Outcomes of milk based Interventions: Improvements on health and nutritional status of under-fives in rural households, Tanzania?

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2 Outcomes of milk based Interventions: Improvements on health and nutritional status of under-fives in rural households, Tanzania? Devota Mwaseba

3 Presentation Outline Background Research problem Objectives Methodology 3

4 Background Manutrition particularly child under-nutrition is one of the major health development problems world wide (Semba, 2008) Especially in developing countries including Tanzania. It contributes among others to poor child cognitive development, stunting, child morbidity and mortality (Paul et al.,2011; Semba,2008; Nyaruhucha et al., 2006;Kinabo et al.,2003) Approximately 12 million under-five children die every year due to malnutrition and other infectious diseases, such as,malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS (Semba, 2008) 4

5 Malnutrition situation in Tanzania In 2005,National Bureau of statistics Tanzania (NBS)reported,that every 112 out of 1000 babies died every year ( Leach and Kilama, 2009). This means 1 in 10 children died before they reached five years. Majority from rural societies where 162 per 1000 live births compared to 123 per 1000 children from urban areas died every year. Though there has been a decline of child mortality in with under-five mortality rate reported to be 81 deaths per 1000 live births (NBS,2011). 5

6 Background contin.. Nationally 42% of under-five children are stunted, 5% wasted, 1% severely wasted and 16% are severely underweight. Several strategies to reduce malnutrition are being implemented especially in rural areas. One of the strategies implented, includes the introduction of dairy goat/cow at household level for milk based health and nutritional interventions which started in 1980 s and 1990 s in Njombe and Mvomero Districts in Tanzania. 6

7 The background information of the milk based Interventions Njombe and Mvomero Disticts The interventions involves promotion of dairy production cow in Njombe and goats in Mvomero (Mgeta) which are also among areas with high cereal production in Tanzania In 1983,the Government of Tanzania through Sokoine university of Agriculture with the cooperation and assistance of NORAD Imported sixty three months old dairy goats from Norway 7

8 Milk based interventions cont. Main purporse of the goat project were to produce hybrid goats in Tanzania for milk production under semi arid conditions The project started very well but later recorded high mortalities and low reproductive performances In 1988 it was agreed that Mgeta highlands with high altitudes, cool climate and availability of forages be a pleasant place for the goats Implementation of dairy goats at household level in Mgeta started with five farmers and in 1990 other five farmers joined. 8

9 The milk Intervention cont.. Heifer International through church organizations introduced dairy cows at household level in Njombe. Generally, objectives of the Interventions in Njombe and Mvomero Districts were, 9

10 Objectives of the Interventions To increase food security and family income as well as poverty alleviation in households (Mtenga et al ) to produce hybrid goats that could produce quality milk and meat in rural households. To improve health and nutritional status of vulnerable groups such as underfives, and pregnant mothers in rural households 10

11 Study problem and aim of the study Despite of various efforts that have been taken to reduce under-five malnutrition in Tanzania, Evidence shows that malnutrition is most widespread and leading nutritional disorder in Tanzania and is contributing into under-five child morbidity and mortality especially in rural societies in Tanzania (NBS, 2005) This study aimed at investigating whether milk based interventions in Njombe and Mvomero had an improvement in health and nutritional status of underfives in Tanzania. 11

12 Objectives of the study This study had two main objectives which are To understand milk-based nutritional interventions based on the actor s social constructionist perspectives To determine the outcome of milk-based nutritional interventions on nutritional and health status of children in rural Tanzania The study is also divided into five other independent specific objectives which are arranged systematically to forms one whole study. These are 12

13 Specific objectives To identify food habits and under-five feeding practices at households level in Njombe and Mvomero Districts To understand perceptions on use of milk for health and nutritional status among the parents and guardians of under-five in selected villages in Njombe and Mvomero districts To explore intrahousehold gender and power relations and their implications on underfives health and nutritional status in selected households in Njombe and Mvomero Districts To assess nutritional interventions outcomes on underfive nutritional status and health in selected households in Mvomero and Njombe districts 13

14 Specific objectives cont.. To determine nutrient content of food commonly fed to under-fives in selected households in Njombe and Mvomero Districts, Tanzania 14

15 Methodology used This was an interdisciplinary study and methods used were from both qualitative and quantitative approaches However,experience from other studies such as that of Bril et al,2001 have shown, that there is a difference in using quantitative methods and qualitative methods especially in studies which needs to observe food consumption behaviours within a household. This is because it is not clear if, what people say is actually what people do all the time. 15

16 Methodology used Experience from various studies for example have shown that in the presence of the observer some behaviours may be modified or exaggerated but not transformed. Thus, in studies such as that of food consumption where eating behaviour is observed in order to identify for example if children drink milk or what children eat,? who is feeding the child, how often do children eat and why? qualitative methods are possibly the best option, while sometimes combined with quantitative 16

17 Methods used included For this reason most of the qualitative methods were used in this study which included Participant observation Interview schedule Case study Focus group discussion Indepth interview documentary evidency as well as quantitative methods such as Anthropometric assessment and Food sample analysis 17

18 Study areas and population Njombe and Mvomero districts were the two main study areas in this study. In Njombe, Kichiwa and Uwemba wards were used, while Bunduki, Langali, Nyandira, Tchenzema and Mgeta wards represented in (Mgeta) Mvomero District The target study population in this study are the underfive with their parents mother or father and or guardians in both Njombe and Mvomero Districts 18

19 Results Results and discussions of this study are still analysed but they will be presented later. 19

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