drivers were eight times more likely than a non-drinking driver to have a prior conviction for driving while intoxicated (DWI). Since 1997, The Century Council has targeted the hardcore drunk driving problem, believing efforts should be focused on those drivers who are disproportionally responsible for drunk driving fatalities. As the largest provider of resources for those who adjudicate drunk driving cases, we have resources for judges, prosecutors, and law enforcement and have just released an update to the Hardcore Drunk Driving Judicial Guide which includes a roadmap to changed behavior incorporating proven effective sanctions and strategies. The Century Council remains committed to working alongside all sectors of the community including beverage alcohol retailers, law enforcement, judges, public officials, educators, insurers, health care professionals, government agencies, and advocacy organizations in this important fight to advance policies and programs to help eliminate drunk driving and underage drinking. Therefore, I trust the information provided will serve as a useful resource to those interested in this effort. To find out more about The Century Council s programs and initiatives to fight drunk driving and underage drinking, please visit our website at and follow us on social media. Ralph S. Blackman President & CEO The Century Council 2345 Crystal Drive, Suite 710 Arlington, Virginia Phone Fax

4 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America The Century Council Terminology ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED FATALITY Drivers in all 50 states and D.C. are considered to be alcohol-impaired if their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is.08 grams per deciliter (g/dl) or higher. Any fatality occurring in a crash involving at least one driver, or motorcycle operator, with a BAC of.08 or higher is considered to be an alcoholimpaired driving fatality or drunk driving fatality. The term alcohol-impaired does not indicate that a crash or a fatality was the result of alcohol impairment. In producing national and state alcohol-impaired statistics, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates the extent of alcohol involvement when alcohol test results are unknown. ALCOHOL-INVOLVED FATALITY Alcohol-involved fatalities are those where at least one driver, or motorcycle operator, has a positive BAC of.01 or higher. In producing national and state alcohol-involved statistics, NHTSA estimates the extent of alcohol involvement when alcohol test results are unknown. BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION (BAC) BAC is measured in grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood. A BAC of.01 indicates.01 grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood. As of July 2004, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation establishing a driver with a BAC of.08 to be legally intoxicated. Additionally, 48 states and the District of Columbia have laws that increase penalties for those convicted of driving with elevated or high BAC levels. HARDCORE DRUNK DRIVERS Hardcore drunk drivers are those drivers who drive with a high BAC of.15 or above, who do so repeatedly, as demonstrated by having more than one drunk driving arrest, and who are highly resistant to changing their behavior despite previous sanctions, treatment, or education efforts. RATES PER 100,000 POPULATION The rate of alcohol-impaired fatalities per 100,000 population is the number of alcohol-impaired fatalities for every 100,000 persons in the population being measured. For example, an alcohol-impaired fatality rate of 3.2 per 100,000 population nationally means that for every 100,000 people in the nation, there were approximately three alcohol-impaired fatalities. REPEAT OFFENDERS The NHTSA/FARS data records prior driving records (convictions only, not violations) for driving while intoxicated events occurring within three years of the date of the crash. The same driver can have one or more of these convictions during this three year period. Drivers who have a prior conviction in this three year period are reported as repeat offenders.

5 The Century Council 2011 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America 3 Foreword The Century Council is pleased to present its annual summary of the State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America for This overview includes graphs that summarize the latest available alcohol-impaired traffic fatality statistics in the U.S. detailed state-by-state as well as nearly three decades of trend data, and highlights hardcore drunk driver statistics and the disproportional impact these offenders continue to have on our roads. Drunk driving fatalities accounted for 31 percent of the total fatal motor vehicle crashes, down 2.5% from 10,136 fatalities in 2010 to 9,878 in This represents an overall decline in alcohol-impaired driving fatalities for the seventh consecutive year. In addition to the record low levels of motor vehicle and drunk driving fatalities, the fatality rate per 100 million vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and the alcohol-impaired driving fatality rate per 100 VMT are at historic low levels (1.10 and 0.34, respectively.) Since NHTSA began recording alcohol-impaired driving statistics in 1982, drunk driving fatalities have declined overall and among persons under 21. However, 2011 marks the first time in a decade there has been a significant increase in the number of drunk driving fatalities among persons under the age of 21. In 2011, 1,249 people under 21 died in drunk driving fatalities, an increase of nearly 7 percent from 1,171 fatalities in Despite this increase nationally, 20 states reported a decrease in the number of drunk driving fatalities among those under 21 in The rate of alcohol-impaired fatalities per 100,000 population decreased three percent from 3.3 in 2010 to 3.2 in 2011, and decreased 32 percent from a rate of 4.7 in The rate of drunk driving fatalities per 100,000 population among individuals under 21 decreased 46 percent from 2.6 in 2001, but increased almost eight percent from 1.3 in 2010 to 1.4 in Hardcore drunk drivers, those who drive at high BAC's (0.15 or above), do so repeatedly as demonstrated by having more than one drunk driving arrest, and are highly resistant to changing their behavior despite previous sanctions, treatment or education, continue to account for a disproportionate share of alcohol-impaired traffic fatalities each year. In 2011, 70% of drunk driving fatalities, where there is a known alcohol-test result for the driver, involved a high BAC driver a trend that has remained relatively unchanged for more than a decade. Furthermore, these high BAC drivers were eight times more likely to have a prior driving while intoxicated (DWI) conviction, and 42% of these drivers involved in fatal crashes with a prior DWI conviction in the past three years also had a BAC level of 0.15 or higher at the time of the crash. Many of these statistics and others in this report are positive indicators of the progress being made to reduce and ultimately eliminate drunk driving but there remains work to be done on average one person dies in a drunk driving fatality involving a high BAC driver every 46 minutes. Understanding no simple solution, single law or one-size-fits-all technology will be solely effective in stopping the most serious DWI offenders, hardcore drunk driving remains a behavioral challenge and a top priority for The Century Council. As part of its continued commitment to eliminate drunk driving, The Century Council stands ready to assist law enforcement, judges, prosecutors, legislators, state and federal government agencies, treatment professionals, and advocacy groups in this important and life-saving effort. The information presented in this report is drawn from several databases maintained by government agencies, including the National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NCSA) of NHTSA, which compiles crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), and the U.S. Census Bureau of the U.S. Department of Commerce. This report reflects data from 1982 to the present utilizing NHTSA s multiple imputation method for estimating missing information about BAC levels for persons involved in fatal crashes, thus allowing for improved reporting of alcohol involvement statistics at any BAC level. The U.S. Census Bureau publishes state resident population estimates which were used in this report.

6 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America The Century Council 2011 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities U.S. TOTAL: 9,878 Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware D.C. Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming ,000 1,250 1, ,213 Data Source: NHTSA/FARS, 1/13 Total may not equal the sum of states due to rounding

7 The Century Council 2011 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America Under 21 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities U.S. TOTAL: 1,249 Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware D.C. Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Data Source: NHTSA/FARS, 1/13 Total may not equal the sum of states due to rounding

8 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America The Century Council From 2010 to 2011, alcohol-impaired driving fatalities declined nationally and in 27 states. PERCENT CHANGE IN ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING FATALITIES FROM 2010 TO 2011 BY STATE RANK Maine New Hampshire Idaho Wyoming Connecticut Kansas Minnesota Mississippi South Dakota Arkansas New York South Carolina New Mexico Tennessee Nebraska Washington Rhode Island Georgia Massachusetts Ohio North Carolina Illinois Iowa Texas Pennsylvania Wisconsin Alabama California Louisiana Missouri Vermont Oklahoma Hawaii Nevada Kentucky Maryland West Virginia Arizona Florida Indiana Michigan Virginia Delaware Montana D.C. Utah New Jersey Alaska Colorado Oregon North Dakota U.S. Total -41.0% -40.0% -29.6% -27.8% -22.7% -20.1% -14.8% -14.4% -13.5% -12.9% -12.5% -11.0% -11.0% -10.8% -9.8% -7.7% -7.4% -7.4% -6.6% -6.0% -5.9% -4.8% -4.7% -4.5% -4.0% -3.4% -1.9% -2.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.9% 2.3% 2.9% 3.0% 4.5% 4.6% 4.9% 5.8% 7.2% 8.1% 8.7% 10.8% 11.1% 14.3% 17.4% 20.6% 25.0% 34.2% 38.6% 39.1% -50.0% -25.0% 0.0% 25.0% 50.0% Data Source: NHTSA/FARS, 1/13

9 The Century Council 2011 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America 7 Between 2010 and 2011, alcohol-impaired driving fatalities among those under 21 delined in 20 states. PERCENT CHANGE IN UNDER 21 ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING FATALITIES FROM 2010 TO 2011 BY STATE RANK Maine New Hampshire New Mexico Kansas Arkansas Montana Oregon Vermont Wisconsin New York Utah Pennsylvania Illinois Mississippi Washington Connecticut California Hawaii Louisiana Virginia Delaware Nebraska Rhode Island North Carolina Texas Georgia Massachusetts Ohio Oklahoma South Carolina Minnesota Idaho Florida Indiana Colorado Alabama Tennessee Arizona Michigan North Dakota Iowa Maryland New Jersey Kentucky Alaska South Dakota Nevada West Virginia Missouri D.C. Wyoming U.S. Total -83.3% -66.7% -50.0% -47.4% -47.1% -43.8% -37.5% -33.3% -26.1% -24.0% -22.2% -16.3% -16.2% -15.0% -14.8% -14.3% -11.7% -11.1% -6.7% -3.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 2.9% 6.9% 7.1% 7.1% 8.7% 10.8% 12.5% 20.0% 25.4% 30.0% 35.7% 37.0% 38.5% 40.0% 40.7% 50.0% 54.5% 75.0% 76.9% 80.0% 100.0% 100.0% 125.0% 125.0% 130.0% 6.7% % -50.0% 0.0% -50.0% 100.0% 150.0% 200.0% 200.0% 250.0% 250.0% 350.0% 400.0% 400.0% Data Source: NHTSA/FARS, 1/13

10 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America The Century Council Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities from ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING FATALITIES HAVE DECLINED 53% FROM 1982 TO ,000 20,000 18,000 21, TRENDS È 53% È 38% È 26% 16,000 14,000 15,827 13,290 12,000 10,000 9,878 8, Data Source: NHTSA/FARS, 1/13 ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING FATALITIES PER 100,000 POPULATION HAVE DECLINED 65% TRENDS È 65% È 49% È 32% Data Source: NHTSA/FARS and U.S. Census Bureau, 1/13

11 The Century Council 2011 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America 9 Under 21 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities from UNDER 21 ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING FATALITIES HAVE DECLINED 76% FROM 1982 TO ,000 5,000 4,000 5, TRENDS È 76% È 57% È 43% 3,000 2,000 2,905 2,201 1,000 1, AMONG THOSE UNDER 21, ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING FATALITIES PER 100,000 POPULATION DECREASED 80% Data Source: NHTSA/FARS, 1/ TRENDS È 80% È 63% È 46% Data Source: NHTSA/FARS and U.S. Census Bureau, 1/13

12 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America The Century Council In 25 states and D.C., alcohol-impaired driving fatalities per 100,000 population were below the national average of 3.2 deaths per 100,000 population ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING FATALITY RATES BY STATE Alabama 5.4 Illinois 2.2 Montana 8.0 Rhode Island 2.4 Alaska 2.8 Indiana 3.2 Nebraska 2.5 South Carolina 6.7 Arizona 3.3 Iowa 2.7 Nevada 2.6 South Dakota 3.9 Arkansas 5.3 Kansas 3.7 New Hampshire 2.0 Tennessee 4.0 California 2.1 Kentucky 3.9 New Jersey 2.2 Texas 4.7 Colorado 3.1 Louisiana 4.9 New Mexico 5.0 Utah 1.9 Connecticut 2.6 Maine 1.7 New York 1.6 Vermont 2.9 Delaware 4.5 Maryland 2.8 North Carolina 3.8 Virginia 2.8 D.C. 1.3 Massachusetts 1.7 North Dakota 9.4 Washington 2.3 Florida 3.8 Michigan 2.6 Ohio 2.7 West Virginia 4.9 Georgia 2.8 Minnesota 2.0 Oklahoma 5.8 Wisconsin 3.4 Hawaii 3.2 Mississippi 5.0 Oregon 2.5 Wyoming 6.9 Idaho 3.2 Missouri 4.3 Pennsylvania 3.2 U.S. Total 3.2 Data Source: NHTSA/FARS and U.S. Census Bureau, 1/13

13 The Century Council 2011 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America In 26 states and D.C., under 21 alcohol-impaired driving fatalities per 100,000 population were at or below the national average of 1.4 deaths per 100,000 population UNDER 21 ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING FATALITY RATES BY STATE Alabama 2.8 Illinois 0.9 Montana 3.4 Rhode Island 0.7 Alaska 1.8 Indiana 1.4 Nebraska 0.9 South Carolina 3.2 Arizona 1.8 Iowa 2.0 Nevada 1.2 South Dakota 3.3 Arkansas 1.1 Kansas 1.2 New Hampshire 0.3 Tennessee 2.0 California 0.8 Kentucky 1.5 New Jersey 1.0 Texas 2.2 Colorado 1.3 Louisiana 2.1 New Mexico 1.5 Utah 0.7 Connecticut 1.3 Maine 0.3 New York 0.7 Vermont 1.3 Delaware 1.6 Maryland 1.8 North Carolina 1.9 Virginia 1.3 D.C. 1.4 Massachusetts 0.9 North Dakota 3.2 Washington 1.2 Florida 1.7 Michigan 1.4 Ohio 1.4 West Virginia 2.0 Georgia 1.1 Minnesota 1.2 Oklahoma 2.3 Wisconsin 1.1 Hawaii 2.2 Mississippi 1.9 Oregon 0.5 Wyoming 3.1 Idaho 2.4 Missouri 2.8 Pennsylvania 1.2 U.S. Total 1.4 Data Source: NHTSA/FARS and U.S. Census Bureau, 1/13

14 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America The Century Council Over the past decade only two states did not experience a decline in drunk driving fatalities per 100,000 population between 2001 and PERCENT CHANGE IN ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING FATALITY RATES FROM 2001 TO 2011 BY STATE RANK D.C. Maine Alaska South Dakota Wyoming Arizona New Hampshire Tennessee Nevada Colorado Minnesota Illinois Idaho Nebraska Georgia Missouri South Carolina New Mexico Wisconsin Massachusetts Mississippi Washington Vermont Oregon Kansas Michigan Ohio Connecticut California Louisiana Iowa Delaware Florida Rhode Island Texas Virginia Pennsylvania Maryland North Carolina Alabama West Virginia Indiana Kentucky Montana Utah Hawaii New York New Jersey Oklahoma Arkansas North Dakota U.S. Total -69.0% -62.3% -58.2% -56.7% -51.5% -49.9% -49.6% -47.4% -45.5% -45.2% -44.8% -44.4% -43.0% -42.0% -41.8% -40.9% -40.3% -40.0% -40.0% -38.8% -38.7% -37.9% -37.2% -36.1% -35.9% -34.7% -34.7% -34.2% -34.0% -32.4% -31.7% -30.8% -30.6% -30.2% -30.0% -26.2% -25.5% -24.5% -23.4% -22.0% -21.1% -20.5% -20.3% -20.1% -14.2% -12.8% -9.7% -8.5% -7.3% -32.0% -75.0% -50.0% -25.0% 0.0% 25.0% 50.0% 1.4% 39.1% Data Source: NHTSA/FARS and U.S. Census Bureau, 1/13

15 The Century Council 2011 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America 13 Between 2001 and 2011 under 21 drunk driving fatalities per 100,000 population declined nationally and in all 50 states and D.C. PERCENT CHANGE IN UNDER 21 ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING FATALITY RATES FROM 2001 TO 2011 BY STATE RANK New Hampshire Maine Oregon Rhode Island Nebraska Kansas New Mexico Colorado Massachusetts Delaware Illinois Wisconsin Georgia Utah Mississippi Pennsylvania Wyoming Arizona Connecticut Arkansas Washington California Tennessee South Carolina D.C. Texas Alaska Montana Florida Missouri New Jersey Kentucky Louisiana Michigan Idaho Minnesota Oklahoma Nevada South Dakota Alabama Vermont North Carolina Maryland West Virginia Hawaii North Dakota New York Virginia Iowa Indiana Ohio -90.2% -87.9% -77.8% -75.8% -71.2% -71.0% -68.9% -66.5% -63.9% -62.2% -58.7% -58.4% -58.4% -57.5% -57.4% -57.0% -56.9% -53.2% -52.9% -52.1% -51.2% -50.4% -50.3% -49.7% -48.0% -47.2% -43.7% -42.7% -39.9% -38.5% -37.4% -37.3% -37.0% -36.5% -33.6% -32.6% -29.8% -28.3% -27.7% -27.1% -26.1% -25.8% -25.0% -23.0% -22.8% -22.3% -22.3% -22.3% -22.1% -17.4% -12.0% U.S. Total -44.8% % -75.0% -50.0% -25.0% 0.0% 25.0% Data Source: NHTSA/FARS and U.S. Census Bureau, 1/13

16 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America The Century Council Six out of ten alcohol-involved driving fatalities involved high BAC drivers in PERCENT OF 2011 DRIVERS IN ALCOHOL-INVOLVED DRIVING FATALITIES BY BAC TEST RESULT 40% 8% 9% 10% 10% 5% 5% 4% 4% 6% BAC BAC BAC BAC BAC BAC BAC BAC BAC BAC.19+ Known Alcohol Test Results of Drivers Involved in Fatal Traffic Crashes Data Source: NHTSA/FARS ARF of Drivers with Known BAC, 1/13 Total may not equal the sum of categories due to rounding.

17 The Century Council 2011 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America 15 In 2011, 70% of drivers involved in fatal drunk driving crashes were hardcore drunk drivers. HIGH BAC DRIVERS ACCOUNTED FOR 70% OF THE ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED FATAL CRASHES. Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware D.C. Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U.S. Total % BAC = % BAC % BAC.20+ Percent of 2011 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities by State and BAC 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Data Source: NHTSA/FARS ARF of Drivers with Known BAC, 1/13

18 State of Drunk Driving Fatalities in America The Century Council Four out of ten drivers involved in fatal crashes with a prior DWI* also had a high BAC level at the time of the crash. No Prior DWI 94% Prior DWI* 3% Unknown 3% Drivers involved in fatal crashes BAC = % BAC = BAC = % 6% BAC =.00 39% Repeat offenders by BAC level Data Source: NHTSA/FARS, 1/13 *Prior convictions only for events occurring within 3 years from date of crash. Total may not equal the sum of categories due to rounding.

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