Technical Paper E1 (a) Energy Consumption in Cornwall. Cornwall Council January N.B. This is a live document that will be updated.

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1 Technical Paper E1 (a) Energy Consumption in Cornwall Cornwall Council January 2012 N.B. This is a live document that will be updated. 1

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3 Technical Paper E1 (a) Energy Consumption in Cornwall Contents 1. Overview 2. Headline messages 3. Total energy consumed 4. Energy consumed by the domestic sector 5. Energy consumed by the industrial and commercial sector 6. Energy consumed by the transport sector 7. Using energy consumption information Figures Figure 1: Total energy consumed in 2007 (GWh and ktoe): Figure 2: Energy consumption by fuel type, 2007: Figure 3: Domestic energy consumption in Cornwall by fuel type, 2007: Figure 4: Domestic electricity consumed per household, 2007: Figure 5: Industrial and commercial energy consumption in Cornwall by fuel type, 2007: Appendices Appendix A - Total Energy Consumption,

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5 1 Overview 1.1 This paper sets out what we know about current energy consumption in Cornwall. Understanding the existing consumption is important in terms of developing future policies on energy and renewable energy. 1.2 Figures are in gigawatt hours/kilowatt hours (1 GWh = 1,000,000 KWh), or kilo tonnes of oil equivalent/tonnes of oil equivalent (1 ktoe = 1,000 toe). These are standard units of energy. The International Energy Agency states that 1 tonne of oil equivalent is equivalent to (has the same energy content as) 11,630 kilowatt hours Summary figures of energy consumption in Cornwall are included as Appendix A. 2 Headline messages Total energy consumption in Cornwall in 2007 was 12,026 GWh or 1,034 ktoe. In Cornwall the proportion of petroleum products consumed (as a proportion of total energy) was high and the proportion of natural gas low compared to the South West and Great Britain. The proportion of total energy consumed for transport in Cornwall was higher than in Great Britain. Energy consumed for industrial and commercial uses was lower in Cornwall. The proportion of energy consumed by the domestic sector in Cornwall was relatively similar to in Great Britain. In terms of domestic energy consumption, electricity use per household in Cornwall is higher than the national average. Domestic gas use is lower than the national average, as a significant number of properties in Cornwall are off-gas. Electricity accounted for 37% of the total energy consumed by industrial and commercial users in Cornwall, with gas accounting for 32%. Per consumer, electricity consumption by this sector was lower and gas consumption higher than in Great Britain. In 2007, 4,022.5 GWh (345.9 ktoe) of energy was consumed by the transport sector in Cornwall. 97% of this was calculated to be for road transport, with the remainder for rail. 2 3 Total energy consumed 3.1 The total energy consumed in Cornwall in 2007 is estimated to be 12,026 GWh. 3 This is the equivalent of 1,034 ktoe, and is 9.2% of the total energy consumed in the South West, and 0.7% of that consumed in Great Britain. 4 1 The International Energy Agency energy conversion tool is available at: 2 The data source excludes aviation and shipping. 3 Total final energy consumption at local and regional level DECC, Great Britain is used rather than the UK due to limitations of gas data at the UK level. 5

6 Figure 1: Total energy consumed in 2007 (GWh and ktoe): 3.2 Total energy consumption varies throughout the year, and also varies from year to year. Nationally, variation is most evident in the domestic sector in the UK. 5 Total energy demand in Cornwall was 32 ktoe lower in 2007 than in % of energy consumed in Cornwall in 2007 was in the form of petroleum products. This was a larger proportion of total energy consumed compared to in the South West and Great Britain. The proportion of natural gas consumed was low in Cornwall, at 25%, compared to 31% in the South West and 38% in GB. Figure 2: Energy consumption by fuel type, 2007: 3.4 The total energy consumed in Cornwall was relatively evenly split between domestic use (32%), industrial and commercial use (34%) and transport use (33%). In Great Britain total energy consumed was split between domestic (33%), industrial and commercial (37%) and transport (30%). 4 Energy consumed by the domestic sector 4.1 There are a number of factors which affect domestic energy consumption, including the number, type and size of households, household income and energy costs, the energy efficiency of housing, the weather, and consumer trends such as use of household appliances. 4.2 In 2007, 3,866 GWh (332 ktoe) of energy was consumed by the domestic sector in Cornwall. 6 Total energy consumption in this sector equates to 16,807 kilo watt hours (0.017 GWh) per household in Cornwall or 1.45 tonnes of oil equivalent (0.001 ktoe). 7 This is lower than per household figures estimated for England (21,360 KWh or 1.84 toe). 5 Energy Trends June 2009 (DECC, 2009) 6 Total final energy consumption at local and regional level (DECC, 2010) 7 Household estimates and projections, 2006 (CLG 2009). For Cornwall there were an estimated 230,000 households in 2006 this source is used for consistency with household and energy projections. A household is defined as: one person living alone, or a group of people living at the 6

7 Figure 3: Domestic energy consumption in Cornwall by fuel type, 2007: *Other includes coal and manufactured fuels (Note: figures do not total 100% due to rounding) % (1,697 GWh or 146 ktoe) of the total energy consumed by households in Cornwall was gas. This is lower than the proportion of domestic consumption in Great Britain of gas, which was 73% (4% was petroleum, 22% electricity and 1% other). 4.4 Estimates for the UK suggest that 58% of domestic energy is used for space heating, with 23% for water, 17% for lighting and appliances and 2% for cooking. 8 Similar proportions of domestic energy use can be assumed for Cornwall. 4.5 Electricity accounted for 35% of the total energy consumed by households in Cornwall (1,350 GWh or 116 ktoe). 4.6 Each domestic electricity consumer in Cornwall is estimated to use 5,418 kwh (0.466 toe), based on the number of recorded meter points. However the number of meter points may not accurately reflect the total number of households Using household estimates, it is calculated that an average household in Cornwall in 2007 used 5,869 KWh of electricity (0.504 toe). 10 Based on household estimates, electricity consumption per household in Cornwall is higher than in the South West (4,993 kwh or toe) and in England (4,629 kwh or toe). Figure 4: Domestic electricity consumed per household, 2007: 4.8 The majority (68%) of electricity used in households in the UK is used for lighting and appliances, with 14% for water heating, 12% for space heating and 6% for cooking. 11 Similar proportions of the domestic use of electricity can be assumed for Cornwall. 4.9 Gas consumption accounted for 44% of the energy consumed by the domestic sector in Cornwall in 2007 (1,697 GWh or ktoe). This was 56% of all gas consumed in Cornwall. same address with common housekeeping - that is, sharing either a living room or at least one meal a day. 8 Domestic energy consumption by end use and fuel 1990 to 2008 (DECC, 2010) 9 The total number of consumers (measured by the number of meter points) of domestic electricity in Cornwall is 249,100. This is higher than the estimated 230,000 households. 10 Electricity consumption at regional and local authority level (DECC, 2007) 11 Domestic energy consumption by end use and fuel 1990 to 2008 (DECC, 2010) 7

8 4.10 Each domestic gas consumer in Cornwall is estimated to use 14,260 kwh (1.23 toe) of gas, based on the number of recorded meter points There were 119,000 recorded meter points (consumer) for gas in Cornwall, compared to 249,100 meter points for electricity. This reflects that there are a large number of households in Cornwall without access to gas. It was estimated that 43% of all households in Cornwall were off-gas in The number of households which are off-gas is estimated to be up to 80% in more rural areas Due to the number of households without access to gas, dividing the total gas consumption by household estimates is not likely to provide a more accurate reflection of per household gas consumption UK estimates suggest that the majority (68%) of gas used in households is used for heating, with 29% for water heating, and 2% for cooking. 5 Similar proportions of domestic energy use can be assumed for Cornwall. Households without gas in Cornwall use a range of other fuels for heating Petroleum consumption accounted for 20% of the energy consumed by the domestic sector in Cornwall (759.5 GWh or 65.3 ktoe) Other fuels (coal and manufactured fuels) accounted for 2% of the total energy consumed by the domestic sector in Cornwall. The majority of this was coal (58.0 GWh or 5 ktoe) whilst a small proportion was manufactured fuels (1.4 GWh or 0.1 ktoe). 5 Energy consumed by the industrial and commercial sector 5.1 There are a number of factors which may affect industrial and commercial energy use, some of which are similar to those impacting on domestic energy use. Other factors may include changes in the structure, output and efficiency of the sector. 5.2 There is a wide range of building types in the non-domestic sector, with very different energy use patterns. The energy demand of different industrial sectors will depend on how fast the sector grows or shrinks, the extent to which it has already improved its energy efficiency, the development of new technologies and a range of other factors. 5.3 In 2007, 34% of total energy consumed was consumed for commercial and industrial use in Cornwall (4,138 GWh or 356 ktoe). Figure 5: Industrial and commercial energy consumption in Cornwall by fuel type, 2007: *Other includes coal, manufactured fuels and renewables (Note: figures do not total 100% due to rounding) 12 Gas consumption at regional and local authority level (DECC, 2007). 13 Fuel poverty tools (Centre for Sustainable Energy, 2006) 14 Hard to heat homes in Cornwall (Cornwall Sustainable Energy Partnership, 2006) 8

9 5.4 Electricity accounted for 37% of the total energy consumed by industrial and commercial users in Cornwall in 2007 (1,524.2 GWh or ktoe). In Great Britain electricity accounted for 32% of industrial and commercial energy. 5.5 There were 31,200 industrial and commercial electricity meter points (consumers) in Cornwall in 2007, each using an average of 48,801 kwh (4.196 toe) of electricity. This is significantly lower than average consumption per meter point in the South West (62,751 kwh or toe) and England (78,068 kwh or toe). 5.6 Gas accounted for 32% of the total energy consumed by industrial and commercial users in Cornwall in 2007 (1,310.1 GWh or ktoe). This is lower than the proportion of gas consumed in Great Britain (37%). 5.7 In terms of industrial and commercial gas in Cornwall in 2007, there were 1,700 meter points (consumers), each consuming an average of 785,416 kwh ( toe). This is higher than average consumption per meter point in the South West (556,847 kwh or toe) and England (606,381 kwh or toe). 5.8 It is unclear why the consumption of gas in Cornwall by industrial and commercial consumers is higher than in the South West and England, but it may be due to differences in the types of industries in Cornwall. 5.9 Petroleum consumption in Cornwall accounted for 26% of the energy consumed by the industrial and commercial sector (1,185.4 GWh or ktoe) Other fuels (coal, manufactured fuels and renewables) accounted for 5% of the energy consumed by the industrial and commercial sector in Cornwall (117.7 GWh or 10.1 ktoe). 6 Energy consumed by the transport sector 6.1 The energy use of the transport sector is influenced by the level of travel activity, but also other important factors, such as mode of travel, vehicle efficiency and occupancy. 6.2 In 2007, 4,022.5 GWh (345.9 ktoe) of energy was consumed by the transport sector in Cornwall. This figure excludes aviation and shipping. The energy consumed by the transport sector was 33% of total energy consumed, which is higher than the proportion consumed by the transport sector in Great Britain (30%) % of the energy consumed by the transport sector in Cornwall in 2007 (excluding aviation and shipping) was for road transport (3,905.9 GWh or ktoe), with the remainder allocated to rail transport. 6.4 Within the 2007 estimates of energy consumption, all of the fuel used in the transport sector was in the form of petroleum, for both Cornwall and Great Britain. 6.5 Estimates for the UK suggest that 68% of road transport is for personal use (including buses, diesel and petrol cars and motor cycles), with the remaining 32% for freight (HGV, diesel and petrol LGV) Road transport energy consumption at regional and local authority level, 2007 (DECC, 2009) 9

10 7 Using energy consumption information Understanding existing energy consumption in Cornwall is useful to inform future policies on energy and renewable energy. In terms of the impact of energy use and emissions, highlighting areas where energy consumption is high (either by sector or fuel type) is useful in order to identify areas where actions could be prioritised to reduce energy consumption. For example, understanding that approximately 58% of domestic energy is used for space heating may highlight the need for further measures to improve insulation in the domestic sector. Understanding the components of current energy consumption in Cornwall could help to identify demand which could be met by renewable energy or less carbon intensive fuel types in the future. 10

11 Appendix A - Total Energy Consumption, 2007 Total energy consumption in Giga Watt hours (GWh), 2007 Source: Total final energy consumption (DECC, 2009) Domestic Industrial and Commercial Transport TOTAL Cornwall Great Britain UK* Electricity 1, , ,294.9 Gas 1, , Petroleum , ,061.0 Coal , ,650.5 Manufactured fuels 1.4 2, ,224.8 TOTAL 3, , Electricity 1, , ,114.8 Gas 1, , Petroleum 1, , ,224.6 Coal , ,038.3 Manufactured fuels 0.4 7, ,282.2 Renewables and waste , ,090.4 TOTAL 4, , Petroleum (rail) , ,794.6 Petroleum (road) 3, , ,171.9 TOTAL 4, , ,966.5 Electricity 2, , ,409.8 Gas 3, , Petroleum 5, , ,252.0 Coal , ,688.8 Manufactured fuels 1.8 9, ,507.0 Renewables and waste , ,090.4 TOTAL 12, ,627,162.8 * Data is limited for UK final energy consumption of gas Total energy consumption in kilo tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe), 2007 Source: Total final energy consumption (DECC, 2009) Domestic Industrial and Commercial Transport TOTAL 11 Cornwall Great Britain UK* Electricity , ,343.6 Gas , Petroleum , ,928.7 Coal Manufactured fuels TOTAL , Electricity , ,776.9 Gas , Petroleum , ,862.8 Coal 4.6 1, ,551.0 Manufactured fuels Renewables and waste TOTAL , Petroleum (rail) Petroleum (road) , ,921.1 TOTAL , , Electricity , ,120.5 Gas ,770.0 Petroleum , ,468.8 Coal 9.6 1, ,036.9 Manufactured fuels Renewables and waste TOTAL 1, ,911.6 Data is limited for UK final energy consumption of gas

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