Emulating Computer Networks with Netkit. Massimo Rimondini

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1 UNIVERSITY OF ROMA TRE Department of Computer Science and Automation Emulating Computer Networks with Netkit Massimo Rimondini Computer Networks Research Group 4th International Workshop on Internet Performance, Simulation, Monitoring, and Measurement

2 Copyright notice All the slides in this presentation, including but not limited to, images, photos, animations, videos, sounds, music, and text (hereby referred to as material ) are protected by copyright This material, with the exception of some multimedia elements licensed by other organizations, is property of the authors and organizations appearing in the first slide This material, or its parts, can be reproduced and used for didactical purposes within universities and schools, provided that this happens for non-profit purposes Information contained in this material cannot be used within network design projects or other products of any kind Any other use is prohibited, unless explicitly authorized by the authors on the basis of a written agreement Authors assume no responsibility for the contents of this material, which may be subject to changes This copyright notice must always be redistributed together with the material, or its portions

3 Prerequisites Very basic knowledge of the Linux OS Networking iso-osi stack routing protocols (rip, bgp) basic network tools

4 What s this Natkeet thing? This is not Netkit

5 What s this Natkeet thing? This is isnetkit!

6 Yet another boring emulator toy? From Wikipedia: Bochs, portable open source x86 and AMD64 PCs emulator FAUmachine Microsoft Virtual PC Microsoft Virtual Server OPEN COLINUX - Linux inside Windows Parallels QEMU SVISTA TRANGO Real-time Embedded Hypervisor twoostwo User-mode Linux Virtuozzo VM from IBM, apparently the first true virtual machine system and still in wide use today. VMWare Xen

7 Yet another boring emulator toy? Product License Pros Cons Xen Open Source Performance Requires replacing the host kernel Requires porting the guest OS kernel VMWare Commercial Near native performance Complex configuration Bochs Open Source Good support for many guest OSes Performance QEMU (almost) Open Source Emulates multiple architectures Comes with an accelerator module Requires privileges to be installed Not lightweight Plex86 Open Source Lightweight Development stalled

8 Success stories involving Netkit Networking courses routing protocols application level services (dns, web, , etc.) Emulation of the italian academic research network (GARR) assignment of OSPF weights

9 Outline Understanding Netkit Architecture overview Setting up Netkit Download and installation Using Netkit Getting acquainted with Netkit commands How to prepare Netkit labs Sample scenarios A virtual network running BGP

10 UNIVERSITY OF ROMA TRE Department of Computer Science and Automation Understanding Netkit

11 A Netkit network virtual host vhost:~# virtual host vhost:~# virtual host vhost:~# virtual host vhost:~# virtual host vhost:~# virtual host vhost:~# virtual host vhost:~# virtual host vhost:~#

12 A Netkit network virtual host running routing daemon... virtual host ethernet bridge configured virtual host vhost:~# real host running virtual hub...

13 A closer look at virtual machines real host HOST OS virtual host GUEST OS virtual hub (collision domain) host disk(s) host ram host NIC

14 Interconnecting virtual machines real host HOST OS virtual host PC virtual host PC2 virtual host ROUTER virtual hub (collision domain) virtual host PC3 virtual hub (collision domain)

15 A few technicalities Virtual machines run a user-mode-linux kernel Linux kernel compiled for running as a userspace process Thin emulation layer better performance The guest OS is a Debian GNU/Linux unstable Most popular networking tools are included Copy-On-Write Damage-free filesystem

16 Cables & Interfaces Virtual machines can be equipped with an arbitrary number of network interfaces Network Layer Handled by the UML kernel IPv4/IPv6 Data-link Layer Ethernet No collisions Physical layer Virtual hub daemon (uml_switch) Communication over unix sockets No delay, loss, reordering

17 UNIVERSITY OF ROMA TRE Department of Computer Science and Automation Setting up Netkit

18 System requirements Host CPU RAM Hard disk space Others i386 Linux host >600 MHz lower freqs impact performance ~0MB for each virtual machine depends on the amount of emulated memory ~650 MB + ~-20 MB for each virtual machine depends on vm usage ext2/ext3 filesystems preferred

19 A tiresome procedure Just three steps. netkit-2.4.tar.bz2 netkit-filesystem-f2.2.tar.bz2 large file netkit-kernel-k2.2.tar.bz2 2. cd to a directory of your choice and unpack the files host machine cd netkit tar xjf netkit-2.4.tar.bz2 tar xjf netkit-filesystem filesystem-f2.2.tar.bz2 tar xjf netkit-kernel kernel-k2.2.tar.bz2 large file

20 A tiresome procedure 3. Set some environment variables set NETKIT_HOME to the path where you installed Netkit set PATH to the string $PATH:$NETKIT_HOME/bin set MANPATH to the string :$NETKIT_HOME/man Example (using bash): host machine export NETKIT_HOME=/home/foo/netkit/netkit2 export PATH=$PATH:$NETKIT_HOME/bin export MANPATH=:$NETKIT_HOME/man That s all folks!

21 Test your installation cd to the Netkit directory Run check_configuration.sh host machine cd netkit2 [ READY ] Congratulations! Your Netkit setup is now complete! Enjoy Netkit! Test failures are accompanied by a short description of the fix

22 UNIVERSITY OF ROMA TRE Department of Computer Science and Automation Using Netkit (at last )

23 A toolkit made up of tools Virtual machines can be controlled by using two interfaces ltools vtools UML kernel (virtual machine) uml_switch (virtual hub)

24 Vtools vstart vconfig vlist vhalt vcrash vclean Start a virtual machine with a given configuration Attach a network interface to a running virtual machine List running virtual machines Gracefully shut down a virtual machine Kill a virtual machine Panic button

25 Booting a virtual machine vstart [options] MACHINE_NAME Most common options: --ethn=collision_domain Interfaces on the same collision domain can exchange traffic -M memory_amount -p Just show what would be done host machine vstart --=CD_A --=CD_B M 256 pc ============= Starting virtual machine "pc" ============= Kernel: /home/max/netkit2/kernel/netkit-kernel kernel Modules: /home/max/netkit2/kernel/modules...

26 Look: it s booting The virtual machine terminal window automatically pops up pc --- Starting Netkit phase 2 startup script Virtual host pc ready. --- Netkit phase 2 init script terminated pc login: root (automatic login) Linux pc # Tue Sep 3 8:38:0 CEST 2005 i686 GNU/Linux Welcome to Netkit pc:~#

27 Where VMs write things Copy-On-Write: every change to the model filesystem is written to pc.disk Sparse files: zeros do not consume disk space host machine ls -l pc.* -rw rw-r-- --r-- foo foo :53 pc.disk -rw rw-r-- --r-- foo foo :57 pc.log du -h pc.* 884K pc.disk 4.0K pc.log

28 Getting rid of a virtual machine Gracefully shut down from the inside pc pc:~# halt Broadcast message from root (vc/0) (Sat Feb 8 9:46:3 2006): The system is going down for system halt NOW! INIT: Switching to runlevel: 0 INIT: Sending processes the TERM signal or from the outside host machine vhalt pc Halting virtual machine "pc" (PID 8598) owned by foo [... ]

29 Getting rid of a virtual machine or harshly unplug its power cord host machine vcrash pc ========== Crashing virtual machine "pc" (PID 974) ========= Virtual machine owner: foo Virtual machine mconsole socket: /home/foo/.netkit/mconsole/pc/mconsole Crashing... done. Quick Screws virtual machine filesystem Remember: Copy-On-Write

30 A Netkit lab is a set of pre-configured virtual machines that can be launched/stopped all together consists of a hierarchy of directories allows to set up complex network experiences can be controlled by using the ltools

31 Ltools lstart ltest lhalt lcrash linfo lclean Start a Netkit lab or just some of its machines Start a Netkit lab in test mode Gracefully shut down (some of) the virtual machines of a lab Kill (some of) the virtual machines of a lab Display info about a lab without starting it; sketch the network topology Remove temporary files (no panic!)

32 Mastering your own Netkit Lab How to prepare a lab:. define topology 2. assign addresses 3. configure network services 4.

33 My Own Lab, scene, take Network topology Sketch your planned topology before implementing it A /24 9 B /30 LEGEND B collision domain name.0.0.8/30 network address 9 IP, last byte Interface A *AN

34 My Own Lab, scene, take 2 Network topology A lab consists of a hierarchy of directories Each (even empty) directory represents a virtual machine host machine ls as0r as0r2 lab.conf A lab consisting of two virtual machines (as0r, as0r2) Check with linfo Link-level connections are described inside the file lab.conf (in the lab root)

35 My Own Lab, scene, take 3 Network topology lab.conf syntax vm[if]=cd vm: virtual machine name (e.g., as0r) if: interface number (e.g., 0) cd: collision domain name (arbitrary string) vm[opt]=val opt: the name of a vstart option (e.g., mem) val: a value for that option Other optional items Informational: LAB_DESCRIPTION, LAB_VERSION, LAB_AUTHOR, LAB_ , LAB_WEB Explicit list of virtual machines (machines)

36 My Own Lab, scene, take 4 Network topology Sample lab.conf host machine as0r[0]=b as0r[]=a as0r2[0]=b lab.conf A /24 9 B /30

37 My Own Lab, scene 2 Assigning addresses, etc. On startup, virtual machine vm runs shared.startup vm.startup Interfaces may be configured inside vm.startup host machine ifconfig netmask broadcast.0.0. up /etc/init.d/zebra start as0r.startup Network services may be started up inside vm.startup too

38 My Own Lab, scene 3 Configuring network services On startup, Netkit copies the directory hierarchy in vm/ (on the host) to / on virtual machine vm host machine find.../as0r./as0r/root./as0r/root/this_is_a_file./as0r2./lab.conf as0r as0r:~# pwd /root as0r:~# ls this_is_a_file as0r:~# Useful to alter routing software configuration files

39 To start up a lab: host machine cd lab lstart Ignition! or host machine lstart d lab To crash a lab (use lhalt to halt): host machine cd lab lcrash or host machine lcrash d lab To get rid of temporary files (.disk,.log): host machine cd lab lclean or host machine lclean d lab

40 UNIVERSITY OF ROMA TRE Department of Computer Science and Automation Playing Around with Netkit

41 A sample lab A multihomed network isp isp 2 link link 2 BGP customer ( /6) RIP

42 A sample lab A multihomed network, designed to: isp isp 2 Prohibit transit traffic link link 2 BGP customer ( /6) RIP

43 A sample lab A multihomed network, designed to: isp isp 2 Prohibit transit traffic Be fault tolerant link link 2 BGP customer ( /6) RIP

44 A sample lab A multihomed network, designed to: Prohibit transit traffic isp isp 2 Be fault tolerant Perform loadsharing link link 2 BGP inbound: by announcing /7s customer ( /6) RIP

45 A sample lab A multihomed network, designed to: isp link customer ( /6) RIP isp 2 link 2 BGP Prohibit transit traffic Be fault tolerant Perform loadsharing inbound: by announcing /7s outbound: by nearest exit

46 Making routers route traffic Routing is performed by the zebra software bgpd bgpd> ripd ripd> ospfd ospfd> zebra> file access routing updates

47 AS isp /30 AS30 R 0 25 eth2 S Q 29 eth /30 AS40 isp 2 P / /24 N.0.0.8/30 O.0.0.2/30 9 AS300 3 customer ( /6) 2 Y X / /8 M /7

48 AS isp /30 AS30 R 0 25 eth2 S Q 29 eth /30 AS40 isp 2 P / /24 N.0.0.8/30 O.0.0.2/ AS300 3 ping ping traceroute Y as300r X observe nearest exit 2 customer ( /6) / /8 M /7

49 AS isp /30 AS30 R 0 25 eth2 S Q 29 eth /30 AS40 isp 2 P / /24 2 N /30 AS /30 ( /6) telnet localhost bgpd (pw:zebra) show ip bgp 2 2 Y as300r enable show running-config / /8 X O customer observe local routes and the default observe prefix-lists that prevent transit traffic and let /6 and /7 be announced M inspect ripd configuration /7

50 isp as30r /30 AS30 R traceroute /24 0 N 25 eth2 9 AS S /30 traffic does not traverse the customer 30 AS300 Q 29 eth2 4 O /30 AS /30 isp 2 P /24 customer ( /6) 2 Y X / /8 M /7

51 isp /30 AS30 R 0 25 eth2 AS S Q asr traceroute traceroute /30 loadsharing at work 29 eth2 4 AS40 isp 2 P / /24 N.0.0.8/30 O.0.0.2/30 9 AS300 3 customer ( /6) 2 Y X / /8 M /7

52 isp /30 AS30 R 0 25 eth2 AS S Q asr telnet localhost bgpd (pw:zebra) show ip bgp /30 observe the two /7s and the two alternatives for the /6 29 eth2 4 AS40 isp 2 P / /24 N.0.0.8/30 O.0.0.2/30 9 AS300 3 customer ( /6) 2 Y X / /8 M /7

53 AS isp /30 AS30 R 0 25 eth2 S Q 29 eth /30 AS40 isp 2 P / /24 2 N / /30 3 telnet localhost AS300 bgpd (pw:zebra) enable customer configure terminal ( /6) router bgp neighbor shutdown Y as300r O simulating failure of link N shutting X down the interface is also possible / /8 M /7

54 isp /30 AS30 R as300r after a while... traceroute / N 25 eth2 9 AS S /30 the backup route is being used 30 AS300 Q 29 eth2 4 O /30 AS /30 isp 2 P /24 customer ( /6) 2 Y X / /8 M /7

55 Wanna play? Visit Other ready-to-use labs Lecture slides Netkit updates Other resources (NetML) Forthcoming lab topology: Tha

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