The Surface Energy Budget

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Surface Energy Budget"

Transcription

1 The Surface Energy Budget

2 The radiation (R) budget Shortwave (solar) Radiation Longwave Radiation R SW R SW α α = surface albedo R LW εσt 4 ε = emissivity σ = Stefan-Boltzman constant T = temperature Subsurface Column (variously soil, rock, ice, water) R NET = R SW (1- α ) + R LW + εσt 4 Fluxes are positive when directed toward the surface

3 The non-radiative terms Sensible Heat (S) Latent Heat (L) Melt (M) Conduction (C) Subsurface Column (variously soil, rock, ice, water) R NET = S + L + M + C Non radiative terms positive when directed away from the surface

4 Components of the budget

5 Spectral irradiance for a black body at 5900K, Incoming solar radiation at sea level assuming no absorbtion, and observed solar radiation at the earth s surface. Note the various atmospheric absorbtion bands due primarily to ozone, diatomic oxygen, water vapor and carbon dioxide.

6 Mean monthly downwelling solar radiation at the surface (R SW, Wm -2 ) for March through October, based on ISCCP-D satellite data [courtesy of J. Key, NOAA, Madison, WI]. The surface flux depends on TOA solar flux, clear-sky absorbtion and scattering, and absorbtion and scattering by clouds.

7 These two MODIS composites serve to emphasize two points: (1) The Arctic is typically cloudy, meaning that much of the TOA solar flux is scattered back to space (clouds have a high albedo); 2) surface albedo, while typically quite high in the Arctic, is also highly variable both spatially and temporally MODIS mosiac, April 30,2010 MODIS mosiac, July 17, 2011

8 From Serreze and Barry, 2005

9 Albedo of snow Direct beam spectral reflectance for a semi-infinite snowpack as a function of wavelength for grain radii from 50 to 1000 µm and for a solar zenith angle of 60 [from Wiscombe and Warren, 1980, by permission of AMS]. The key points are that the spectral reflectance of a snowpack is higher for short wavelengths (visible band) and small grain sizes. Albedo is the integrated spectral reflectance over the solar spectrum.

10 Effect of solar zenith angle The albedo of snow tends to increase with an increasing solar zenith angle (the angle between zenith an the sun). This is understood from the forward-scattering nature of snow particles. For a large zenith angle (sun near the horizon) there is a high likelihood that a photon will be scattered upwards and out of the snowpack. For a small zenith angle (sun close to overhead) there will be more interactions between a photon and snow grains, and a greater likelihood of absorbtion. mate/temperateclimate.htm

11 Cloud cover tends to increase the albedo of snow relative to clear skies 1) Clouds preferentially absorb longer wavelengths, so that the incoming radiation at the surface is relatively enriched in the short wavelengths for which the snow albedo is highest. This is augmented by stronger multiple scattering between the surface and cloud base. 2) Clouds increase the ratio of diffuse (scattered) to direct-beam radiation. The effective solar zenith angle under overcast skies is 50. Hence: --- if the true solar zenith angle is >50 o, the effect of cloud is to decrease the effective solar zenith angle and reduce the albedo --- if the true solar zenith angle is <50 o, the effect of cloud is to increase the effective solar zenith angle and increase the albedo However, enrichment of the incident flux in she shorter wavelengths normally outweighs the effect of cloud cover on the effective solar zenith angle, such that cloud cover has an overall effect of increasing the albedo

12 Effect of sastrugi aligned snow drifts Albedo can be several percent lower when the solar zenith angle is normal to sastrugi in the snow cover (causing shadows) compared to when it is parallel to sastrugi.

13 Albedo of snow: summary High Albedo Shorter wavelengths High zenith angle Small grain size Fresh snow Uniform layer Cloudy skies Low Albedo Longer wavelengths Low zenith angle Large grain size Old snow (grain size and pollution particles) Drift patterns Clear skies

14 Sea ice albedo quite variable, both temporally (snow cover aging, meltpond formation, fresh snowfall events), and spatially (regional differences in temperature, snow depth, snow characteristics and sea ice concentration) Courtesy D. Perovich, USA CRREL

15 Seasonal cycle of surface albedo over the central Arctic Ocean based on SHEBA data for The coloring, from left to right, breaks to time series into, respectively, pre-melt, initial melt, rapid melt, summer, and autumn freezeup (courtesy D. Perovich, USA CRREL).

16 Mean monthly surface albedo across the Arctic for April through September, based on APP-x satellite data [courtesy of J. Key, NOAA/NESDIS, Madison, WI]. Spring values over snow covered sea ice can exceed Values over open water are less than The albedo of the cold, snow covered central Greenland ice sheet stays high year round

17 Mean monthly downwelling longwave radiation at the surface (R LW, Wm -2 ) for the four mid-season months based on ISCCP-D data [courtesy of J. Key, NOAA, Madison, WI]. The flux depends on temperature, water vapor content and cloud cover, the latter two which affect the atmospheric emissivity. Clouds radiate approximately as blackbodies.

18 Mean monthly net longwave radiation at the surface (Wm -2 ) for the four mid-season months based on ISCCP-D data [courtesy of J. Key, NOAA, Madison, WI]. Note that the fluxes are all negative (emitted longwave radiation exceeds to downward longwave flux). The net longwave flux depends strongly on cloud cover.

19 Mean monthly net allwave radiation at the surface (Wm-2) for the four mid-season months based on ISCCP-D data [courtesy of J. Key, NOAA, Madison, WI].

20 Cloud radiative forcing (CRF) The radiative impact of clouds at the surface or top of the atmosphere CRF = (SW average - SW clear ) + (LW average - LW clear ) Shortwave Forcing Longwave Forcing (-30 W/m 2 in Arctic) (+55 W/m 2 in Arctic) CRF > 0 : Clouds are a warming mechanism CRF < 0 : Clouds are a cooling mechanism

21 Modeled annual cycle of (a) the surface and (b) top of atmosphere cloud radiative forcing (net shortwave, net longwave and net allwave) at 80 N [from Curry and Ebert, 1992, by permission of AMS]. The competing effects of cloud shortwave forcing (clouds reduce the downward solar flux) and cloud longwave forcing (clouds increase the downward longwave flux) are most pronounced at the surface. Averaged over the year, surface net allwave (longwave plus shortwave) cloud radiative forcing is positive (cloud cover increases the net allwave flux, i.e., it warms the surface). Net allwave surface forcing is negative (clouds cool the surface) only for a short time during summer. The shortwave cloud forcing at the surface is very sensitive to surface albedo. The negative net allwave forcing at the top of the atmosphere in summer is primarily due to the high albedo of clouds.

22 Mean monthly total (allwave) cloud radiative forcing at the surface (Wm -2 ) for the four mid-season months based on ISCCP-D data [courtesy of J. Key, NOAA, Madison, WI]. Only the July field shows negative values.

23 Observed surface cloud radiative forcing: Barrow, AK x axis = month, y axis = cloud fraction (f) Courtesy J. Walsh, Univ. IL Urbana Champaign

24 Monthly radiation balance components (W m -2 ) for the central Arctic Ocean from the SHEBA (Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) experiment. Shown are (a) net radiation (heavy lines) and albedo (thin lines); (b) incoming shortwave radiation; (c) incoming longwave radiation. In each panel, results from the SHEBA experiment are shown along with those from other studies [adapted from Persson et al., 2002, by permission of AGU].

25 Monthly non-radiative energy balance components (W m -2 ) for the Central Arctic Ocean from the SHEBA effort. Shown are (a) sensible heat flux; (b) latent heat flux; (c) conductive heat flux. In each panel, results from the SHEBA experiment are shown along with those from other studies [adapted from Persson et al., 2002, by permission of AGU]. Note the smallness of these terms compared to the radiative fluxes (previous slide).

26 Arctic temperature inversions

27 Mean temperature profiles for February 1987 from 6 stations located around the periphery of the Arctic Ocean: 1) Krenkel (81 N, 58 E), 2) Chelyuskin (78 N,104 E), 3) Kotelny (76 N, 138 E), 4) Barrow (71 N, 86 W), 5) Mould Bay (76 N, 119 W) and Eureka (80 N, 86 W) [from Overland et al., 1997, by permission of AMS]. The surface-based temperature inversion at each site, to a first order, can be viewed in terms of longwave radiative equilibrium.

28 Longwave radiative equilibrium The atmosphere has a lower emissivity than the surface. If the system is in longwave equilibrium, the atmopshere must be radiating at a higher physical temperature than the surface. Atmosphere (ε a < 1) ε s σt s 4 = ε a σt a 4 but ε s σt s 4 ε a σt a 4 ε s > ε a hence T a > T s Surface (ε s = 1) Key assumptions: 1) System is determined only by longwave radiation exchanges 2) System is completely closed (which violates the second law of thermodynamics)

29 A more complete view (albeit still oversimplified) Net longwave loss to space Atmosphere (ε a < 1) ε s σt 4 s > ε a σt 4 a ε s > ε a and T a > T s ε s σt 4 s + ε a σt 4 a + F A = 0 ε s σt s 4 ε a σt a 4 F A Surface (ε s = 1) Surface turbulent fluxes and the shortwave radiation flux are small. Leakage of longwave radiation to space is balanced by horizontal heat flux convergence.

30 Monthly median inversion top (top of bars), base (bottom of bars) and temperature difference (solid lines) from a) drifting station data from the central Arctic Ocean; b) station Zhigansk over the Siberian tundra [from Serreze et al., 1992b, by permission of AMS]. Inversions are still common in summer but tend be elevated above the surface. Shallow surface-based melting inversions are also common in summer over sea ice..

31 Climate feedbacks involving the surface energy budget

32 Schematic of the ice- albedo feedback mechanism using the framework of Kellogg [1973]. The direction of the arrow indicates the direction of the interaction. A + indicates a positive interaction (an increase in the first quantity leads to an increase in the second). A - indicates a negative interaction (an increase in the first quantity leads to a decrease in the second quantity). A +/- indicates that the sign of the interaction is uncertain or that the sign changes over the annual cycle [from Curry et al., 1996, by permission of AMS].

33 The cloud-radiation feedback mechanism [from Curry et al., 1996, by permission of AMS].

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)

More information

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum Electromagnetic Radiation scillating electric and magnetic fields propagate through space Virtually all energy exchange between the Earth and the rest of the Universe is by electromagnetic radiation Most

More information

The Greenhouse Effect

The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect Solar and terrestrial radiation occupy different ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, that we have been referring to as shortwave and longwave. The Greenhouse

More information

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere TEMPERATURE is a measure of the internal heat energy of a substance. The molecules that make up all matter are in constant motion. By internal heat energy, we

More information

Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p ) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab.

Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p ) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab. Radiation Balance 1 Radiation Balance Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p. 60-73) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab. 5 Radiation = Mode of Energy transfer

More information

Lecture 3: Greenhouse gasses:

Lecture 3: Greenhouse gasses: The Atmosphere Lecture 3: Greenhouse gasses: Absorption and emission of radiation by greenhouse gasses The atmospheric energy balance and the greenhouse effect The vertical structure of the atmosphere

More information

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 1: OCTOBER 1, 2015 Outline How exactly the Sun heats the Earth How strong? Important concept

More information

AOSC 621 Lesson 15 Radiative Heating/Cooling

AOSC 621 Lesson 15 Radiative Heating/Cooling AOSC 621 Lesson 15 Radiative Heating/Cooling Effect of radiation on clouds: fog 2 Clear-sky cooling/heating rate: longwave CO2 O3 H2O 3 Clear-sky heating rate: shortwave Standard atmosphere Heating due

More information

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6. The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6. The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6 The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance FOUR POSSIBLE FATES OF RADIATION: 1.Transmitted 2. Reflected 3. Scattered 4. Absorbed The atmosphere does ALL of

More information

Greenhouse Effect Mechanism and Radiative Forcing

Greenhouse Effect Mechanism and Radiative Forcing Greenhouse Effect Mechanism and Radiative Forcing How does radiative energy balance help determine Earth s climate? How does the greenhouse effect work? What is radiative forcing? References AR4 Ch. 2

More information

Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance

Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance Energy transmission ( a a refresher) There are three modes of energy transmission to consider. Conduction: the transfer of energy in a substance by means

More information

Plenary 2. All you need to know about Greenhouse Gases. Outline

Plenary 2. All you need to know about Greenhouse Gases. Outline Plenary 2. All you need to know about Greenhouse Gases Outline What drives the Climate? What are Greenhouse Gases and the Greenhouse Effect? How the changes in GHG concentrations produce global warming/climate

More information

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Increasing Global Temperature from www.giss.nasa.gov Increasing Greenhouse Gases from ess.geology.ufl.edu

More information

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun

More information

What the Heck are Low-Cloud Feedbacks? Takanobu Yamaguchi Rachel R. McCrary Anna B. Harper

What the Heck are Low-Cloud Feedbacks? Takanobu Yamaguchi Rachel R. McCrary Anna B. Harper What the Heck are Low-Cloud Feedbacks? Takanobu Yamaguchi Rachel R. McCrary Anna B. Harper IPCC Cloud feedbacks remain the largest source of uncertainty. Roadmap 1. Low cloud primer 2. Radiation and low

More information

Clouds and the Energy Cycle

Clouds and the Energy Cycle August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

More information

Snow II: Snowmelt and energy balance

Snow II: Snowmelt and energy balance Snow II: Snowmelt and energy balance The are three basic snowmelt phases 1) Warming phase: Absorbed energy raises the average snowpack temperature to a point at which the snowpack is isothermal (no vertical

More information

Today s Lecture: Radiation Hartmann, Global Physical Climatology (1994), Ch. 2, 3, 6 Peixoto and Oort, Ch. 4, 6, 7

Today s Lecture: Radiation Hartmann, Global Physical Climatology (1994), Ch. 2, 3, 6 Peixoto and Oort, Ch. 4, 6, 7 Today s Lecture: Radiation Hartmann, Global Physical Climatology (1994), Ch. 2, 3, 6 Peixoto and Oort, Ch. 4, 6, 7 5 The climate system 1. Introduction 2. Atmosphere 3. Ocean 4. Land, biosphere, cryosphere

More information

Convec,on, cloud and radia,on

Convec,on, cloud and radia,on Convec,on, cloud and radia,on Convection redistributes the thermal energy yielding (globally-averaged), a mean lapse rate of ~ -6.5 o C/km. Radiative processes tend to produce a more negative temperature

More information

a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes.

a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. J.D. McAlpine ATMS 611 HMWK #8 a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. These sides of the slopes will tend to have less average solar

More information

Arctic Surface, Cloud, and Radiation Properties Based on the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder Dataset. Part I: Spatial and Temporal Characteristics

Arctic Surface, Cloud, and Radiation Properties Based on the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder Dataset. Part I: Spatial and Temporal Characteristics 2558 J O U R N A L O F C L I M A T E VOLUME 18 Arctic Surface, Cloud, and Radiation Properties Based on the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder Dataset. Part I: Spatial and Temporal Characteristics XUANJI WANG Cooperative

More information

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Spectrum of Radiation Intensity and Peak Wavelength of Radiation Solar (shortwave) Radiation Terrestrial (longwave) Radiations How to Change Air Temperature? Add

More information

Sensitivity of Surface Cloud Radiative Forcing to Arctic Cloud Properties

Sensitivity of Surface Cloud Radiative Forcing to Arctic Cloud Properties Sensitivity of Surface Cloud Radiative Forcing to Arctic Cloud Properties J. M. Intrieri National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado M. D. Shupe

More information

Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science

Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science with emphasis on aquatic and vegetation canopy media Autumn 2008 Prof. Emmanuel Boss, Dr. Eyal Rotenberg Introduction Radiation in Environmental sciences Most

More information

Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation

Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation Solar Radiation Solar radiation i The Sun The Sun is the primary natural energy source for our planet. It has a diameter D = 1.39x10 6 km and a mass M = 1.989x10 30 kg and it is constituted by 1/3 of He

More information

Iden%fying CESM cloud and surface biases at Summit, Greenland

Iden%fying CESM cloud and surface biases at Summit, Greenland Iden%fying CESM cloud and surface biases at Summit, Greenland Nathaniel Miller (CU- ATOC, CIRES) MaEhew Shupe, Andrew GeEleman, Jennifer Kay, Line Bourdages CESM Ice Sheet Surface Biases Cross Working

More information

1. Theoretical background

1. Theoretical background 1. Theoretical background We consider the energy budget at the soil surface (equation 1). Energy flux components absorbed or emitted by the soil surface are: net radiation, latent heat flux, sensible heat

More information

Greenhouse gases. A snow-covered surface refl ects massive amounts of sunlight and therefore has a cooling effect on the climate.

Greenhouse gases. A snow-covered surface refl ects massive amounts of sunlight and therefore has a cooling effect on the climate. 13 Greenhouse gases - and their impact on the climate The greenhouse effect is the best understood and well mapped of the mechanisms that can lead to climate change. By Eigil Kaas and Peter L. Langen Our

More information

Radiative Convective Equilibrium and the Greenhouse Effect

Radiative Convective Equilibrium and the Greenhouse Effect Radiative Convective Equilibrium and the Greenhouse Effect Weston Anderson September 19, 2016 Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Basics of radiation 1 3 Emission temperature of earth 2 3.1 Radiative equilibrium........................

More information

Dr. Muhammad Asif Hanif, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Dr. Muhammad Asif Hanif, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan Incoming solar energy is largely in the visible region of the spectrum. The shorter wavelength blue solar light is scattered relatively more strongly by molecules and particles in the upper atmosphere,

More information

1. Radiative Transfer. 2. Spectrum of Radiation. 3. Definitions

1. Radiative Transfer. 2. Spectrum of Radiation. 3. Definitions 1. Radiative Transfer Virtually all the exchanges of energy between the earth-atmosphere system and the rest of the universe take place by radiative transfer. The earth and its atmosphere are constantly

More information

Chapter 2. The global energy balance. 2.1 Planetary emission temperature

Chapter 2. The global energy balance. 2.1 Planetary emission temperature Chapter 2 The global energy balance We consider now the general problem of the radiative equilibrium temperature of the Earth. The Earth is bathed in solar radiation and absorbs much of that incident upon

More information

Radiative effects of clouds, ice sheet and sea ice in the Antarctic

Radiative effects of clouds, ice sheet and sea ice in the Antarctic Snow and fee Covers: Interactions with the Atmosphere and Ecosystems (Proceedings of Yokohama Symposia J2 and J5, July 1993). IAHS Publ. no. 223, 1994. 29 Radiative effects of clouds, ice sheet and sea

More information

Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP

Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP Bent H Sass Danish Meteorological Institute 10 June 2009 As the horizontal grid size in atmospheric models is reduced the assumptions made

More information

We know the shape of the solar spectrum. Let s consider that the earth atmosphere is 8000 km thick.

We know the shape of the solar spectrum. Let s consider that the earth atmosphere is 8000 km thick. We know the shape of the solar spectrum. How is this spectral shape and irradiance of the solar light affected by the earth s atmosphere? Let s consider that the earth atmosphere is 8000 km thick. The

More information

Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect

Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect Outline: The Earth s Energy Balance: Electromagnetic Spectrum: Ultraviolet (UV) Visible Infrared (IR) Blackbody Radiation Albedo (reflectivity) Greenhouse

More information

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for Earthʼs Atmosphere and Its Seasons CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progeas.html 1.The Importance of Weather (wx) The U.S.

More information

Emission Temperature of Planets

Emission Temperature of Planets Emission Temperature of Planets The emission temperature of a planet, T e, is the temperature with which it needs to emit in order to achieve energy balance (assuming the average temperature is not decreasing

More information

(So/4) W m -2 is the average incoming solar radiative energy per unit area for planet Earth. (So W m -2 is the Solar constant)

(So/4) W m -2 is the average incoming solar radiative energy per unit area for planet Earth. (So W m -2 is the Solar constant) Atmospheric "greenhouse effect" - How the presence of an atmosphere makes Earth's surface warmer Some relevant parameters and facts (see previous slide sets) (So/) W m -2 is the average incoming solar

More information

Intended Learning Outcomes

Intended Learning Outcomes An Introduction to Thermal Radiation This problem provides an introduction to thermal and atmospheric physics. Intended Learning Outcomes By the end of this activity students should be able to: Use basic

More information

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

More information

How We Know Global Warming is Real The science behind human-induced climate change Tapio Schneider

How We Know Global Warming is Real The science behind human-induced climate change Tapio Schneider How We Know Global Warming is Real The science behind human-induced climate change Tapio Schneider Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are higher today than at any time in at least the past 650,000

More information

ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT. D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113)

ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT. D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113) ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113) Gedzelman, S.D., 1980. The Science and Wonders of the Atmosphere. Wiley, NY. Huschke, R.E., 1989. Glossary of Meteorology.

More information

P R E A M B L E. The problem is run over one week with the following pattern: Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (2 hours) Lecture

P R E A M B L E. The problem is run over one week with the following pattern: Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (2 hours) Lecture GREENHOUSE EFFECT AN INTRODUCTION TO THERMAL RADIATION P R E A M B L E The original form of the problem is the first part of a four week (15 credit) module in the IScience programme at the University of

More information

lecture 3: The greenhouse effect

lecture 3: The greenhouse effect lecture 3: The greenhouse effect Concepts from Lecture 2 Temperature Scales Forms of Heat Transfer Electromagnetic Spectrum Planck Law Stefan-Boltzmann Law Inverse Square Law Reflectivity or Albedo Solar

More information

Solar Energy. Outline. Solar radiation. What is light?-- Electromagnetic Radiation. Light - Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

Solar Energy. Outline. Solar radiation. What is light?-- Electromagnetic Radiation. Light - Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation Outline MAE 493R/593V- Renewable Energy Devices Solar Energy Electromagnetic wave Solar spectrum Solar global radiation Solar thermal energy Solar thermal collectors Solar thermal power plants Photovoltaics

More information

Cloud Radiative Forcing of the Arctic Surface: The Influence of Cloud Properties, Surface Albedo, and Solar Zenith Angle

Cloud Radiative Forcing of the Arctic Surface: The Influence of Cloud Properties, Surface Albedo, and Solar Zenith Angle 616 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE Cloud Radiative Forcing of the Arctic Surface: The Influence of Cloud Properties, Surface Albedo, and Solar Zenith Angle MATTHEW D. SHUPE Science and Technology Corporation, NOAA/Environmental

More information

Use of ARM/NSA Data to Validate and Improve the Remote Sensing Retrieval of Cloud and Surface Properties in the Arctic from AVHRR Data

Use of ARM/NSA Data to Validate and Improve the Remote Sensing Retrieval of Cloud and Surface Properties in the Arctic from AVHRR Data Use of ARM/NSA Data to Validate and Improve the Remote Sensing Retrieval of Cloud and Surface Properties in the Arctic from AVHRR Data X. Xiong QSS Group, Inc. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

More information

Geology 1347 Meteorology

Geology 1347 Meteorology Geology 1347 Meteorology Exam 1 Review 1. Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere: a. mainly through the decay of vegetation b. volcanic eruptions c. exhalations of animal life d. burning of fossil fuels

More information

Global Warming is not a hoax. It s textbook physics. Textbook Energy Balance. Balance & Radiation. Textbook Radiation. Textbook Greenhouse Effect

Global Warming is not a hoax. It s textbook physics. Textbook Energy Balance. Balance & Radiation. Textbook Radiation. Textbook Greenhouse Effect Global Warming is not a hoax. It s textbook physics. It is requires only textbook science from basic principles that are well understood. Ch.2! Textbook Energy Balance Energy In = Energy Out + Sources

More information

Orbital-Scale Climate Change

Orbital-Scale Climate Change Orbital-Scale Climate Change Climate Needed for Ice Age Warm winter and non-frozen oceans so lots of evaporation and snowfall Cool summer so that ice does not melt Ice Age Model When ice growing ocean

More information

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

More information

Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation.

Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation. Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation. 1. Basic introduction to the electromagnetic field: Dual nature of electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic spectrum. Basic radiometric quantities:

More information

Thermal Ecology of Lakes

Thermal Ecology of Lakes Thermal Ecology of Lakes In this section, we begin to consider the flow of energy. We will look at lakes and the role that energy flow plays in lake ecology. Ultimately, we will be interested in questions

More information

Chapter 04: Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balance. Energy Essentials Energy Balance in the Troposphere Energy Balance at Earth s Surface

Chapter 04: Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balance. Energy Essentials Energy Balance in the Troposphere Energy Balance at Earth s Surface Chapter 04: Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balance Energy Essentials Energy Balance in the Troposphere Energy Balance at Earth s Surface Energy Essentials Energy Pathways and Principles Energy Pathways

More information

RADIATION IN THE TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE and the SAHEL SURFACE HEAT BALANCE. Peter J. Lamb. Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies

RADIATION IN THE TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE and the SAHEL SURFACE HEAT BALANCE. Peter J. Lamb. Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies RADIATION IN THE TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE and the SAHEL SURFACE HEAT BALANCE by Peter J. Lamb Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies and School of Meteorology The University of Oklahoma

More information

Understanding Global Warming. Paul Kushner Department of Physics, University of Toronto. Oraynu Centre February 21, 2008

Understanding Global Warming. Paul Kushner Department of Physics, University of Toronto. Oraynu Centre February 21, 2008 Understanding Global Warming Paul Kushner Department of Physics, University of Toronto Oraynu Centre February 21, 2008 Outline Starting Points What Sets the Earth s Thermostat? Global Warming and Climate

More information

RADIATION (SOLAR) Introduction. Solar Spectrum and Solar Constant. Distribution of Solar Insolation at the Top of the Atmosphere

RADIATION (SOLAR) Introduction. Solar Spectrum and Solar Constant. Distribution of Solar Insolation at the Top of the Atmosphere RADIATION (SOLAR) 1859 Workshop Proceedings, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, pp. 45 53. Ulaby FT (1981)Microwave response of vegetation. In Kahle AB, Weill G, Carter WD (eds) Advances in Space Research,

More information

Planetary Energy Balance

Planetary Energy Balance Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Spectrum Different types of radiation enter the Earth s atmosphere and they re all a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. One end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

More information

Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt ) In this lecture. Diurnal cycle of surface energy flux components over different surfaces

Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt ) In this lecture. Diurnal cycle of surface energy flux components over different surfaces Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt 5.1-5.2) In this lecture Diurnal cycle of surface energy flux components over different surfaces Radiative and material properties of different surfaces Conductive

More information

Total radiative heating/cooling rates.

Total radiative heating/cooling rates. Lecture. Total radiative heating/cooling rates. Objectives:. Solar heating rates.. Total radiative heating/cooling rates in a cloudy atmosphere.. Total radiative heating/cooling rates in different aerosol-laden

More information

2 Absorbing Solar Energy

2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2.1 Air Mass and the Solar Spectrum Now that we have introduced the solar cell, it is time to introduce the source of the energy the sun. The sun has many properties that could

More information

CHAPTER 3 Heat and energy in the atmosphere

CHAPTER 3 Heat and energy in the atmosphere CHAPTER 3 Heat and energy in the atmosphere In Chapter 2 we examined the nature of energy and its interactions with Earth. Here we concentrate initially on the way in which energy interacts with the atmosphere

More information

Arctic warming feedbacks and amplifications. John Noble EARTH254 4 June 2009

Arctic warming feedbacks and amplifications. John Noble EARTH254 4 June 2009 Arctic warming feedbacks and amplifications John Noble EARTH254 4 June 2009 Temperature - dynamical feedback Climate sensitivity export Feedback characteristics Negative feedbacks dampen; positive amplify

More information

Greenhouse Effect and Radiative Balance on Earth and Venus

Greenhouse Effect and Radiative Balance on Earth and Venus Venus Exploration Advisory Group Greenhouse Effect and Radiative Balance on Earth and Venus Dave Crisp November 5, 2007-1- Venus and Earth: An Unlikely Pair Most theories of solar system evolution assume

More information

The Next Generation Flux Analysis: Adding Clear-Sky LW and LW Cloud Effects, Cloud Optical Depths, and Improved Sky Cover Estimates

The Next Generation Flux Analysis: Adding Clear-Sky LW and LW Cloud Effects, Cloud Optical Depths, and Improved Sky Cover Estimates The Next Generation Flux Analysis: Adding Clear-Sky LW and LW Cloud Effects, Cloud Optical Depths, and Improved Sky Cover Estimates C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington

More information

How does snow melt? Principles of snow melt. Energy balance. GEO4430 snow hydrology 21.03.2006. Energy flux onto a unit surface:

How does snow melt? Principles of snow melt. Energy balance. GEO4430 snow hydrology 21.03.2006. Energy flux onto a unit surface: Principles of snow melt How does snow melt? We need energy to melt snow/ ice. GEO443 snow hydrology 21.3.26 E = m L h we s K = ρ h = w w we f E ρ L L f f Thomas V. Schuler t.v.schuler@geo.uio.no E energy

More information

Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing

Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview What

More information

GCOS science conference, 2 Mar. 2016, Amsterdam. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)

GCOS science conference, 2 Mar. 2016, Amsterdam. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) GCOS science conference, 2 Mar. 2016, Amsterdam Status of Surface Radiation Budget Observation for Climate Nozomu Ohkawara Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Contents 1. Background 2. Status t of surface

More information

Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer

Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer I. Genkova and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington T. Besnard ATMOS SARL Le Mans, France

More information

not to be republished NCERT Do you feel air around you? Do you SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE SOLAR RADIATION

not to be republished NCERT Do you feel air around you? Do you SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE SOLAR RADIATION SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE Do you feel air around you? Do you know that we live at the bottom of a huge pile of air? We inhale and exhale but we feel the air when it is in motion. It

More information

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Essential Questions How does energy transfer from the sun to Earth and the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns with the atmosphere created? Vocabulary Radiation:

More information

The greenhouse effect and global warming

The greenhouse effect and global warming CA1. The greenhouse effect and global warming. Vicky Wong Page 1 of 7 The greenhouse effect and global warming The sun produces radiation mainly in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (vis) and infrared (IR)

More information

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction. Overview. Seasons

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction. Overview. Seasons CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Fig. 6.11 Overview Atmosphere and ocean one interdependent system Solar energy creates winds Winds drive surface ocean currents and waves Examples of interactions: El Niño-Southern

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

More information

Supporting Online Material for

Supporting Online Material for www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/1117368/dc1 Supporting Online Material for Role of Land-Surface Changes in Arctic Summer Warming F. S. Chapin III, 1 * M. Sturm, 2 M. C. Serreze, 3 J. P. McFadden, 4

More information

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles I. Air Temperature: Five important factors influence air temperature: A. Insolation B. Latitude C. Surface types D. Coastal vs. interior

More information

The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System

The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System The Sun is the major source of energy for Earth s oceans, atmosphere, land, and biosphere.

More information

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.

More information

Solar Heating Basics. 2007 Page 1. a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding

Solar Heating Basics. 2007 Page 1. a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding 2007 Page 1 Solar Heating Basics Reflected radiation is solar energy received by collectorsfrom adjacent surfaces of the building or ground. It depends a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding

More information

Ole Humlum; Oslo University

Ole Humlum; Oslo University Ole Humlum; Oslo University Earth Milankovitch Cycles Axial tilt is the inclination of the Earth's axis in relation to its plane of orbit around the Sun. Oscillations in the degree of Earth's axial

More information

ARM SWS to study cloud drop size within the clear-cloud transition zone

ARM SWS to study cloud drop size within the clear-cloud transition zone ARM SWS to study cloud drop size within the clear-cloud transition zone (GSFC) Yuri Knyazikhin Boston University Christine Chiu University of Reading Warren Wiscombe GSFC Thanks to Peter Pilewskie (UC)

More information

Data Sets of Climate Science

Data Sets of Climate Science The 5 Most Important Data Sets of Climate Science Photo: S. Rahmstorf This presentation was prepared on the occasion of the Arctic Expedition for Climate Action, July 2008. Author: Stefan Rahmstorf, Professor

More information

ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology. Solar Radiation. Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D.

ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology. Solar Radiation. Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. 1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Solar Radiation Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. 2 The Sun The Sun is a perpetual source of energy It has produced energy for about 4.6 billions of years, and it is

More information

The Earth s Atmosphere

The Earth s Atmosphere THE SUN-EARTH SYSTEM III The Earth s Atmosphere Composition and Distribution of the Atmosphere The composition of the atmosphere and the way its gases interact with electromagnetic radiation determine

More information

Energy Balance and Greenhouse Gases. E out. Summer Seminar Conceptual Climate Models. Energy Balance and Greenhouse Gases

Energy Balance and Greenhouse Gases. E out. Summer Seminar Conceptual Climate Models. Energy Balance and Greenhouse Gases Summer Seminar Conceptual Climate Models Jim Walsh Oberlin College Global climate is determined by the radiation balance of the planet. There are three fundamental ways in which this balance can change

More information

The Greenhouse Effect

The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect The Sun, which is the Earth's only external form of heat, emits solar radiation mainly in the form of visible and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. As this radiation travels toward the

More information

Albedo Laboratory Teacher Guide

Albedo Laboratory Teacher Guide Albedo Laboratory Teacher Guide Driving Question: What effect does albedo have on surface temperature? Albedo Laboratory Teacher Guide In this activity your students will: 1. Understand how light reflection

More information

Treasure Hunt. Lecture 2 How does Light Interact with the Environment? EMR Principles and Properties. EMR and Remote Sensing

Treasure Hunt. Lecture 2 How does Light Interact with the Environment? EMR Principles and Properties. EMR and Remote Sensing Lecture 2 How does Light Interact with the Environment? Treasure Hunt Find and scan all 11 QR codes Choose one to watch / read in detail Post the key points as a reaction to http://www.scoop.it/t/env202-502-w2

More information

RESULTS FROM A SIMPLE INFRARED CLOUD DETECTOR

RESULTS FROM A SIMPLE INFRARED CLOUD DETECTOR RESULTS FROM A SIMPLE INFRARED CLOUD DETECTOR A. Maghrabi 1 and R. Clay 2 1 Institute of Astronomical and Geophysical Research, King Abdulaziz City For Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086 Riyadh 11442,

More information

GRAND MINIMUM OF THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE LEADS TO THE LITTLE ICE AGE. by Habibullo Abdussamatov

GRAND MINIMUM OF THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE LEADS TO THE LITTLE ICE AGE. by Habibullo Abdussamatov GRAND MINIMUM OF THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE LEADS TO THE LITTLE ICE AGE by Habibullo Abdussamatov SPPI ORIGINAL PAPER November 25, 2013 GRAND MINIMUM OF THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE LEADS TO THE LITTLE ICE

More information

T.A. Tarasova, and C.A.Nobre

T.A. Tarasova, and C.A.Nobre SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF SURFACE SOLAR IRRADIANCES UNDER CLEAR-SKIES AND CLOUD COVER OBTAINED FROM LONG-TERM SOLAR RADIATION MEASUREMENTS IN THE RONDONIA REGION OF BRAZIL T.A. Tarasova, and C.A.Nobre Centro

More information

Solar Radiation Hand Book (2008)

Solar Radiation Hand Book (2008) Typical Climatic Data for Selected Radiation Stations (The Data Period Covered : 1986-2000) Solar Radiation Hand Book (2008) A joint Project of Solar Energy Centre, MNRE Indian Metrological Department

More information

Teaching the Greenhouse Effect. Brian Hornbuckle and Ray Arritt

Teaching the Greenhouse Effect. Brian Hornbuckle and Ray Arritt Teaching the Greenhouse Effect Brian Hornbuckle and Ray Arritt It is true that there are other factors (such as volcanic activity, variations in the earth s orbit and axis, the solar cycle), yet a number

More information

Heat Transfer: Radiation

Heat Transfer: Radiation Heat Transfer: Radiation Heat transfer occurs by three mechanisms: conduction, convection, and radiation. We have discussed conduction in the past two lessons. In this lesson, we will discuss radiation.

More information

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface.

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface. CHAPTER 12 LESSON 2 Earth s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Key Concepts How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and to the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere

More information

Sunlight and its Properties. EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz

Sunlight and its Properties. EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz Sunlight and its Properties EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz The sun is a hot sphere of gas whose internal temperatures reach over 20 million deg. K. Nuclear fusion reaction at the sun's core converts hydrogen to

More information

Today. Kirchoff s Laws. Emission and Absorption. Stellar Spectra & Composition

Today. Kirchoff s Laws. Emission and Absorption. Stellar Spectra & Composition Today Kirchoff s Laws Emission and Absorption Stellar Spectra & Composition 1 Three basic types of spectra Continuous Spectrum Intensity Emission Line Spectrum Absorption Line Spectrum Wavelength Spectra

More information

BY NASIF NAHLE SABAG* Submitted to Review on 10 May 2007. Published on 12 May 2007.

BY NASIF NAHLE SABAG* Submitted to Review on 10 May 2007. Published on 12 May 2007. EARTH S ANNUAL ENERGY BUDGET (ECOLOGY) BY NASIF NAHLE SABAG* Submitted to Review on 10 May 2007. Published on 12 May 2007. The author is grateful to TS for his kind assistance with the text. To quote this

More information