ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER 2011

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1 Hi ul anb t s I em ent Pl an İ s t an bu anı Pl m ma ı r d a ay Y öne hi i r a t i lt st or ag i cal an M Pe a ul n s i n I s t anbul Hi s t or i cpeni ns ul a Si t emanagementpl an Oc t ober2011

2 FOREWORD One of the most important cultural policies for us is the conservation, development, utilisation and integration with modern life of the historical and cultural heritage in our country, which has hosted many civilisations throughout human history and has a special place in terms of richness of cultural and natural properties. Conservation, maintenance and transference to the next generations of cultural properties, which are invaluable and irreplaceable values of nations, are social responsibilities and the condition of keeping the national consciousness alive. Conservation of cultural and natural properties will only be possible if public awareness is created in which everybody, every institution, organisation and occupational group takes part. Cultural and natural properties with outstanding universal value which were registered on the World Heritage List, within the framework of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, to which we are a state party since 1983, have been accepted as the common heritage of all humanity, gaining international recognition and status of World Heritage. The World Heritage Sites are a selection from the archaeological, historical and natural richness of our country. Founded on the peninsula surrounded by the Golden Horn, Sea of Marmara and Bosphorus, being the capital of the Ottoman Empire, East-Roman Empire and inhabited since B.C. 6500, Istanbul has four areas which were registered on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985 due to their outstanding universal value: Sultanahmet Archaeological Park, Suleymaniye Conservation Area, Zeyrek Conservation Area, City Walls Conservation Area. These four areas of World Heritage reveal the urban history of Istanbul, differing in terms of the nature and qualities of cultural properties. According to the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, the management plan of the area is regarded as the guarantee for the efficient preservation of outstanding universal value of the property through a participatory approach, and there has to be a management plan for the areas to be nominated to the World Heritage List. Therefore, concepts such as Site Management and Management Planning are included in our conservation regulations according to the Additional Article 2 added to the Law 2863, namely the Law on the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties and the Law 5226 in order to provide the efficient conservation of the natural and cultural values of both our properties on the World Heritage List and the properties in the Tentative List with a participatory strategy in the framework of a vision. The Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan, which was prepared by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality for the efficient conservation, maintenance and utilisation of the Historic Peninsula in its natural integrity, through integrating the Plan with the cultural and educational needs of the society and to provide coordination among authorised central and local governments and non-governmental organisations regarding planning and conservation, will serve as a model for the conservation and management of other world heritage properties in our country. I would like to extend my gratitude and congratulate those who contributed to the preparation of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan. Ertuğrul GÜNAY Minister of Culture and Tourism i

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4 Dear Friends of Istanbul, Istanbul is the hope chest of civilisations where Europe and Asia, East and West converge. Carrying the banner for human civilisation within its historical treasures, Istanbul presents a modern synthesis which is an absolute must in the 21 st century. Indeed, throughout history, various cultures have come through Istanbul preserving their authenticity and liberty. Now it has a unique architectural fabric composed of Byzantine Palaces, Ottoman Mosques, outdoor spaces, modern skyscrapers and contemporary museums. We act in accordance with an administrative mentality, taking great care in these universal cultural properties dating back 8500 years and we consider the monumental creations which partake of initiating a civilisation as a relic from the past and attach great importance to their conservations. We are responsible for the conservation, promotion and transfer to the next generations of the outstanding universal value of Istanbul and the qualities of this value. Indeed, as Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, we give particular importance to this special responsibility and produce permanent consequences as a result of this sensitivity. I would be honoured to present this Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan, which manifests the great care we take in the conservation and transfer to the next generations of the world heritage. I believe that this management plan will serve as a model for the World Heritage Sites both in Turkey and abroad. We take all the necessary precautions to enable this precious city to live with its beauties forever and make meticulous plans to preserve our historical heritage, and we open them up to the world and conserve them by functionalizing them. Istanbul Cultural and Natural Sites Management Directorate, established to conserve our heritage and Directorate of Conservation, Application and Supervision (KUDEB) which is specialised in renovation of historical buildings, have reached considerable success in their operations and we publish our efforts on Istanbul is transforming into a model city which preserves its historical identity and natural fabric as a result of these intense efforts and we will continue working for this World Heritage city carrying the cultural treasures of the past up to the present to unearth the lost values and conserve them meticulously with your support. I believe that the Historic Peninsula will take all the cultural and historical wealth to the future in the best way, thanks to this management plan and that we will promote Istanbul where cultures, languages, religions and traditions successfully merge, hand in hand with you. I would like to greet you from Istanbul, one of the most exceptional cities of the world with its historical and natural beauties, with warmest regards. Dr. Kadir TOPBAŞ The Mayor of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality iii

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6 Istanbul, accommodating various religions and cultures in the most special meeting point of water and land, has conveyed many different civilisations with their monumental buildings and values from 8500 years ago to the present. The city, with a legendary silhouette and urban fabric, was registered to UNESCO World Heritage List as Historic Areas of Istanbul in accordance with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage in The act dated 2004 and the regulations for site management dated 2005 gives the authority of creating a site management plan to the metropolitan municipalities. The site, which is a very special piece of the common heritage belonging to all humanity, requires an exclusive management and conservation vision due to its exceptional features in compliance with the above-mentioned convention. The foundations of the work in your hands has been created in order to transfer the cultural and historical heritage of us to the future generations in the best possible way as necessitated by the abovementioned national and international responsibilities. A gentle balance should be held between fulfilling the needs of a living and dynamic city and conservation of its cultural and historical qualities by preservation. That s why we tried to bring together all the stakeholders who have dreams, plans and concerns for this site, to come up with a plan taking their sensitivities into consideration while preparing the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan. The management plan was prepared by both central and local governments, universities, nongovernmental organisations and local inhabitants coming together and constituting a vision, mission and main objectives and particularly within the frame of UNESCO Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention and international agreements, regulations and principles of UNESCO and ICOMOS and its subsidiary organisation for the cultural heritage issues. The plan consists of general strategies which were determined by considering the contribution of the stakeholders as a consequence of a meticulous study under the headings of Management, Conservation, Planning, Quality of Life, Perception, Training, Awareness Raising, Risk Management and a range of action plans prepared in accordance with these strategies. Therefore, the implementation and realisation of these action plans are the responsibility of the related/authorised stakeholders. From this time forward, a new period begins where we all work together to manage the site in the best possible way, generate decisions and implement these decisions in unison. I would like to extend my gratitude to everybody engaged in the preparation of this plan, particularly the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, which assume the leading role, the Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Istanbul 2010 European Capital of Culture Agency, BIMTAS INC. and the technical team and members of the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan Executive Board of BIMTAS and the members of Advisory Board of Cultural and Natural Sites Management Directorate, the Board of Coordination and Supervision and the team of Istanbul Cultural and Natural Sites Management Directorate for their immense efforts during all this process. Dr. Architect Halil ONUR Site Manager v

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8 CONTENTS FOREWORD...i CONTENTS... vii List of Tables... x List of Maps... xi List of Figures... xii List of Photographs... xii List of Appendixes... xiii CLARIFICATION NOTES...1 INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN AREA Location and Boundaries of Area Importance of Area Site Management Plan Area World Heritage Sites of the Historic Peninsula Historical Development Process of the Site Cultural and Natural Properties in the Site Site Management Plan Area World Heritage Sites of the Historic Peninsula Legal and Institutional Framework Natural Structure of the Site Physical, Social and Economical Structure of the Site Land Use Site Management Plan Area World Heritage Sites of the Historic Peninsula Social Structure Site Management Plan Area World Heritage Sites of the Historic Peninsula Economical Structure Accessibility of the Site and Transportation Transportation by Land Railways and Rail Systems Seaway Transit Access / Transfer Points Planning Decisions of the Site vii

9 Istanbul Provincial Environmental Plan Decisions Decisions of Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan Plan Decisions in the Historic Peninsula World Heritage Sites Zoning ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN Management Plan Vision Planning Principles and Policies Plan Objectives, Strategies, Actions, Related Institutions and Establishments Management and Organisation Conservation, Planning and Quality of Life Accessibility Perception of Importance and Value of the Site Training, Awareness Raising and Participation Visitor Management Risk Management Historic Peninsula World Heritage Sites Plan Objectives, Strategies, Actions, Related Institutions and Establishments Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN PROJECTS / PROJECT PACKAGES Historic Peninsula Project Packages Management and Organisation Projects Conservation, Planning and Quality of Life Projects Accessibility Projects Perception of Importance and Value of the Site Projects Training, Awareness Raising and Participation Projects Visitor Management Projects Risk Management Projects Project Packages for World Heritage Sites of Historic Peninsula Sultanahmet Archeological Park Projects Suleymaniye Mosque and its Associated Conservation Area Projects Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and it s associated Conservation Area Projects Land Walls of Istanbul Projects viii

10 4. ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN IMPLEMENTATION, REVISION AND UPDATING PROCESS Actors and Stakeholders (Institutions and Establishments Responsible for Implementation) Implementation Process Realisation (Financial Resources) National Resources International Resources Other Resources (NGO, Private Sector) Budget Work Program (Phasing ) Report Acquisition Formation of a Public Awareness Raising Program Revision, Updating and Evaluation Process Revision and Updating Criteria Institutional Infrastructure with respect to Revision and Updating Process Historic Peninsula Project Packages Revision and Updating Indicators Revision and Updating Indicators for Historic Peninsula World Heritage Sites Project Packages Evaluation BIBLIOGRAPHY ix

11 List of Tables Table 1. Administrative Distribution and Sizes in the Site Management Plan According to Districts Table 2. Cultural Properties in the Site Management Plan Area Table 3. Functions of the Cultural Properties of the Site Management Plan Area Table 4.Ownership of the Cultural Properties of the Site Management Plan Area Table 5. Declared Renewal Areas within the Site Management Plan Area Table 6. Tourism Centres in the Site Management Plan Area Table 7. Functional Distribution of the Site Management Plan Area Table 8. Population of the Site Management Plan Area Table 9. Tourism Licensed Accommodation Facilities in the Historic Peninsula Table 10. Museums in the Historic Peninsula and the Number of Visitors Table 11. Strengths and Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats in the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Table 12. Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan Projects Staging Table Table 13. Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators of Management and Organisation Projects Table 14. Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators of Conservation, Planning and Quality of Life Projects Table 15. Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators of Accessibility Projects Table 16. Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators of Perception of the Importance and Value of the Site Projects Table 17. Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators of Training, Awareness Raising and Participation Projects Table 18. Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators of Visitor Management Projects Table 19. Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators of Risk Management Projects Table 20. Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators of Sultanahmet Archeological Park Projects Table 21. Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators of the Suleymaniye Mosque and its Associated Conservation Area Projects Table 22. Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators of Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its Associated Conservation Area Projects Table 23. Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators of Istanbul Land Walls Projects x

12 List of Maps Map 1. Location of the Historic Peninsula within Istanbul Map 2. Boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area approved by the Minister of Culture and Tourism on April 21st, Map 3. Boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area and World Heritage Sites approved by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Map 4. Administrative Boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area Map 5. World Heritage Sites of the Historic Peninsula Map 6. Sites in Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site Map 7. Conservation Zones in the Site Management Plan Area Map 8. Cultural Properties in the Site Management Plan Area Map 9. Cultural Properties in Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site Map 10. Cultural Properties in Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site Map 11. Cultural Properties in Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site Map 12. Cultural Properties in Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Site Map 13. Renewal Areas in the Site Management Plan Area Map 14. Topography of the Site Management Plan Area Map 15. Analysis of the High Risk Areas in terms of an Earthquake in the Site Management Plan Area Map 16. Land Use in the Site Management Plan Area Map 17. Land Use in Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site Area Map 18. Land Use in Suleymaniye Mosque and and its associated Area World Heritage Site Map 19. Land Use in Zeyrek Mosque (Panocrator Monastery) and its associated Area World Heritage Site Map 20. Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site Land Use Map 21. Neighbourhood Populations in the Site Management Plan Area Map 22. Current Transportation Network in the Site Management Plan Area Map 23. Existing and in-construction rail systems of the Site Map 24. Istanbul Provincial Environmental Plan Map 25. Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan Map 26. Conservation Zones in the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan Map 27. Plan Decisions Pertaining to the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site in the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan Map 28. Plan Decisions Pertaining to the Suleymaniye World Heritage Site in the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan Map 29. Plan Decisions Pertaining to the Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) World Heritage Site in the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan Map 30. Plan Decisions Pertaining to the Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site in the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan Map 31. Zeytinburnu Master Plan and City Walls Isolation Area Conservation Plan Map 32. Eyup Urban Site Revised Master Plan for Conservation Map 33. 1/5000 Scale Bayrampasa Revised Master Plan taking place in the Buffer Zone within the borders drawn by the Site Management Plan Map 34. Historic Peninsula; Plan Layout of Site Management Plan Area (Districts of Fatih, Zeytinburnu, Eyup and Bayrampasa) Map 35. Site Management Plan Area Zoning Map xi

13 List of Figures Figure 1. Schedule for Preparation of the Site Management Plan Figure 2. Archeological Park Area in Prost Plan Figure 3. Sample Project Definition in relation to the Site Management Plan Area of Istanbul Historic Peninsula Figure 4. Priority-Satisfaction Matrix Figure 5. Project Package Loop List of Photographs Photograph 1. Suleymaniye Kulliye Photograph 2. Molla Zeyrek Mosque - Pantocrator Church Photograph 3. Land Walls of Istanbul Photograph 4. An example of the sunken boats recovered in Yenikapi excavations Photograph 5. Suleymaniye Traditional Wooden Houses (samples of civil architecture) Photograph 6. Muftiship Building and Istanbul University Botanical Gardens Photograph 7. Yedikule Neighbourhood Photograph 8. Samatya Coastal Walls Photograph 9. Cerrahpasa Kulliye and Surroundings Photograph 10. Marmara Coastal Strip and Yenikapi Marmaray Archeological Excavation Area Photograph 11. Archaeological Site and Urban Archaeological Site Photograph 12. Bab-i Ali and Sirkeci Terminal Photograph 13. The Grand Bazaar Photograph 14. Suleymaniye Neighbourhood Photograph 15. Zeyrek Neighbourhood Photograph 16. Fatih Mosque and Surroundings Photograph 17. Bulgar Church and Fener Greek Boys High School Photograph 18. Mevlana Gate and Surroundings Photograph 19. IMM and Surroundings Photograph 20. Neighbourhood xii

14 List of Appendixes APP 1: APP 2: APP 3: APP 4: APP 5: APP 6: APP 7: APP 8: APP 9: APP 10: APP 11: APP 12: APP 13: APP 14: Decision of Inscription of Historic Sites of Istanbul on the World Heritage List Regulations Regarding the Procedures and Principles for Determining Foundation, Duties and Management Areas of the Site Management and Board of Monuments Advisory Board of Cultural and Natural Sites Management Directorate and Board of Coordination and Supervision of Cultural and Natural Sites Management Directorate Decision of Management Area Boundaries of Historic Areas of Istanbul Approved the Minister of Culture and Tourism Decisions adopted in No 30, 31, 32, 33,34 and 35 period meetings of UNESCO World Heritage Committee regarding Historic Areas of Istanbul List of Attendants of the Search Conferences and Workshops Organised for studies of Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan Related Decisions of Advisory Board of Cultural and Natural Sites Management Directorate and Board of Coordination and Supervision of Cultural and Natural Sites Management Directorate Universal Value Text accepted in No. 35 meeting of UNESCO World Heritage Committee held in Paris between June 19 and 29, Historical Development Process of the Site (experts reports) Intangible Cultural Heritage (expert report) Formation of Public Awareness Raising Program (expert report) Activities of Institution Related to Site Management Plan Subjects Cultural Properties in Istanbul Historic Peninsula World Heritage Sites Ministry of Culture and Tourism s Approval for ICOMOS Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment Report xiii

15 CLARIFICATION NOTES There are a number of frequently used key terms which appear throughout the Report. By means of clarification, these terms are presented below: Site Management Plan refers to Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan. According to the Plan Vision, it is defined as a site management plan that protects the outstanding universal value of the Historic Peninsula. It is executed by all related institutions and establishments in coordination and transparently by also encouraging participation of users and inhabitants; to enable the Historic Peninsula to protect its rich historical background, preserve its liveliness, produce and pass on its socio-economic spatial and cultural identity to future generations. Site Management Plan Area refers to Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan Area. It covers the entire Istanbul Historic Peninsula as determined by the Istanbul Natural and Cultural Sites Management Directorate and Advisory Board. Historic Areas of Istanbul refers to four areas inscribed on UNESCO World Heritage List due to their outstanding universal values. They are Sultanahmet Archeological Park, Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated conservation area, Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated conservation area and the Istanbul Land Walls. Historic Peninsula World Heritage Sites refers to Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site, Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site, Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site and Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site. Historic Peninsula Project Packages refers to the group of projects under the following headings which were determined as seven themes of the Site Management Plan: Management and Organisation, Conservation, Planning and Quality of Life, Accessibility, Perception of Importance and Value of the Site, Training, Awareness Raising and Participation, Visitor Management and Risk Management. Site Management Plan Objectives, Strategies, Actions, Related Institutions and Establishments refer to the components determined for each of the aforementioned headings. These include the definitions of the objectives to solve the determined problems, the strategies required to fulfil the objectives and their related actions, as well as the responsible and supportive institutions and the establishments that will execute such actions. 1

16 Historic Peninsula Project Packages include of the following headings: Project Code, Project Name, Project Definition, Link with the Site Management Plan, Responsible Institutions, Related Institutions, Resources, Term and Link with the Scheduled Projects of Other Institutions. Project Code refers to the code of each project which consists of two components. The first component which is expressed with Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and VII) indicates the theme of the project. The second component of the project code is the project number. The numbering precedes independent from the themes. Project Name indicates the name of the related project. Project Definition includes a brief explanation about the project and underlines the scope of the project. Responsible Institutions refers to the institutions which may lead the execution of the project. The responsible institution may not necessarily provide financial resources in relation to the execution of the project and has the primary function of providing administrative responsibility and project coordination. Related institutions refers to the institutions which possess capacities such as knowledge, human resource, technology and similar project experiences and may execute the projects in coordination with the responsible institution(s). Link with the Site Management Plan refers to the section which has four subcomponents. These subcomponents are Related Objective(s), Related Strategy (Strategies), Related Action(s) and Related Project Packages. The content of each component is designed in a way as to establish, again through the codes, the connection and reference between the other projects which were formed by the same objectives, strategies and actions related to the project in question. A project may be connected with more than one of the objectives, strategies, actions and projects. The connection between a project and other projects may be an input-output relationship as well as a complementary relationship. Resources refers to the institution(s) which may provide the financial resources for the execution of the project specified. They may be public institutions and local government units as well as publicprivate sector partnerships, agencies, non-governmental organisations and private sector institutions. Term indicates the period of time in which the related project can be completed. In the project tags, the expression short corresponds to 1-2 years, medium 3-4 years and long 5 years of project terms. Term of the project packages which constitute sustainability such as maintenance, repair, education and awareness raising are indicated as ongoing. Link with the Scheduled Projects of Other Institutions includes the studies and projects related to the project which are currently approved, accepted to the investment and service program and offered within this concept by the related institutions. Coding System refers to the project coding system that has been developed to follow up the connection between the Site Management Plan objectives, strategies and actions. The coding system starts with Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII) representing the seven themes of the Plan. Objectives related to every theme, are represented with the letter H which stands for objective 2

17 ( Hedef in Turkish) and a consecutive number in itself (e.g.: IIH2, IVH4, etc.). Strategies connected to the same objectives are represented with the letter "S" which stands for strategy and consecutive strategy numbers (e.g.: IIH2S2, IVH4S3, etc.). The actions connected to the same strategies are represented with the letter E which stands for action ( Eylem in Turkish) and consecutive action numbers (e.g.: IIH2S2E1, IVH4S3E2, etc.). After translation of some Turkish institutions, Turkish abbreviation of the same institution has been given in brackets. 3

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19 INTRODUCTION While the development of integrated urban management strategies, conservation plans and renovation activities for conservation areas and financial and social responsibility projects intended for such activities are presently discussed, site management and site management plan concepts have gained importance in urban conservation and planning in Turkey as well as globally. Management Plans are one of the planning and implementation tools which are accepted as a basis for provision of conservation, utilisation and development balance. These plans are generally defined as the tools which guide or will guide the managers, institutions and establishments related to conservation, planning and management of the site in their implementations. Thus the management plan may be defined as a stakeholder-oriented strategic plan which ensures coordination between related public institutions and non-governmental organisations and steers the activities and projects which will embody such coordination in the same direction (Gulersoy, Ayranci, 2011). A Management Plan includes the vision regarding the future of the site, main objectives, basic strategies, actions and projects and implementation tools regarding conservation and planned development of the site. A Management plan sets forth the management objectives of the site, defines the people in charge and their responsibilities and allocates resources accordingly. This process is constantly supervised, supported by regular feedback and updated accordingly. Due to these characteristics, it has the quality of an operational plan and is separate from traditional development and conservation plans. Concepts of Site Management and Management Plan have entered Turkey s agenda with regards to conservation of natural and cultural values through the following: Ramsar Convention (1971) (to which Turkey became a party in 1993 for Wetlands of Natural Conservation Areas); World Heritage Convention (1972) which was issued according to the decisions adopted by the UNESCO World Heritage Centre and the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for UNESCO World Heritage Sites (to which Turkey became a party in 1983); and the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (1977, 2008) (Gulersoy, Ayranci, 2011). In the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (1977, 2008), which bears the quality of being the operational guidelines for the World Heritage Convention, the following is specified: Each property should have an appropriate management plan or other documented management system which should specify how the outstanding universal value of a property should be preserved, preferably through participatory means. The purpose of a management system is to ensure the effective conservation of the property for present and future generations. The World Heritage Centre requires that the sites which are proposed and announced as World Heritage and inscribed on the World Heritage List have a management plan. 5

20 Inscription of Historic Areas of Istanbul on the World Heritage List In 1983, Turkey signed the Convention Concerning the Conservation of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage which was approved by UNESCO in Within the scope of the convention which aims to recognize and introduce the cultural and natural properties in the world which have a Universal Outstanding Value as the common heritage of the whole of humanity, is the requirement to establish the consciousness of protecting the universal heritage within the communities and to ensure necessary cooperation in order to maintain these values. Implementation of the World Heritage List was initiated in In this context, in 1985 four conservation areas in Istanbul were inscribed on the World Heritage List under the definition of "Historic Areas of Istanbul sequence number of 356 (See: Appendix-1). These sites are Sultanahmet Archeological Park, Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated conservation area, Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated conservation area and the Land Walls of Istanbul. The "Historic Areas of Istanbul were inscribed on the World Heritage List due to the fact that they met the cultural criteria numbered (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) of the ten criteria used for the inscription of properties with Outstanding Universal Value on the World Heritage List. These criteria are defined as follows: (i) represent a masterpiece of human creative genius; (ii) exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design; (iii) bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilisation; be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates significant stages in human history (See Part 1.2). Conservation Status of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula The four conservation areas which were inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1985 under the name of Historic Areas of Istanbul were registered as protected areas under the national legislation before they were inscribed on the List. Topkapi Palace and Sultanahmet District were declared as Archeological Park in 1953; Zeyrek Mosque and its associated sites, Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated sites and the Land Walls were placed under conservation in 1979, 1977 and 1981 respectively. Since then, in addition to the four World Heritage Sites, other sites requiring conservation in Istanbul Historic Peninsula have been considered to be declared as protected areas. As a result, under the Law on the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, Istanbul Historic Peninsula was declared as a protected area partially as archeological, urban-archeological and historical and urban and put under conservation as a whole. As required by the new conservation status, studies of inventory and a conservation plan which cover the whole Istanbul Historic Peninsula were initiated (See Part 1.4). 6

21 Istanbul Historic Peninsula, has a history dating back some 8000 years in which it was known by different names such as Licus, its oldest name in history; Byzantion, because of the foundation legend of the city; Constantinople, the new capital of the Roman Empire and Dersaadet (Gate of Felicity) and Stamboul from the Ottoman Empire, is one of the few settlements in the world where human settlement has remained constant, has increased constantly and where present life continues with vitality. Besides maintaining its authenticity with many monuments, a wooden fabric and a multi-layer heritage which reflects the fact that it hosted several civilisations, the city also proceeds to a modern future with the implementation of contemporary architecture. At the same time, new tall structures, large infrastructure and transportation projects affect the unique silhouette and other elements of the world heritage site and the buffer zone, thus threatening the outstanding universal value of the Historic Peninsula. The Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan is being prepared in order to ensure that the authenticity and integrity of the outstanding universal value of the heritage is preserved, maintained and developed in the future. It is paramount that the heritage value of the Historic Peninsula are understood and fully embraced by the stakeholders and developed accordingly. Inclusion of Management Area and Management Plan in the national legislation Concepts of Management Area and Management Plan were first included in the national law legislation within the article of Appendix-2a which was added to the Law on the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties numbered 2863 as per the Law numbered 5226 and within the definitions added to the article 3. In this context, it is required that the management plans be prepared for not only the World Heritage Sites, but all sites. The law defines the assignment and authorities of the Site Managers in the Management Areas and the individuals to be chosen as members of the Coordination and Supervision Board who will be in charge of approving the management plan and supervising the implementation. The related Law and Regulation stipulate that an Advisory Board is founded during the preparation and decision making process of the Site Management Plan which is made up of people who have ownership rights at the site and related department representatives of the trade associations, non-governmental Organisations and universities. The law defines the Management Areas as the places whose borders are determined by the Ministry after consulting the related administrations and which are formed to provide the coordination between central and local governments authorised in planning and conservation and nongovernmental organisations in order to efficiently protect, maintain, utilise the natural and cultural sites, ruins and interaction fields within their natural integrity, develop the same under a specific vision or theme and combine them with the cultural and educational needs of the community. Management Plans are defined as the plans which are revised every five years and exhibit the annual and five-year implementation stages and budget of the conservation and development project which is devised by considering the operational project, excavation plan, landscape project or conservational development plan in order to protect, maintain and utilise the Management Area. Regarding the implementation process of the Site Management Plan, the Law stipulates that...public institutions and establishments, municipalities and natural and legal persons are required to obey the management plan approved by the coordination and advisory board, to prioritize the services under the plan and to allocate the necessary funds in their budgets accordingly. 7

22 In accordance with this Law, the Regulations Regarding the Procedures and Principles for Determining Foundation, Duties and Management Areas of the Site Management and Board of Monuments numbered came into effect in Following the completion of the legal process, the Istanbul Natural and Cultural Sites Management Directorate was established as per the decision of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipal Council dated September 15 t, 2006 and numbered 1675, and Site Management Director was assigned on October 27 th, 2006 and became responsible from the management of the sites in Istanbul. As defined by the Law, the Advisory Board of Istanbul Sites and the Coordination and Supervision Board of Istanbul Sites were founded and the Advisory Board commenced working as of March 2 nd, 2008 (See: Appendix-4). Defining the boundaries of the Site Management Plan for Istanbul Historic Sites The Istanbul Natural and Cultural Sites Management Directorate and Advisory Board decided to undertake the management plan for the four sites (named the Historic Areas of Istanbul) in the World Heritage List in a way which would encompass the whole of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula as opposed to preparing separate plans for each site. The board considered the fact that the other heritage sites also bear outstanding universal value and that the Istanbul Historic Peninsula has been a national protected site as a whole since The Advisory Board have also emphasized that Beyoglu, Eyup, Bogazici, Uskudar and Kadikoy which surround Istanbul Historic Peninsula are each unique districts due to their cultural heritage and natural characteristics and were also declared as protected sites on different dates accordingly. In this context, the Advisory Board considered the fact that although those areas are not World Heritage Sites, management plans would be prepared for them in accordance with the national legislation as it was decided that it would not be accurate to define these heritage sites as the buffer zones of the Site Management Plan Area of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula as recommended in UNESCO reports. Within the scope of these decisions, the borders which were deemed suitable by the Istanbul Natural and Cultural Sites Management Directorate and Advisory Board on December 4 th, 2008 and then accepted by related Cultural and Natural Heritage Conservation Boards were approved by the Minister of Culture of Tourism on April 22 nd, 2009 and finalised as the Management Area Boundaries of Istanbul Historic Sites (See Appendix-4). Preparation Process of Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan According to the related legislation, the duty of coordination in preparation of the management plan for the Historic Sites Istanbul belongs to Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. During the preparation process of the plan, the Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites which was appointed on behalf of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality applied to Istanbul 2010 European Capital of Culture Agency within the scope of 2010 European Capital of Culture Local governments Cooperation Protocol. According to the decree of the Agency Executive Council dated February 02, 2009 and numbered 05, preparation of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan was accepted as an Istanbul 2010 project. According to the decree of the Agency Budget and Tender Committee dated September 16, 2009 and numbered 34, it was decided that the Preparation of Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan would be performed by Bogazici Insaat Musavirlik Teknik Hizmetler Sanayi ve Ticaret A.S (BIMTAS). The Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan studies commenced as per the agreement signed on November 03, According to the Regulations Regarding the Procedures and Principles for Determining Foundation, Duties and Management Areas of the Site Management and Board of Monuments, it was decided that the 8

23 drafting of the Site Management Plan would be prepared by a team consisting of experts and consultants from different disciplines according to the quality of the Site and in coordination with the Site Manager. In this context, the process of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan has been scheduled to include the preparation and evaluation of the drafting of the management plan and approval, implementation, supervision, pursuit and update of the management plan. Stages of Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan Studies of Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan were pursued by IMM Directorate of Conservation of the Historic Environment, Istanbul Natural and Cultural Sites Management Directorate and Advisory Board from beginning to end; opinions and contributions were gathered from the Directorate and the Board. Furthermore, in the Site Management Plan studies, UNESCO World Heritage Centre / ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring Mission Reports ( and 2010) and the approved decisions regarding Historic Areas of Istanbul in 30 th, 31 st, 32 nd, 33 rd, 34 th and finally 35 th term meetings of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee were analysed and taken into consideration (See: Appendix-5). Substantial effort was put into making the prepared management plan a comprehensive, highly disciplined and efficient document. The plan was intended to be defined within a conservation framework which will encourage the participation of the district users and related stakeholders to the process, encourage the communication and cooperation between authorised and related institutions and solve the basic problems which are faced by historic urban landscape. It was also attempted to be developed in a way to be integrated with a sound management system. Process of Preparation of the Drafting of Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan was planned in 4 stages (Figure 1): 1 st Stage: Collecting and analyzing the studies made and the data gathered from the Site Management Plan Area 2 nd Stage: With participation of the stakeholders assigned as a result of the stakeholder analysis initiated in the previous stage, determining the vision, objectives and strategies of the Site Management Plan Area 3 rd Stage: Producing Activity Plans according to the objectives which were mutually determined in 2 nd Stage with active participation of the stakeholders 4 th Stage: Preparing and revealing the Site Management Plan to the stakeholders and revising it according to their opinions. 9

24 Figure 1. Schedule for Preparation of the Site Management Plan During the 1 st Stage studies, eight decision meetings for determining the process and basic study principles of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan, five pre-information presentations for the institutions and establishments in the Site regarding the subject and study and a workshop were organised. Interviews were also conducted with institutions and establishments in relation to the Site in order to further inform the analytic studies undertaken in the 1 st Stage. In the first stages of the study, the actors/stakeholders in relation to the Site Management Plan Area were defined and the related stakeholder analysis was conducted. In the process of defining the related actors from the non-governmental organisations, databases from Fatih Platform, the Nongovernmental Development Centre, the Non-governmental Development Program and Istanbul Development Agency were utilised. The list of actors was then divided into two groups namely the actors/stakeholders that are in the Site and in relation to the Site and the actors/stakeholders that are not in the Site but in relation to the Site. Among the actors which are in the Site and organised under the status of association, union, platform, chamber and foundation, the ones which may contribute to the preparations of the Site Management Plan were categorized as tradesman establishments, neighbourhood/district establishments, local sports clubs, social assistance/solidarity establishments and fellow-countrymen associations. The actors in the second group were categorized as expert non-governmental organisations, occupational organisations and the organisations which represent the private sector. During the process, it was intended to increase the efficiency of the communication organisation in the preparation process of the Site Management Plan by pre-evaluating various focus group meetings, attendant observation practices and information about attendant conferences which were held for different projects within the Site. In the 1 st Stage of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan, laws and institutional systems relating to the Site were systematically defined; the studies and qualitative and quantitative data performed and gathered by different institutions and establishments was collected and expressed with the same system and expression technique. The process of information gathering and update in relation to the area in order to determine the current situation, problems and possibilities continued throughout the preparation process of Plan Drafts and discussion of the same in the Advisory Board until it was approved by the Coordination and Supervision Board. It is very important 10

25 to stress that the data bank is completed and the system with data management approach is established and utilised in the implementation stage of the plan. 2 nd Stage Studies set forth the problems and potentials related to the Istanbul Historic Peninsula, determined the Vision and the main policies and defined the objectives, strategies and actions accordingly. It was intended that the aforementioned study process be prepared with the inclusion of extensive participation due to both the nature of the Site Management Plan and the Special Technical Specification. Thus, an attendant conference, three thematic workshops, expert meetings and private group meetings were organised. In the Search Conference, held at the Golden Horn Convention Centre on July 20-21, 2010 and chaired by the Search and Research Organisation Consultancy, a meeting was convened to encourage extensive participation. By utilising the knowledge and experiences of the actors/stakeholders in the Site, the intention was to establish a common mind in relation to forming the vision, mission, principles, main objectives, Site Management plan design and management approach of the Site Management Plan. Studies regarding the Search Conference were performed in three stages namely, preparation of the conference, implementation of the conference and collecting, pursuing and evaluating the conference results. During the preparation process of the conference, meetings were held with the Executive Board and Advisory Board, the actors and stakeholders related to the Site were analysed and mapped and the attendant list of the Search Conference was determined. Prior to the Search Conference, three preinformation meetings were held for attendants on July 7-8, 2010 and the framework of the Future Design of the Historic Peninsula which was discussed in the Search Conference was established. The Search Conference was implemented in three steps: 1. Movements, Brain Storming and Strength/Weaknesses & Opportunities/Threats (SWOT) Group Studies 2. Future Design-Vision 3. Future Design-Site Management Plan Design and Management Approach In the Movements and Brain Storming stages, movements which would shape the future and the current situation were collectively determined. Common input was prepared for the group studies with the appendixes extracted from the information file. The SWOT study was performed and observations were taken and recorded from the two separate groups. The Future Design Vision Study was simultaneously implemented in 8 groups. Clarifying questions relating to the presentations of each group were then posed by the attending groups. The Integration study in this stage was conducted by Search Consultancy and a team of volunteer attendants; it was then shared with all attendants and their comments were heard. Clarification of the Vision was finalised by considering the studies of all groups with additional comments contributed by a group made up of spokespersons of the 8 groups and volunteers. The Future Design Management Plan Design and Management Approach were studied by parallel groups simultaneously in the same session and the studies were presented and interpreted by the presenters of the groups. 11

26 In total and in order to cover all of the actors, 232 people were invited to the Search Conference. 113 people participated in the pre-information meetings. 113 people in total participated in the Search Conference; 90 of them were attendants, 4 were press members and 19 were from the study team. Of the 232 people invited to the Search Conference, 22% were from centralised management, 23% from local government agencies, 21% from expert and local Non-governmental Organisations, 21%were academicians and experts and 13% were members of the Advisory Board of Istanbul Natural and Cultural Sites Management Directorate. Of 113 invitees who participated in the Search Conference, 29% were local government representatives, 19% were centralised management representatives, 28% were Non-governmental Organisations representatives, 12% were academicians and experts and 13% were members of the Advisory Board of Istanbul Natural and Cultural Sites Management Directorate. In the 3 rd Stage studies, based on the vision, objectives and strategies which were determined in the previous stage, the actions were developed and the project and project packages related to these actions were defined. In determining the actions, participative methods were used as in the previous stage and results of an attendant conference, four thematic workshops, expert meetings and private group meetings were utilised. The II. Search Conference: Activity Architecture Workshop was a participative study which was held on November 2 nd, 2010 with the stakeholders in order to evaluate the main objectives of the Site Management Plan, to determine the steps which lead to the objectives, to define the obstacles to these steps and to develop solutions in order to surmount obstacles identified. Prior to this study, on November 1 st, 2010, objectives and strategies document which would be distributed to the groups in the activity architecture workshop was submitted to the Execution Board and the document was finalised based on the feedback received from the members. In the Activity Architecture Workshop, an opening presentation was made to the attendants relating to the output, object and methodology of the study of the 1 st attendant conference. In the first part of the workshop, attendants were divided into nine groups based on their objective areas and the groups worked in parallel with each other. 134 people in total participated in the Activity Architecture Workshop. Results of the Activity Architecture Workshop were submitted to the Executive Board on November 12 th, 2010 and to the Advisory Board on December 2 nd, A pre-prepared special objective and strategies document was distributed to the group attendants; back-casting method was executed by the Search and Consultancy instructor in each group. The groups who managed to convey their studies to a level of receiving feedback, obtained feedback from the other groups through the touring group approach. Thus, each attendant contributed to the activity plan in at least two objective areas. In the final session, the groups made presentations and shared their group studies with all attendants. The nine objectives defined and studied in the attendant conference were integrated and reduced to seven problems and objective areas in the later studies. Aside from the Search Conference, three thematic workshops were conducted to which the institutions and establishments authorised in the Site Management Plan Area as well as the related non-governmental organisations were invited. Furthermore, related public institutions and expert non-governmental organisations were invited to the workshops which were respectively organised on the following subjects: (i) planning, transportation and technical infrastructure, (ii) implementations in cultural heritage and conservation zone, (iii) culture and tourism. 12

27 The attendants in the aforementioned workshops were as follows: The Governorship of Istanbul, Istanbul 1 st District Directorate of Foundations, Directorate of Development, Investment and Construction of Istanbul Special Provincial Administration, Istanbul Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, Istanbul Provincial Directorate of Health, Istanbul Provincial Directorate of National Education, Istanbul Directorate of Survey and Monuments, IMM Directorate of Transportation Planning, ISKI, IMM Directorate of Planning, IMM Directorate of City Planning, IMM Directorate of Projects, IMM Directorate of Construction Affairs, IMM Directorate of Urban Design, IMM Directorate of Rail Systems, IMM Directorate of Transportation, IMM Directorate of Transport Coordination, IMM Directorate of Road Maintenance and Repair, IMM Directorate of Parks and Gardens, IMM Directorate of Culture, IMM Directorate of Tourism, IMM Tourism Workshop, IMM Directorate of Conservation, Application and Supervision (KUDEB), Directorate of Urban Projects of Istanbul 2010 European Capital of Culture Agency, Directorate of Tourism of Istanbul 2010 European Capital of Culture Agency, Marmaray Coordination Committee of TCDD 1 st District Directorate, KIPTAS A.S., Fatih Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Eyup Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality, Istanbul Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties Numbered 2 and 4 and Istanbul Board of Renewal Areas, Foundation of Developing Cultural Awareness, Association of Turkish Travel Agencies (TURSAB), Touristic Hotels and Investors Association (TUROB), Hotel Managers and Investors, Federation of Turkish Tourist Guide Associations (TUREB), IKSV and several experts. Attendants shared the studies in the Site Management Plan Area as well as the current projects and corporate approaches. By means of these workshops, the first steps of developing the communication and cooperation culture expected to be maintained in the implementation process of the Site Management Plan between the active and policy-making institutions in the Site were taken. In addition to the thematic workshops, private group meetings were held with the groups and experts who develop projects in the Site. These included (for example) meetings with Fatih Municipality regarding its completed and on-going projects in the Site and also with IMM Directorate of Planning and JICA regarding their transportation projects. In the 4 th Stage Studies, the outputs obtained as a result of the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd stage studies of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan were gathered and evaluated and various processes were presented for the transformation of the created vision and strategies to projects as well as the coordination of the projects and participation of the related actors in the process. For the projects defined for the Istanbul Historic Peninsula, the basic sources are the outputs obtained from the attendant conferences, thematic workshops, expert and private group meetings, the Analytic Study Report, current plans and projects regarding the Historic Peninsula and 2 nd and 3 rd stage studies. Furthermore, national and international Management Plan samples were examined within the framework of the preparation processes and approaches of the plans. In addition to the analysis, all monitoring reports prepared by and all decisions made by UNESCO regarding the Historic Areas of Istanbul were scrutinised and the reports which are the basis of these decisions were analysed. In the 4 th Stage, I. the Draft of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan was completed on January 31 st, 2011 and delivered to the Directorate of the Historic Environment of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The Plan was submitted in the meeting of the Istanbul Natural and Cultural Sites Advisory Board on February 21 st, 2011 and following the evaluations, feedback was received and necessary revisions were made in the drafting plan (See: Appendix-7). The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Governorship of Istanbul, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Fatih 13

28 Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Eyup Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality and the District Directorate of Foundations are the institutional members of the Advisory Board; the President of Tangible Cultural Heritage Committee of UNESCO Turkish National Commission, the President of ICOMOS Turkish National Committee are members of the Advisory Board as representatives of independent institutions outside central and local government units; TMMOB Chamber of Architects Presidency of Istanbul Buyukkent Branch and TMMOB Chamber of City Planners Presidency of Istanbul Branch are the Representatives of trade associations; IU, ITU, MSGSU, YTU are the representatives from the universities in Istanbul; 26 experts who were selected for the Advisory Board in relation to this subject; The President and Vice President of the Advisory Board declared their opinions in writing. On the other hand, 20 members of the Board declared their opinions verbally in the Advisory Board meeting held on February, 21 st, In addition to these opinions, the President and Vice President of the Advisory Board prepared an evaluation report on March 9 th 2011 after reviewing the opinions of the members. In accordance with these opinions, 1 st Draft of Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan was revised and 2 nd Draft Plan was prepared. It was submitted to the Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites on 8 th April 2011 and transmitted to the Head of Site Management. The Coordination and Supervision Board of Istanbul Sites started working on 2 nd Draft on May 05, 2011 and after three meetings, adopted the decision dated July 27, 2011 (See: Appendix-7). According to the decision and its appendixes, 2 nd Draft of Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan was revised, completed and delivered to the Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites on September 16 th 2011 as the 3 rd Draft in order to be submitted to Coordination and Supervision Board. At the same time, the 35th Meeting of UNESCO World Heritage Committee was held between 19 and 29 June At this meeting, for the first time Turkish and English versions of the 1st Draft of Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan and Turkish version of the 2nd Draft Plan was introduced to the people concerned. During revision studies for the 3rd Draft of the Site Management Plan, the decisions adopted at the 35th Meeting of the World Heritage Committee regarding the Historic Areas of Istanbul (See: Appendix-5) were taken into consideration and necessary revisions were made to the Plan. The Committee also recommends that, after consulting with the World Heritage Centre, an independent and specialised Advisory Committee be appointed which will advise on establishing a strategic framework regarding conservation and developing infrastructure; guide the management of the World Heritage Sites and consider every possible solution to mitigate the effects of the Golden Horn Bridge. The 3rd Draft of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan was approved by the decision of the Coordination and Supervision Board on September 29, 2011, on the proviso that the execution of some revisions was added. Requested revisions were executed and the draft was submitted to the Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites on October 24, Revisions of the plan were approved by the Coordination and Supervision Board on October 28, 2011 and it was decided that the processes regarding the plan would be completed through the Council of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Council of Fatih Municipality, Council of Eyup Municipality, Council of Zeytinburnu Municipality and Council of Bayrampasa Municipality. Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan was approved by district municipalities in November council meetings and by the Council of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality with the Council Decision dated December 16, 2011 and numbered

29 According to the related legislation, all public institutions and establishments, municipalities, natural and legal persons must comply with the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan which came into effect following the approval of the Coordination and Supervision Board of Istanbul Sites. Authorized administrations are liable to prioritize the services within the scope of the plan, to allocate necessary funds in their budgets for this purpose and to provide resources. In the process of realising the duties defined in the management plans, the Site Manager will work in coordination with the institutions and establishments in charge of implementation and the authorized administration. During the monitoring process of the implementation of the Site Management Plan decisions; the Supervision Unit to be formed and authorised by the Coordination and Supervision Board of Istanbul Sites in accordance with the related legislation will perform annual performance evaluations of the project packages assumed by related institutions and prepare the working program and budget draft of the following year. The reports to be prepared at the end of these transactions will be evaluated by the Coordination and Supervision Board and working program and the budget draft of the Site Management Plan for the following year will be approved. Aside from the annual examination, the Supervision Unit will review the vision, objectives and policies every five years and submit them to the Coordination and Supervision Board for evaluation. Operation of this system, timings of the project packages and performance indicators were defined within a general framework in Part 4 of the 3 rd Draft of Management Plan of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula. This framework should be reviewed by the Coordination and Supervision Board and its affiliated Supervision Unit in the light of information and recommendations of the Supervision Board. 15

30 16

31 1. DEFINITION OF ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN AREA 1.1. Location and Boundaries of Area Istanbul Province, which is one of the seven geographic regions of Turkey and provides a passage between the Balkan Peninsula and Anatolia is topographically bordered with the Black Sea in the north, the Kocaeli Mountain Ranges in the east, the Marmara Sea in the south and drainage divide of Ergene Basin in the west. It also nestles between the administrative boundaries of Kocaeli Province in the east and Tekirdag Province in the west. The Historic Peninsula (Fatih District) is situated between 41 02' North latitude and 28 55'34 east longitude. The Site Management Plan Area of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula which is located in the southeast of the Catalca Peninsula forms a unique geography which shapes the Marmara Sea Bosporus and Golden Horn entrances. Beyoglu lies to northeast of the Site, the Marmara Sea to the south, Eyup to the north, Zeytinburnu District to the west and Bayrampasa to the northwest side of the Site. The Area is integrated with the urban, archeological, historical and natural sites in the associated districts (Map 1). Map 1. Location of the Historic Peninsula within Istanbul The boundaries of the Management Area have been extended by the Istanbul Historic Peninsula s Istanbul Natural and Cultural Sites Management Directorate Advisory Board to include the outer 17

32 areas of the four zones inscribed as Historic Areas of Istanbul (Suleymaniye, Zeyrek, Archeological Park, Land Walls) in the World Heritage List and to cover the entire Historic Peninsula; they were deemed fit by the related boards of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism under the definition of proposed management area and buffer zone. As per the article and appendixes of the General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism dated April 22, 2009 and numbered and the Ministry Approval numbered 77841; boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area are approved as the Management Area Boundaries of Historic Areas of Istanbul in accordance with the 10 th paragraph of the 3 rd article of the law numbered Boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area of Historic Areas of Istanbul which were determined by the Istanbul Natural and Cultural Sites Management Directorate and Advisory Board, consider the entire Istanbul Historic Peninsula as the Management Area. According to this decision, the Management Area consists of two zones. These are the Historic Peninsula which is historically known as the Istanbul Suriçi Zone; the green belt which is the external conservation belt of the Land Walls and the Buffer Zone which includes 5 aspect points (Map 2 and Map 3). Since 2010, the Historic Peninsula part of the Site Management Plan Area of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula is administratively defined as the whole Fatih District. The Buffer Zone which lies parallel to the Land Walls is within the boundaries of Eyup, Bayrampasa and Zeytinburnu Districts (Map 3). The Area covers 57 neighbourhoods in the Fatih District, a whole neighbourhood and parts of three neighbourhoods in Zeytinburnu District, two neighbourhoods in Eyup District and parts of a neighbourhood in Bayrampasa District (Map 4). The area is 2,110 hectares in total; 1,562 hectares of which is covered by the Historic Peninsula and 548 hectares by the Buffer Zone. This distribution is shown in Table 1 according to districts. 18

33 Map 2. Boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area approved by the Minister of Culture and Tourism on April 21st, 2009 (Source: Istanbul Natural and Cultural Sites Management Directorate) Map 3. Boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area and World Heritage Sites approved by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Source: Istanbul Natural and Cultural Site Management Directorate) 19

34 Table 1. Administrative Distribution and Sizes in the Site Management Plan According to Districts ZONE DISTRICT NAME AREA (HECTARE) POPULATION (2007) Historic Peninsula Suriçi Fatih 1, ,147 Bayrampasa 8 - Buffer Zone / Zeytinburnu ,091 Green Belt Eyup 133 4,874 Total ,965 Total Site Management Plan Area 2, ,112 Map 4. Administrative Boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area (Source: IMM, 2008) 20

35 1.2. Importance of Area Site Management Plan Area Istanbul, which has been a capital city of several civilisations, is now a settlement geographically called the Historic Peninsula. The Historic Peninsula is one of the rare urban settlements in the world where life has been constantly sustained for thousands of years. It is difficult to find such constant, intense, interlocking and a genuinely cosmopolite structure and settlement this size in other heritage areas subject to management plans. The city s efficient role as the governing city over a large geographical footprint from which several important works of art were built, demolished and rebuilt accordingly have contributed to the formation of this accumulation. Political development process of the Historic Peninsula as we know today began with the Byzantine City, and following its position as an administrative centre in Roman and Ottoman eras, has reached to this day within the boundaries of the Republic of Turkey. Development of the Historic Peninsula was shaped by the influences of the cultural and institutional heritage conveyed by the urban and socio-cultural structures in different eras on the building of the new era. Consequently, traces of history in the Historic Peninsula are multi-layered. Monuments which symbolise the powers of the civilisations which lived on the same urban site bear an attribute of physical transitivity. Actual Istanbul, which is currently known as Historic Peninsula, displays a unique silhouette with its renowned seven hills rising from an altitude of 45 to 85 and forming a chain on the mountain range which stretches from Sarayburnu to Edirnekapi, monuments situated on those hills and the slopes inclined to the Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea. The Land Walls which are one of the important symbols of the Historic Peninsula have existed among the basic spatial elements of the city throughout history; in addition to providing its primary function of defence, it also determined the size and development of the city. Other structural elements of the city such as the ports and infrastructure systems for provision of water were established in the Byzantine era and developed and extended due to engineering implementations particularly in the Roman and Ottoman eras. Religious structures and public spaces were shaped according to the topography of the city and whilst their structural attributes have changed in the light of socio-economic and cultural elements as reflected to specific eras, their symbolic meanings were sustained World Heritage Sites of the Historic Peninsula The Convention Concerning the Conservation of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage which was approved by UNESCO in its 17 th General Conference in 1972 aims to introduce the cultural and natural properties in the world which have a Universal Outstanding Value as the common heritage of the whole of humanity, to establish the consciousness of protecting the universal heritage within the communities and to ensure necessary cooperation in order to maintain these values which have been corrupted and destroyed due to various reasons. In 1985, Historic Areas of Istanbul consisting of four zones was inscribed on the World Heritage List. This list was established in

36 The most important condition for subscription on the World Heritage List is to document that the property in question has an outstanding universal value. Within the scope of the criteria used by the World Heritage Committee in defining the properties which have outstanding universal value, definitions of outstanding universal value, compliance with the criteria, authenticity and integrity which were prepared with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism for the Historic Areas of Istanbul and acknowledged in the meeting of UNESCO World Heritage Committee held in Paris between June 19-29, 2011 (WHC-11/35.COM/8E p.45-47) are specified below (See: Appendix-8). Outstanding Universal Value Strategically located on the Bosphorus peninsula between the Balkans and Anatolia, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, Istanbul was successively the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the Ottoman Empire and has been associated with major events in political history, religious history and art history for more than 2,000 years. The city is situated on a peninsula which is surrounded by the Golden Horn (Halic), a natural harbour on the north, the Bosphorus on the east and the Marmara Sea on the south. The Historic Peninsula, on which the former Byzantium and Constantinople developed, was surrounded by ancient walls, built initially by Theodosius in the early fifth century. The Outstanding Universal Value of Istanbul resides in its unique integration of architectural masterpieces that reflect the meeting of Europe and Asia over many centuries, and in its incomparable skyline formed by the creative genius of Byzantine and Ottoman architects. The distinctive and characteristic skyline of Istanbul was built up over many centuries and encompasses the Hagia Sophia whose vast dome reflects the architectural and decorative expertise of the 6th century, the 15th century Fatih complex and Topkapi Palace that was continually extended until the 19th century, the Suleymaniye Mosque complex and Sehzade Mosque complex, works of the chief architect Sinan, reflecting the climax of Ottoman architecture in the 16th century, the 17th century Blue Mosque and the slender minarets of the New Mosque near the port completed in The four areas of the property are the Archeological Park, at the tip of the Historic Peninsula; the Suleymaniye quarter with Suleymaniye Mosque complex, bazaars and vernacular settlement around it; the Zeyrek area of settlement around the Zeyrek Mosque (the former church of the Pantocrator), and the area along both sides of the Theodosian land walls including remains of the former Blachernae Palace. These areas display architectural achievements of successive imperial periods also including the 17th century Blue Mosque, the Sokollu Mehmet Pasha Mosque, the 16th century Sehzade Mosque complex, the 15th century Topkapi Palace, the hippodrome of Constantine, the aqueduct of Valens, the Justinian churches of Hagia Sophia, St. Irene, Little Hagia Sophia Mosque (the former church of the Sts Sergius and Bacchus), the Pantocrator Church founded under John II Comnene by Empress Irene; the former Church of the Holy Saviour of Chora with its mosaics and paintings dating from the 14th and 15th centuries; and many other exceptional examples of various building types including baths, cisterns, and tombs. 22

37 Criterion (i) (1984): The Historic Areas of Istanbul include monuments recognised as unique architectural masterpieces of Byzantine and Ottoman periods such as Hagia Sophia, which was designed by Anthemios of Tralles and Isidoros of Miletus in and the Suleymaniye Mosque complex designed by architect Sinan in Criterion (ii) (1984): Throughout history the monuments in Istanbul have exerted considerable influence on the development of architecture, monumental arts and the organisation of space, both in Europe and the Near East. Thus, the 6,650 meter terrestrial wall of Theodosius II with its second line of defence, created in 447, was one of the leading references for military architecture; Hagia Sophia became a model for an entire family of churches and later mosques, and the mosaics of the palaces and churches of Constantinople influenced both Eastern and Western art. Criterion (iii) (1984): Istanbul bears unique testimony to the Byzantine and Ottoman civilisations through its large number of high quality examples of a great range of building types, some with associated monuments. They include fortifications, churches and palaces with mosaics and frescos, monumental cisterns, tombs, mosques, religious schools and bath buildings. The vernacular housing around major religious monuments in the Suleymaniye and Zeyrek quarters provide exceptional evidence of the late Ottoman urban pattern. Criterion (iv) (1984): The city is an outstanding set of monuments, architectural and technical ensembles that illustrate very distinguished phases of human history. In particular, the Palace of Topkapi and the Suleymaniye Mosque complex with its caravanserai, madrasa, medical school, library, bath building, hospice and imperial tombs, provide supreme examples of ensembles of palaces and religious complexes of the Ottoman period. Integrity (2011) The Historic Areas of Istanbul include the key attributes that convey the Outstanding Universal Value of Istanbul as the parts of the city that had escaped major changes and deterioration in the 19th and 20th centuries and were already protected by national legislation at the time of inscription. Vernacular timber housing in the Suleymaniye and Zeyrek quarters was recognized as vulnerable at the time of inscription. Despite the threat of pressure for change, many efforts have been executed in order to conserve and strengthen the timber structures within the site since then. Changes in the social structure within the area have also affected the use of those structures. The urban fabric is threatened by lack of maintenance and pressure for change. The Metropolitan Municipality is attempting to rehabilitate the area to revive its degraded parts. The revival of the Suleymaniye and Zeyrek quarters is a long project which demands a long and careful process of cleaning, conservation and restoration. The Suleymaniye Complex has retained its structural and architectural integrity, except some minor changes in the commercial part of the compound. Zeyrek Mosque, originally the Church of Pantocrator, has suffered from several earthquakes. The integrity of the major monuments and archeological remains within the four Historic Areas are largely intact but they are vulnerable due to the lack of a management plan. With the management plan, which is under approval process by related authority, it is aimed to address all the issues and solve the problems within the site gradually. 23

38 The setting of the Historic Areas of Istanbul and the outstanding silhouette of the city are vulnerable to development. Authenticity (2011) The ability of the monuments and vernacular housing to express truthfully the Outstanding Universal Value of the Historic Areas of Istanbul has been compromised to some extent since inscription in terms of their design and materials. The conservation and restoration works in the setting of the Historic Peninsula are being led and followed by the central and local authorities as well as newly established institutions with the financial funds provided by the legal amendments. The setting and distinctive skyline of the Historic Peninsula continues to express the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. However the ongoing ability of the wider maritime setting to do this depends on ensuring that development does not compromise views of the skyline. Conservation and Management Requirements to Sustain the Outstanding Universal Value (2011) In order to be subscribed in the World Heritage List, it is necessary to meet the conditions of Conservation and Management Requirements to Sustain the Outstanding Universal Value. Under conservation and management, attributes such as boundaries, buffer zone, management systems and sustainable use should be defined. for the Historic Areas of Istanbul, the Conservation and Management Required to Sustain the Outstanding Universal Value defined by the related experts and institutions on April 2011 and acknowledged in the meeting of UNESCO World Heritage Committee held in Paris between June 19-29, 2011(WHC-11/35.COM/8E p.45-47) is specified below (See: Appendix-8). Conservation and Management Requirements (2011) The Historic Areas of Istanbul is legally protected through national conservation legislation. There is no specific planning legislation to protect World Heritage Sites. The management structure for the conservation and conservation of the properties includes the shared responsibilities of national government (The Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums, General Directorate of Pious Foundation) local government and several state institutions. The approval of the Conservation Board has to be obtained for physical interventions and functional changes in registered buildings and conservation areas. The Site Management Directorate for Cultural and Natural Sites of Istanbul was established within the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality in 2006 to coordinate management planning processes for World Heritage Sites of Istanbul. The work of the directorate is supported by an Advisory Board and a Coordination and Supervision Board. A site manager has also been appointed. A department was also structured under the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to coordinate the management issues of the World Heritage Sites in Turkey and to collaborate with related authorities for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention and the Operational Guidelines. 24

39 The first conservation plans for Zeyrek, Suleymaniye and the Land Walls were prepared and approved in 1979 and A new conservation plan including World Heritage Sites was endorsed by the Council of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and submitted to the Conservation Board for approval. The impressive skyline of the Historic Peninsula with the Topkapi Palace, Hagia Sophia and Suleymaniye is preserved by planning measures. The legal conservation and the management structures are adequate for ensuring the proper conservation of the properties. The national government has allocated a large amount of funding for restoration and conservation projects within the site as part of the European Capital of Culture campaign, in addition to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism s, the Istanbul Special Provincial Administration s, General Directorate of Pious Foundation s and the local government s annual budgets. Finding a balance between change and preservation is a delicate issue in the Historic Peninsula. The Management Plan, which is currently being prepared in collaboration with all stakeholders in conformity with the related legislation, will address this issue. It will address the traffic and transport plan for the city, the urban regeneration strategy and tourism management, and will provide a proper framework to ensure that construction and infrastructure projects respect the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. It will also include policies for conservation, standards for restoration and rehabilitation, management responsibilities, accessibility, visitor management, policies for increasing the perception of the site, increasing the quality of daily life, risk management, awareness raising and training. 25

40 Map 5. World Heritage Sites of the Historic Peninsula (Source: UNESCO, 2006) ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER

41 Location, Boundaries and Importance of Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site (Map 5) is located on the east side of the Historic Peninsula on the first hill of Istanbul and consists of two different zones; the first being the Sur-i Sultani Zone in which Topkapi Palace is located and the second one is the Sultanahmet Zone. The institutional foundation to accepting the zone as a World Heritage Site was grounded in the middle of 1930s. According to the Pros Plan which was prepared between 1936 and 1940, under the name of Master Plan of Istanbul and covers the Historic Peninsula boundaries, it was proposed that the associated sites of Sur-i Sultani and Sultanahmet would be conserved as an Archeological Park and developed for the intention of tourism (Figure 2). According to this decision, the zone was declared as Archeological Park in 1953; GEEAYK adopted this decision soon after its foundation (IMM, 2003a). Figure 2. Archeological Park Area in Prost Plan (Source: IMM, 2003a) In the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site, Sur-i Sultani Zone; the zone which includes Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul Archeological Museums and Hagia Irene Museum was declared as a First Degree Archeological Site through the decision taken by the Istanbul No. 1 Board of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties dated December 07, 1995 and numbered 6848; while Sultanahmet Zone was declared as an Urban Archeological Site due to its monumental arts as well as its partial functions in residence, trade and tourism (Map 6) (IMM, 2003a). Map 6. Sites in Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site (Source: IMM, 2003a) 27

42 Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site, which is one of the four Heritage Sites inscribed in the World Heritage List under the definition of Historic Areas of Istanbul and meets Cultural Criteria no (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) as inscribed on the World Heritage List is defined as the fact that it includes Hagia Sophia and Sultan Ahmet Mosques and the unique structures of the religious architecture of the Byzantine and Ottoman Era. These represent a masterpiece of human creative genius as proposed in the first criteria. Hagia Sophia is accepted as the greatest work of Byzantine art among the monuments located in the Archeological Park. The magnificence of Hagia Sophia s interior decoration, its unaccustomed architectural size, height of the dome in its centre and width of its diameter has evoked admiration since time memorial. Topkapi Palace which is defined as a distinguished example of a building type, architecture, technology or landscape of a specific era of human history, has achieved glorious size, grandness and functional variety with the additional structures and renovations made throughout various periods and became a reflection of Ottoman state institutionalisation with this appearance. Magnificence and multi-unit functionality adopted by Ottoman palace protocol and hierarchy in the course of time are also reflected in the architecture of Topkapi Palace. Due to being a 2500 year-old Heritage Site, the zone which is the most important tourism attraction point of Istanbul today (due to having Topkapi Palace Museum, Hagia Sophia Museum, Sultan Ahmet Mosque and Sultan Ahmet Square within) requires conservation due to its immense aboveground and underground values. Among the important monuments in the zone are Hagia Sophia Museum, Hagia Irene, Little Hagia Sophia Mosque, the Mosaic Museum and The Great Palace remains, Marmara Land Walls, Hippodrome, Binbirdirek and Basilica Cisterns, Topkapi Palace, Ibrahim Pasha Palace, the Kulliye of Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, Haseki Hurrem Sultan Hamami (Bath of Roxelana), The Fountain of Sultan Ahmet, Sultan Ahmet Mosque, Building of Defter-i Hakani (Land Register Office), Buildings of Istanbul Archeological Museums and German Fountain (IMM, 2003a). The Great Palace and the square in which Hippodrome was located in the Byzantine era stretch as far as the Marmara Sea. After the conquest and in the reign of the Conqueror, building in the zone began with structures such as the 1487 Ishak Pasha Kulliye, 1491 Firuz Aga Kulliye and Akbiyik Mosque. In the 16 th century, following the building of Ibrahim Pasha Palace, the square and its surroundings were filled with vizier and pasha palaces. Upon the building of Sultan Ahmet Kulliye in the 17 th century, the district increased in stature and importance. Throughout the 19 th century, Sultanahmet has been a distinguished district of the city which was recognized by its mansions. The parts of the district from Cankurtaran to Kadirga are filled with two-storey humble residences as opposed to mansions. The importance of the district continues with some government agency buildings, particularly ministry buildings which were built in the 20 th century (IMM, 2003a). Location, Boundaries and Importance of Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site is located to the north of the Historic Peninsula and on the slope of the 3 rd Hill of Istanbul which faces towards the Golden Horn. It lies between Ataturk Boulevard and Istanbul University in an east-west direction and stretches from Sehzade Kulliye to the coast of the Golden Horn in a north-south direction (Map 4). The name is derived from the Suleymaniye Kulliye within its boundaries. The district shows the typical characteristics of the Ottoman Era settlement with its traditional Turkish houses and the neighbourhoods preserving their organic forms. Suleymaniye Kulliye and the houses developed around it have formed the fabric of the zone. Neighbourhood groups which have been founded in this way continue to meet civilian and social needs with structures such as mosques, mosque yards, 28

43 soup kitchens, markets, Ottoman primary schools, Moslem seminaries, hospitals and libraries etc. (Eyice et al., 1994). Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site was declared as a site by the Ministry of Culture in 1977 and put under conservation. In 1995, the Suleymaniye district was defined as an urban and historic site according to the decision of Istanbul No 1 Conservation Board of Cultural and Natural Properties dated December 07, 1995 and numbered 6848 who also declared the entire Historic Peninsula as a site (Gulersoy-Zeren et al., 2008c). In the decision which specifies and approves that Suleymaniye Mosque and its Associated Sites meets the Cultural Criteria no. (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) and is one of the four conservation areas to be inscribed on the World Heritage List under the name of Historic Areas of Istanbul ; Suleymaniye Kulliye which was built by Mimar Sinan (Sinan Pasha) as his semiskilled artwork by the order of Suleiman the Magnificent is mentioned. Also it is emphasized that 525 wooden houses which were registered and conserved are located in this traditional settlement (Photograph 1). The district was begun to be called by the name of Suleymaniye Mosque and Kulliye (which was completed in 1557). Besides the kulliye, the structures which earn the name and characteristics of the district have been the madrasas, specialised schools for the learning of hadith (Darulhadis), hospital (Darussifa), Qur'an schools (Darulkurra), public kitchens (imaret), public baths (Hamam), Caravanserai-Guest House (Tabhane), Graveyard (Hazire) and Tombs, Bazaar (Arasta) and Market. In addition to its rich functions, it had become one of the most important zones of Istanbul for being the residential district of the religious scholars, executives of the Palace and merchant princes. Various urban functions which were gathered in this zone from the early 16 th century to early 19 th century have brought craftsman workshops, business offices and stores to a wide area surrounding Suleymaniye. Suleymaniye handicrafts and in particular copper handicrafts are made in the stores of the kulliye on Mimar Sinan Avenue and nearby. Towards Mercan lies the shopping and trade centre of the city which falls outside the World Heritage Site and Golden Horn below, where actions of several developing production units are still observed today, particularly the coppersmiths, moulders, wood turners, mouthpiece makers and felt cloak makers. Several buildings and faculties of Istanbul University located in the zone continue to provide an education and science function in the district (Eyice et al., 1994). Photograph 1. Suleymaniye Kulliye 29

44 Location, Boundaries and Importance of Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site is located on the fourth hill and hillside of Istanbul and is bordered by Ataturk Boulevard to the east. Ataturk Boulevard separates it from the Suleymaniye District, Suleymaniye Mosque and Kulliye which are located on another hill of Istanbul on another World Heritage Site. Fatih Mosque and Kulliye which is one of the most important structures of the Historic Peninsula are located west of the Site. Having a surface area of about 10 ha, Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site is the smallest of the World Heritage Sites of Istanbul. Zeyrek district which is known as the fourth hill of Istanbul and recognized as the monastery zone during the early period of Byzantine still bears the traces of that period with its monuments. It has always preserved its traditional fabric consisting of wooden attached buildings which reflects the characteristics of the residence area. However, due to reasons such as fires, lack of proper care and immigration, the district has suffered substantial damage through time, although not as much as Suleymaniye which is the other heritage site (IMM, 2003a; Gulersoy-Zeren et al., 2008b). Upon the examination of the decision of inscribing the Zeyrek district on the World Heritage List, it is understood that the actual important element is Pantocrator Church (Photograph 2). In the ICOMOS preparation report which is the basis of the decision, this Church is listed in the same class with Hagia Sophia, Hagia Irene, Chora Church and Blakhernai Palace and the importance it bears in the historic development of the city is emphasized. Therefore, this religious monument is of great importance in the fact that the Zeyrek district was assessed as a World Heritage Site. Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site was declared as a site by the Ministry of Culture in 1979 and put under conservation. In 1995, the Zeyrek district was defined as an Urban and Historic Site according to the decision of Istanbul No 1 Board of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties dated December 7 th, 1995 and numbered 6848 which also declared the entire Historic Peninsula as a site. Photograph 2. Molla Zeyrek Mosque - Pantocrator Church 30

45 The monuments within Zeyrek which was recognized as the monastery zone in the Byzantine period, reflects traces of that period today. It is known that in the past, the Site hosted a monastery complex consisting of the Pantocrator Church and several other structures affiliated to it. It is observed that a part of those structures and a few cisterns affiliated to the Church still remain to this day and the structures were utilised for various functions. Pantocrator Church was turned into a madrasa in the period of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror and the district and structure are named after Muderis Mehmed Zeyrek Efendi. Restoration works of Molla Zeyrek Mosque continues (IMM, 2003a; Gulersoy-Zeren et al., 2008b). Among the cisterns around Molla Zeyrek Mosque, the Zeyrek Cistern in particular on the Ataturk Boulevard is important since a large part of it is above the ground. It can be evidenced through old documents that a part of the cistern was above the ground before Ataturk Boulevard was opened to service and that it formed a kind of terrace wall. The Zeyrek Cistern, in which the restoration works still continue, is being considered to be used as a culture centre in the future. Besides the Zeyrek Cistern, relatively small cisterns from the Ottoman and Byzantine periods are present and other cistern structures may occasionally be found under the buildings. Another structure affiliated to the complex formed by Pantocrator Church is Zeyrekhane, a paved courtyard of an Ottoman house which was restored in past years and is used as a touristic facility today. The associated area of Molla Zeyrek Mosque bears a privileged importance due to being a vantage point where Galata, the Golden Horn and Suleymaniye can be viewed and also because of its historic value and architectural features. Authenticity of Zeyrek is rooted in the fact that the fabric consisting of traditional streets and wooden residential units which reflects the typical character of Ottoman settlement has been on the whole preserved. The fabrics of the streets and architecture in the Site were mainly determined by the topography. Curved, sheer and narrow streets which are formed due to the elevation difference are one of the examples of original Ottoman settlement that still exist today. The fabric of residence generally consists of 2-3 storey wooden attached houses less than 100 m². Another common trait of the houses which have living areas towards the street and small yards at the back is that they have bay windows at different heights and widths. Besides the attached houses, there are also fourfronted mansions which are located in gardens and built in a way as to form a road boundary with one front (IMM, 2003a; Gulersoy-Zeren et al., 2008b). Location, Boundaries and Importance of Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Site The Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Site lie in the west boundary of the Historic Peninsula and from the Golden Horn to the Marmara Sea in an east-south direction. The Land Walls of Istanbul consist of three basic parts. These are defined as the Wall Structure, Inner Conservation Area of Land Walls and Outer Conservation Area of Land Walls. Whilst Wall Structure and Inner Conservation Area of Land Walls are within the boundaries of Fatih District, the Outer Conservation Area of Land Walls is within the boundaries of Zeytinburnu, Eyup and Bayrampasa districts. The first decision regarding conserving the Land Walls of Istanbul (which was built in 447, have protected Istanbul against the attacks from the land throughout the history and have an archeological and historic importance) was first adopted in the Historic Peninsula Plan of Prost. According to this, it was decided that the Land Walls would be conserved with the following decree:...building construction will be forbidden within an area of 500 m radius for the outer part and within an area whose radius will be determined as per the arrangement to be made in accordance with the development of existing neighbourhoods along the walls for the inner part. Also, within the 1/5000 Scale Inner Wall Master Plan which was 31

46 approved in 1964, it is accepted that the decision in the Prost s Plan regarding the Land Walls is entirely admissible. As per the decision of the Supreme Board of Immovable Ancient Arts and Monuments dated July 19, 1981 and numbered 12850, the Conservation Project for Land Walls of Istanbul prepared by Istanbul Municipality was approved; Land Walls were put under conservation as a site which is limited with the wall isolation area determined inside and outside the walls. In 1985, the Land Walls of Istanbul were inscribed on the World Heritage List of UNESCO as one of the Historic Areas of Istanbul. Afterwards, boundaries were confirmed once more with the Development Plan for Conservation of the Land Walls approved by the District Conservation Board of Cultural and Natural Properties on September 25, 1987 and building height to be constructed in the Inner Conservation Area of Land Walls was limited to 6.50 meters. According to the decision regarding the Land Walls in the 1/5000 Scale Historic Peninsula Master Plan for Conservation of Land Walls that was approved by Istanbul No 1 Conservation Board of Cultural and Natural Properties on January 26, 2005 the aforementioned accepted principles were transferred to the plan without any change. Accordingly, in the proposal submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage Committee in 1985, it is emphasized that the Land Walls of Istanbul is meters in length, dates back to the year 447 and bears importance as a reference of military architecture. In addition, it is specified that the land walls were built before all monuments in the Historic Peninsula and that the art and architecture works created by the civilisations in the zone would not be present were it not for these land walls (Photograph 3). The Land Walls have been among the basic spatial elements throughout the ages and aside from providing their primary function of defence, they also determined the size and development of the city. Being the most advanced defence structure of the late ancient period, the Land Walls of Istanbul managed to resist the blockades for nearly a thousand years and this is the success of the architects and builders who assimilated the military architecture information which were accumulated since the Hellenistic period (Eyice et al., 1994). These land walls famous for their legendary impassability in the Middle Ages were part of the Christian mythos of Constantinople. Furthermore, the Land Walls, which are a symbol of the fact that the city of Roman empires could not be conquered, have remained as an indicator of the indestructible power of the Byzantine Empire and the most valuable Pagan heritage attributed to the Christian Byzantine for a thousand years (Kuban, 2004). 32

47 Photograph 3. Land Walls of Istanbul 33

48 1.3. Historical Development Process of the Site The city of Istanbul is located at the land crossroads between Asia and Europe and between the Mediterranean and Black Sea. The city is a meeting point of various interactions relating to immigration, trade and cultural and covers an extensive geographical area. The zone which is surrounded by the Golden Horn in the north, the Bosporus in the east, the Marmara Sea in the south and Theodosius Walls in the west is defined as the Historic Peninsula. The Historic Peninsula is the geographical location in which Istanbul has been the capital city of civilisations and has preserved its importance throughout the ages due to its efficient roles in history together with several important monuments located therein (See: Appendix-9). The development processes of the Historic Peninsula have not however occurred through the accumulation of the urban and socio-cultural structures throughout different periods, but rather by replacement of the previous elements with the elements from more recent periods. Consequently, historical traces in the Historic Peninsula have a multi-layered quality. The topography of the Historic Peninsula and its relationship with the sea has played an important role in the formation of the main structure of the city and has helped establish its original character. The Land Walls have been among the basic spatial elements throughout the ages and aside from providing their primary function of defence, they also determined the size and development of the city. The foundation of the other basic elements of the city, namely the ports and infrastructure systems for water provision, were established in the period of the colonial city Byzantion. Throughout the other periods, these elements were adopted, developed and expanded. Throughout the earlier periods, Spatial development of monuments such as religious structures and areas and public spaces were shaped according to the topography of the city and whilst their structural attributes have changed in the light of socio-economic and cultural elements unique to the respective eras, their symbolic meanings were maintained. Archeological researches indicate that the first settlement in the Historic Peninsula date back to the Neolithic Era. In particular, the findings recovered from Yenikapi excavations, indicate that the first settlements which were previously accepted to be located in the south of the Hippodrome were actually located in a much wider zone in the south of the Peninsula. Thus, the accepted settlement date for the city centre was pushed back a further 8500 years. The first urban settlement in the Historic Peninsula began with the colonial city Byzantion. According to written sources, it is known that the city of Byzantion was established by Megarians in B.C. 7 th century in the east of the Historic Peninsula, around the location currently known as Sarayburnu and its associated area. Byzantion fell under domination of the Roman Empire in A.C It is believed this in this period, the construction of the Hippodrome and some pillared avenues were built. Furthermore, the Land Walls were moved a little further and rebuilt. The city became the capital city of the Roman Empire in the 4th Century during the period of Constantine and was named Nova Roma. However, over time it became known as Constantinople. The city of Byzantion, after being declared the capital city and named Constantinople, became an important centre within economic, cultural and administrative structure of the Roman Empire. From this period onwards, it has been one of the most important centres which have greatly influenced the history of world politics and culture. The name Byzantion was discussed and updated by the researchers in the later periods. In order to define the empire which adopted Christianism, carried its 34

49 capital city to Byzantion, adopted Hellenism and left the Latin language over time, the name Byzantium was adopted, which was derived from the name of its capital city. In this period, the land walls of the city, which were re-developed, were expanded and several new buildings were constructed. Also in the period of Emperor Constantine, the Hippodrome was reorganised, the 25- meters-wide Mese Avenue was renovated, the Milion monument was built and a new palace was built near the Hippodrome. Conversely, due to the liberation of Christianity, several churches were built such as Hagia Irene, Akakios and Mokios outside the walls which still stand today. In the 5th Century, Christian temples increased rapidly in the city and several churches were built, some of which still stand today. Hagia Sophia, which was known to have been built in the 4th Century, was rebuilt by Theodosius II. Chalkoprateia Church located nearby together with Studios Monastery and Ioannes Prodromos Church, which are currently located in Yedikule neighbourhood, are among the churches which were built in the 5 th century. Towards the end of the Middle Byzantine era, when the city was in its latter development period, the Blakhernea district which is currently known as Ayvansaray was incorporated into the city via the land walls built by Emperor Manuel Komnenos. In this period, Magnum Palatium (Great Palace) between Sultanahmet Square and the Marmara Sea was vacated and the Emperors moved to the Palace in the Blakhernea district. Due to the loss of domination over the city during the Crusades, the city was looted throughout the Latin occupation between 1204 and 1261; holy and valuable properties, even structure materials were shipped to European cities. When the Crusaders were evicted from the city in 1261 and the Latin occupation came to an end, the Byzantine state renovated several old structures in order to develop the city one last time. Buildings such as Khora Monastery (Kariye Mosque/Museum), Pammakaristos Monastery (Fethiye Mosque) and Saint Euphemia represented their era with their rich adornments. The Conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453 was recognized as the beginning of the New Era and around 4 years later, the capital city of the Ottoman Empire was transferred from Edirne to Istanbul. Upon transfer, construction of Fatih Kulliye ( ) began on a high hill in the middle of the city and which holds an important place in the physical and social history of the city. In accordance with the needs of the Muslim-Turkish population which continued to increase, other Byzantine structures were to be used with new functions. In the city which was once again developing, different kinds of detached buildings were built in accordance to needs. Furthermore, due to the building of mosques and kulliyes which consist of a few structures with different functions, the development of the city accelerated. Neighbourhoods were established around mosques, kulliyes and masjids (small mosques) and several neighbourhoods were named after these monuments. As the city became crowded due to new opportunities provided by the kulliyes, and due to the building of bazaars and inns, trade thrived and prospered. Thus, a short time after the conquest, as well as being the administrative centre, Istanbul also became the most important commercial centre of the state. On the other hand, in addition to meeting economic and social needs, kulliyes also formed focus points which enlivened the silhouette immensely with their different structure types. These focus points, (kulliyes), have transformed Istanbul into a city of domes. The master builders, who used the topographic roughness in the most effective way, have successfully implemented the solutions they determined for these kulliyes; not only architecturally, but in terms of city planning. 35

50 The building of Topkapi Palace which was expanded with the addition of various extensions until 19 th century began in the period of the Conqueror and a trade zone was developed around two covered bazaars (bedesten) built in the same period which constitutes the core of the Grand Bazaar (Kapalicarsi). Some of the important structures built in the 15 th century are Sadrazam Mahmud Pasha Kulliye ( ) around Grand Bazaar, Sadrazam Murad Pasha Kulliye ( ) in Aksaray Sheikh Vefa Kulliye (1476) in Vefa, the kulliye which is located between the districts of Cerrahpasa and Kocamustafapasa and built by Sadrazam Davut Pasha (1485), the kulliye which was built in Cemberlitas by Sadrazam Atik Ali Pasha (1496), Firuz Aga Mosque (1495) and Asik Pasha Kulliye located in Fatih/Haydar (2 nd half of 15 th century). Some of the important monuments of 16 th century are Sultan II. Beyazit Kulliye ( ) after which the district was named and Yavuz Selim Kulliye ( ) built by Suleyman the Magnificent. Again, within this century, important development activities were performed in Istanbul by Mimar Sinan. The monuments of Mimar Sinan include the Kulliye from his early years as chief architect and built in the name of Haseki Hurrem Sultan (1539) and Sehzade Mehmed Kulliye ( ) on the Beyazit Fatih axis. Suleymaniye Kulliye ( ), being located on one of the high hills of Istanbul on an inclined land separated from the former palace area and facing the Golden Horn, is the most important artwork of Mimar Sinan. Although Istanbul followed its former development line in the 17 th century, in parallel with the decrease in the economic power of the empire, a decrease was observed in the development activities when compared to the previous centuries. However, two important monuments were built in the Istanbul peninsula in the 17 th century namely, Sultanahmet Kulliye (1616) which was built in the estate of the former Byzantine Palace and New Mosque Kulliye ( ) in the Eminonu coast. It is observed that small kulliyes composing mainly of madrasas were built increasingly within the 17 th century. The important structures built within the 17 th century are Kuyucu Murad Pasha Kulliye (before 1610) built in Vezneciler, Ekmekcizade Ahmed Pasha Kulliye (1610) built in Vefa, Bayram Pasha Kulliye (1635) built in Haseki, Valide Han between Grand Bazaar and Mercan where trade is focused, Koprulu Kulliye (1661) built on Divan Avenue, Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha Kulliye ( ) built in Carsikapi and Amcazade Kulliye (1700) built in Sarachane. The 18 th century is defined as the westward expansion period of the Ottoman Empire. The most important structures built in this century are Corlulu Ali Pasha Kulliye ( ) in Carsikapi, Nevsehirli Damad Ibrahim Pasha Kulliye (1720) in Vezneciler, Seyhulislam Ismail Efendi Kulliye (before 1725) in Carsamba, The Fountain of Sultan Ahmed III (1728), the Kulliye (1735) between Cerrahpasa Kocamustafapasa built by Sadrazam Hekimoglu Ali Pasha, Haci Besir Aga Kulliye ( ) built on an inclined land in Cagaloglu, Nuruosmaniye Kulliye ( ) built with baroque fashion and completely out of the classic approach, Laleli Kulliye ( ) which was built by Sultan Mustafa III and gave its name to the district it is located in, Ragip Pasha Kulliye (1763) in Laleli, Zeynep Sultan Kulliye (1769) built in the corner across Sur-i Sultani in Alemdar, Murad Molla Kulliye ( ) in Fatih/Carsamba, the kulliye ( ) built by Sultan I. Abdulhamid in Sirkeci and Sebsefa Kadin Kulliye (1787) in Unkapani. In the first half of the 19 th century, large-scale barracks and some education and management buildings were constructed in Istanbul. Cultural and art buildings such as theatres and museums which were not seen in the previous periods were built. Building the bridge over the Golden Horn, expansion of roads, opening squares, building piers and developments such as the metro, tramway 36

51 and railway which required huge investments also emerged in the 19 th century. Some of the important structures in that century are Naksidil Valide Sultan Kulliye ( ), Cevri Kalfa Kulliye (1819) and Kucuk Efendi Kulliye (1826) in Kocamustafapasa, Fire Tower (1828) in Beyazit, Sultan II. Mahmud Kulliye (1839) on Divan Avenue, Bab-i Ali Building (1844) in Cagaloglu, Vakif Gureba Hospital (1845), Hirka-i Serif Mosque (1851), Bala Kulliye (1860 and after), Old Ministry of War Building (currently Istanbul University Rectorship Building) (1863), Iran Embassy Building (after 1866) in Cagaloglu, Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Kulliye ( ) in Aksaray Square, Old Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce Building (1889), in the outskirts of Sultanahmet, Hippodrome, Sirkeci Terminal ( ) was built as a result of the railway constructions in this period, Muze-i Humayun ( ) Building built in the outer court of Topkapi Palace and Duyun-i Umumiyye (1897) Building. The Old Ministry of Mail and Telegram Building (currently the PTT Building in Sirkeci from early 20 th century) ( ), Defter-i Hakani (1910) Building (currently Land Register Building) near Hippodrome, Sultanahmet, Harikzedegan Apartments ( ) built for the fire survivors after a fire occurred in Laleli, Foundation Public Houses ( ) in the trade zone between Sirkeci and Bahcekapi and Liman Han (early 20 th century) are amongst the monuments of the period of national architecture (See: Appendix-9). In addition to the monuments found in the Historic Peninsula, the historical pattern formed by civil architectural examples in the area also reflects the historical development of the area and is of vital importance. Neighbourhood units formed within the historical development of the Historic Peninsula, around the structural complexes containing education, etc. and other public functions operate as a complex with monuments and religious structures congruent to the topography. Civil architectural examples also form the silhouette of the Historic Peninsula together with monuments, which are consistent with the topography of the city (Kuban, 1970). Wooden houses and masonry civil architectural structures, and building types reflect the social, cultural and economical properties of their eras with their architectural appearances and technologies. As soon as the Republic of Turkey was founded, Istanbul ceased to be the capital city. As a consequence, several buildings lost their function particularly as a consequence of the re location of government offices. Conversely, the population of the city decreased and due to various functions being relocated from the Historic Peninsula, the place became unoccupied and dilapidated. According to the new arrangements, besides two very important museums namely Istanbul Archeological Museums and the Foundation Museum, Topkapi Palace became one of the most important museums in the world. In the same period, Istanbul Hagia Sophia was also turned into a museum and some other Byzantine monuments in the city were also connected to it (See: Appendix- 9). Istanbul continued to be the primary city with the largest population, an import port which continued its commercial function and contained distinguished institutions of higher education. These elements form the social infrastructure that gives Istanbul its prominence together with encompassing architectural, cultural and art values that show its pluralistic cultural existence. Technical infrastructure facilities in this period continued to maintain their distinguished positions in the Republic era with urban and inter-city maritime transportation, railway connections to suburbs, and urban rail transportation, with Haydarpasa and Sirkeci train stations acting as the hubs of railway connections providing services for national and international transportation and with all their other 37

52 capabilities. These man-made elements of the environment, together with the natural features of the Golden Horn and Marmara inland seas, combined with the climatic conditions and reinforced the characteristic of the city s being a centre of attraction (IBB, 2003a). In the first years of the Republic, when great importance was attached to industrialisation by the state, Istanbul was not selected as an industrial city in the First Industrial Plan of 1933, nor in the Second Industrial Plan of 1939, in spite of all these advantages it incorporated and was only proposed for its activities of efficient fisheries industry and measuring instruments manufacturing industry. Although this situation prevented the destruction of monuments in the Historic Peninsula for a short while, road building and development activities, which had started in the 19 th century continued. The primary example for the said activities was the works carried out in 1925 for the opening of Ataturk Boulevard, which connected Unkapani, Aksaray and Yenikapi to each other. During the opening of this Boulevard, which at certain places reaches a width of meters, small mosques such as Suleyman Subasi Masjid, Papazoglu, Yahya Guzel, Sekbanbasi Ibrahim Aga, Firuz Aga and Revani Celebi Masjids, and Payzen Yusuf Pasha Tomb, Kirkcesme Fountain and many other fountains and historical structures were demolished. The Historic Peninsula was, together with Istanbul, the subject of certain planning studies, which directed the zoning activities commencing as of the first phase of the Republic era. The first planning studies of the Republic era were initiated by the Elgotz Plan in Herman Elgotz of Germany, Alfred Agache of France, and Jack H. Lambert were invited to Istanbul in 1933 by the Istanbul Municipality with the purpose of preparing a plan and report for the entire city in order to provide a contemporary image and create a healthy living environment in the city. The studies performed by these experts were evaluated by a jury established by the municipality, and Elgotz s plan and draft was accepted. Elgotz proposed the unification of old cultural structure of the city with today s needs in a harmonious manner in order to sustain the unique beauty of the city in the future; to ensure that 2500 years of history is felt in each corner; to protect the monuments to be conserved by separating them from the main transportation roads and interconnecting by secondary roads and to revive the historical road network. Some of the recommendations in this plan were for the slopes of old Istanbul and Beyoglu facing the Golden Horn to be business centres, for Istiklal Avenue to be a commercial centre, for Topkapi and Kurbagalidere to be heavy industry centres, and for Beyazit to be administrative and Sultanahmet and Taksim to be cultural neighbourhoods; the construction of a Marmara coastal road, a set of roads along the banks of the Golden Horn, and bridges constructed between Karakoy-Eminonu, Unkapani-Azapkapi, and Eyup-Sutluce, in addition to old roads being expanded. Elgotz s plan was not implemented. However, it can be observed that recommendations made in the plan were substantially realised, albeit over the long-term. In his report titled Plan of Istanbul and Vicinity, prepared in 1935 after the Elgotz Plan, Dr. Martin Wagner based his study on regional analyses, and emphasized the need to protect agricultural lands. The analyses Wagner made within the context of the area did not satisfy the expectations of the administration and the plan proposal he prepared was not accepted. Prof. Henri Prost, Head City Planner of Paris Region and an academic member of City Planning Institute in Paris, was invited to Istanbul in 1936 to make a plan for Istanbul, and commenced his studies, which would continue until The Prost Plan took shape in accordance with the purposes of ensuring internal integrity by establishing road connections between different sections of the city. 38

53 Conservation of historical silhouette of Istanbul and natural beauty of Bosphorus, restoration of historical monuments and cleaning of their surroundings and the realisation of new structures with architectural value were targeted within the scope of these purposes. It can be said that the Prost Plan still keeps its validity today due to certain principles still being adopted in plans that were made at a later date. However, the Prost Plan is criticized for not having evaluated Istanbul within a general development perspective and for not providing directives. Prost made significant errors, especially in subjects such as urban development and land allocations. It is understood that the identity assigned to the Historic Peninsula is again being a city centre with his plan note, The Bazaar will be put in a completely modern shape and its general formation will be more or less left the same. Its exterior borders will be surrounded by wide roads and wide parking lots will be allocated. It can be said that the Prost Plan is still valid today as some of its principles were also adopted in plans that were prepared later on. Some of the principles and plan decisions of the Prost Plan, which interest the Historic Peninsula may be summarized as follows: a provision to be passed to the effect that maximum 3-storey buildings be allowed in locations that are left over a curve that lays 40 meters above sea level with the purpose of protecting the silhouette of the Historic Peninsula; conservation of the vicinity of Sultanahmet (Sur-i Sultani), which is the characteristic section of the Historic Peninsula, and its development for tourism function; design of Hippodrome in Sultanahmet as the Republic Square with public buildings forming around it, and proposals being included within the plan with respect to the arrangement of several squares; the expansion of Eminonu square and removal of structures around the New Mosque; the cleaning up of Sarayburnu, which joins the Historic Peninsula with the sea, from freight shipment and warehouses, and formation of Gulhane Park number 1; a large port being constructed at Yenikapi and freight trains to stop at the international station at Yenikapi, development of the port by Haydarpasa at the Anatolian side; removal of all industries from the Bosphorus, transforming Golden Horn into an industrial axis, vacating by stages of residential pattern on the left coast of the Golden Horn; and the surrounding of Istanbul Land Walls that are between the Golden Horn and Marmara by a 500-meter green belt. An important decision of the Prost Plan is the principle allowing maximum 3-storey buildings with heights not exceeding 9.50 meters in locations that are above sea level by 40 meters or more, with the purpose of protecting the silhouette of Istanbul. Demolition of extra floors in existing structures, which did not comply with this plan, was also concluded and the Land Clause Act that also contained this provision came into effect. The first implementation of the Law was the demolition of three extra floors of the Botanical Institute, which was constructed next to the Suleymaniye Mosque. On the other hand, the opening up of the Golden Horn and Marmara coasts to trade and industry, which was a part of the plan, led to industrial pollution at the Golden Horn and Yedikule. Sirkeci Station being left as a suburban station, the arrangement of an international station and port at Yenikapi, opening up of three main roads in the Historic Peninsula (opening of Vatan and Millet Avenues, and Sirkeci Florya coastal road) caused damage to the historical identity. Lutfu Kirdar, who was appointed as the Governor and Mayor in 1939, initiated the implementation of certain sections of the Plan such as arrangement of many squares and primarily Eminonu and Taksim Squares. The most important decision of the Prost Plan, which was not implemented, was the Yenikapi Port. The Plan of Prost was made at a period when rapid population growth did not exist. It proved to be insufficient when faced with the rapid population growth of Istanbul in post WWII, due to being prepared as the plan of a city that was not growing and this zoning operation, which witnessed the demolition of 1148 buildings, was halted with the departure of Lutfu Kirdar from the posts of Governor and Mayor in 1948 (Tekeli, 1993). 39

54 After 1950, migration and urbanisation rate suddenly increased due to the industrialisation of Istanbul and this increase left urban planning facing various issues. At the forefront of these issues was the inability to provide sufficient residential supply to compensate for the increasing population which resulted in shanty settlements being erected around the city centre, satisfying the rapidly increasing land demand of industry and proliferation of motorised vehicles such as cars, shared taxis, etc. and the urban traffic congestion. Several legal arrangements were realised with the purpose of resolving these issues. However, all these arrangements proved to be insufficient when faced with the proportions of rapid urbanisation that was being experienced (IBB, 2003a). Zoning actions, which commenced under the leadership of the then Prime Minister Adnan Menderes between 1950 and 1960, combined with the pressure of demographic developments resulted in a new Istanbul image whose historical urban fabric suffered great destruction. These zoning actions had the aim of resolving issues, such as easing traffic, expanding the squares with the purpose of enhancing the city and undertaking the restoration of mosques and religious structures. The road layout foreseen in the Prost Plan was expanded by the zoning activities of this period. In area regained by filling the sea, historical sea walls were transformed into land walls upon the construction of the coastal road starting from Sirkeci up to Florya and fishing ports were built in front of the walls. Furthermore, the parts of the Golden Horn Walls, which had been left between buildings during the construction of Eminonu Unkapani Avenue (Ragip Gumuspala Avenue), were demolished without even conducting a proper assessment. In a similar manner many monuments, which constituted a part of the historical and old city fabric, were destroyed in the Historical Inner Wall section due to zoning actions referred to as Menderes Expropriations while Vatan and Millet Avenues were being opened. Furthermore, high-rising and dense housing was allowed, which was incongruent with the historic environment. A large area adjacent to Ataturk Boulevard was completely demolished, including certain important monuments that were found in it and a Dry Goods Dealers Market was built on it, contrary to the purpose of the expropriation. The number of buildings expropriated and demolished had reached 7289 during the time of Menderes due to the construction of the road starting from Vatan Avenue, Millet Avenue and Sehzadebasi to Edirnekapi; the road which begin with Sehzadebasi, then continue with Macar Kardesler and Fevzi Pasha Avenue; Sirkeci Florya Coastal road; Eminonu-Unkapani Avenue (Ragip Gumuspala Avenue) and also construction of squares. The monuments on the most ancient axis of the Historic Peninsula were either disposed of (such as Murat Pasha Bath) or were cut off (for example, Simkeshane, Hasan Pasha Inn) due to roads which were opened after being elevated or reduced according to the standards of highway engineers, some of the foundations of big monuments had been left exposed to the air (such as Bayezid Bath, and Akdeniz Madrasas of Fatih social complex), whilst others were buried in the ground (for example, Koca Ragip Pasha Library and Sibyan School). When building density started to increase in the years , the number of multi-storey reinforced concrete buildings progressively increased, the old neighbourhood inhabitants became the minority as a result of new population movements and several families left Fatih. Thus, while the historical fabric of Fatih and its civil architecture were being substantially destroyed, its social fabric had also undergone change. Prof. L. Piccinato was invited to Istanbul in the years to manage zoning activities. Piccinato demanded that housing permits, which would cause dense housing, should not be granted at settlement areas, land subdivision and allotment should be prohibited in the potential development areas of the city and legal and financial legislation should be renewed. The 40

55 Metropolitan Master Plan of Istanbul prepared by Prof. L Piccinato included the following principles: Conservation of the cultural and historic environment the city had acquired during the course of its historical development against the threat of growing with concrete structures; establishing a metropolitan administration for the Metropolitan Istanbul as a successive urban settlement network element and ensuring the participation of the people in metropolitan planning. Urbanisation between the years developed mainly around the manufacturing industry and this situation increased migration to Istanbul and the subsequent mushrooming of illegal settlements prevented the healthy planning of the old city. The famous neighbourhoods of the Historic Peninsula, Suleymaniye, Fatih, Cerrahpasa, etc. and the bourgeois neighbourhoods such as Fener and Balat (which the minorities abandoned due to net Wealth Tax in 1942 and 6-7 September 1955 events) were inhabited by the migrating rural population and became a depressed area. On the other hand, due to the continuation of central development of the Historic Peninsula and the proliferation of units such as manufacturing shops and wholesale, existing inhabitants were also negatively affected and began to leave the Historic Peninsula, as they preferred the new and prestigious residential areas. The vacated residential areas were converted into areas where those newly arrived in the city preferred to settle. New settlers used them on a temporary basis prior to relocating into newly developing housing areas in other sections of the city. At this stage, the profile of the inhabitants changed, whereas settlement areas such as Cankurtaran and Suleymaniye continued to function as housing areas, the housing areas started to become run-down. Many old housing areas on the other hand changed their characteristics, and began to be used as bed-sitting rooms, depots, and small business places and workshops. Again in the same period, avenues such as Vatan Avenue, Millet Avenue and Ataturk Avenue destroyed the historical fabric with the opening up of wide avenues within the city, whilst also causing the fabric by the roadside to be destroyed as it encouraged housing to the area. Major changes also occurred in the residential fabric of the city. Neighbourhoods resembling a sea of wood at the end of the Ottoman era, converted into neighbourhoods made up of concrete buildings. Between 1970 and 1980, the Central Business District (CBD) was developed on Vatan and Millet Avenues at Eminonu and Aksaray. Narrow roads within the historical fabric of the traditional centre of Istanbul in the 1970s, which were not suitable to carry the load brought by motorised vehicle traffic and inadequacy of parking lots, became major issues for firms that were newly established. In addition to this, the prospect of easily finding land at cheap prices was also effective in the expansion of the CBD in terms of area. Due to the gradual reduction of accessibility to the traditional CBD, the shopping malls within a specific distance began to be frequented. An increase in the numbers of autos and domestic car production after 1970 resulted in urban transportation and parking lot issues, the expansion of roads, the burning down of old mansions and turning such land into parking lots. Administrators, who were lacking in sensitivity regarding Istanbul and its history, ignorant of the Suriçi history and having little conservation awareness, deliberately destroyed historical monuments and offered up the old roads, green garden fabric and vegetable gardens of the Suriçi for construction. Public institutions, universities and hospitals (E.g. Cerrahpasa and Capa), which have continued to grow, invaded their surroundings with their zoning rights increasing with each new decision, together with the plans promoting transportation, have caused the old city to be substantially destroyed (IBB, 2003a). 41

56 On the other hand, road building operations and new government office constructions which were made in that period resulted in several archeological remains coming to light. Quite important structures were revealed in the Great Palace Excavations (Mosaic Museum), Hippodrome, Antiokhos and Lausos Palace Excavations, the excavations in the south of Hagia Irene and Sarachane Saint Polyeuktos Church. Some large public buildings constructed within the Walls can be accepted as important examples of architecture from the Republic era. These include Istanbul Drapers and Yard Goods Centre (IMC) which was designed by a group of architects in the 1960s, the old Istanbul Chamber of Commerce Building dated 1963 (currently Istanbul Commerce University) and the Social Security Institution Building designed by Sedat Hakki Eldem in Unkapani in 1972 (See: Appendix-9). As of 1983, legal legislation amendments and new laws, which would affect Istanbul Planning studies with respect to method, content and formation, were placed at the top of the agenda. These were Law on the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties numbered 2863, Zoning Law number 3194, and Tourism Encouragement Law number However, despite the enactment of these laws, in the period , zoning activities were carried out over all of Istanbul and the Historical peninsula, where planning authority, historical consciousness and existing zoning plans were ignored in a similar to the Menderes operations (IBB, 2003a). The most striking of these implementations had been the areas opened up on both sides of the Golden Horn with the purpose of clearing and rearranging of Golden Horn coasts of industry, performed within the scope of zoning activities named after Bedrettin Dalan, the Mayor of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality at the time. Within this scope, while these functions were decentralised with 1/50,000 Scale Istanbul Metropolitan Land Master Plan approved in 1980 (shipyards were relocated to Tuzla), vacated structures were demolished and were turned into park areas open to the public. Existing coastal road parallel to the Golden Horn was expanded and its continuity was ensured. Collectors were constructed in the northern and southern Golden Horn in order to collect the wastewater which had been directly flowing into the Golden Horn from shipyards and industrial workplaces up to that day and remove it through a wastewater infrastructure system. However, necessary sensitivity had not been shown to the historical, cultural and natural values of the Historic Peninsula and other sections of the city during the zoning activities realised within this period. As a result, traditional wooden residential structures constituting civil engineering examples, whose numbers have been greatly reduced in our times, together with other historical structures and old streets carrying references from the past to present day and the coastal line were destroyed. During the Golden Horn implementation, the Yemis Pier and surrounding area was completely destroyed and the entire coast with the exclusion of Zindan Inn, Ahi Celebi Mosque, Degirmen Inn, and a small part of the wall was transformed into green area. Again within this context, although these areas (obtained as a result of destruction of streets that were the continuations of Cibali, Fener, Balat and Ayvansaray neighbourhoods and the destruction of old houses therein) were later rearranged as green areas and opened to the use of public, no research, survey or zoning studies were performed with regard to these structures when the demolition process was being carried out. Furthermore, zoning movements of Golden Horn environment had also led to disputable expropriations. Nowadays the Historic Peninsula is an area where wholesale trade, retail trade, public services, offices, educational services and manufacturing function have been intensified. As mentioned above, since monetary and financial units are located in the new centres, this function has diminished in 42

57 importance over time. Furthermore, the area has the characteristics of being a tourism centre due to the historical monuments, archeological monuments and natural properties it possesses. Thus, it is observed that agencies, accommodation facilities such as hotels and lodging houses and service units related to this function have gained weight in the Eminonu area. The Historic Peninsula is still unarguably a centre in Istanbul Metropolis due to its central position, transportation facilities, its infrastructure arising from the history and the central functions which have been intensified there. Other centres are far from the traditional commercial characteristic of the Historic Peninsula in terms of both their physical appearance and goods and services they market. Today, in addition to its wholesale and retail commercial function, the Historic Peninsula has also assumed the functions of accommodation, residential accommodation, additional accommodation units, business accomodation, service accomodation, etc. due to their potentials. Small industry is also available in the Historic Peninsula. Industries and wholesale trade, which are not supposed to be within the city, are being encouraged to leave with investments being made in the metropolitan area periphery and these damaging aspects are slowly starting to leave the Historic Peninsula. Besides these outward looking functions, housing function also takes place. The presence of Istanbul University and educational institutions (especially vocational high schools), and libraries is an indication of the importance of the educational function in the Historic Peninsula (IBB, 2003a). Nowadays, the fact that the Historic Peninsula has reached an important point in great transportation projects has caused some problems. However, large-scale infrastructure investments ensured that excavations and researches are made in extensive areas and due to the successful execution of these works, incredibly rich information has been revealed regarding the city's history (See: Appendix-9). 43

58 1.4. Cultural and Natural Properties in the Site In this section, sites, cultural and natural properties and intangible cultural heritage in the Historic Peninsula and the buffer zone is examined. First, some information regarding the sites, cultural and natural properties and intangible cultural heritage in the Site Management Plan Area are presented. Secondly, sites and cultural properties in the areas which were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List under the name of Historic Areas of Istanbul are examined in details Site Management Plan Area Under this heading, the information regarding the sites, cultural and natural properties and intangible cultural heritage are examined for the Site Management Plan Area in general. The subheading Sites states types and locations of the sites; whilst Cultural Properties states number, functions and ownership status of monuments and civil architectural buildings and Natural Properties states monumental and proposed monumental trees. Sites Within the Historic Peninsula (which was not declared as an entire site area until 1995), Sultanahmet zone was declared as an Archeological Park by GEEYAK in Furthermore, Zeyrek and Suleymaniye were defined as Conservation Areas along with their kulliyes and associated civil architectural buildings in 1979 and 1981 respectively. However, 15 years after these decisions were taken, Istanbul Inner City, which has a surface area of hectare and covers the entire Eminonu and Fatih Districts according to the old administrative settlement was classified in different statuses and declared as a site according to the decision of Istanbul No 1 Conservation Board of Cultural and Natural Properties dated December 07, 1995 and numbered According to this decision: The area which includes Topkapi Palace is defined as a First Degree Archeological Site Sultanahmet-Cankurtaran zone is defined as an Urban Archeological Site The remaining zone in the Suriçi is defined as an Historic Urban Site Furthermore, an additional site located in the Buffer Zone, covering Merkez, Nisanca, Defterdar and Topcular Neighbourhoods of Eyup District, was also declared as per the decision dated January 15, 1977 and numbered Types and locations of the sites in the Site Management Plan Area are displayed in Map 7. 44

59 Map 7. Conservation Zones in the Site Management Plan Area (Source: IMM, 2003a) ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER

60 Cultural Properties The number of the existing and lost over time cultural properties in the Site Management Plan Area is 10,413; 10,183 of which are located in the Historic Peninsula and 230 in the Buffer Zone. The total number of existing monuments is 9421; 9207 of which are located in the Historic Peninsula and 214 in the Buffer Zone of the registered buildings are monuments and 6324 are civil architectural buildings. 251 of the monuments and 741 of the civil architectural buildings were determined as registered but recently lost due to reasons such as fire, lack of proper care etc. However sufficient information and data concerning them is present of the cultural properties in the Site are located in the World Heritage Sites (Table 2, Map 8). Table 2. Cultural Properties in the Site Management Plan Area (Source: IMM, 2010a) MONUMENT CIVIL TOTAL CULTURAL PROPERTIES AREAS Lost over Lost over Lost over Existing Total Existing Total Existing time time time Total Sultanahmet Archeological Park Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Sites in Total 1, ,480 1, ,502 2, ,982 Historic Peninsula 3, ,889 5, ,294 9, ,183 Buffer Zone MANAGEMENT PLAN SITE 3, ,089 5, ,324 9, ,413 Distribution of the cultural properties in the Site according to their functions is illustrated in Table 3. Of the 10, 413 registered structures, 47% have residence, 33% commercial and 19% facility function. Among the World Heritage Sites in general, residence use has a value of nearly 45% while facilities increases to 29% and commercial area remains at 26%. Although the distribution in the Historic Peninsula is close to the values of the Site Management Plan Area, the dominant function in the Buffer Zone is facilities (74%). Table 3. Functions of the Cultural Properties of the Site Management Plan Area (Source: IMM, 2010a) AREAS FUNCTIONS FACILITIES COMMERCIAL RESIDENCE INDUSTRIAL TOTAL Sultanahmet Archeological Park Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Sites in Total , ,983 Historic Peninsula 1,963 3,403 4, ,183 Buffer Zone MANAGEMENT PLAN SITE 2,133 3,415 4, ,413 Ownership status of the cultural properties in the Site Management Plan Area is illustrated in Table 4. Cultural Properties in the Site are mostly located in private property parcels. It is observed that 7245 buildings which constitute 70% of the total cultural properties are private properties while 17% are foundation property and 13% public property. Public and foundation properties constitute nearly 40% of the Ownership distribution in the World Heritage Sites. Table 4.Ownership of the Cultural Properties of the Site Management Plan Area (Source: IMM, 2010a) AREAS PUBLIC FOUNDATION PRIVATE TOTAL Sultanahmet Archeological Park Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Sites in Total ,845 2,983 Historic Peninsula 1,322 1,760 7,101 10,183 Buffer Zone MANAGEMENT PLAN SITE 1,366 1,802 7,245 10,413 46

61 Map 8. Cultural Properties in the Site Management Plan Area (Source: Board of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, 2009) ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER

62 In addition to cultural properties consisting of historical monuments and civil architectural examples, the authentic street pattern of the Historic Peninsula is also of importance. Although the elements of authentic street pattern consisting in connection with components, such as shapes, dimensions, and structural types, facade properties, street widths-building heights relationship and ownership fabric throughout streets have survived to this day in patches, it could be equally be said that it has been lost in many of the areas. As a result of fires experienced throughout the Ottoman period and arrangements made as measures taken against fires, it can be seen that the traditional organic street pattern was abandoned, a grid street pattern was applied in patches and masonry construction was encouraged in places with wooden structures. In the times that followed on the other hand, zoning activities particularly with regards to road expansion works and works directed to the creation of new public spaces and structures, the proliferation of reinforced concrete structures with increased structural intensity and works carried out with the purpose of renewal of structural inventory stand out as major factors in the loss of a authentic street pattern. Archeological Heritage Due to the fact that the zones in which archeological properties are located generally have the fabric required to be preserved in urban terms, the archeological works which may be performed in the Peninsula is limited. Presently, outstanding information regarding the city s history is obtained in the excavations triggered and undertaken in conjunction with transportation projects. Within the scope of Marmaray and Metro projects which come under the authority of the Ministry of Transport and Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, the Directorate of Istanbul Archeological Museums have been continuing excavation works since The most important one of these excavations is in the Yenikapi zone. Important finds were also found in the Sirkeci and Cagaloglu districts. Yenikapi Excavations: For the purposes of the Marmaray project, that is the Bosporus rail tube tunnel project; archeological excavations were made in Yenikapi in an area of 28,000 square meters between 2004 and The zone varies in terms of material density within itself; the stratigraphy begins with the Ottoman Era and continues with Late, Middle and Early Byzantine, Iron Age and First Neolithic Era. In a large portion the of the Site, the filling material of Theodosius Port was found which was built by Theodosius I(A.C ) in the 4 th century for the new capital city of the Roman Empire as a breakwater in the coasts of the Marmara Sea and continued to be used until 11 th century. Rich material finds/groups of a very extensive trade network were recovered from within. One of the most important results of the works is the find of 35 boats from the Byzantine Era which were recovered from the port area. These monuments, 13 of which were from the Marmaray excavation area and 22 from the Metro excavation area, are of different sizes and types dating back to 6-11 th century. Under the base filling of Theodosius Port, meters below the sea level, remains from the Neolithic Era were found. This Neolithic settlement dated 8500 years back marks the most important finds recovered by the excavation works. It takes the settlement date of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula nearly 8500 years back from this day. In particular, the wooden materials and cremation burial traditions recovered are of great importance in terms of world culture and human history as well as the city s history. Thousands of monuments recovered are being restored on the one hand and being analyzed by scientists from different disciplines on the other hand. Several projects are being discussed such as 48

63 displaying the finds in a museum to be built in a suitable part of the area, building huge warehouses for storing the outstanding information obtained and establishing a research institute which will constantly work in the area. In this context, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality continues its works to open a competition named Yenikapi Transfer Point and Archaeopark Area by way of Provision of Architectural Preliminary Project from Pre-selected and Invited International Architects. The purpose of the competition is to design the Yenikapi zone as a transportation transfer area through which an average number of 1,700,000 people will pass on daily basis and to treat it as an attraction point for global cultural heritage in which archeological finds are archived and exhibited and scientific works may be executed. Photograph 4. An example of the sunken boats recovered in Yenikapi excavations (Source: IMM, 2010e) Natural Properties The Marmara Sea is the most important natural value of the Historic Peninsula due to its special position between the Bosporus and the Golden Horn. The Seven Hills of the Peninsula are the natural heritage elements which shape the silhouette as do the monumental domes and minarets. The most important natural values in the Site which are specifically determined and studied are the monumental trees. According to the Development Master Plan for Conservation of the Historic Peninsula works which were completed in 2003; 60 monumental trees in total are present in the Historic Peninsula. Besides the monumental trees, documentation studies were performed in the updated inventory works for 129 trees bearing the quality of a monumental tree and trees having priority for conservation. Intangible Cultural Heritage UNESCO accepted the Convention for The Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage on October 17, 2003 in order to safeguard the intangible cultural heritage; to ensure respect for the intangible cultural heritage of the communities, groups and individuals concerned; to raise awareness at the local, national and international levels of the importance of the intangible cultural heritage and of ensuring mutual appreciation thereof; and to provide for international cooperation and assistance. The Convention was unanimously accepted by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and Turkey became a party to the convention on January 19, The Law on Endorsement of Approval of Convention for Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage (No: 5448) was issued in the Official Gazette dated January 21, 2006 and numbered and came into effect. 49

64 The definition of the Intangible Cultural Heritage in the convention is as follows: Intangible cultural heritage means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. It is also specified that this intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity. For the purposes of this Convention, consideration will be given solely to such intangible cultural heritage as is compatible with existent international human rights instruments, as well as with the requirements of mutual respect among communities, groups and individuals and of sustainable development. Moreover, the Law on Promotion of Cultural Investments and Initiatives dated July 17, 2004 and numbered 5225 of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey define the concept of intangible cultural heritage and emphasizes that this heritage constitutes the study area of folklore and sets forth its priorities in the area of cultural investments. According to the Convention, the Intangible Cultural Heritage is manifested in the following domains: Oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage Performing arts Social practices, rituals and festive events Knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe Traditional craftsmanship If these articles determined by UNESCO are extended for Istanbul and the Historic Peninsula, the study areas can be defined as follows: Within the scope of Urban Intangible Cultural Heritage; previous names of Istanbul, names of renowned districts and neighbourhoods of Istanbul and stories relating to these names Within the scope of Folk Literature; proverbs, jokes, riddles, lullabies, poems, stories, folklore poets (square poets, tradition of minstrels, minstrel coffee houses), slang dialects and sayings Within the scope of performing arts; Karagoz shadow plays, puppet plays, public storytellers and mimes, theatre-in-the-round, dancing girls, children s plays Within the scope of Social Practices for Different Religions and Cultures; childbirth traditions, circumcision traditions, soldier send-off traditions, wedding traditions, death traditions, prayers Within the scope of Life Culture; coffeehouse culture, Turkish bathing culture, kitchen culture, hospitality culture, travel culture, entertainment culture, music culture, shopping culture 50

65 Within the scope of the Practices Regarding Nature and Universe (Beliefs); evil eye belief, magic, fortune-telling, earth and afterlife, life after death, beliefs about heaven and hell, beliefs about life, health and diseases, folk medicine, household remedies Within the scope of the Craftsmanship; renowned crafts and handicraftsman establishments of Istanbul. It is difficult to determine and classify the intangible cultural heritage in the Historic Peninsula since it is the centre of Istanbul, a metropolis which includes several religious institutional structures and has a constant inflow of immigrants adding to the cultural richness. However, based on the studies performed, intangible cultural heritage products may be classified under the following titles: Lost (forgotten) ones Ongoing ones from past to present day whose place or function changed Revivable ones According to the Convention, basic objectives and activity plans include researching and collecting the heritage manifested in these areas, establishing archive and documentation centres and founding museums for the same, teaching it in schools, introducing it as a positive cultural value in mass media and utilising it efficiently in order to reconnect the disconnections arising between generations. The Convention which indicates the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage on a national scale, requests that institutionalisation is encouraged within the state and a specific quote is allotted to intangible cultural heritage in the mass media. Also the Convention stipulates that the intangible heritage is taught at all education institutions from elementary school onwards. Based on the UNESCO convention, it is required that the intangible cultural heritage is defined and classified for Istanbul. It is important that research groups are created for the inventory study to be performed and continuity of these studies ensured. Incentives may be created to determine a method in relation to safeguarding and exhibiting the intangible cultural heritage by considering its variability and to found museums according to this method. For the purpose of exhibiting the materials collected within the scope of the intangible cultural heritage, a study may be conducted in order to create re-enactment areas and museum areas. In these areas, practices such as signs, audiovisual, stage plays and re-enactments may be performed. Some studies may be prioritized in the exhibition of the materials collected in relation to the intangible cultural heritage of Istanbul. For example, preparations, beliefs and practices regarding the traditions which will be collected from Istanbul may be orally collected. Items used and the rituals performed by the public may be exhibited. A centre may be established where traditional children s plays are researched, collected and interactively staged. In this centre, studies of collecting traditional children s plays may be performed (with additions from research and translations from ancient written sources) on the one hand and the children who will come to the centre by various ways (coordination with schools, field trips etc.) will be able to learn a traditional play on the other hand. This centre may be supported with various documentary productions and oral history studies. Traditional toy-making may be performed within the centre and shared with the audience. 51

66 For the purpose of determination / revival studies of the intangible cultural heritage areas in the Historic Peninsula, existent cultural heritage areas (tombs, holy springs, trees etc.) may be determined and related information may be cited to visitors through signs, boards, digital systems etc. Some ceremonies which are not performed today, such as surre alayi (caravan taking gifts from the Ottoman sultan to Mecca) etc. may be re-enacted at specific times of the year (depending on the calendar). A thematic museum may be established such as Eyup toy museum and Istanbul clothing museum which would introduce the intangible cultural heritage products of the Historic Peninsula and feed other activities with its archive and reproduction area (See: Appendix 10). Various lifestyles are encountered in the intangible cultural heritage of Istanbul and can be found in many of its habits, traditions, spoken culture and ceremonies within the daily life of Istanbul. Some of these lifestyles may be examined under the headings of coffee culture, bathing culture, cuisine culture, travel culture, and handicrafts and ceremonies (See: Appendix-10). Coffee House Culture: Istanbul Coffee houses have formed a rich cultural environment by gaining cohesive categories such as minstrel coffee houses, coffee houses with live music, summerhouse, port, service coffee shops and Sultans coffee houses. The most famous of the Istanbul coffee houses are Valide at Eminonu, Fevziye at Divanyolu, Sarafim at Carsikapi, and Acem Tahir at Aksaray. At Uzun Kahve location, which is also referred to by the name of its Armenian owner Sarafim, famous authors, poets, and journalists of their times such as Young Turks, Wealth of Scientists, Namik Kemal, Sadullah Pasha, Muallim Naci, and Ahmed Rasim would meet. Coffee, tea, lemonade, and sorbet were consumed at coffee houses, and frequenters would play card games, domino, bezique, chess and backgammon. Bathing culture: The bathing culture began in the early period of the Roman era. This culture was less popular during the Byzantium era but then reached a new high after the conquest. In this new phase, the Turks brought Anatolian bath architecture and tradition to Istanbul. In Istanbul, baths, traditions and customs were sustained, which were similar to but richer and more colourful than those of the Anatolian baths. Baths were a point of culture and tradition for men. Whereas baths for women, in parallel to bathing, were the places to catch up on the news and gossip, meet with friends and get to know others. Rituals of magnificent bride and post-childbirth confinement baths and the forty-baths held for new-borns are traditions that are still sustained currently. The Baths of Istanbul are an important cultural heritage, internalised by society in the subjects of cultural architecture as well as fields of art. Cemberlitas Bath and Hurrem Sultan Bath, which are among the numerous baths located on the Historic Peninsula, have been restored and provide services to many locals and foreigners with their rituals of the past. Cuisine Culture: One of the two main sources of Istanbul cuisine was the Palace and rural customs. It has achieved a prominent place among the world cuisines with numerous cooking techniques and measuring units. Travel Culture: There is an unerring culture within Istanbul families to make trips and tours. Trips were planned to picnic areas along the banks of the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, especially commencing during Spring celebrations and continuing throughout the summertime. Trips would be planned to the mosques of the Sultans during the month of Ramadan, and Tarawih prayers were followed in Enderun practice. 52

67 Famous handicrafts of Istanbul: Workplaces and workshops of prominent craftsmen and craftsmen of Istanbul could be found at the Grand Bazaar and the inns and Ottoman Bazaars surrounding the Grand Bazaar. The traditional trade structure of the Grand Bazaar inspires today s modern production. Some of these traditional occupations, primarily jewellery, silversmith, filigree work, niello work, relief work and some other professions still continue today. The role of these handicrafts and manufacturing types in the cultural and artistic heritage of Istanbul can be animated thematically with visuals and texts. Jewellery design and jewellery, now beginning to be forgotten at the Grand Bazaar, which has sustained its fame in the field of jewellery from the past to present, could be revived within the intangible cultural heritage and provide an education possibility for future generations (See: Appendix-10). Craftsmen and artists used to form occupational organisations among themselves called divisions and guilds. This tradition coming from the Roman and Byzantium eras also continued throughout the Ottoman Culture. The heads of these organisations carried the titles of Ser (head) and Bas (principal) such as Ser-luleciyan (Head of pipe bowl makers) and kuyumcu-basi (Principal- Jeweller). The craftsmen divisions reported to the head of the Treasury, who was responsible for the treasuries of the Palace. Those from among these select craftsmen, who had a record at the Palace, were called defterli (registered) and service pay would be handed out to them from the internal treasury, regardless of whether they were given orders. Furthermore, each craft had its own traditional guild organisation. Each guild had its own managers named as the sheikh, chamberlain, and, yigitbasi (Managers in Anatolia), etc. and its own quality and price auditors. Craftsmen from the same profession mostly worked in shops that were either side by side, facing each other in an Ottoman bazaar unique to their profession, in a bazaar street or within a commercial building (Such as ink men, calligraphers, bookbinders bazaar, second-hand booksellers bazaar, Jewellers bazaar, cap makers bazaar, etc.). Each craftsmen group had the customs of their own professions, which had developed through many centuries. Traditional ceremonies would be held for promotion from apprenticeship to master level. These ceremonies were called putting on a belt and each craftsmen community would arrange countryside entertainments on certain days of the year called excursions (See: Appendix-10). Many examples are evidenced of the intangible cultural heritage of the daily life, and ceremony and protocols of the Ottoman palace. Palace cuisine and palace music continues its existence today as a part of the cultural life. Cuisines in the palaces of the Ottoman dynasty, operated day and night as three services called Has Sultan s Cuisine, Private Cuisine, and Public Cuisine; mid-morning and evening meals were distributed each day to members of the royal family, palace officials and those coming from outside at mid-morning and evening times. Food, sweets and sorbets prepared in the palace kitchen had distribution procedures. Various specialities would be prepared in the Sultan s Cuisine for the Sultan and Royal family members and these would be served to the Sultan, his mother, wives and children. City chefs would learn most of the dishes from palace chefs, or when palace chefs retired, they would open a chef s shop and cook those dishes of the palace, which were suitable and fitting to a given time and place. 53

68 Besides learning dressing, elegant speaking, guest-greeting, hosting, and many other etiquettes from Sarayli (member of the Sultan s Harem), who were married after being enlightened at the palace, inhabitants of Istanbul also acquired the eating and table cultures of the palace in an indirect manner in various neighbourhoods of the city from such Sarayli. Viziers as well as judges, who were appointed to rural posts and travelled with their chefs, introduced to such locations the cuisine culture of the capital city, whereas private chefs would introduce the local dishes they had learnt to make during such occasions to Istanbul. Istanbul is a world that could be a source of inspiration for rich source of music with its nature and topography. Inhabitants of Istanbul have always been in love with music. Music and mode were developed particularly by musicians, who were raised in the Enderun School of the Ottoman Palace. The Enderun School of the Palace was the sole school of music in Istanbul. Besides providing examples of the songs, lyric poems, Varsagi and Tespih forms, musicians had also put these into note form. Musicians in the 18 th Century, especially during the Tulip Age ( ) and post Tulip Age, seized the opportunity to excel in music with the frequent palace weddings, moonlight journeys arranged on the Bosphorus, and Kagithane entertainments. Furthermore, music entered a phase where it made its way into neighbourhoods, picnic areas, night entertainments, mansions, and waterside mansions (See: Appendix-10). Many palace protocols and ceremonies were available in addition to palace cuisine and palace music. Diverse ceremonies and protocols such as state ceremonies (Accession to the throne, sword girding ceremony, protocols of Imperial Council, etc.), religious ceremonies (Friday divine service parade, holy night, Religious Holyday ceremonies in the palace, visits to the Cloak of Prophet Mohammed, preparation of an imperial reading of the Quran, funeral ceremonies, etc.) and ceremonies realised in the Harem (such as birth ceremonies, cradle procession, Sultana procession, unique housemaid ceremony, wedding and circumcision ceremonies, etc.) are some of the many palace protocols (Alikiliç, 2002) World Heritage Sites of the Historic Peninsula Under this heading, sites and cultural properties in the World Heritage Sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List under the name of Historic Areas of Istanbul are examined in details. Sites and Cultural Properties in Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site Topkapi Palace and Gulhane Park which are first degree archeological sites and Sultanahmet and Cankurtaran districts which are urban-archeological sites form a zone which was the centre of two great empires and civilisations. The Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site represents a special area within the Historic Peninsula which has outstanding cultural and natural value at both a national and international scale in terms of the monuments, aboveground remains and underground monuments therein. 9,5% of the cultural properties which are located within the boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area are included in the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site (Table 2, Map 9, Appendix-13) (IMM, 2003a). 94% of these monuments are conserved in-situ, while 6% of them are not found in their location even though known to exist. 928 existent monuments in the Site correspond to 35% of the 2634 monuments which are located within all of the World Heritage Sites in Istanbul. Thus, the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site is the heritage area which includes the most 54

69 number of monuments. Within 990 registered buildings in the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site, 526 of them are monuments which constitute 53% of the total. Of the 526 monuments, 521 of them are existent and 5 no longer exist. There are also 464 civil cultural properties in the Site; 407 of them are existent and 57 of them have been lost over time (Yenen et al. 2008). Distribution of the registered buildings in the Site according to their functions is given in Table 3. 47% of the cultural properties in the Site Management Plan Area are used as residence. This percentage drops to 36% in the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site. 33% of the cultural properties in Sultanahmet are used as facilities and this percentage is higher than both the average of the other World Heritage Sites (29%) and the Site Management Plan Area (20%) in general. Ownership status of the cultural properties in the Site is given in Table 4. Cultural properties in the Site are mostly located in private property parcels. 622 buildings which constitute 63% of the 990 cultural properties are private properties. In the Site, 207 cultural properties in foundation ownership constitute nearly 21% of total cultural properties, while 161 cultural properties in the public ownership constitute 16% of the same (IMM, 2003a). Besides the cultural properties found at the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site, the authentic street pattern consisting of components such as building shapes, dimensions, and structural types, facade properties, street widths-building heights correlation, and ownership fabric is also important. The loss in patches of the authentic street pattern is largely as a result of fires experienced and arrangements made as measures taken against fires, road expansion works, efforts to form squares and new public structures, and an increase in structural intensity and works carried out with the purpose of renewal of structural inventory. 55

70 Map 9. Cultural Properties in Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site (Source: IBB, 2010a) 56

71 Cultural Properties in Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site which is located within the zone defined as urban and historic site in the Historic Peninsula (Figure 5) includes 960 registered buildings in total of which 809 still exist and 151 no longer exist. 466 of these buildings are monuments, 28 of which no longer exist. 123 of the remaining 494 civil architectural buildings have been lost over time. The 960 monuments in Suleymaniye constitute 32% of the monuments in the World Heritage Sites (Table 2, Map 10, and Appendix-13). Upon examination of the functional uses of the cultural properties in Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site, it is observed that commercial and residence uses are dominant. Of all the cultural properties in the Site, 217 are used as facility structures, 374 as commercial structures, 354 as residences and 15 as workshops (Table 3). Ownership status of the cultural properties in the Site is given in Table 4. Cultural properties in the Site are mostly located in private property parcels. 590 buildings which constitute 62% of the 961 cultural properties are private properties. In the Site, 195 cultural properties in the foundation ownership constitute almost 20% of total cultural properties in Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site, whilst 176 cultural properties in the public ownership constitute 18% respectively. Besides the cultural properties found at the Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site, the authentic street pattern consisting of components such as building shapes, dimensions, and structural types, facade properties, street widths-building heights correlation, and ownership fabric is also important. Within the area, substantially conserved street pattern from the past to today can be seen in the North, especially in the area left within the Demirtas and Hoca Giyaseddin Neighbourhoods, around Suleymaniye Mosque and Complex, and all along Kirazli Mescit Street. As a result of fires experienced and arrangements made as measures taken against fires, road expansion works, efforts to form squares and new public structures stand out as main reasons affecting the loss of authentic street pattern in patches. It could be said that the unique fabric has been interrupted in the western section of the area bordering Ataturk Boulevard particularly due to the construction of Istanbul Drapers and Yard Goods Centre (IMC) Blocks. The spatial distribution of the cultural properties in Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site is given in Map 10. In Appendix 13, detailed information regarding the cultural properties in the Site is given. Suleymaniye Mosque and Kulliye, which gives the area its name, are particularly important amongst other cultural properties in the Site. In the second half of the 19 th century, aside from the kulliye buildings, the Suleymaniye Zone included Old Ministry of War Building in the south (where main building of Istanbul University is currently located), Humayun Barracks, Cephane (Arsenal), Suleymaniye Barracks, hospital, repair shop and stables. Four madrasas near the mosque, Darussifa (Hospital), Imaret (public kitchen) (which is now a restaurant providing touristic service in order to keep the traditional Ottoman kitchen alive) and Sheikh ul-islam building (currently office of mufti) are the outstanding structures and centres. At the northwest end of the kulliye, Mimar Sinan s tomb is located (IMM; 2003a). Mosques, tombs and foundations in Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site continue their existence as an extension of traditional neighbourhood life. Besides Suleymaniye Mosque which bears primary importance in terms of historic values and architectural attributes, the Fountain of Suleymaniye Square, the Tomb of Mimar Sinan, Bozdogan Archway, Atif Efendi Library, 57

72 Molla Gurani Mosque, Damad Ibrahim Pasha Kulliye, Vefa High School and Kalenderhane Mosque are some of the important monuments in the zone. In the west border of Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site, along the 1- km-long belt next to Ataturk Boulevard, Istanbul Drapers and Yard Goods Centre (IMC) is located. This bazaar was built in order to gather the drapers and clothiers in and around Sultanhamam and began its activities towards the end of 1960 s. The bazaar represents a period in terms of architecture and is also decorated with distinguished works of plastic arts. These monuments include ceramic boards of Fureya Koral and Sadi Diren, three mosaic boards of Eren and Bedri Rahmi Eyuboglu, mosaic board of Nedim Gunsur, natural-stoned bas-relief of Ali Teoman Germaner, fountain plastic of Yavuz Gorey and Birds Sculpture of Kuzgun Acar ( id=imctarihce). Map 10. Cultural Properties in Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site (Source: IMM, 2010a) 58

73 Cultural Properties in Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site which is located within the zone defined as urban and historic site in the Historic Peninsula includes 282 registered buildings in total; 209 still exist whilst 73 no longer exist. The total number of the cultural properties in the Site constitutes about 3% of the cultural properties in the Site Management Plan Area and about 10% of the total number of cultural properties in the World Heritage Sites in Istanbul. of the cultural properties within the Site, 32% are monuments and 68% civil cultural properties. of the monuments, 78 of them are existent whilst 11 no longer exist and of the civil cultural properties, 131 of them still exist whilst 62 have been lost over time (Table 2, Map 11, Appendix-13). Considering the cultural properties according to their functions (Table 3), it can be observed that a large portion (74%) of the cultural properties is used as residence. of the cultural properties used as residence; 47 of them are used for social facilities and 26 used for commercial purposes. Ownership status of the cultural properties in the Site is given in Table 4. Cultural properties in the Site are mostly located in private property parcels. 207 buildings which constitute 73% of the 282 cultural properties are private properties. In the Site, the 44 cultural properties in public ownership constitute nearly 16% of total cultural properties, whilst 31 cultural properties in the foundation ownership constitute 11% respectively. Besides the cultural properties found at Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site, the authentic street pattern consisting of components such as building shapes, dimensions, and structural types, facade properties, street widths-building heights correlation and ownership fabric is also important. Although a major part of the traditional street pattern properties of the Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site were affected as a result of fires experienced and arrangements made as measures taken against fires and factors such as road expansion works, and proliferation of structural density, it is nevertheless observed that traditional street pattern properties and the architectural character of the site have largely survived until today. Spatial distribution of the cultural properties in Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site is given in Map 11. In Appendix 13, detailed information regarding the cultural properties in the Site is given. Zeyrek Mosque, which gives the area its name, is particularly important among other cultural properties in the Site. Besides Zeyrek Mosque and its connected structures in the associated area, there are several monuments scattered around the Site vicinity. Monuments include Zembilli Ali Efendi Primary School and Grave, Barbaros Hayrettin Pasha Bath (Hamam), Bicakci Alaaddin Mosque, Sheikh Suleyman Masjid (small mosque) and Tomb, Haydar Pasha Madrasa (Muslim college or school attached to mosque), Divitdar Mehmet Efendi Mosque, Kasap Demirhun Mosque, Haliliye Madrasa etc. Especially among the structures of mosques and madrasas, monastery and church remains are encountered and Byzantine cisterns are found under various structures. Cinili Bath (Hamam) is another monument in the Site which was built by Mimar Sinan in the 16 th Century (Gulersoy-Zeren et al., 2008b). The building complex which is located on Ataturk Boulevard was designed by Sedad Hakki Eldem one of the leading architects of 20 th century. It is currently used as the administrative office of Social Security Institution (SSK) and is also a cultural property within the boundaries of the Site. This building complex which was constructed between 1962 and 1964 is considered as an example of 59

74 contemporary Turkish architecture and by way of reinforcing its importance, Sedad Hakki Eldem was granted the Aga Khan Awardin 1986 because of this artwork (IMM, 2003a). Map 11. Cultural Properties in Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site (Source: IMM, 2010a) 60

75 Cultural Properties in Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Site The part of the Land Walls located within the Historic Peninsula is defined as an urban and historic site, whilst the part which is located within Zeytinburnu, Bayrampasa and Eyup Districts is defined as a Conservation Band of Land Walls. Furthermore, the part within the boundaries of Eyup District bears the status of an urban site. A total of 750 registered buildings were determined in the Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Site. Of the registered buildings in question, 688 are still in existence and 62 have disappeared over time. The registered buildings in the Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Site constitute 25% of all the registered buildings in World Heritage Sites and 7% of all the registered buildings in the Site Management Plan Area. Of the total number of 750 registered buildings in the Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Site, 53% are monuments and 47% are civil architectural buildings. From among 62 registered buildings in the Site, which no longer exist, 28 are monuments and 34 are civil architectural buildings (Table 2, Map 12, and Appendix-13). Of the registered buildings in the Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Site, 56% are used as residence and 37% are used as social facilities. Social facilities mostly consist of cemetery areas and religious facilities (Table 3). Ownership status of cultural properties in the Site is given in Table 4. Cultural properties in the Site are mostly located within private property lots. Out of the 750 cultural properties; 426 structures constituting 57% of the total assets are private properties. A total of 186 cultural properties in public ownership situated in the area constitute nearly 25% of the total cultural properties, while 138 cultural properties under the ownership of foundations constitute 19% of the said total. Besides the cultural properties found at Istanbul Land Walls, World Heritage Site, the authentic street pattern consisting of components such as building shapes, dimensions and structural types, facade properties, street widths-building heights correlation, and ownership fabric is also important. As a result of fires experienced and arrangements made as measures taken against fires, road expansion works, and increase in structural intensity stand out as the primary reasons affecting the loss in patches of authentic street pattern. The Land Walls, the longest and oldest defence system in Europe still standing, have an important place with their exceptional artistic and archeological value from both historical as well as architectural perspective. The Land Walls are nearly 7 km long and constitute the part of Istanbul Walls, which have preserved the most and interconnect in the area between the Sea of Marmara and the Golden Horn, from Yedikule to Ayvansaray. The section situated between the Marble Tower and The Palace of Phyrogenitus, built by Emperor Theodosius II, is a 60-meter wide band consisting of inner wall, outer wall and a moat and has 96 towers and 11 gates. Yedikule Gate, Belgrade Gate, Mevlana Gate, Topkapi, Sulukule Gate, Edirne Gate, and Egri Gate are still in use today. Furthermore Yedikule dungeons are also found in this area. The external wall and moat disappear after the Palace of Phyrogenitus, and the Komnen Walls constructed in the 12 th Century extend to the Golden Horn by displaying a different arc. There are 13 towers and Egri Gate, which is still in use in this section of the Walls. Further down, the towers of Anemas and Isak Angelus towers can be observed, which constitute the outer walls of the Blakerna Palace that gained importance in the last period of the Byzantine Era. The passages and chambers known as Anemas dungeons are situated below under these towers. The Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Site includes Hagia Yorgi Church, Ayios Nicholos Church, Blakerna Hagiasma within Fatih District; Merkezefendi Mosque and Tomb, Abdulbaki Pasha Library, Yenikapi Mevlevihanesi (dervish lodge), Seyitnizam Mosque, Balikli Hagiasma Monastery, Balikli Greek Hospital, Silivrikapi Muslim Cemetery, Kozlu Cemetery and Hamusan Cemetery within Zeytinburnu District; Nigogoyas Church, Ayiavleherna Hagiasma, Edirnekapi(gate) and Sakizagaci martyr s cemetery and sahabah (the companions of the Islamic prophet) tombs within Eyup District. 61

76 In addition, there are several monuments such as public baths (hamam), kulliyes, tombs, mosque graveyards (hazire) and fountains in the Site. Map 12. Cultural Properties in Land Walls of Istanbul World Heritage Site (Source: IMM, 2010a, Board 62

77 of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, 2009) 63

78 1.5. Legal and Institutional Framework Laws There are several legal legislations which are applicable within the boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula. The legislation which determines the conservation status and defines the processes related to the subject consists of the Law on the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties numbered 2863, its related regulations and resolutions. Other laws which set forth provisions regarding the use and construction conditions in the Site are, firstly, Zoning Law numbered 3194, Law on Preservation by Renovation and Utilisation by Revitalisation of Deteriorated Historical and Cultural Properties numbered 5366 and Tourism Encouragement Law numbered In addition (secondly), Metropolitan Municipality Law numbered 5216 and Municipality Law numbered 5393 which address the management of the Site is in effect as general laws. Other general laws which are applicable within the boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula are Law of Foundations numbered 5757, Law on Privatisation Practices numbered 4046, Coastal Law numbered 3621, Law on Cultural Promotions and Initiatives numbered 3621, Mass Housing Law numbered 2985 and Environmental Law numbered Law on the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties numbered 2863 is the general law in Turkey regarding conservation. Registration and determination transactions of movable and immovable cultural and natural properties; maintenance, repair, changes of function in relation to registered buildings and the planning subjects including development and construction conditions are executed under this Law numbered 2863 which came into effect on July 23, Since 1989, the Law was developed with additions in order to reinforce the effectiveness of conservation. The most important developments are the new institutional structures which were introduced by the law dated July 14, 2004 and numbered Amongst these structures, creating financial sources for maintenance and repair of cultural properties, establishing offices (KUDEB) in charge of implementation and supervision in the sites and including the concept of management plan in the law are important innovations in terms of reinforcing the conservation practices. According to the Statutory Decree Regarding Changing the Statutory Decree in Relation to the Organisation and Duties of the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning and Some Additional Laws and Statutory Decrees dated August 17 th 2011, some arrangements were made in the content of the Law on the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties numbered In this context, duties and authorisations regarding natural properties and natural sites which are under the authorisation of the Law numbered 2863 were transferred to the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning; and Central Commission for Conservation of Natural Properties and District Commissions for Conservation of Natural Properties were granted approval to be established. In this context, the name of the Law numbered 2863 was changed to Law on the Conservation of Cultural Properties and the term Natural was omitted from the names of the Boards. Furthermore, the time limitations imposed on the execution of conservation development plans were mitigated; and whilst efficiency of the Supreme Board of Conservation was increased, efficiency of judicial authority and trade associations were reduced. The implementation of recommendations by a member of YOK to Regional Conservation Boards has been terminated, and the practice of entire appointments being taken by the Ministry has been put into execution. In terms of decision-making, the condition of 64

79 absolute majority of full members was annulled and a new absolute majority system, which also includes the investor institutions, was accepted. Law on Preservation by Renovation and Utilisation by Revitalisation of Deteriorated Immovable Historical and Cultural Properties numbered 5366; which came into effect on May 07, 2005, defines the term renewal area within the sites whose boundaries are proposed by local authorities and declared by the Council of Ministers. This Law authorizes the local authorities to execute and implement renewal projects in the renewal areas to be declared independent from the conservation plans. Renewal Boards have been established with the purpose of the approval of renewal projects. This Law has been criticized because it adopts the renewal activity which contradicts the concept of conservation within the conservation zones, enables the development of projects without the conservation plan decisions and does not have an intention to improve the socio-economic structure of the zone. It is observed that UNESCO World Heritage Committee have included the same criticisms in its decisions regarding the Historic Areas of Istanbul since Fifteen renewal areas which were declared under the Law numbered 5366 and approved by the Council of Ministers on November 26, 2007 are given in Table 5 and spatial positions (geographic distribution) of these areas can be seen in Map 13. Table 5. Declared Renewal Areas within the Site Management Plan Area Name of Renewal Area Approval Date and Decision Number of Council of Ministers Number and Issue Date of Official Gazette Neslisah and Hatice Sultan Neighbourhoods / / Balat Karabas, Tahta Minare and Atik Mustafa Pasha Neighbourhoods (Fener-Balat Districts) / / Kurkcubasi (Bulgur Palas District) and Davutpasa Neighbourhoods / / Atik Mustafa Pasha Neighbourhood (Ayvansaray) / Beyazit Aga (Wall 1), Eregli Neighbourhoods / Yedikule-Yenikapi I. Stage (Haci Evhattin, Imrahor Ilyasbey Neighbourhoods / Yedikule-Yenikapi II. Stage (Haci Huseyin, Sancaktar Hayrettin, Kasap Ilyas Neighbourhoods) / Yedikule-Yenikapi III. Stage (Yali, Kasap Ilyas, Cakiraga, Kurkcubasi Neighbourhoods) / Veledi Karabas, Cambaziye, Haci Hamza, Haci Evhattin, Imrahor Ilyasbey Neighbourhoods (Wall-2) / Kucuk Mustafa Pasha and Haracci Kara Mehmet Neighbourhoods / Husambey-Kirkcesme and Sheikh Resmi Neighbourhoods / Suleymaniye District Grand Bazaar (Kapalicarsi) and its associated area Nisanca Sultanahmet Districts Zeytinburnu Wall Isolation Area

80 Map 13. Renewal Areas in the Site Management Plan Area (Source: Fatih and Zeytinburnu Municipalities ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER

81 Tourism Encouragement Law numbered 2634 came into effect on March 16, This Law authorizes the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to make and/or cause to make plans in every scale and to single-handedly approve and amend those plans in the Tourism Areas which are declared by the Council of Ministers. The tourism centres which are declared in the Site based on this Law are listed in Table 6. Implementation of the Four Seasons Hotel which is situated in Sultanahmet Square Tourism Centre is one of the important subjects included in UNESCO monitoring and evaluation reports. Sultanahmet Penitentiary building, located within Istanbul Sultanahmet Square Tourism Centre as declared by decision of Council of Ministers in 1982, was rented on a build-operate-transfer model for 49 years and opened to service as the Four Seasons Hotel in In 2000, the Archaeological Park, Tourism and Culture Area plan, which was prepared by the Ministry on the area in which remains of a Byzantine Palace are situated, was approved by Number 4 Board of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties. Atakoy Tourism Centre was declared as such in In relation to the Revision Development Plan of Istanbul Atakoy Tourism Centre Kazlicesme Sea Tourism Facilities approved by Ministry of Culture and Tourism in 2011, approval processes in the related Board of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and Zeytinburnu Municipality were completed. The plan proposes high-density housing in existing and added filling areas in the coast of Zeytinburnu. These plan decisions adopted for the Site Management Plan Area are required to be handled under ICOMOS-Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment Implementation as recommended by UNESCO for similar cases in order to avoid affecting the silhouette of the Historic Peninsula negatively, that new housing causes pressure within the historical fabric and wall isolation area and to protect the housing area and walls. Eminonu Barbaros Houses Tourism Centre is another tourism centre situated in the area. Eminonu Barbaros Houses Tourism Centre was announced on April 19, 1989 and does not have any plans approved by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Table 6. Tourism Centres in the Site Management Plan Area Number and Issue Name Date of Official Gazette Position/Location Sultanahmet Square Tourism Centre Eminonu Barbaros Houses Tourism Centre Atakoy Tourism Centre / / / It covers Sultanahmet Square, including Sultan Ahmet Mosque and Kulliye, Former Sultanahmet Prison, Soguk Cesme Street and Hippodrome but excluding Gulhane Park, Basilica Cistern and Topkapi Palace. It does not have any plan approved by Ministry of Culture and Tourism. It consists of Zeytinburnu part of Atakoy Marina within Bakirkoy, west border of Bakirkoy-Sumerbank ready-made clothing facility, the cleared area of Kazlicesme Leather Industry in the west, Istanbul walls in the east, Kennedy Avenue in the south and the pier line of Marmara coasts. 67

82 Related institutions In relation to conservation and planning of the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan Area, central government agencies include the Ministry of Culture and Tourism; Istanbul Number 2 and 4 Boards of KVK and Istanbul Board of Renewal Areas, Istanbul Directorate of Survey and Monuments, Istanbul Directorate of Archeological Museums, the Governorship of Istanbul, Istanbul Special Provincial Administration, Department of Development, Investment and Construction, Istanbul Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, Istanbul 1 st District Directorate of Foundations, Istanbul Provincial Directorate of Health, Istanbul Provincial Directorate of National Education; and local governments include IMM, Fatih District Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality and Eyup Municipality. Institutions within IMM include the Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, Directorate of Conservation, Application and Supervision (KUDEB), IMM Directorate of City Planning, IMM Directorate of Planning, IMM Directorate of Projects, IMM Directorate of Construction Affairs, IMM Directorate of Urban Design, IMM Directorate of Transportation Planning, IMM Directorate of Rail Systems, IMM Department of Transportation, IMM Directorate of Transport Coordination, IMM Directorate of Road Maintenance and Restoration, IMM Directorate of Parks and Gardens, IMM Directorate of Cultural Affairs, IMM Directorate of Tourism, IMM Tourism Workshop. Other related establishments include Istanbul 2010 European Capital of Culture Agency, Directorate of Urban Projects, Directorate of Tourism of Istanbul 2010 European Capital of Culture Agency, Marmaray District Directorate of RHA (Railways, Harbours and Airports), 1 st District Directorate of TCDD (Turkish State Railways) Marmaray Coordination Committee and KIPTAS A.S. (See: Part 4.1). The primary responsible institution amongst the central government agencies regarding conservation of the Site Management Plan Area of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula is the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Conserving historical and cultural properties is considered to be a basic duty of the Ministry and duties and authorities in relation to this were given to the General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums under the Directorate. Under the Directorate, the basic units responsible for the conservation of the properties in the Site are the Istanbul Directorate of Survey and Monuments and the Directorate of Istanbul Archeological Museums. Number IV Board of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties was the authority in the Site Management Plan Area of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula, whilst the Board of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties of Istanbul Renewal Areas was the authority in the Renewal Areas within the Site up until the Statutory Decree Regarding Changing the Statutory Decree in Relation to the Organisation and Duties of the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning and Some Other Laws and Statutory Decrees dated August 17 th 2011 come into effect. The second of the central government agencies which has an influence on the Site Management Plan Area is the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning. The Ministry became responsible for conservation of natural sites and properties in accordance with the aforementioned Statutory Decree. In accordance with the 9 th Article of the Zoning Plan numbered 3194, the Ministry is also authorised to plan the coasts, filling areas and all public lands subject to privatisation within the Site Management Plan Area (in cooperation with Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry Privatisation Administration), the lands belonging to Treasury (in cooperation with Ministry of Finance) and the lands in the ownership of Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKI). The primary responsible institution amongst the local authority in Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan Area is the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. According to Metropolitan 68

83 Municipality Law, the Metropolitan Municipality is in charge of Conserving cultural and natural properties, historical fabric and places which are historically important for the city within the jurisdiction of the Municipality and their functions, performing maintenance and repairs for this purpose, rebuilding the ones which are impossible to conserve in accordance with their original form. The Directorate of City Planning, Directorate of Planning and Directorate of Conservation, Application and Supervision (KUDEB), Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites and the Directorate of Construction Affairs are the directorates at Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, that are authorised and in charge of planning and conservation. Plans and projects prepared by these directorates with regards to these subjects required the approval by related Boards of Conservation of Cultural Properties. Among these directorates, the Directorate of City Planning is in charge of preparing conservation development plans in all sites in Istanbul. Conservation plans pertaining to the part of the Historic Peninsula within the boundaries of the Site Management Plan, Eyup sites and Zeytinburnu Wall Conservation Band were prepared by this directorate. On the other hand, the Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites has prepared several conservation and improvement projects since the funds allocated for conservation operations increased in These projects, which have been prepared, have commenced implementation by IBB Directorate of Construction Affairs. KUDEB, who have restored the wooden houses with original materials by conserving them in-situ receives positive responses from the public and UNESCO World Heritage Committee. In the practices of the Timber and Stone Training Workshop carried out by KUDEB in Suleymaniye and Zeyrek, it is very important that the maintenance and reparation of the cultural properties are executed in accordance with integrated conservation principles and standards. These activities are expected to be developed and maintained. Other responsible institutions with local authority are the district municipalities. According to Metropolitan Municipality Law, Metropolitan Municipality deems that district municipalities in its jurisdiction to be in charge of and authorised for conserving cultural and natural properties and historical fabric, providing services for development of the places within its boundaries which are historically important for the city and their functions. The municipalities responsible for and authorised for this subject are Fatih Municipality in Fatih District which covers the entire Historic Peninsula; and Zeytinburnu Municipality, Eyup Municipality and Bayrampasa Municipality which are partly included in the Buffer Zone of the Site Management Plan Area. Within each municipality, Directorates of Housing and Urban Development and Offices of Application and Supervision are structured as directorates in charge of conservation practices. Special Provincial Administrations since 2004, have amongst their other duties and authorities, been in charge of and authorised for execution of the financial source of conservation practices. In accordance with the Law on the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, 10% of the entire property tax collected within the boundaries of the province is transferred to Special Provincial Administrations. These resources are used for the projects in relation to conservation and utilisation of cultural properties which are executed by the municipalities under the supervision of the Governor of Istanbul. The institution which performs conservation practices itself is one of the financial supporters of the 2010 Istanbul European Capital of Culture Agency and had been the main sponsor for a great part of the restoration and conservation projects carried out by the Agency from 2008 to the end of The institution gives occupational and technical training courses which are open to all inhabitants of Istanbul where it trains employees to make simple designs and repair 69

84 works. Moreover, under Seismic Hazard Abatement (ISMEP), for projects executed Istanbul-wide, the Special Provincial Administration takes the inventory of the buildings within the scope of cultural and historic heritage and reinforces several public institutions against earthquakes. The General Directorate of Foundations is charged with determining, taking inventory of, conservation, utilisation, repair, restoration and if necessary, rebuilding of movable and immovable cultural properties which are under its responsibility and ownership. District Directorates of Foundations are in charge of the supervision of all practices to be carried out for the cultural properties provided that they are approved by the KVK Boards concerned. Restoration works still continue in most of the foundation monuments which are under the responsibility of Istanbul 1 st District Directorate of Foundations. Restoration commenced on 37 monuments within the boundaries of the Site Management Plan at the beginning of this year and are of continuation. At the same time, they organises the Program for training implementation employees in the process of conservation of cultural heritage in cooperation with the Association of Conservation and Restoration Firms (KORFED). Related non-governmental organisations include the Association of Historical Towns, the foundation for the promotion and conservation of the environment and cultural heritage (CEKUL), Foundation the Turkish foundation for combating soil erosion for reforestation and the conservation of natural habitats (TEMA), The Touring and Automobile Club of Turkey (TURING), Turkish Foundation for the Promotion and the Preservation of Heritage- Monuments, Environment and Tourism Values (TAC), Archaeologists Association, Turkish Timber Association, Cultural Awareness Foundation, Human Settlement Association, Friends of Cultural Heritage Association (KUMID), Istanbul foundation for culture and arts (IKSV), History Foundation and Science and Art Foundation and other NGOs active in the fields of culture and education. Furthermore, Turkey is a member of ICOMOS, IUCN, ICOM and EUROPA NOSTRA which are institutions displaying conservation-based activities in an international scale and related to the Site Management Plan Area of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula. Activities of Institutions Regarding Management Plan The aforementioned central and local government agencies that perform duties in the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan Area execute several projects in the Site. These projects can be summarised under various groups in terms of their contents. Facade and Street Improvement - Urban Design Projects: In order to remove the problems reflecting on the urban silhouette, all municipalities within the Site execute improvement works for the building facades in all streets, step by step, starting from the avenues (See: Appendix-12 for detailed information about the Projects). Amongst these projects, implementations of the following were completed: Facade and Street Improvement Project of Divanyolu, Yeniceriler and Gedikpasa Avenues, Street Improvement Project of Sultanahmet Hippodrome and its associated Area, Facade Improvement Project of Balat-Lonca District, Facade Improvement Project of the Women s Bazaar, 2 nd Stage Facade Improvement Project of Vatan Avenue, Street Improvement Project of Divanyolu Yeniceriler and Gedikpasa Avenues, Urban Design Projects of Haracci Neighbourhood - Kucuk Mustafa Pasha, Urban Design Projects of Bulgur Palas, Urban Design Projects of Husambey Neighbourhoods, Urban Design Projects of Wall-1, 2 nd Stage Urban Design Projects of Yenikapi- Yedikule and 3 rd Stage Urban Design Projects of Yenikapi-Yedikule. 70

85 The projects in progress are Facade and Street Improvement Project of Malta Bazaar, Facade and Street Improvement Project of Mahmutpasa Avenue Slope, second Stage Street Improvement Project of Yeniceriler and Ordu Avenue, Facade Improvement Projects of Ankara Babi Ali Muradiye Hudavendigar Avenues, second Stage Street Improvement Project of Yeniceriler and Ordu Avenue. In addition to these projects, there are projects which are in progress throughout Istanbul and includes the Site Management Plan in scope of their implementation such as; Studies for Design Guide for Infrastructure in Main Arteries and Pedestrian Areas in Istanbul, Project for Implementation of Urban Design Throughout Istanbul, Project for Implementation of Urban Design for Building Facades and Ground Rehabilitation Throughout Istanbul, Building Exterior Facade Lighting Installations of Historic Monuments and Buildings in Various Districts of Istanbul and Survey Project for Establishing a Coastal Management Plan for Istanbul and the Bosporus. Renewal Projects: Under the Law numbered 5366, several renewal projects have been executed in the Site since 2005 (See: Appendix-12 for detailed information about the Projects). In order to execute more positive implementations in physical and social terms by considering the problems and criticisms encountered in previous implementations which have different models and processes, it is deemed necessary that objectives, strategies, actions and projects regarding the related matters are developed in the Site Management Plan. Renewal projects designed by the municipalities are as follows: Renewal Area Project of Hatice Sultan and Neslisah Neighbourhoods (Sulukule) (in progress); Urban Renewal Project of Coastal Area of Fener-Balat Districts; Urban Renewal Area Project of Atik Mustafa Pasha and Haracci Karamehmet (Cibali) Neighbourhood,; Renewal Area Project of Ayvansaray, Renewal Area Project of Grand Bazaar and its associated Area; Renewal Area Project of Istanbul Land Walls Along the Wall; Renewal Area Project of Marmara Coastline; Urban Renewal Area Projects of Husambey, Kirmasti, Kirkcesme Neighbourhoods; Urban Renewal Area Project of Davutpasa Neighbourhood Hekimoglu Ali Pasha and Davutpasa Mosques; Urban Renewal Area Project of Darussaffaka High School and its associated Area; Suleymaniye 1 st Stage Projects and Renewal Project of Merkezefendi and its associated Area within the scope of Renewal Area Project of Zeytinburnu Wall Isolation Area. Projects of the following renewal areas are being prepared: Grand Bazaar (3 rd and 4 th Stages), Suleymaniye (2 nd Stage). Restoration Projects: The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the General Directorate of Foundations, the Special Provincial Administration, IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, IBB Directorate of Construction Affairs and KUDEB prepare and implement improvement and restoration projects in the Site. District municipalities have also performed implementations in this regard in recent years (See: Appendix-12 for detailed information about the Projects). One of the most important subjects of the activities and projects of the Site Management Plan is providing coordination and extending and improving the capacity of these projects. The maintenance, repair and restoration works of the following have been carried out: Istanbul Conservation Boards Building, for which the budget was allocated in the 2010 Investment Program of the General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and Istanbul Turkish Islamic Arts Museum, financed by Special Provincial Administration. In addition to the above, the Survey, Restitution, Restoration and Engineering Projects as well as Infrastructure Project construction works are being undertaken by the General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums. 71

86 Of the projects that Istanbul 1 st District Directorate of Foundations has been carrying out since 2004, reparations of 60 monuments have been completed and six are still ongoing. In the repairs executed with sponsorships, the restoration of eight monuments have been completed and restorations of a further ten monuments continue. Projects undertaken with sponsorship are being carried out in cooperation with IBB, Istanbul 2010 Agency, Zeytinburnu Municipality, various NGOs, and private sector organisations. In addition, the restorations of 39 assigned immovable properties have been completed and restorations of 42 assigned monuments are ongoing. The restoration of 19 monuments, which were leased in return for restorations, has been completed and restorations of 19 monuments are ongoing. Reclamation works of 24 monuments, which do not exist anymore, are ongoing and 21 archeological research excavations have been performed. Istanbul Special Provincial Administration has executed 515 projects since 2007 within the boundaries of Fatih, Eyup, Zeytinburnu and Bayrampasa. These are categorized as restoration implementation projects and projects which include relief, restitution, restoration and engineering works, ground study and infrastructure works. A total of 17 surveys, restitution, restoration and landscape design projects, undertaken within the scope of the Site Management Plan Area of IBB Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, have been completed, eight remain ongoing and 9 are scheduled for completion. The Suleymaniye Renewal Area, 1 st Region Survey, Restitution, Restoration and preliminary projects, Cemberlitas Survey, Restitution, and Restoration Project are among the completed projects. The Survey, Restitution, and Restoration projects of 37 registered Civil Architectural Sample Structures at Zeyrek Area, Survey, Restitution, Restoration and Preliminary Projects of 2 nd Region of Suleymaniye Renewal Area, Survey, Restitution, Restoration Project of Tercuman Yunus Sibyan School (Historic Primary School) are among the ongoing projects. The Survey, Restitution, Restoration, Ground Survey, Engineering, Landscape Design Implementation Project of Istanbul Land Walls (Between the T55 T40 Towers), and the Survey, Restitution, Restoration, and Restoration and Landscape Design Project of Basilica Cisterns are among the projects scheduled for completion. A part of the said projects are being realised in cooperation with the General Directorate of Foundations within the scope of protocol titled Procurement of Maintenance-Repair and Reviving of 120 Shrines found in Istanbul by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. To this end, an implementation model has been formed whereby 60 % of the implementation costs of 11 of the 150-registered civil architectural samples (for which restoration projects have been approved by the decision of the Regional Board of Conservation of Istanbul Renewal Areas Cultural and Natural Properties found in the 1 st Stage of Suleymaniye Renewal Area) will be covered by Governorship of Istanbul, with 40% will be covered by property owners and/or covered by the granting of credits from the Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKI). Thus, an application has been made to TOKI. Architectural and engineering projects of 11 lots have been delivered to the IBB Directorate of Construction Affairs within this scope, and tenders directed at the implementation have been performed by the Directorate of Construction Affairs. An application has been made to the Istanbul 2010 European Capital of Culture Agency with the purpose of full compensation for the costs of registered structures that are public property (Istanbul University, Treasury, Foundations) from among the 150, for which works have been initiated to be implemented in the said first stage. Tenders directed at the implementation of 39 lots within this scope have been performed by the Directorate of Construction Affairs. Moreover, for the implementation in the Suleymaniye Renewal Areas, cooperation has been formed between Fatih Municipality and KIPTAS. 72

87 Amongst the works which have been executed by Fatih Municipality since 2005, the project designing stage of 24 cultural properties is ongoing, whilst 43 are completed. Since 2005, Fatih Municipality have completed the restoration of 15 cultural properties with a further 9 in progress. As of June 2011, the total number of projects and restorations Fatih Municipality will have commenced is 25. Zeytinburnu Municipality has 2 restoration project implementations in the Site which are still in progress and 5 restoration project implementations which will commence. In the 2011 schedule of Fatih Municipality, there are 19 restoration projects in Suleymaniye. Projects supporting the development of technologic infrastructure: In this regard, there are projects both in progress and completed pertaining to establishment, implementation and updating of the city information system of municipalities (See: Appendix-12 for detailed information about the Projects). There are projects of Fatih Municipality both in progress and completed regarding establishment, implementation and updating of the city information system. The establishment of a City Information System and Geographic Information System, entering development plans on a single building scale as well as address information on the map and digitalisation of title deed information on a city information system are the projects which began in 2005 and were completed in At the end of the project, a functioning city information system was established. The Project of Mobile Municipality and Transition to Mobile Signature Application, which was initiated to provide coordination and speed in the activities executed inside and outside the institution was also completed. Furthermore, supporting projects for the system such as development and updating of the city information system and development of a digital archive were executed and completed. Through the established system, multi-layer search at a single building scale can be performed. Moreover, the City Information System was transmitted to NVY National address database and provides various facilities for its users. Fatih Municipality continues the works of making 3D modelling of some streets and areas and taking 360-degree renders from streets and main arteries and transmitting them to geographic information systems and social municipality activities work in integration with the City Information System. Furthermore, communication centres in which the citizens share their requests and complaints and seek out solutions were developed. Between 2010 and 2011, Fatih Municipality continued works to equip Fatih District with wireless Internet. Certified online training programs were organised in order to increase the use of data processing technologies inside and outside the institution and since 2007, Fatih Municipality has occupied a stand in CeBIT expo and promotes data processing projects. In order to provide integration of data processing infrastructure with other institutions, various implementations were performed and cooperation was initiated. An Urban Design Project with the Purpose of Forming an Econometric Model within the Scope of Urban Conservation-Renewal-Conversion has been realised, in accordance with micro zoning and mapping project of 2005 and Conservation Plans of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula, Fatih and Eminonu Districts Archeological Areas on the scales of 1/5000 and 1/1000, and 3-Dimension laser scanning and survey and silhouette determination works have been performed. These works constitute the supporting elements of the works in relation to the city information system. Fatih Municipality and BIMTAS executed the sharing of data and information obtained as a result of the Detailed Earthquake Oriented Construction project, relief projects of monuments and projects of drawing out the street silhouettes of Fatih District which were executed by BIMTAS in order to prepare against earthquakes and disasters. The project began and was completed in There are projects of Zeytinburnu Municipality regarding developing information and automation systems and expanding technical infrastructure capacities that were commenced in 2011 and completed or still in progress. 73

88 Cultural and social service projects and projects reinforcing public relations: Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and district municipalities have numerous projects in this subject (Please see: Appendix- 12 for detailed information on the projects). IBB ISMEK (Art and Occupation Vocational Training Courses) from among these is a widespread training organisation with the aim of training qualified workforce and providing its trainees with occupations. Moreover Fatih Municipality is undertaking numerous projects such as Information Houses Project, Fatih Social Integration Project, District Mansions Project, and the Project on Workshop for People with Disabilities. The activities carried out under the area of cultural and social services include organising activities for special weeks, organising panels, theatre shows, painting and photography exhibitions and crafts courses; establishing people s assembly, women s assembly, youth assembly and organising cut-rate/discount days; arranging meetings with tradesmen and associations, executing business programs; artistic and sports activities for people with disabilities; organising trips such as district trips etc; organising activities for students in order to introduce and give information in relation to the district and the city and organising programs to train and encourage the students to take part in the introduction of Fatih; performing health screenings, preparing informative materials relating to health, distributing them to the public and organising seminars; and finally making researches in order to measure the satisfaction of the public regarding the services of municipality and to increase the variety and quality of social services. These activities are carried out particularly by Fatih Municipality Directorate of Cultural and Social Affairs and also the Directorate of Press and Public Relations and Directorate of Health Services. Fatih Municipality Directorate of Conservation and Control of Environment execute activities in relation to decomposing the solid wastes, increasing the trash collection capacity and managing the dangerous wastes on-site. Fatih Municipality also carries out operations which aim to inform the district inhabitants regarding these subjects, increase environmental awareness and quality of city and life Natural Structure of the Site The most important natural heritage of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula is its "peninsula" character from which it derives its name. The location and shape of the Historic Peninsula, which is surrounded by the Sea of Marmara in the south, the Bosporus in the east and the Golden Horn in the North, provide a different impression of the city from various aspects and coastal areas where water and land interact further enrich the character of the Peninsula. The second natural heritage of the Suriçi is its "topography" which is made up of hills, escarpments, and small valleys that go along the Golden Horn to unite with the seven hills of the Historic Peninsula and the main valley that stretches from the east side of it to the west; furthermore, this topography contributes to the unrivaled silhouette of part of the Istanbul inside the city walls. All civilisations have utilised the "peninsula" shape of the Historic Peninsula and its "topography", and have created the unrivaled silhouette of the city by building their tangible cultural heritage, such as temples, monasteries, churches, mosques, and kulliyes on these hills. The first hill where Topkapi Palace is located reaches 65 meters, the second hill in Bab-i Ali reaches 55 meters, the third hill in Beyazit reaches 60 meters, the fourth hill where Fatih Social Complex is located reaches 65 meters, the fifth hill where Yavuz Selim Mosque is located reaches 60 meters, the sixth hill above the Tekfur Palace reaches 55 meters and the seventh hill in Sehremini reaches 55 meters from the sea level (Map 14). 74

89 Map 14. Topography of the Site Management Plan (Source: IMM, 2003a) According to the Istanbul Earthquake Master Plan which evaluates all the neighbourhoods of Istanbul for earthquake damage risk, the areas that require immediate action are located mostly in the Fatih District (IMM, 2003b). With damage assessment research conducted after the August 17, 1999, earthquake, it was determined that large-scale damage in the Eminonu-Katip Kasim Neighbourhood was seven times higher than the average level of damage experienced in Istanbul. The damage was six times the Istanbul average in the Fatih Imrahor and Haci Huseyin Aga Neighbourhoods according to the old administrative borders. Furthermore, when an evaluation was undertaken in relation to registered existing and damaged monuments in the Site, it was observed that 677 of the 10,413 registered historical monuments are located in high damage areas. Also, since most of the Buffer Zone is made up of alluvion and filled areas, the same earthquake risk factors that apply to the Historic Peninsula apply to the Buffer Zone. According to the liquefaction risk analysis and the movement of mass (landslides) evaluation done in the Urban Design Project for Creation of an Economical Model within the Scope of Urban Conservation and Renewal and in accordance with the 1/5000 and 1/1000 Scale Conservation Plans of Istanbul Historic Peninsula Fatih and Eminonu Districts, despite the area between the city walls and the coast having a strong foundation, the hillsides of the Millet Avenue facing the coast were found to be prone to landslides. Aside from areas prone to landslides, the fact that buildings built between 1950 and 1970 exist in large numbers in these otherwise strong areas increases this risk. The fact that the foundation of Vatan Avenue, one of the important axes of the Site, is made up of alluvion, and that the buildings erected between 1950 and 1980 have many floors and their ground floors serve business purposes demonstrate the high risk of this area. Other factors that increase the 75

90 risk in the Eminonu District are that the ground contains clay and marl and there are filled areas both along the coast and inland which further increases the risk of the area (Map 15). In the Istanbul Earthquake Master Plan (2003), high-risk areas based on their ground characteristics were determined in the damage assessment research undertaken after the August 17, 1999, earthquake and these are the areas between the Cemberlitas Beyazit lower neighbourhood and the Golden Horn Coast, the triangle between Beyazit-Aksaray-Sarachane, along the Vatan Avenue, Sultanahmet-Ahirkapi access, the Golden Horn coast, filled ground along the Sea of Marmara, the area surrounding the Fevzi Pasha access and sloping areas of Samatya. Map 15. Analysis of the High Earthquake Risk Areas in the Site Management Plan Area (Source: IMP/BIMTAS 2005, IMM 2003b, IMM, 2007a) 76

91 1.7. Physical, Social and Economical Structure of the Site In this section, the physical, social and economical structure of the Site is observed in the Site Management Plan Area and Historic Areas of Istanbul sub-headings Land Use This section describes the land use, residential areas, commercial areas, accommodation areas, administrative facilities, outdoors and green areas, social facilities and the spatial distribution of these functions pertaining to the Site Management Plan Area and Historic Areas of Istanbul Site Management Plan Area In terms of a functional breakdown, transportation areas take up most of the land (801 hectares) in the 2110 hectare-wide Management Area which is made up of the Historic Peninsula (1562 hectares) and the Buffer Zone, approximately one third of the Peninsula (548 hectares). This function makes up 28.9% of the Peninsula and 38% of the total area when considered with the Buffer Zone. The second function in the Management Area is the residential areas that make up one fourth of the Peninsula (391) hectares. Thirdly, green areas and cemetery functions make up 14% of the area (total of 302 hectares) (Table 7, Map 16). Table 7. Functional Distribution of the Site Management Plan Area Historic Peninsula Buffer Zone Site Management Plan Area Functions Area Rate Area Rate Area Rate (hectares) (%) (hectares) (%) (hectares) (%) Residential Areas Commercial Areas Manufacturing Areas Warehousing Areas Residential + Commercial Areas + Manufacturing + Warehousing Commercial + Manufacturing + Warehousing Accommodation Areas Accommodation + Residential Areas Accommodation + Commercial Areas Green Areas Cemetery Areas Administrative Facilities Religious Facilities Education Facilities (Public + Private) Cultural Facilities Medical Facilities (Public + Private) Technical Facilities Other Areas* Grand Total 1, , Archeological Land Walls and Moats * Other Areas: Consisting of transportation infrastructure (roads, traffic islands, cross-sections), indoor and outdoor parking lots, fuel stations, unoccupied land, construction sites, annexed buildings, etc. 77

92 Map 16. Land Use in the Site Management Plan Area (Source: IMM, 2010a) ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER

93 Residential Areas: It is observed that almost the entire residential function is located in the Fatih and Eminonu Districts, which mostly hosts businesses, public services and tourist facilities. The residential function appears most in Suleymaniye and continues along coastal areas of the Katip Kasim and Nisanca Neighbourhoods in Yenikapi, and the Sehsuvar, Little Hagia Sophia, Sultanahment, Cankurtaran and Emin Sinan Neighbourhoods. Residential areas within the boundaries of the Management Area are made up of neighbourhoods that have a historical character and in addition, a significant number of these are reinforced concrete structures that had been mostly renovated since 1940s, reaching five or six stories. Commercial Areas: Commercial areas in the Historic Peninsula cover hectares which accounts for 7.4% of the area, most of which has developed in the Eminonu District. The Grand Bazaar and Inns Area make up the traditional centre for retail and wholesale business in Istanbul. Commercial areas in the Fatih District are focused in Aksaray, and have developed linearly along the Millet Avenue and Fevzipasa Avenue and continue as far as the Land Walls. Akdeniz, Oguzhan and Kizil Elma Avenues are perpendicular to these main roads that have a lower grade business function. Accommodation Areas: Accommodation areas that generally appear along with residential and commercial areas in the Historic Peninsula cover 35 hectares. Thus, accommodation areas make up only 2.2% of the total area with two thirds of located in the Eminonu District. Four and five star accommodation facilities are located around Laleli, Sultanahmet, Cankurtaran and Topkapi. Furthermore, two and three-star hotels and bed-and-breakfasts that appear along with residential and commercial areas are also generally focused in the Sultanahmet and Cankurtaran neighbourhoods. Administrative Facilities: Administrative Facilities make up 2.9% of the total area in the Historic Peninsula (45.6 hectares) with its houses directorships of the central government of which the most important are the Governorship of Istanbul and Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Istanbul Courthouse, Istanbul Police Department, Fatih Municipality and service units as well as other public institutions or establishments. These functions are in accordance with the management function of the Historic Peninsula that has continued for a long period of time and this has to be evaluated in terms of daily commuters that come to the area because of some administrative units that serve the entire city of Istanbul, which is growing every day. Outdoors and Green Areas: An important part of the green areas in the Historic Peninsula are large area such as Gulhane Park and Sarachane Park, coastal filled areas, limited-sized neighbourhood parks and children s play grounds. These areas make up 10% of the Historic Peninsula (155 hectares). Aside from these areas, there are also kulliyes, cemeteries, university and hospital lawns and Botanical Gardens that are not directly open to the public. Cemeteries in the Buffer Zone (106 hectares) and green areas that go along the Land Walls (35 hectares) are also potentially important. Social Facilities: When we evaluate educational facilities, health facilities and cultural areas and religious areas in the Historic Peninsula under the heading of Social Facilities; Capa and Cerrahpasa University Hospitals and Istanbul University are the most important the social facilities that serve the whole of Istanbul. Cultural areas and historical monuments that are visited the most by local and foreign tourists, such as Topkapi Palace, Gulhane Park, Hagia Sophia Museum, and Suleymaniye Mosque, are important social areas for the population of the area. Religious facilities are mostly made up of monuments, kulliyes, churches, and synagogues. 79

94 World Heritage Sites of the Historic Peninsula Physical and Practical Use of the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site The Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site sprawling over a territory hectares is made up of two sub-neighbourhoods, namely the Topkapi Palace/Sur-i Sultani and monuments which sprawl over an area of 72 hectares and the Sultanahmet neighbourhood that hosts most of the tourism activity. The Sur-i Sultani neighbourhood, which was the administrative centre of two past empires and encompasses the Topkapi Palace and the Gulhane Park, is a First Degree Archaeological Site. This area hosts historical monuments, museums such as Istanbul Archeological Museums, Hagia Irene Museum, civil architectural buildings, above ground remains and underground monuments and carries national and international cultural and historical value (IMM, 2003a). Dominant functions in the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site are green areas (28 hectares, 23%) and culture and administrative areas which make up approximately 55% of the Site. Sultanahmet, Cankurtaran and Little Hagia Sophia are areas where the traditional concept of residence is partially protected and accommodation and residential areas can be observed side by side in some sections. Families that have migrated from Eastern and the South-eastern Anatolia in recent years mostly live in these areas. The biggest reason for this is the cheap rent in the area due to the neighbourhood being physically worn. In the same way, the Sirkeci neighbourhood is an area where commercial plus accommodation functions go hand in hand (Map 17). The Historical and archeological monuments that are present in the Sultanahmet Cankurtaran neighbourhood results in this area being in very high demand for tourists. Aside from first class, highquality boutique hotels in the neighbourhood, there are also many bed-and-breakfasts, hostels and small hotels. The biggest problem of the Sultanahmet neighbourhood, which has been an urban archeological site since 1995, is the development stress created by tourism activity. This stress is particularly prominent in the form of new constructions and constitutes a threat to archeological heritage in the neighbourhood (IMM, 2003a). Social and technical facilities in the Historic Peninsula are at a level that appeals not just to the population of the Historic Peninsula but to the whole of Istanbul. These facilities create a dense human and vehicle traffic in the Historic Peninsula due to the services they offer. Furthermore, monuments such as large kulliyes, Topkapi Palace, Archeological Museums and Cisterns that are the symbols of the historical and cultural value of the Historic Peninsula attract many tourists which results in transportation and parking problems which are compounded by the insufficiency of facilities. Existing green areas are very limited in the midst of residential areas due to dense urbanisation and buildings; however, green areas of the Gulhane Park and around large kulliyes increase the green areas of the Site. Gulhane Park does not only serve its locale but also the whole city as a city park. The Historic Peninsula houses a commercial life that has origins in the past and has not lost its vitality. This vivid and dynamic commercial life becomes apparent especially with transportation needs. Coastal roads constitute the most important arteries of the Historic Peninsula. The National Railway between Halkali and Sirkeci is used both by commuters and for the transportation of cargo. The other rail system route in the Historic Peninsula is the tramway that runs between Zeytinburnu and Kabatas. The tramway route runs along Millet Avenue, passes Sultanahment, Gulhane and 80

95 Eminonu and ends in Kabatas providing an important service along its route. Dense passenger traffic can be observed between the Beyazit, the Grand Bazaar, Cemberlitas and Sirkeci stops especially at peak hours (IMM, 2003a). Map 17. Land Use in Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site Area (Source: IMM, 2003a) Physical and Practical Use of the Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site The Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site has been able to protect the traditional character of its urban fabric until the 1950s. Suleymaniye has often been witness to fires just like other Istanbul neighbourhoods with old and wooden buildings and still houses a network of streets and civil architectural buildings that have preserved their traditional characteristics. The number of residential buildings has decreased over time and it is now mainly single people have moved in from other parts of Turkey or students that have moved into the remaining buildings due to its proximity to the university. Over the last century, Suleymaniye has become a neighbourhood for the poor but has protected its vitality with the education and health services offered in the area (Eyice et al., 1994). 81

96 Traditional Suleymaniye houses are built out of wood and stone and have several storeys. Their function has changed with changing life styles. Today, individual houses have turned into residences where one family or many single people live in one room. These changes in the plan have been reflected in the facade of buildings and this has negatively affected the architectural appearance (Photograph 5). Photograph 5. Suleymaniye Traditional Wooden Houses (samples of civil architecture) Residential areas make up 13.8% of the Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site and ground floors of some residences serve as businesses in some neighbourhoods. While residential areas are located among Istanbul Drapers and Yard Goods Centre (IMC) Blocks to the west and buildings of Istanbul University in the east, mixed use that contains local businesses is observed along main roads that run from the North to the South. A total of 17.4% of the area is made up of educational areas and contains the central building of Istanbul University and faculties as well as high schools and elementary schools that serve the area. Many dormitories of varying sizes have been chosen for this area due to the proximity of the neighbourhood to the university. Suleymaniye is another area where small industrial establishments, manufacturers, and warehousing use are prevalent in the Historic Peninsula. Cultural properties have increasingly been transformed into manufacturing and warehousing spaces, abandoning their authentic functions. Since manufacturing and warehousing areas usually develop with commercial activity, both manufacturing and marketing can be observed in the same area. Manufacturing of leather and textile products, as well as paper, plastic and metal goods continue in the neighbourhood. Manufacturing, warehousing and commercial activities cover 16.1% of the Site. Istanbul University buildings that were used by the Ministry of War as Barracks in the previous century and the Esnaf Hospital are the important education and health facilities of the neighbourhood. Due to a high university student population residing in the neighbourhood, there are many specialised libraries, cafes and restaurants in the Site. The Muftiship building s garden is located to the west of the Suleymaniye Mosque and the Istanbul University Faculty of Science Botanical Gardens are the largest outdoors areas that have the best scenery in the neighbourhood 82

97 (IMM; 2003a) (Photograph 6). The number of health care centres and social services in the area is not sufficient to meet the needs of residential areas and their population. Photograph 6. The Muftiship Building and Istanbul University Botanical Gardens Suleymaniye is located between important transportation axes of the Historic Peninsula. Being one of the most important transportation axes of the Historic Peninsula, the Ataturk Boulevard determines the Western boundary of the Suleymaniye Conservation Area, Sehzadebasi Avenue is located to its south and Ragip Gumus Pala Avenue is located to the north. The authentic street pattern that feeds the residential areas in the neighbourhood has been covered with asphalt and has felt the stress of transportation. Heavy vehicle traffic can especially be seen in areas where intense commercial-manufacturing-warehousing activities are observed. The number of parking lots cannot meet the demands of the neighbourhood. Public transportation to the Site is possible via seaway and land. The Zeytinburnu-Kabatas tramway reaches the beginning of the area located between Eminonu and Beyazit public transportation stations. However, due to the sloping and narrow streets of the area, public transportation vehicles reach the periphery but cannot enter it. When Sishane-Yenikapi route of Yenikapi Taksim subway is completed, one of the stops will be located in Sehzadebasi. The authentic street pattern is ideal for pedestrian use; however, pedestrianisation efforts fall short. Furthermore, asphalt layering was used on many streets and the authentic street level has changed. However, the roads around the Suleymaniye Mosque have been closed to vehicle traffic, renovated and opened for pedestrians only. Unoccupied lots in the area have been turned into parking lots; and urban traffic is hindered greatly because many cars are parked along the transportation axes in many parts of the Historic Peninsula. 83

98 Map 18. Land Use in Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site (Source: IMM, 2003a) 84

99 Physical and Practical Use of the Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site The Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site has been a residential area since the Ottoman era. The dominant uses in the Site are residential use and functions related to it and use of mosque, tomb and cemeteries (Map 19). When evaluated in terms of area, over 50% of the Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site of 10.30ha is made up of residential areas (5.55 ha; 54.8%). Residential use is spread throughout the Site. Mixed use that contains local trade can especially be seen in the Site along the Haydar Street that runs from the north to the south; however, these areas are very small. Furthermore, there is a health care centre belonging to the Fatih Municipality and an educational unit belonging to the Turkey Foundation of Education Volunteers which provides appropriate services for residences in the Site. In particular the learning unit belonging to the Turkey Foundation of Education Volunteers is recognised as a social centre serving the citizens living in the neighbourhood, especially women and children. Outdoor areas and green areas for use by those living in the Site, especially by children are very insufficient. Mosques, tombs and graves located in the Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site come second after residential use and functions related to it. Aside from the Molla Zeyrek Mosque that carries first-degree importance due to its historical value and architectural characteristics, there are also Kucuk Ibadethane, Kasap Demirhun Mosque, Divitdar Mehmet Efendi Mosque, Ummu Gulsum Mosque, Zembilli Ali Efendi Tomb, and Sheyk Suleyman Mosque and tomb. The total area of the religious facilities in the Site is approximately 0.42 ha and makes up approximately 4.2 % of the Site. Buildings designed by Sedad Hakki Eldem, which are located on the Ataturk Boulevard, are used as administrative offices of Social Security Institution (SSK). Total area of the administrative facilities in the Site covers approximately 0.63 ha and makes up approximately 6.2 % of the Site. Commercial and residential plus commercial uses can be observed especially along Ataturk Boulevard. The size of the area used for commercial and for residential and commercial takes up approximately 2.2% of the Site. When transportation links in the Site are evaluated, Ataturk Boulevard comes across as one of the most important transportation links of Istanbul and the Historic Peninsula. The boulevard is located to the East of Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site and acts as a border to the Site in this direction. The Area is linked to Ataturk Boulevard with Fil Rise and Zeyrek Mehmet Pasha Street. Haydar Street runs from the north to the south along the west of the Site and acts as an important axis that connects the Site with the Golden Horn and other central residential areas in the west. Organic connections from the Ottoman traditional street pattern can be labelled as other road connections in the Site. While all road connections in the Site are vehicle roads, Haydar Avenue is the connection that is used the most and where especially mixed use is intense. The organic street pattern dominant throughout the Site sometimes hinders vehicle traffic and at the same time, carries the potential for pedestrian traffic to create beautiful sights. 85

100 Due to the topography in the Site, there are no public transportation routes in the Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site. At the same time, accessibility to the Site can be regarded as high due to its central location. Bus routes and stops along Ataturk Boulevard and Fevzi Pasha Avenue are within walking distance from the Site. While the main method of transportation used for accessing the Site is by land, seaway and rail systems carry importance for accessibility to the Site. The Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site is considered to be more homogenous in terms of its social and practical characteristics compared to other World Heritage Sites in Istanbul. With this character, the problems of the Site are less complex and more clearly identifiable compared to other World Heritage Sites. The Zeyrek district residential appearance has been damaged over time through fires and neglect. On the other hand, it is well known that people who live in the area have changed due to migration to Istanbul that began in the 50s. This change is reflected in the physical appearance of Zeyrek with a wave of construction of apartment buildings between 1960 and Limitations were placed on new constructions in 1980 after the Site was marked as a conservation zone (IMM, 2003a). More recently, projects are being carried out in the district aiming at restoring civil cultural properties, which carry an importance as examples of the traditional Ottoman wooden architecture. Today the "Zeyrek Houses Project" and restoration of the Zeyrek Cistern are in progress under the cooperation of institutions such as the Governorship of Istanbul, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, Fatih Municipality and the National Timber Association, etc. Similar projects continue in the Pantocrator Church, which is currently in use as Zeyrek Mosque. It is important for these projects to have an internal management system, be consistent with modern conservation principles and to ensure coordination with the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan. 86

101 Map 19. Land Use in Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Monastery) and its associated Area World Heritage Site (Source: IMM, 2003a) Physical and Practical Use of the Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site covers 525 hectares and can be regarded as two areas, namely inside and outside the city walls. A breakdown of functions in the Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site is presented in Map 20. The section inside the city walls has mainly a residential function. Residential and commercial function can be seen on the part of Fevzipasa Avenue close to the city walls. The second biggest function inside the city walls after the residential function is the green area function. Areas where greenery can be seen densely are the Beyazitaga, Veledi Karabas, Haci Hamza, Haci Evhaddin neighbourhoods. Yedikule Dungeons are used today as cultural areas. In the area where Vatan Avenue intersects with the city walls, there are health, administrative and education functions, namely a private health facility, a dormitory, and the Fatih Sports Complex. The accommodation 87

102 function can be observed with two four and five-star hotels near Millet Avenue close to the city walls. Mihrimah Sultan Mosque is located where Fevzipasa Avenue intersects the city walls and other religious facilities belonging to various eras and religions, which further enrich the Site character, can also be observed in this area. A large part of the Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site outside the city walls consists of cemeteries and green areas. In this context, cemeteries take up large areas in Maltepe, Merkez, Kazlicesme and Seyitnizam Neighbourhoods in the Zeytinburnu District and the Defterdar Neighbourhood in the Eyup District. Furthermore, there are functions related to residential, commercial, social facilities and mixed use in the Site. While the function with the largest area following cemeteries and green areas is residential, four fifths of these residences are located in Zeytinburnu and one fifth in the Eyup District. Almost all of the residence + commercial areas are in the Zeytinburnu District and residence + commercial + manufacturing + warehousing areas can be viewed sporadically in the Zeytinburnu District. A large portion of commercial, manufacturing and warehousing areas in the section of the Site outside the city walls are located in the Zeytinburnu District with commercial, manufacturing and warehousing functions mostly seen in the Merkez Efendi and Kazlicesme Neighbourhoods, manufacturing function is seen in the Maltepe Neighbourhood and commercial function can be mostly observed in the Seyitnizam Neighbourhood. Manufacturing areas in the Eyup District are mostly located in the Defterdar Neighbourhood and based around textile and thread production. Nearly all health and education facilities outside the city walls are located in the Zeytinburnu District. Eyup District appears to contain more administrative facilities in comparison to Zeytinburnu District. In terms of educational facilities, Zeytinburnu District mostly has technical and vocational training facilities, dormitories and hospitals. 10. Yil Avenue that runs along the Land Walls in the Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site is an important transportation artery in the city. Fevzipasa Avenue, which is located between Sehzadebasi and Edirnekapi and extends to Sultanciftligi, is considered as a first degree urban road that experienced intense urban growth and change over the historical development. Vatan, Millet and Fevzipasa Avenues begin from Aksaray, the centre of the Historic Peninsula, run toward the Land Walls and intersect the 10.Yil Avenue which runs parallel to the Land Walls and merges with the D- 100 Highway. Coastal ways that run along Marmara and the Golden Horn coasts merge with 10.Yil Avenue in Ayvansaray in the North, and in Yedikule in the south. The Heritage Area is under a dense traffic weight due to main transportation connections that provide access to the centre of the Historic Peninsula and at the same time is used for transit access. Furthermore, the historic gates face the threat of serious damage due to the fact that the gates of the Land Walls (Mermerkule Gate, Altin Gate, Yedikule Gate, Belgrade Gate, Silivri Gate, Mevlana Gate, Topkapi and Edirnekapi) are heavily used by vehicles as access points into the city. 88

103 Map 20. Land Use in Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site (Source: IMM 2003a, IMM 2007b, IMM 2010b) 89

104 Social Structure The Population and social structure heading related to the Site Management Plan Area and Istanbul s Historic Area are divided into the sub headings of size of population, household sizes, age groups, migration and employment Site Management Plan Area Size of population: According to data collected in 2010, the total population of neighbourhoods in the Site Management Plan Area is 462,112. A total of 30,965 people of this population live in the Buffer Zone neighbourhoods. When we evaluate the population of these neighbourhoods within boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area, we realise that the total population of the Site is approximately 500,000 (Table 8). As outlined in Map 21, most of the residential population of the Historic Peninsula reside in the Fatih District. The population of historical neighbourhoods in the Eminonu District that run along coasts of Marmara and neighbourhoods in the Suleymaniye neighbourhood do not exceed The Grand Bazaar, Inns Area, Sirkeci, Beyazit, and Laleli are neighbourhoods where the night population does not exceed The most crowded neighbourhoods in the Fatih District are located between Millet Avenue-Land Walls-the Sea of Marmara where high rise buildings can are observed. The population of neighbourhoods in the area carrying the same constructional character located between Millet Avenue-Vatan Avenue-Fevzi Pasha Avenue ranges between On the other hand, neighbourhoods between Fevzi Pasha Avenue and the Golden Horn coast with historical features have a smaller population. Table 8. Population of the Site Management Plan Area Area District Name of Neighbourhood Population Historic Peninsula Fatih District Entire District 431,147 Bayrampasa District Ortamahalle - Defterdar 4,874 Eyup District Topçular - Total 4,874 Gokalp - Site Management Merkez Efendi 22,450 Plan Area outside Maltepe - the city walls Zeytinburnu District Seyitnizam 2,260 Kazlicesme 1,381 Total 26,091 Site Management Plan Area outside the city walls Total 30,965 Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan Area TOTAL POPULATION 462,112 Household size: The average household size of the Historic Peninsula is lower than Turkey and Istanbul values with 4.0 persons as of the 2000 data and 3.2 persons as of the 2007 data (IMM, 2007). The main reasons for this is the increasing inclination of the single population to live around the Eminonu District and increasing nuclear family numbers in the Fatih District. Age Groups: As of 2007, the 0-14 age group make up 19% of the total population and the 65+ age group make up 9% of the total population of the Historic Peninsula (TUIK, 2009). The number of children is high in neighbourhoods where the migrant population live and in historical neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods where the 65+ age group is above the Historic Peninsula average are also historical neighbourhoods where original Istanbulites live. 90

105 Map 21. Neighbourhood Populations in the Site Management Plan Area (Source: TUIK, 2007) ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER

106 Migration: According 2000 data, the largest portion of the total population in the Eminonu District was born outside Istanbul (60%) (DIE, 2000). Despite Istanbul being the first residential area, when asked "Where are you from?" 26% of the population in the Fatih District answer Istanbul (GENAR, 2002). The provinces from which the district receives the most migration are the Black Sea and Central Anatolia: Trabzon (4.9%), Malatya (4.8%), Kastamonu (4.6%) and Rize (4.5%). The Fatih District receives immigrants from almost all provinces of Turkey and has reached a level of 74.1%. However, the district also has a population going back generations with inhabitants that were born and have lived in Fatih since their birth. When Fatih District is examined on the basis of neighbourhoods, it is observed that Cerrahpasa- Aksaray district Yali neighbourhood received a high number of immigrants from Mardin who migrated to Cerrahpasa-Aksaray district Yali neighbourhood after the 1990s and as a consequence, its former inhabitants have left. Moreover, illegal foreign immigrants also reside in this area. Zeyrek and Cibali neighbourhoods have also received immigrants from Eastern Anatolia as have the Sultanahmet and Cankurtaran neighbourhoods. In the Cerrahpasa area, the Kurkcu neighbourhood receives the highest number of migrants. Sehremini-Cukurbostan area, in spite of its lively environment, has lost its former inhabitants to other areas due to the fact that the houses in the area are small, closely positioned, the neighbourhood lacks sufficient green areas and the rents in the area are very high. When Eminonu District is examined on the basis of neighbourhoods, it can be observed that Cankurtaran, Sultanahmet, Little Hagia Sophia, Emin Sinan, and Sehsuvar Bey Neighbourhoods are the ones that inhabitants born and bred in Istanbul mostly populate. In the older neighbourhoods of Eminonu, people from the eastern and south eastern provinces make up the majority of the population. The population of the old section of the district consist mainly of people who were born in central Anatolia. However, the percentage of the population that was born in Western Anatolia, Marmara, Thrace and Mediterranean regions, is the lowest in the district. The old inhabitants of Sultanahmet-Cankurtaran neighbourhoods moved to other areas due to the fact that the historical houses in this area are very small and subject to multiple-ownership, while repair of the houses would be difficult and costly. These buildings, which were vacated and not suitable for habitation, were rented by migrants coming from Eastern Anatolia after the 1980s. Suleymaniye is the first place where migrants from Anatolia took up residence and on average they stay in the area for six years. From here, they move on to Bagcilar and Esenler as they acquire ownership of their own apartment units. The fact that this area is used as a stepping stone caused it to be occupied by the least qualified work force that would soon leave the neighbourhood. for this reason, the area has become the place of accommodation and temporary work for the least qualified and the poorest population in the district. In recent years, the migration to Eminonu and Fatih has slowed and any migration that occurred was due to families asking their relatives to come to the city. The district is preferred due to its central position. Its close surroundings to workplaces, ease of transportation and relative safety of the residential area attract people to this district. Most inhabitants of Fatih District have been in the area for a long while. While 13,2% of the inhabitants reside in Istanbul for the last 6-10 years, 9,4% reside for years and 76,2% reside for 16 years and over. 92

107 Employment: 80% of the population that resides in the Historic Peninsula works in manufacturing, retail and whole sales, restaurants, hotels and public services and the social and personal services sectors (DIE, 2000). While 40% of the population of the people who reside in neighbourhoods in the Eminonu District work in retail, wholesale and hotels sectors, 28% of those who reside in the Fatih District work in the manufacturing sector World Heritage Sites of the Historic Peninsula Social Structure Characteristics of the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site The population residing in the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site partially consists of people who were born in Istanbul. A part of the population residing in the Cankurtaran Neighbourhood, which is made up of a few residential areas that have remained among the touristic business places, is the low-income Romany. The middle income and lower-middle income migrant population from the Central Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia Regions reside in the Little Hagia Sophia Neighbourhood. Most of the population who reside in the Sultanahmet Neighbourhood are either owners of or workers in the small-sized businesses in the area. As original inhabitants of the area move to different locales, these buildings were transformed either to serve touristic purposes or to accommodate multiple families. This is due in part to the fact that cultural properties in the area are small and have many shareholders and renovations are difficult and expensive. These are the reasons behind the household size in the area and the number of inhabitants who are illiterate being higher than those of the Historic Peninsula (IMP/BIMTAS ). Social Structure Characteristics of the Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site Old and deep-rooted families that lived in the Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site began to leave the area from the beginning of the twentieth century onwards and were replaced by a population of rural descent who came to the area through migration. The household size in the area is above the average household size in the Historic Peninsula (IMM, 2007). Most of the population is made up of males (there are neighbourhoods where the male population reaches 70% of the total) (TUIK, 2008). In areas where the senior population is low, the young and middle aged group is above the average of the Historic Peninsula (20% and 71%) (TUIK, 2009). The fact that temporary work can be found in heavy commercial areas attracts tenants to the area who seek employment within walking distance. Those who migrate to the area use the area as a stepping stone and even the most unqualified manpower use the area temporarily and leave it after some time. Social Structure Characteristics of the Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site Usually multiple-children and extended families live in the Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site, which is one of the highly populated areas of the Site Management Plan Area. The household size and the 0-14 age group rate of the area are above average of those in the Historic Peninsula. Although the literacy rate in the area is above the average of the Historic Peninsula, their education level is elementary (TUIK, 2009). The population of the area is mostly of Black Sea and Eastern Anatolian background and the social structure of the area differs from that of Suleymaniye because the population has been living in the area for a long time and due to the fact that the area is preferred by families (IMP/BIMTAS ). 93

108 Social Structure Characteristics of the Land Walls World Heritage Site There are neighbourhoods of historical character each having a population of to the north of the Land Walls World Heritage Site (TUIK, 2007). This historic character weakens toward the South and is replaced by 4-5 storey apartment buildings and as a result, neighbourhood population has increased. The average household size along the Land Walls is above the average values of the Historic Peninsula (IMM, 2007). The rate of the illiterate population in the neighbourhoods in the northern and southern ends of the Land Walls exceeds the average numbers of the Historic Peninsula (TUIK, 2009) and the level of education is higher in neighbourhoods located along the middle of the Land Walls. It is mainly migrants from the Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Regions who live in the area and the most important problem in the area is poverty. This problem becomes more prominent toward neighbourhoods in the north (IMP/BIMTAS ) Economical Structure Trade and Service Sector: The Historic Peninsula has acted as the centre of trade in Istanbul since times past (especially with Eminonu, the Grand Bazaar, the Inns Area and surroundings) and has been an important business and service area at both an urban and regional level. The economical structure of the Site is shaped by wholesale and retail business, accommodation and food/beverage services, repair of automobiles and electrical tools, real estate rental and social service activities. According to the number of units, the wholesale and retail business are concentrated in the Eminonu District (1.4); car and goods repairs; real estate rental (1.5) and health and social services are concentrated in the Fatih District. In terms of number of units, the textile and leather goods make up the main business activity in the Eminonu District with its share of 48%. This sector is followed by furnishings and household textiles (9%) and gift articles (8%) sub-sectors. Textile and leather goods are also the leading sector in the Fatih District with a share of 13%. This is followed by financial consultancy, law, and architecture/engineering sectors at 12%. It is reasonable to surmise that the service sector in Fatih District is bigger when compared with the Eminonu District. Small Manufacturing Sector: The manufacturing sector in the Historic Peninsula is focused in the Eminonu District. The manufacturing sector survives along with business and service sectors and is more than often made up of small-sized companies. Small manufacturing and warehousing areas are focused in Suleymaniye, the Inns Area and Gedikpasa in the Eminonu District. Jewellery and furniture (32.4%) and leather goods such as shoes, bags and other leather goods (29.3%) are the leading sectors in the sectoral breakdown of manufacturing units in the Eminonu District. These sectors are followed by print shops and textile manufacturing sectors in lower levels. Car repair and maintenance and manufacturing of spare parts (26%) and manufacturing of textile goods (26%) are the leading sectors in the breakdown of sub-sectors of manufacturing units in the Fatih District. Although the Fatih District is not as intense as the Eminonu District, there are still small-sized manufacturing areas clustered in certain spots. Ninety percent of those who work in manufacturing work in the Eminonu District with the remaining 10% working in the Fatih District. Tourism Sector: Istanbul is an important location for Turkey s tourism sector. Istanbul s contribution to Turkish tourism equates to 27% of the total income from tourism in the country. While Istanbul has always been an attraction centre for tourists in Turkey, the number of foreign tourists visiting Istanbul has continuously increased in the last ten years (ITO, 2008). The biggest factors for tourists coming to Istanbul are visits with the purpose of sightseeing-culture-recreation- sports (30%). The core of the tourism sector in Istanbul is the Historic Peninsula. The historical and cultural richness of 94

109 the Historic Peninsula create an accommodation need for the tourists visiting Istanbul in this area and hotels and restaurants are often seen in the Site. According to the 2009 data, there are a total of 61,551 beds in the 368 accommodation facilities in Istanbul licensed by the Ministry. These numbers correspond to 20,916 beds in 182 facilities in the Historic Peninsula. Thirty-nine percent of the total facilities and 34% of the total beds in Istanbul are located in the Historic Peninsula. The fact that more than half of the one, two and three star hotels in Istanbul are located in the Historic Peninsula and the number of four and five star hotels in the area is lower than the number in the rest of Istanbul shows that the facilities in the area are small-sized businesses (Table 9). Table 9. Tourism Licensed Accommodation Facilities in the Historic Peninsula Istanbul Historic Peninsula Historic Peninsula s Share in Istanbul Number of Facilities Number of Beds Number of Facilities Number of Beds Number of Facilities Number of Beds Private Facility 67 4, % 51.09% Boutique Hotel % 28.45% Five-Star Hotel 34 20, , % 8.96% Four-Star Hotel 75 16, , % 36.09% Three-Star Hotel 94 11, , % 57.26% One and Two-Star Hotels 87 5, , % 69.82% Others 6 2, % 0.00% Total , , % 33.98% Source: Istanbul Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, 2009 Thirty-four of the Four and Five-Star accommodation facilities in Istanbul s Historic Peninsula are located along main arteries of the area such as Ordu Avenue, Millet Avenue and Vatan Avenue. Furthermore, the Sultanahmet and Cankurtaran neighbourhoods are preferred locations for Four and Five-Star facilities. One, two and three-star hotels, bed-and-breakfasts, restaurants, and gift shops can also be observed in numbers in these neighbourhoods. Laleli and Sirkeci neighbourhoods, which used to house hotels in the past, are beginning to see some new investments for accommodation facilities. There are many museums in the Historic Peninsula that are important for Istanbul and Turkey. When we look at the number of visitors on the basis of years, we can observe that Topkapi Palace Museum has attracted the most number of visitors, followed by Hagia Sophia Museum, Basilica Cistern and Museum, Kariye Museum and the Archeological Museums. Additionally, there are various private museums that are active in the Historic Peninsula. The Press Museum, Rezzan Has Museum and the Republic s Education Museum can be counted among these (Table 10). 95

110 Table 10. Museums in the Historic Peninsula and the Number of Visitors Number of Visitors Name of the Museum Institution Responsible Topkapi Palace Museum R.O.T. Ministry of Culture and Tourism Hagia Irene Museum R.O.T. Ministry of Culture and Tourism Archeological Museums R.O.T. Ministry of Culture and Tourism Hagia Sophia Museum R.O.T. Ministry of Culture and Tourism Basilica Cistern and Museum IMM Kultur A.S Turkish Islamic Arts Museum R.O.T. Ministry of Culture and Tourism Kariye Museum R.O.T. Ministry of Culture and Tourism Caricature and Humor Museum IMM Libraries and Museums Directorate Fire Fighters Museum IMM Libraries and Museums Directorate Mosaic Museum R.O.T. Ministry of Culture and Tourism Fethiye Museum R.O.T. Ministry of Culture and Tourism Museum of Islamic Sciences and History of Technology R.O.T. Ministry of Culture and Tourism Panorama 1453 Conquest Museum IMM Kultur A.S Turkish Hand Carpets Sale and Display Museum General Directorate of Foundations Turkish Foundation Calligraphy Museum General Directorate of Foundations Turkish Construction and Artifacts Museum General Directorate of Foundations Museum for Rugs and Flat Woven Ground Cloths General Directorate of Foundations House of Dede Efendi Private / Foundation Museum of Tanzimat Reforms Other Public Institutions Health Museum Istanbul health Directorate Press Museum Private /Journalists Association Grand Post-Office and PTT Museum R.O.T. Ministry of Transportation, Maritime Affairs and Communications Sirkeci Train Station TCDD Istanbul Railway Museum R.O.T. Ministry of Transportation, Maritime Affairs and Communications Yahya Kemal Museum Private /Is Bank Zoology Museum Istanbul University Yedikule (City Walls) Museum R.O.T. Ministry of Culture and Tourism Imrahor Ilyas Bey Mosque - Museum R.O.T. Ministry of Culture and Tourism Republic s Education Museum Private Dimitri Kantemir Museum Private Istanbul Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Museum of History of Medicine University Rezzan Has Museum University Turkiye Is Bankasi Museum Private/Is Bank Source: Istanbul Provincial Cultural and Tourism Directorate, IBB Kultur AS., Istanbul 2010 Cultural Heritage and Cultural Economy Inventory Research Data,

111 1.8. Accessibility of the Site and Transportation Due to its location, geography and history, the Site Management Plan Area contains road, rail and seaway systems which make the Site Management Plan Area more accessible. As a consequence, however, this causes a major part of Istanbul s weight of traffic to go through the site (Map 22). Accessibility and transportation of the Site was examined in sub-headings of transportation by land, railways and rail systems, sea transportation and transit access/transfer points Transportation by Land All freeways and their connections in Istanbul were developed to feed the Site due to its role as an urban centre. The D-100 transportation corridor travels the city in the east-west direction, passes the Bosporus and the Golden Horn and is located in the west of the Site. Connecting roads of the D-100 enter the Site via Vatan, Millet and Fevzi Pasha Avenues and these roads end in the Aksaray and Sarachane junction. The transportation network that spread in the direction of Taksim, Beyazit, Yenikapi and the coastal ways that join them act as the spine of the transportation by land in the Historic Peninsula. Second and third degree roads in the Site Management Plan Area continue in a linear line along plateaus that run in an east-west direction due to the topographical structure of the Site; furthermore, these follow a more organic nature in escarpments along the coastline of the Sea of Marmara and the Golden Horn. Neighbourhoods in the Site where the traditional street pattern is protected are the World Heritage Sites and Fener, Balat, the Inns Area, Cibali, Silivrikapi, Mevlanakapi, Yedikule, Samatya, Gedikpasa, and Kumkapi Neighbourhoods that all carry characteristics of the Historic Peninsula. Roads that are used by pedestrians within the Site usually lack a planned pedestrian route and generally consist of narrow streets and stairs that were created by the rise in the topography of these areas. Public squares in the Site are located along Divanyolu Avenue (Mese Avenue) that has been an important transportation axis throughout history. The oldest public square of Istanbul is the Hippodrome (Horse Square) which is located between Sarayburnu, the first administrative centre of the Historic Peninsula and Sultanahmet. The Hippodrome creates the silhouette of the Historic Peninsula, hosts many cultural properties belonging to the Roman and Ottoman eras and is located within the Sultanahment Archeological Park World Heritage Site. The Beyazit Square is bordered by the Main Campus of Istanbul University, Beyazit Mosque Kulliye and Divan Avenue and is an important area that carries traces of the characteristics of the Historic Peninsula. The boundaries of the Cemberlitas Square are Divanyolu Avenue, Atik Ali Pasha Mosque and the Nur-u Osmaniye Mosque Kulliye. The square has lost its main function to a great extent due to the fact that the square is being used as a parking lot. Aksaray Square has lost its main function by becoming a transportation junction. The Eminonu Square has partially lost its main function due to the fact that transportation connections have increased; however, the area between the New Mosque and the Spice Bazaar has retained its pedestrian character. Aside from large squares in the Site, there are also small neighbourhood-sized squares. These squares are Cankurtaran Square, Vefa Square, Topkapi Kaleici Square, Zeyrek Square, Sultan Hamam Square, Kumkapi Square, and Samatya Square (Hamamcioglu, 2009). There are 249 parking lots within the boundaries of the Site, 20 of which are closed, and 229 are open; and these serve a total of 25,610 vehicles. Parking lots in the Site constitute 18% of the total capacity of all parking lots in Istanbul and equate to 28% of all parking lots in Istanbul in number. 97

112 Map 22. Current Transportation Network in the Site Management Plan Area (Source: IMM, 2010a) ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER

113 Railways and Rail Systems Current rail systems in the Site have developed with a focus in the Historic Peninsula due to its central functions. Routes of the current rail systems in the Site follow the main axes of transportation which play an important role in the urban development of the city. These routes have developed in accordance with topography of the high areas and in parallel to the low sloping Marmara coasts area (Map 23). Being the oldest and the most important rail system of the Site, the suburban line serves the area between Sirkeci and Halkali and is made up of eighteen stations. The suburban line is the most important line and acts as the linear connection of the Site to other areas in the European side. The railway begins at the Historic Sirkeci Train Terminal, passes Sur-i Sultani, passes the west side of Istanbul through Zeytinburnu and connects to Europe through Thrace. The second rail system in the Site is the Aksaray-Airport Light Subway System that connects the Historic Peninsula to Ataturk Airport, Esenler Central Bus Station and to other areas. The line goes along Vatan Avenue in the Historic Peninsula, continues underground, and comes above ground outside the Historic Peninsula and then reaches the airport. The third rail system in the Site is the tramway that runs between Zeytinburnu and Kabatas. The line passes the Galata Bridge, reaches the Historic Peninsula and continues to Aksaray by following Divan Yolu Avenue. The route follows Millet Avenue after Aksaray and connects with the other system in the Buffer Zone Seaway The seaway transportation network of Istanbul has developed with a focus in the Historic Peninsula. The focal points of transportation by sea are the Yenikapi port on the Sea of Marmara and the Eminonu Pier on the Golden Horn. Piers in the Eminonu District are used by the other metropolitan sized seaway system that also serves the city. The pier at Sarayburnu offers ferry services at regional and national level from the city. The Eminonu pier area, Sirkeci Train Terminal and bus stops create an important centre for transportation. It is possible to reach all important centres of the metropolis by land, sea and railway from this point. Piers that currently connect with roads and the suburban line will serve more effectively after the Yenikapi Transfer Centre opens following the opening of the Marmaray, Sishane-Yenikapi Subway Line and the Aksaray-Yenikapi Light Rail Line. Following changes at Fener, Balat and Ayvansaray historical piers, the relationship between the Historic Peninsula with Sutluce and Haskoy piers that are located on the other side of the Golden Horn will increase and its connections with Eminonu and Karakoy will further develop. 99

114 Map 23. Existing and in-construction rail systems of the Site (Source: IMM, 2010a) ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER

115 Transit Access / Transfer Points Transfer points of various transportation methods focused in the Historic Peninsula which currently serve the city today at a metropolitan level, have been throughout history within the Site Management Plan Area. Public transportation lines should be organised well because they connect surrounding areas to the Historic Peninsula which houses some of the urban facilities that serves the entire Metropolitan. Being the most important of these transfer points, the Yenikapi neighbourhood will become an area where the Levent-Yenikapi subway, the suburban line, the sea bus, IETT buses and the Marmaray will integrate over the next five years. Two of these transportation investments in particular, have a great impact on the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan. The first one of these is the Taksim-Yenikapi Subway Line and the other one is the Golden Horn Metro Transit Bridge. Construction of the Taksim-Yenikapi subway began in 1998 and is 5.2 km in length with four stations (Sishane, Sehzadebasi, Aksaray, and Yenikapi). When the line is completed, the Levent 4.-Taksim subway will be connected to Yenikapi; this, in turn, will decrease the wheeled vehicle traffic in the Historic Peninsula. As a result of UNESCO DMK decisions (at the 2011 Paris meeting) that covered negative impact that will be created by the bridge on the silhouette of the Golden Horn, the topic is being evaluated within the scope of "Impact Assessments for Cultural World Heritage Properties" since the year The DMK decision sites the damage that will be created by the bridge on the areas global value and concerns in relation to this matter (See: Appendix-5). The second transportation investment that affects Istanbul s Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan is the Eurasian Tunnel Project. The project will only allow access for small-sized wheeled vehicles and will connect the Eastern and Western sides by going under the Sea of Marmara. The project is put out to tender via the build-operate-transfer model and is 14.6 km in length. An important part of the project will be widening and use of the Kennedy Avenue which is the southern coastal way of the Historic Peninsula which connects the Peninsula to the Sea of Marmara. It will enter the Historic Peninsula from the outskirts of the Topkapi Palace which is the most important point of the city in terms of historical heritage. This project was criticized for attracting private vehicles to the Historic Peninsula and was not scheduled within the higher-scaled plans of Istanbul. Furthermore, it was included in decisions of the UNESCO DMK (See: Appendix- 5). 101

116 1.9. Planning Decisions of the Site There are two main plans that will affect decisions of the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan namely; the "1/100,000 Scale Istanbul Provincial Environmental Plan" approved in 2009 and the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan" approved in Istanbul Provincial Environmental Plan Decisions The 1/100,000 Scale Istanbul Provincial Environmental Plan and approved in 2009 (Map 24), aims at "ensuring development that is sensitive to historical-cultural values within the scope of environmental, economical and social sustainability in historically and culturally important areas. Accordingly, the following strategies were established for the Historic Peninsula: Efforts for the conservation of historical and cultural nature, universal identity, landscape design, symbols and silhouette of Istanbul Preventing the stress of urban growth created on the Historic Peninsula and the Bosporus by ensuring the city grows in east-west direction in a gradual-linear way Removing functions such as industrial, manufacturing, and warehousing, which do not fit the historical and the traditional character of Istanbul Reducing wheeled traffic in the historical areas of the city, especially the Historic Peninsula, creating pedestrian walking axes. On the other hand, strategies created to increase spatial quality in residential areas within the scope of "improving the quality of life" objective, also among objectives of the Plan, carry great importance for residential areas in the Historic Peninsula: Cleaning historical residential areas by protecting their fabric, function and authentic characteristics Adding a social dimension to the physical regeneration process of residential areas. Plan decisions developed for the Historic Peninsula within the scope of the strategies determined are as follows: Mixed use residential, tourism, administrative facility and traditional commercial areas are shown as Traditional Centre in the Plan to protect the traditional central function and vitality of the Historic Peninsula The Plan indicates that the culture and tourism potential is the biggest potential of Istanbul and stresses a "Culture-Focused Tourism" decision for the Historic Peninsula. Among the plans are the repair and maintenance of the historical heritage, supporting restoration projects, evaluating industrial heritage structures with cultural purposes, establishing thematic museums and creating cultural excursion paths It was decided to build cultural, touristic and recreational areas along the Golden Horn, and to use industrial structures and shipyards for culture and education activities 102

117 Some urban and regional facilities are planned to be moved outside the Historic Peninsula to ease the stress they cause on the Historic Peninsula A program intended for improving and strengthening the building stock and monuments is being recommended under the heading of "Sites and Conservation Areas"; on the other hand, it is believed that NGOs of involved institutions or establishments should actively participate in conservation activities that encompass cultural life and the social environment on a large scale, instead of conservation activities at the structure-level It is stressed that a total silhouette master plan should be prepared, and small-scaled and detailed projects should be implemented in areas under threat of being included in the World Heritage in Danger list in the Historic Peninsula. The main principle of the Plan for transportation is to ensure that the future transportation network of the city is based on high-capacity railed public transportation systems and to focus on creating a railed network system to meet urban demands of transportation. In this context, new land transportation connections were limited. Furthermore, it was approved that, aside from the existing lines, the ongoing construction of the rail system lines, which is explained in the following paragraph, will be completed and begin service. In relation to sea transportation system, the objective in the Plan was outlined as integrating the inter-city ferries with rail system lines in order to increase the share of transportation by sea in public transportation. When seaway public transportation lines are integrated with other systems of transportation, the number of total passengers using the seaways daily will increase. The plan aims to protect existing pier and fishermen s ports and to determine new pier and fishermen s ports in small-scaled plans according to need. Existing and suggested piers will be integrated into public transportation systems. All piers and fishermen s ports on coastal areas of Istanbul will be arranged to be used for emergency services and evacuation in cases of potential natural disasters, with priority given to the coast strip between the Historic Peninsula and Bakirkoy. 103

118 Map 24. Istanbul Provincial Environmental Plan (Source: IMM, 2009) ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER

119 Decisions of Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan Historic Peninsula Development Plan for Conservation (1/5000-Scale) which was approved by Number 4 Istanbul District Board of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties with the decision dated August 11, 2011 and numbered 4728 is still being approved by related municipalities. Basic decisions of the Development Plan for Conservation which will affect the Site Management Plan are detailed below. Definition of Conservation Areas in the plan was determined by using the information obtained in the preparation process of the plan which commenced in 1995 and expresses the conservation priorities of the zones. Development conditions for the transition phase pertaining to the Historic Peninsula were determined on August 02, 1995 following the protected area decision. The Development Plan for Conservation (1/5000-Scale) for the entire Historic Peninsula, which had different versions and cancellations, was approved on January 26, 2005 with decision number 399; and implementary conservation development plans 1/1000 Scale for the Fatih District were approved on the same day with decision number 402 which was also approved for the Eminonu District on the same date and with decision number 403. As a result of the lawsuit filed by the TMMOB Chamber of Architects for the cancellation of the Plan Scaled at 1/5000 following the effective date of the plans, the Historic Peninsula Fatih-Eminonu Development Plan for Conservation was cancelled on November 29, 2007 on account of its method. The No 4 Board of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties cancelled the conservation plans of Fatih and Eminonu Districts scaled at 1/1000 with the decision dated March 26, 2008 and numbered 2015, based on the cancellation of the Plan scaled at 1/5000 and has accepted principles, essentials and plan notes of plans scaled at 1/1000 (including amendments) as interim conservation principles and use conditions. As a result of this, the matter was brought back to court and the decision made by the Board was deemed unlawful and cancelled. Upon this development, it was decided by the Higher Board of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties on January 19, 2010 with the decision dated January 19, 2010 and numbered 761 that, in case of suspension or termination of execution of the interim conservation principles and use conditions determined for the Sites or the conservation development plans scaled at 1/5000 and 1/1000 that are put into effect after being approved by related administrations following the approval of regional boards of conservation by a court decree, a new planning process is required to be initiated by the related regional board of conservation by determining the interim conservation principles and use conditions in due time according to the reasons indicated in the decree. Upon this decision, conditions for the transition phase for the Historic Peninsula were re-defined and conservation plan projects commenced. 105

120 Map 25. Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan 106

121 World Heritage Sites It is stated that legislation in force and involved regulations will be applied within the scope of this Plan and the conservation development plans scaled at 1/1000 to be prepared in accordance with this Plan. The World Heritage Sites mentioned in the Plan are described as areas densely hosting cultural properties that should be protected and areas not necessarily densely hosting monuments, but should still be protected as a whole in terms of character, silhouette and unity of the area and will be evaluated in accordance with the related provisions of the plan notes of these areas regarding the First Degree Conservation Zones. In the Fatih District Conservation Plan, developed for conservation purposes, the entire World Heritage Site has been determined as a First Degree Conservation Area. Types and locations of conservation zones of the 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan are illustrated in Map 26. First Degree Conservation Zones First Degree Conservation Zones were determined by considering Sur-i Sultan (Topkapi Palace and surroundings), World Heritage Sites, archeological sites, kulliyes and their surroundings, important monuments and surroundings, urban areas that have protected their traditional roads-architectural character and cultural properties to present day, the Inns Region, cisterns, historic water dams, Land and Marmara Walls, public squares of historical importance and historical main arteries with regards to the 3rd dimension of this zone, its monuments and their surroundings and finally, the Silhouette of the Historic Peninsula. General to the First Degree Conservation Zones, the Plan aims to remove the additions of no historic value from historical monuments, to conserve the authentic street and property character and to bring the street slopes back to their authentic level as much as possible in areas where historical monuments and examples of historical civil architecture are dense. It is stated in relation to First Degree Conservation Zones that constructions and technical infrastructure implementations that may damage the social-cultural-traditional characteristics of these areas cannot be allowed. Urban implementations and new developments in these zones have to be carried out under the inspection of the Board and within the scope of urban design projects. Second Degree Conservation Zones Second Degree Conservation Zones in the Plan are described as urban areas that have partially protected their traditional road pattern, architectural character and cultural properties thus far, the gardens that have protected their natural characteristics and the areas that complement the World Heritage Sites. Immediate surroundings of First Degree Conservation Areas, important historical monuments and squares and their immediate surroundings were determined by also considering the Silhouette of the Historic Peninsula. Principles of preparation of urban design projects, conservation of original heights, abiding with road widths as much as possible and development of solutions for pedestrian-focused transportation in squares were accepted in relation to these areas. 107

122 Map 26. Conservation Zones in the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan (Source: IMM, 2010a) ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER

123 Transportation Decisions Transportation decisions of the Historic Peninsula Conservation Plan follow the historical main spine (Divanyolu/Mese) that serves Istanbul. Divanyolu Avenue which begins in Sultanahmet; Fevzi Pasha Avenue which splits into two after the Beyazit Square and reaches Edirnekapi; Ordu and Cerrahpasa Avenues which reaches Aksaray; the road that splits into two at the Arkadius Column, one branch of which (Imrahor Ilyasbey Avenue) reaches Altin Kapi and the other one (Silivrikapi Avenue) reaches Silivrikapi, are protected in the Plan. In order to discourage wheeled vehicle traffic into the area, transportation solutions that will encourage use of rail systems and pedestrian transportation were given priority and decisions that would encourage motor traffic were avoided. Apart from external precautions such as creating parking lots outside the Land Walls to ease the parking lot need of Suriçi, new parking lots were proposed to be built in areas of need to meet parking lot demands of the Historic Peninsula. Public transportation systems with a seaway focus were proposed to increase the use of seaway transportation in the Historic Peninsula. Eminonu - Sirkeci Piers, Yenikapi Pier Area and the Golden Horn Piers are planned to be upgraded for this purpose. It is proposed that the pedestrian axes between areas that frame focal points of the Historic Peninsula s identity and areas dense with immovable cultural and natural properties under conservation, excursion paths and systems of public transportation should be supported and public squares should be highlighted to encourage the pedestrianisation in the Historic Peninsula. Pedestrian routes and pedestrianisation areas are created within the scope of decisions pertaining to pedestrian roads in the Plan. Pedestrian routes are recommended for the purpose of connecting squares, important historical and religious structures, recreation areas and residential and commercial areas. Furthermore, pedestrianisation areas are recommended in the area within the Land Walls for areas dense with heavy pedestrian traffic and urban spaces with protected traditional character - once cleaned of transit and private vehicle traffic Plan Decisions in the Historic Peninsula World Heritage Sites This section covers decisions of the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan within World Heritage Sites. Plan Decisions Pertaining to Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site There are two sub neighbourhoods in the plan decisions of the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan pertaining to the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site (Map 27). As a First Degree Archaeological Site, Topkapi Palace and Gulhane Park are closed to new development as a First Degree Protected Area. The Plan states that registered buildings which are within the Inventory of Cultural Properties of the Historic Peninsula under Conservation and belong to the upper cultural stratum together with civil architectural buildings, will be conserved by restitution and restoration. Such structures will be utilised by integration with the function of the Topkapi Palace. The Plan also states that no excavations will be allowed aside from those conducted for restitution and restoration. This is to ensure conservation of monuments belonging to the upper cultural stratum in Topkapi Palace and the area hosting its structures. Furthermore, it states that the KVK Council will act as the decision maker on issues of archeological detections for scientific purposes in the area outside Topkapi Palace and its structures. 109

124 It is stated that "Military Zones" that are inside the Gulhane Park and the Topkapi Palace Grounds and not shown in the Plan together with existing structures in the cultural properties inventory will be conserved and additional structures will not be built. Moreover, if use of these military zones cease completely or partially, these zones will be merged into Topkapi Palace and Gulhane Park as per appropriate decision of the KVK Regional Council in order to be used as cultural, museum, walking and recreation areas and green area. Outside Sur-i Sultani, the dominant use proposed for Sultanahmet and Cankurtaran neighbourhood is medium-intensity residential (500 persons/ha) and residential + accomodation areas. It is proposed that residential + accomodation areas could also host cultural units such as small-sized accommodation units, boutique hotels, bed-and-breakfasts, guest houses for international artistsscientists, tourism agencies, excursion clubs, service units such as book stores, art houses, libraries and small traditional handcraft workshops. Moreover, accommodation areas could also host functions such as 1st class accommodation facilities and other cultural functions that ingrate with this function. In relation to the monuments and structures to be built around them, it is planned that the original heights of the cultural properties in the inventory of cultural properties will be protected and height of buildings in the lots next to these monuments or have a visual and topographical impact on these monuments will not exceed 9.50 m and may be below this limit when necessary. Areas hosting the Great Palace of the Constantinople, as well as, Lausos and Antiochos Palaces, and remains of the Church of St. Euphemia are shown in the Plan as "Archeological Exhibition-Park Areas". It is stated that arrangements will be made to exhibit remains found upon archeological excavations conducted in these areas which will also be used as parks and green areas. It is believed that in cases related to exhibition, lighting and bordering or covering of current remains with transparent and demountable elements for conservation purposes, it is possible to proceed in accordance with a suitable decision of the KVK Council. For Tourism Centre Areas shown under the heading of Conservation Areas, it is stated that conservation plans to be developed in order to be integrated with the decisions of development plans for conservation within the boundaries of Barbaros Houses and the Sultanahmet Square Tourism Centre shown in the Plan cannot be put into force without first being approved by the Ministry. It is proposed that "Parks and Recreation Areas" in the Plan be used as archeological exhibitsoutdoor museums, parks, excursion and rest areas, view parks, observation docks, square, children s play grounds, outdoors sports fields, etc. It is stated that these areas should be surveyed to protect the greenery and to increase the quality of landscape. It is proposed that registered civil architectural buildings within these areas should be restored and be used for social-cultural purposes. It is also proposed that in the landscape design of these areas, suitable plant species and urban furniture s should be used within the scope of the principles stated in the urban design guidebooks. Furthermore, pedestrian axes and public squares should be determined within the scope of urban design projects, be enriched with urban furniture s and be designed to be used for ceremonies, exhibitions and theme parks. 110

125 Map 27. Plan Decisions Pertaining to the Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site in the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan (Source: IMM, 2010a) 111

126 Plan Decisions pertaining to the Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site The dominant uses proposed for the Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Conservation Area are the Public Institutions Requiring Use of Large Areas and Residential use. Religious facilities and education institutions are defined as public institutions in accordance with the current functions of the neighbourhood. It is proposed that residential areas should be protected as per their current size and remain at persons/hectare density. The Master Plan for Conservation Scaled at 1/5000 proposes a sufficient number of parks and recreation areas, social-cultural facilities and cultural facilities be created to meet the demands of residential areas in the Site (Map 28). Neighbourhoods where plastic and metal manufacturing are dominant were proposed to be referred to as "Second Degree Commercial Areas" in the Plan. It is stated that businesses that do not require warehousing, retail stores, service units, business complexes, or production-marketing-exhibition functions can be located in these areas. By protecting the authentic structure and function of the Istanbul Drapers and Yard Goods Centre (IMC), it will be possible to open it to new uses for culturetourism purposes. Madrasa buildings around the Suleymaniye Mosque are defined as cultural facilities in the Plan. It will be possible to use these areas as cultural centres, libraries, museums, exhibitions, conference facilities, nursing homes, etc. It is stated in the Plan that Istanbul University Botanical Gardens, being one of the largest green areas in the Site, is to be protected and no additional buildings will be built. Plan Decisions Pertaining to the Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site The dominant use proposed for the Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its Associated Conservation Area in the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan is medium-density (500 persons/ha) residential area. Furthermore, it is proposed to support the creation of park and recreation areas, social-cultural and cultural facilities to support the residential use in the Site (Map 29). The Plan states that health and social service units, non-governmental organisations, trade associations, kindergartens, social facilities and rest areas for day use on a neighbourhood-scale can be located within these "Social Cultural Facilities". It is stated that the public institutions or establishments, the General Directorate of Foundations, cultural centres of universities, public training centres, professional-social-cultural training centres, cultural homes, libraries, research centres, museums, tombs functioning as museums and cinema-theatre-exhibition-concert halls could be located on "Cultural Facilities". The area located to the south of the Zeyrek Mosque and its Associated Conservation Area which houses structures used as administrative offices of Social Security Institution (SSK) (and is designed by Sedad Hakki Eldem) are classified as "Tourism and Culture Areas". Tourism and Culture areas are defined in the Plan as areas that will be developed with private and holistic projects to serve the presentation of historical and cultural values and spatial development of the Historic Peninsula. It is stated that professional tourism-accommodation functions, business and social-cultural functions to serve tourism can be located in these areas. 112

127 Map 28. Plan Decisions Pertaining to the Suleymaniye World Heritage Site in the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan (Source: IMM, 2010a) 113

128 Map 29. Plan Decisions Pertaining to the Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) World Heritage Site in the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan (Source: IMM, 2010a) 114

129 Plan Decisions Pertaining to Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site There is more than one plan in effect within the Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site. Detailed information pertaining to the plans are provided below. The Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan (Map 30) aims to protect cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula that carry great importance for the Istanbul Land Walls where traces of Byzantium and Ottoman eras co-exist. It is stated that the monuments included in the Inventory of Cultural Properties under Conservation should continue to serve their original functions. Furthermore, in cases where its original function has lost its relevance or is completely lost, it will be given a modern function as close to its original function as per the related legislation. The Plan limits the building heights within the Land Walls Conservation Area borders to 6,50 m for the conservation of the silhouette of the Historic Peninsula, with the condition of keeping the original heights of the cultural properties included in the Inventory of Cultural Properties under Conservation. It was decided that those monumental cultural properties located in the area planned as the Land Walls Green Area for Conservation and outside the ownership of the Foundation, should be renovated and used for social-cultural purposes after they are placed under public ownership. Decisions made for the Istanbul Land Walls Neighbourhood evaluated within the First Degree Conservation Neighbourhood in the Plan are as follows: Lost parts of the Golden Horn, Marmara, Istanbul Land Walls and water moats will not be completely restructured, but be repaired partially according to evaluation of findings Structures aside from those registered in the Inventory of Cultural Properties Under Conservation that are adjacent to Marmara and the Golden Horn walls will be removed and the remaining areas will be used as green areas Partial archeological excavations can be conducted in water moats of Istanbul Land Walls. Landscape design will take place in the water moats which will be protected as a whole with the Land Walls. Vegetable garden areas present in lots adjacent to the Land Walls that have appeared in maps dating as far back as 1875 will also be protected It is essential to use the Golden Horn, Marmara and Istanbul Land Walls for cultural purposes. Land Walls, ramparts, gates and water moats will meet the cultural functions according to the proper decision of the related Conservation Board and will be integrated with surrounding green areas, archeological exhibition-park areas, exhibition-observation decks and theme parks. In relation to the section of Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Area within the boundaries of Zeytinburnu District, the following plans are in effect: the 1/5000 Scale Zeytinburnu Master Plan that was approved on March 23, 2007; Master Plan of Zeytinburnu for 767, 771 Islands and the surrounding area that was approved on February 14, 2002; the local Master Plan for block 771 parcel 12 that was approved on July 05, 2008; the 1/5000 scale Istanbul Atakoy Tourism Centre Kazlicesme Conservation Plan that was approved on June 16, 2009 and 1/5000 scale Master Plan of Istanbul Atakoy Tourism Centre Kazlicesme Marine Tourism Facilities that was approved on May 05, In the City Walls Isolation Area that is also located within the district limits of Zeytinburnu, the 1/5000 Scale City Walls Isolation Area Conservation Plan and approved on December 12, 2010 is in effect (Map 31). 115

130 Map 30. Plan Decisions Pertaining to the Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site in the Fatih District Urban Conservation Site 1/5000 Scale Conservation Plan (Source: IMM, 2010a) The City Walls Isolation Area Conservation Plan of Zeytinburnu defines the area between Istanbul Land Walls and 10.Yil Avenue that runs parallel to the City Wall as the Green Area of the Land Walls. It is proposed that private properties within this area are expropriated and arranged as green areas open to the public. An Urban Park was created to the north of the area to continue green areas around Istanbul Land Walls. The plan defines various uses aside from the existing cemeteries in the area and the green areas designed by the Plan. It is proposed to include uses such as accommodation areas such as bed-and-breakfasts and apartment hotels, service areas such as restaurants and 116

131 tourism agencies, gift shops, traditional handcrafts workshops, retail businesses, finance institutions, private schools and private hospitals within the scope of "tourism and commercial areas" and "business and service areas". It is proposed that "urban service areas" created in the Plan include public service facilities, commercial areas and structures related to access to transfer centres, parking lots and pedestrian roads. It is stated that the religious buildings and Turkish handcrafts training centres could be created on spaces allocated in the Plan for religious and cultural facilities. Furthermore, facilities for growing and researching medicinal herbs could be created on spaces allocated for medicinal herb gardens and health research centres. Map 31. Zeytinburnu Master Plan and City Walls Isolation Area Conservation Plan (Source: IMM 2007b, IMM 2007c) 117

132 Eyup Urban Site Revised Master Plan for Conservation partially covers the northern part of the Istanbul Land Walls. Planning of this area that is within the boundaries of the Eyup District was carried out by IMM and the Plan was approved on December 20, It can be observed that the current uses generally continue in the Plan. The largest area within the boundaries of the Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site Plan consists of cemetery areas. Historical cemetery spaces were determined as areas to be maintained and improved with urban design and landscape design projects within the provisions of the Plan. The overall aim is to improve the quality of landscape quality of the cemeteries and to take an inventory of and register the cultural properties such as tombstones etc. located in these cemeteries. The area surrounding the Istanbul Land Walls was identified as park and recreation areas. It is anticipated that existing residential uses in the Site will protect their current density. It is stated that the Plan generally accepted the density values that have no negative impact on the physical characteristics of the monuments, civil architectural buildings and the urban site pattern and protect the visual impact and the silhouette. Any efforts for revitalizing of the structures in the urban site pattern that have been lost over time due to being transformed into different functions, abandoned or demolished for various reasons will be supported as a policy of the Plan (Map 32). Map 32. Eyup Urban Site Revised Master Plan for Conservation (Source: IMM, 2010b) 118

133 There are three parcels of land in the Buffer Area within the borders drawn by the management plan of Bayrampasa Revised Master Plan. The 1/5000 scale Bayrampasa Revised Master Plan that was approved on March 21, 2003 has been amended based on the reparation plan approved on January 14, 2005 and the September 14, 2011 dated council decision of IMM. Accordingly, functions such as outdoor parking lots, cultural facilities, commercial + service areas and road areas are planned to take place in said parcels of land. Conversely, construction terms were determined as follows: E: 1.5 H: Free. The approval process of the reparation plan regarding one of the parcels is still in progress. Map 33. 1/5000 Scale Bayrampasa Revised Master Plan taking place in the Buffer Zone within the borders drawn by the Site Management Plan (Source: Bayrampasa Municipality, Directorate of Urban Development, 2011) 119

134 Map 34. Historic Peninsula; Plan Layout of the Site Management Plan Area (Districts of Fatih, Zeytinburnu, Eyup and Bayrampasa) 120

135 1.10. Zoning The Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan Area is a site that combines multiple sites with varying characters, is surrounded by Marmara-The Golden Horn Coastal Walls and Land Walls and also contains the Istanbul World Heritage Sites. Istanbul Suriçi is described as the area surrounded by the Topkapi Palace and surroundings, which is a First Degree Archaeological Site in the east, Sultanahmet Neighbourhood which is an Urban and Archaeological Site in the west and the entire area spanning to the Land Walls carrying Historical and Urban Protected area Characters. The Land Walls strip, which is made up of internal and external walls and moats, is Archeological Park Area, while the area spanning to the boundaries of the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan that is outside the city walls is the Historic Peninsula Historical and Urban Site. A zoning system was developed to illustrate the differences caused by the existence of neighbourhoods of varying characters within the Land Walls outside the World Heritage Sites, such as the Grand Bazaar and the Inns Area, Yedikule, Kucukmustafa (Fener-Balat), the Golden Horn and Marmara Coastal Wall Strip and the developments in the peninsula that have continued since the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. World Heritage Sites are either inside these neighbourhoods or adjacent to them. Managing the relationship of these areas with the World Heritage Sites, their cultural values, historical, topographic, social and functional characteristics in relation to the differences they present and determination of problems, constitute a guide for action programs of the Historic Peninsula Site Management. The Sultanahment Archeological Park, Suleymaniye World Heritage Sites, Zeyrek World Heritage Site and Land Walls World Heritage Site were inscribed on the Heritage List under the heading of Istanbul World Heritage Sites with outstanding universal values as described in These sites were also handled separately in the site management plan. According to inventories taken, other areas where cultural properties are densely located are Kucuk Mustafa Pasha (Fener-Balat), the Inns Area, the Grand Bazaar, Yedikule, Coastal Wall Strip and the hills neighbourhoods hosting other monuments that create the Silhouette of Istanbul and stress its topography (Map 35). 121

136 Map 35. Site Management Plan Area Zoning Map ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER

137 1. Yedikule Neighbourhood Definition of the Neighbourhood: Yedikule is a neighbourhood located to the southwest of the Historic Peninsula, along the network of roads that were developed according to the gates of the Land and Coastal Walls of Istanbul, carrying characteristics of a coastal settlement between coastal and land walls and possesses many traits of traditional authentic wooden and stone structures. The neighbourhood took its name from Yedikule walls built during the Byzantium and Ottoman eras and is located at Altin Kapi gate on the Land Walls. There are axes where wooden-stone cultural properties are densely nestled on traditional street pattern (Yedikule Bucak, Kuyulu Bakkal, Genc Aga, Imam Asir, Ic Kalpakci, Haci Huseyin Aga streets, and Narli Kapi Dead-end, etc.) and concrete buildings that do not exceed three stories. The most important monument among the religious buildings of the neighbourhood (which are mostly mosques and churches) is the Imrahor Ilyas Bey Mosque. Moreover, southern branch of the Mese, today called Imrahor Ilyas Bey Avenue, is located in this neighbourhood. The main problems in the area is the lack of an effective conservation and improvement approach integrated with the conservation of cultural properties and also contain a sustainable social and economic dimension in the neighbourhood, which is characterised by dense residential areas and settled population; the transportation limitations due to narrow streets of the area flanked by wooden buildings; high earthquake risks created by structurally damaged cultural properties and poor pedestrian transportation arrangements. There are also social and cultural problems compounded by the poor migrant population moving into the buildings abandoned by property owners and have that become dilapidated. Social, cultural, economic, education and accommodation problems are further compounded by the same migrant population who see the area as a stepping stone and not embracing it as their own. Photograph 7. Yedikule Neighbourhood 2. Samatya Neighbourhood Definition of the Neighbourhood: Samatya is the neighbourhood that used to be a traditional residential area located around Istanbul Wall Gates, which later turned into a development of tall concrete buildings and a dense population located on an authentic network of roads. 123

138 The traditional character of the neighbourhood is largely damaged. There are monuments such as the Tekke, Tomb, Sibyan School (Historic Primary School), Turkish Baths, Fountains, examples of terrace wooden-concrete civil architectural building and religious centres such as mosques and churches scattered around the neighbourhood. The most important of these are the Sumbul Efendi Mosque and Kulliye, and Armenian and Greek Churches and Monasteries. The southern branch of the Mese, today called Imrahor Ilyas Bey Avenue, is also located in this neighbourhood. Today, low and middle-income families from the city densely populate this area as in Byzantium and Ottoman eras. Furthermore, there are a large number of elementary school buildings in the neighbourhood that neighbours the Land Walls World Heritage Site in the west. There are problems caused by the lack of facilities for the inhabitants, existence of environmental problems, low quality of structures, existence of terrace buildings, tall buildings and dense housing, a network of narrow streets and difficulty for evacuation and emergency efforts in cases of disasters. There is also a need for improving pedestrian transportation arrangements. Photograph 8. Samatya Coastal Walls 3. Haseki-Cerrahpasa-Davut Pasha Neighbourhood Definition of the Neighbourhood: Apart from monuments that are still located on the southern topographical heights of the Historic Peninsula, Haseki-Cerrahpasa-Davut Pasha is a neighbourhood where the authentic fabric has completely changed. It is the densest neighbourhood in terms of having important civil architectural buildings such as Bulgur Palas and Yagcizade Mansion; and Pasha Kulliyes such as Haseki Kulliye, Cerrahpasa Kulliye, Davutpasa Kulliye, and Hekimoglu Ali Pasha Kulliye. There is a section of the southern branch of the Mese as well as the Arcadius column and the Forum area that are located on this branch. The area acts as a health centre with Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine Hospital, Haseki Hospital and Istanbul Hospital that are designed around existing historic kulliyes, as well as, business and warehousing facilities related to these hospitals. It acts as a provincial and national attraction centre. Due to this characteristic, it can be referred to as a facility and service area for the whole city. It also has dense residential areas with concrete buildings exceeding three storeys and a settled population. There are problems caused by lack of pedestrian transportation arrangements due to heavy mobility characteristics of the population, earthquake risks to structurally-damaged cultural properties and public health buildings, roadside parking problems, limited accessibility to disadvantageous groups and the handicapped and insufficient facilities for residents. 124

139 Photograph 9. Cerrahpasa Kulliye and Surroundings 4. Marmara Coastal Walls Neighbourhood Definition of the Neighbourhood: This neighbourhood contains the coastal walls that are an important part of the Marmara Silhouette, gates that allow entry-exit from the coast to the city, historical monuments that merge with the walls and coastal residential areas. When it is considered as the land walls strip, the area could be granted a World Heritage Site status. The Marmara coastal walls run from the Land Walls World Heritage Site in the West, to the Sultanahment World Heritage Site in the East and consist of antique Yenikapi-Langa Kadirga Piers, Interior Walls of the Pier and Wall Gates, Mermer Kule, Narli Kapi, Samatya Gate, Davutpasa Gate, Yeni Langa Gate, Kum Kapisi and Kadirga Pier Gate. Important and distinct elements in the neighbourhood are Yenikapi-Marmaray Archeological Excavation Site, Samatya, Yenikapi/Langa, Kumkapi, Kadirga coastal residential areas, Kumkapi Armenian Patriarchate buildings and other churches. Due to the impact of the railways and the Coastal Road on this strip and the divisions they create, the area has lost its original connection with the filled green areas along the coast and the Sea of Marmara. The neighbourhood has mixed characteristics: When viewed from the Sea of Marmara, it can be considered as an area of silhouette and exposure; as a transportation centre due to the Yenikapi Transfer Centre that is being built; and as a tourism neighbourhood with the tourism potential created with the Yenikapi archeological excavations. The problems of this neighbourhood are that the neighbourhood is being used for through traffic, as a transfer centre and has a lack of pedestrian transportation arrangements; the change of functions proposed by the renewal projects is irrelevant to the existing functions of the area; possibility of settled users creating a need for change in the future and the existence of a large temporary population, most of whom have come to Turkey illegally, without passports or as tourists and have begun working here. 125

140 Photograph 10. Marmara Coastal Strip and Yenikapi Marmaray Archeological Excavation Area 126

141 5. Aksaray Lower Laleli Gedik Pasha Neighbourhood Definition of the Neighbourhood: In the neighbourhood, dense housing around or on the Roman, Byzantium and Ottoman Archeological heritage and several recent function changes are seen. The area includes the Milion Stone in Sultanahmet, Roman-Byzantium Mese Avenue that continues along Forum Constantine, Forum Tauri, Zafer Taki, Forum Bovis squares and historical cultural properties therein, Libraries, Madrasas, Simkeshane and underground archeological spaces, Cisterns, the Serefiye Cistern; old residential areas where old stone structures have been transformed into manufacturing, accommodation and business locales and a mixed use neighbourhood for tourism, business and small manufacturing functions. There are problems that exist in the neighbourhood caused by uses of the Site that are not in conformity with its identity or conservation of the cultural properties, there are issues pertaining to decentralisation and lack of a sustainable social and economical conservation and improvement approach for the conservation of cultural properties. 6. Sultanahmet Urban and Archeological Neighbourhood Definition of the Neighbourhood: This location is made up of Cankurtaran and Sultanahmet neighbourhoods, has been the centre of three large empires and civilisations and is a first degree archeological protected area. Sultanahmet Archeological Park is a World Heritage Site. Among important cultural properties of the neighbourhood are the Great Palace of Constantinople, Topkapi Palace (New Palace), Hagia Sophia, Sultanahmet Mosque and Horse Square (Hippodrome), Million Stone, Basilica Cistern, Little Hagia Sophia Mosque and Neighbourhood, Cankurtaran, Coastal walls and Gates, Palace Gates such as Little Hagia Sophia Gate, Catladi Kapi, Bucoleon Palace Gate, Ahir Gate, Balikhane Gate, Hagia Maria Gate, Mangana Palace Gate, Demir Gate, Degirmen Gate, Topkapi, Ugrak Gate, Yali Mansion Gate; Bab-i Ali, Bab-i Humayun, Sirkeci Train Terminal, Gulhane Park and Binbirdirek Cistern. There are problems such as lack of comprehension pertaining to the Sultanahment Archeological Park World Heritage Site, existence of functions that are not in conformity with the identity of the Site and conservation of cultural properties; decreasing residential areas in the neighbourhood and the spread of accommodation facilities into residential areas; insufficient social facilities, unplanned pedestrianisation (although a positive thing) and lack of regulatory plans such as a tourism and visitor plan. Photograph 11. Archaeological Site and Urban Archaeological Site 127

142 7. Old Administrative Neighbourhood (Bab-i Ali) Definition of the Neighbourhood: Whilst this area was once the residential area for upper class palace courtiers outside of Sur-i Sultani, over time, it transformed into an administrative and centre of the press and later into an area heavy in business and accommodation facilities. Being the first Turkish settlement on the coast during the Byzantium era, the area houses the Antique Golden Horn Pier and has also been the administrative centre of both the Byzantium- Ottoman and Republic eras. The neighbourhood is dense with monuments due to its position as an administrative centre that bore witness to the events of the last days of the Ottoman Empire as a political and social focal point. It has also acted as the centre for the press in both the Ottoman and the Republic eras. Among important monuments of the neighbourhood and aside from a large number of historical monuments and underground archeological spaces, there are Culture and Education structures, Istanbul Boys Highs School (Duyuni Umumi), Cagaloglu Anatolian High School (Istanbul Girls High School), Buildings of the Governorship of Istanbul, the Iranian Embassy buildings, the Grand Mail Station, Sirkeci Terminal Building, commercial buildings, Tombs of Sultans, Turkish Hearth Building, Rustem Pasha Madrasa, Hoca Pasha Bath and Cagaloglu Bath. The neighbourhood can be evaluated as being under threat and at risk due to reasons such as lack of an inventory for conservation of intangible cultural heritage, lack of importance given to the conservation of archeological assets in planning and development projects conducted in the neighbourhood, existence of functions unfit with the identity of the neighbourhood and conservation of cultural properties and dense pedestrians and vehicle traffic. Due to the high number of monumental cultural structures located along the Roma-Byzantium-Ottoman Avenue, Mese, Uluyol (Divan Avenue), this neighbourhood is a part of the unmatched silhouette of the Historic Peninsula. Photograph 12. Bab-i Ali and Sirkeci Terminal 8. The Grand Bazaar and the Inns Area Definition of the Neighbourhood: The Grand Bazaar and the Inns Area is located between Beyazit Square and the Antique Golden Horn Pier. It is dense with monumental business structures, mosques, kulliyes, Grand Bazaar and inns. Most of these buildings are stone. Liman Kiyisi Mahzenli Inns, Zindan Inn, Yemis Kapani Inns and the Spice Bazaar, Grande Valide Inn, Grand Yeni Inn, Kurkcu Inn, Cukur Inn, Vezir Inn, Sarraf Inn and the Grand Bazaar are places where sub-sectoral groups are clustered together. The neighbourhood is the traditional business district of Istanbul with its Covered 128

143 Bazaars, Sandal and Cevahir Covered Bazaars; kulliyes such as Ahi Celebi, New Mosque Kulliye, Rustem Pasha Kulliye, Beyazit Kulliye; and civil architectural buildings cultural properties scattered among the Nuruosmaniye Mosque, Mahmut Pasha Mosque, Bath Houses, Cemberlitas Bath, Mahmut Pasha Bath House and the Bazaar District. The main problems in the neighbourhood are lack of a social and economical approach to conserving and improving the tradition of small manufacturers and traditional hand crafts in their authentic spaces and an inability to reach a quality expected in conservation and renovation implementations. Photograph 13. The Grand Bazaar 9. Suleymaniye Neighbourhood Definition of the Neighbourhood: Although it was a neighbourhood located on the escarpment between northern rises of the peninsula that encompass Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site and the Golden Horn, the Suleymaniye neighbourhood developed around the Suleymaniye Kulliye that acted as a religious centre from past to present day as an ulama district. Furthermore, the neighbourhood hosted many wooden structures as civil architectural buildings and the business function began to develop. Later, it turned into a neighbourhood that housed mainly business, manufacturing, warehousing structures, as well as residences, parking lots and education buildings. Important features of the neighbourhood are monuments such as the Suleymaniye Kulliye Sehzadebasi Kulliye, Mollah Gurani Mosque, Kalenderhane Mosque, as well as examples of wooden and attached civil architectural buildings and school buildings, Istanbul University, Vefa High School, Atif Efendi Library; Health Facilities, Hifzissihha Institute, Esnaf Hospital; Business Buildings belonging to the Republic Era, Istanbul Drapers and Yard Goods Centre (IMC); Traditional street patterns such as Kirazli Mescit, Yogurtcu Street, Ayranci Street, Palace Gates, Bab-i Seraskeri, Aga Gate, Bab-i Mesihat (Muftiship today), The Golden Horn Sea Wall Gates, Zindan Gate, Odun Gate, Hagiasma Gate, Unkapani Gate and Bozdogan Aqueduct. The main problems of the neighbourhood relate to the existence of uses that do not fit the identity or conservation of the cultural properties and changes in social structure that develop as a result of this, inability to meet the quality expected in conservation and restoration activities, incorrect use of some sections of Kulliyes and civil architectural buildings, danger of the traditional street pattern becoming lost, large number of migrants coming into the Site and social, economic, cultural and conservation problems created by this migration, and insufficiency of social, economical and cultural projects necessary to improve the quality of life in the Site. 129

144 Photograph 14. Suleymaniye Neighbourhood 10. Zeyrek Neighbourhood Definition of the Neighbourhood: It is located between the Fatih and Suleymaniye Kulliyes on the northern rise of the Historic Peninsula extending to the Golden Horn, contains the World Heritage Site and is dense with a settled population and traditional character. Important features of the neighbourhood are Pantocrator Church infrastructure and the Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator), Gul Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site, dense areas of wooden civil architectural buildings, existence of many historical monuments such as madrasa, mosque and bath houses, dense archeological remains in the neighbourhood, Bozdogan Aqueduct (an important part of the silhouette of the Historic Peninsula facing the Golden Horn), buildings of Social Security Institution designed by Sedat Hakki Eldem, the part of Mese, Education structures and areas, Kadir Has University, Medipol University and Fatih Sultan Mehmet University. The main problems of the neighbourhood are the lack of an approach for sustainable social and economic conservation and improvement unified with the conservation of cultural properties; poverty; lack of socio-cultural opportunities for uneducated-unqualified labour; women, youth and children; the inability to meet the quality in restoration projects of civil architectural buildings in terms of materials and skills; reconstruction of unregistered and damaged monuments and the danger of the traditional street pattern getting damaged. Photograph 15. Zeyrek Neighbourhood 130

145 11. Fatih Mosque and Surrounding Neighbourhood Definition of the Neighbourhood: The neighbourhood around Fatih Mosque Kulliye which was the religious centre with the largest area located on the northern rise of the Historic Peninsula hosts the Malta Bazaar and residential areas. Suleymaniye World Heritage Site is located to its east. Some characteristics that make up the neighbourhood are education units, damaged madrasa sections of the Fatih Kulliye, Darussafaka School buildings, Malta Bazaar Inns and tall concrete buildings built upon the old pattern and archeological remains. The main problems facing the neighbourhood are lack of attention given to protect the underground archeological assets during planning and project stages and in new constructions, weakness of the structurally-damaged cultural properties in the event of an earthquake, terrace buildings, badly chosen places for parking lots, and using roads for parking. Photograph 16. Fatih Mosque and Surroundings 12. Fener- Balat- Ayvansaray Neighbourhood Definition of the Neighbourhood: It is the neighbourhood located on the escarpment between the northern edge of the peninsula and the Golden Horn along the Golden Horn walls, is dense with monumental and civil architectural structures and possesses residences with a traditional character. Important features of the neighbourhood are as follows: the underground archeological area, Ayvansaray neighbourhood, infrastructural remains of Byzantium Palace, Aspar Cistern, its religious centre character, Yavuz Sultan Selim Kulliye, Fener Greek Patriarchate and Boys High School, Yanbol and Ahrida Synagogues, the Golden Horn Coastal Walls, old stone residences, the Golden Horn Coast and the historical monuments on the coast, Balat Jewish Hospital, Bulgar Church, Library of Women s Literary Works, being an important part of the silhouette of the Historic Peninsula facing the Golden Horn, and being neighbour to the World Heritage Site on the northwest, Egri Gate, Tekfur Palace, Anemas Dungeons, Ivaz Efendi Mosque, Manuel Kommen Walls and Leon Fortification. Problems facing the area include a lack of care spent to conserve the archeological assets during planning and construction phases, weakness of the structurally-damaged cultural properties in the event of an earthquake; lack of written, visual, easy-to-understand and accessible documents to be used by visitors and users in the neighbourhood; weakening of urban memory through changing current street and neighbourhood names; migration into the neighbourhood from poor income 131

146 classes, poor population living in the historical buildings and conservation and social problems arising from it; failure to create employment opportunities after the industrial area was moved out of the neighbourhood, dependency on social assistance after prolonged periods of unemployment; and buildings incongruent with the dense traditional character. Photograph 17. Bulgar Church and Fener Greek Boys High School 13. Recent Period Construction Zone (I) Definition of the Neighbourhood: It is the zone on the northern rises of the Historic Peninsula that contains traditional residential areas and is densely populated with monuments and new concrete residential structures. Some of the characteristics of the neighbourhood are as follows: Archeological Areas, the Atios Cistern (Karagumruk Field), Poliectus Remains, and monuments, Valide Mosque, Column of Carcianos, Millet Library, Iskender Pasha Mosque, tekkes, madrasa, fountains, churches, etc.; the road axis dense with monuments; the fact that the Northern branch of the Mese and Nisanca Avenues pass through here; it neighbours the Land Walls World Heritage Site in the west, Edirnekapi, Mihrimah Sultan Mosque, a few civil architectural buildings and a settled population. The zone can be regarded as an area that has lost its character due to a failing to protect underground archeological assets during planning and project stages and in new constructions, weakness of the structurally-damaged cultural properties in the event of an earthquake, limited accessibility in the neighbourhood for disadvantageous populations and the handicapped, badly allocated places for parking lots and inappropriate use of roads for parking. 14. Near Period Construction Neighbourhood- New Administrative Axis (II) Definition of the Neighbourhood: The neighbourhood contains large-scale administration buildings which were constructed on the old industrial areas located in the vegetable gardens and slopes along Vatan Avenue, which was constructed over the only stream of the Historic Peninsula, the Lykos Stream, and is one of the First degree transportation axes of the Peninsula. Some of the features of the neighbourhood are the busy public structures such as the Provincial Special Administration, the Police Department, Fatih Court House, Igdas Spor A.S.; monuments such as the old structures of the Guraba Hospital, Capa School (Teacher s College), Mimar Sinan Masjid, Molla Fenari Isa Mosque, Sadiye Hatun Hospital, madrasas, masjids and hospitals; health facilities such as Vatan Hospital, 29 Mayis Hospital, Vakif Gureba Hospital, Capa Istanbul Hospital and Capa Blood Centre; and lodgings of the municipality, employee accommodation of the highways, 132

147 employee accommodation of Emlak Bank, Historia Shopping Centre, the Subway Line and stations, neighbouring the Land Walls World Heritage Site in the West and the intersection with Vatan Avenue and the Land Walls. The main problems are created by pollution from transit traffic, insufficiency of parking lots, and inappropriate parking on roadsides. 15. Recent Period Construction Zone- Residential (III) Definition of the Neighbourhood: It is the neighbourhood built along scattered residential areas from the past and vegetable gardens that contain many tall, adjacent buildings that have been built more recently. There are also cultural properties scattered around the neighbourhood, such as the Makios Cistern. Some features of the neighbourhood are that is a dense residential areas with settled population, a high number of active schools such as Sehremini High School, health facilities, private hospitals, accommodation areas, hotels, motels, Millet Avenue which is one of the First degree transportation axes of the Site, the tramway, the fact that it is neighbour to the Land Walls World Heritage Site to the west, Mevlevihane Gate, Topkapi and the intersection area of Land Walls and Millet Avenue. Some of the problems facing the neighbourhood are structurally damaged cultural properties highly vulnerable in the event of an earthquake, lack of facilities for the inhabitants of the neighbourhood, impacts of air pollution on health, badly allocated parking lot spaces, roadside parking and entertainment and hotel sectors that have moved into neighbourhoods and are threatening the neighbourhood lifestyle in these areas. The neighbourhood can be regarded as having a fabric damaged over time. Photograph 18. Mevlana Gate and Surroundings 16. Upper Laleli Neighbourhood Definition of the Neighbourhood: It is the neighbourhood that connects Divan Avenue and Mese with the area between Beyazit Square and Aksaray which includes administration, business (suitcase trade) and accommodation buildings upon a dense archeological infrastructure. Some of the features of the neighbourhood include administrative structures, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Main Building and Service Units, historical monuments, Laleli Mosque, Tas Inn, Ankaravi Madrasa, education units such as Istanbul University School of Science building, accommodation buildings such 133

148 as Harikzedegan Apartments, Tayyare Apartments, hotels, underground archeological spaces, cisterns, tunnels and commercial + tourism areas. Some of the problems facing the neighbourhood are lack of attention given to conserving archeological assets during planning and construction phases of projects, conservation of cultural properties in the neighbourhood and improving socio-cultural characteristics. Photograph 19. IMM and Surroundings 17. Land Walls Neighbourhood Definition of the Neighbourhood: The part of the Land Walls, which have survived through many stages parallel to the history of the city, on the side of the Historic Peninsula is defined as an Urban and Historical Site and part outside the walls in Zeytinburnu, Bayrampasa and Eyup Districts is designated as a World Heritage Site. This neighbourhood is also considered a conservation zone in the Historic Peninsula "Urban and Historical Site". There are 96 ramparts and 11 gates running approximately 7 km between Mermer Tower, Tekfur Palace and Anemas Dungeons. Eight gates are still in use: Yedikule Gate, Belgrade Gate, Silivri Gate, Mevlana Gate, Topkapi, Sulukule Gate, Edirne Gate and Egri Gate. Important monuments in the neighbourhood are the Yedikule Dungeons, Chora Museum, Mihrimah Sultan Mosque and Kulliye, Kazasker Ivaz Agha Mosque, Hadim Ibrahim Pasha Mosque, Hagia Yorgi Church, Ayios Nicholaos Church, Blakhernai Fountain, Nigogayas Church, Ayievleharna Fountain, Abdulbaki Pasha Library, Yenikapi Mevlevi Lodge, Seyyitnizam Mosque, Balikli Hagiasma Monastery, Balikli Greek Hospital, Merkez Efendi Mosque and Tomb, Silivri Kapi Muslim Cemetery, Kozlu Cemetery, Hamusan Cemetery, Edirnekapi and Sakizagaci Military Cemeteries and Sahabe Cemeteries. Some of the problems facing the neighbourhood are related to socio-economic problems due to the low-income population living in houses adjacent to the wall strip or in properties belonging to foundations, lack of documentation of archeological assets in the area and lack of prioritisation of their conservation. There are also difficulties in restoration efforts caused by periodical differences due to many previous restorations throughout history. 134

149 Photograph 20. Land Walls Neighbourhood Evaluation of the Zoning Efforts After evaluation of the findings with regards to each neighbourhood in the Historic Peninsula, on a general basis, it has been observed that many problems are common in all zones. Some of the common problems are conservation problems (being the most important); economic and social problems; risk of an earthquake and emergency response after disasters; traffic problems caused by the neighbourhood being an over-populated area and an attraction point at the national level; an imbalance between conservation-use, lack of awareness and lack of appreciation of these values; and decreases in the number of permanent inhabitants. Furthermore, there are also the following neighbourhood problems that can be solved or at least can be put under control through action plans and project packages proposed by the management plan: the facility problems in residential areas, use of registered buildings with functions that do not fit their historical value, problems in the tourism area, inability to assess positive and negative results created by decentralisation, conservation of the street patterns and quality control problem with regards to wood and stone restoration projects. It can also be observed that institutions or establishments under central and local governments allocate serious financial resources for conservation of the Site and create projects in a competitive manner. Some of the positive developments pertaining to the Site are the intense and creative attention from the NGOs, as well as studies carried out by the Istanbul 1 st District Directorate of Foundations regarding their own monuments. Finally, priorities of the Site Management Plan include a focus on coordination, prioritisation and reaching desirable results. 135

150 2. ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN Decisions made by the Central Government and Local Governments in the drafting process of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan, were guided by documents compiled within the scope of the Analytic Study Report, researches with respect to the Historic Peninsula, inventories, existing plans and projects, Search Conference, thematic workshops and outputs obtained as a result of special group meetings which constituted the principal sources. Recommendations of UNESCO World Heritage Committee from 2004 onwards in relation to the historic sites of Istanbul have also influenced the formation of the Site Management Plan. Strengths and Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats in the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Questions and possibilities that will shape the future of the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan Area were put forward in studies regarding the determination of the current status. A Strengths and Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis was carried out during a Search Conference held with the participation of the "Stakeholders in the Site Management Plan Area. This together with brain-storming sessions was influential in shaping the Objectives of the Site Management Plan (Table 11). In the future, when the Site Management Plan is being legally updated, it would be appropriate to renew the SWOT analysis in a way to cover all the stakeholders in the Management Area and to provide details on a sectoral and regional basis. 136

151 Table 11. Strengths and Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats in the Istanbul Historic Peninsula STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Rich social, cultural and physical structure o Having been the centre of different civilisations o Existence of monuments Existence of rooted educational institutions o Abundance of foundation ownership o Existence of structures and areas bearing special value o Historic and cultural cultivation spanning 8000 years o Unique silhouette o Traditional, authentic street pattern Existence of an economical structure produced by history, art and culture o Co-existence of traditional small size manufacturing facilities and historical trade areas. Thus giving the opportunity to keep the local culture alive o Being an attraction point in terms of cultural tourism Geographical location of the Historic Peninsula o Having well-defined borders o Scale and accessibility o Being a coastal city Increase in the number and attention of institutions that consider, plan, conserve and provide resources for the future of Historic Peninsula Being a lively and vibrant place OPPORTUNITIES Extension of rail systems of public transportation Improvement of sea transportation Traditional hand crafts/manufacturing tradition and trade (together with production and sales) Being a financial centre/centre of attraction/ touristic/commercial, cultural and social appeal Increased resources o Finance o Conservation Being included in the World Heritage List and international networks Existence of rehabilitation projects (conservation and sustenance) o KUDEB o Traditional construction/building materials o Improvement with regard to earthquake risk Cultural memory serving as a base for the future Opportunities provided by Law 5366 Existence of a conservation development plan Lack of coordination o Inter institutional coordination problem (establishments, expert NGOs, trade associations etc. who have authority and responsibility) o Lack of holistic approach/holistic conservation Failure in conservation of the historical urban fabric in some implementations focused mainly on renewal and negligence of traditional + current social life Lack of a balanced population o Imbalance between residence and business place o Occurrence of security problems o Imbalance of day-time/night-time population density Weak structures in the event of an earthquake Insufficient social facilities Insufficient socio-cultural projects Low quality of life Insufficient accessibility for the physically-challenged Lack of intangible cultural heritage inventory Transportation and parking lot problem Lack of sufficient participation in renewal projects Poverty Lack of coordination Different day and night time users THREATS The factors distorting the silhouette o Transportation projects stressing the area o Mass of unqualified structures Renewal projects o Abuse of authorities assigned by Law 5366 Inappropriate restoration implementations Migration, fluctuations in population o Lack of sufficient participation o Financial pressure Inappropriate restoration implementations / imitation structures Immigration, temporary population, poverty Transportation projects, being a central point in transit transportation o Environmental pollution, increase in density o Tube tunnel project o Being a transit point Lack of a conservation development master plan Lack of regulatory plans such as tourism plans or visitor management plans Excessive commercialisation; imbalance between residence, tourism and trade (migration, decreasing number of families, population change between daytime and night-time, decentralisation) Displacing and discharging craftsmen Foreign investments Security/Earthquake/Disaster/Fire Problems Pressures of obtaining economic rent 137

152 The strengths relating to the characteristics of the Historic Peninsula pertain to its rich history, social, cultural and physical structure, economic structure created by history, art, and culture; characteristics in relation to its geography; existence of institutions which consider, plan, protect and provide resources for the future of the Historic Peninsula and their increasing interest; the fact that Management Area is a live and vibrant place; existence of rooted educational institutions and an abundance of foundation ownership were emphasized as its strengths. Weaknesses of the Historic Peninsula have been listed as: lack of coordination, conservation of the historical urban fabric in some implementations focused mainly on renewal and neglected traditional and current social life; lack of a balanced population, having a weak structural stock against risk of earthquake, low quality of life, lack of an intangible cultural heritage inventory, transportation and parking problems; lack of sufficient participation in renewal projects, poverty and different night time and daytime users. Opportunities in the Historic Peninsula are listed as: the extension of the rail public transportation systems; importance attached to the traditional hand crafts/manufacturing tradition and trade (together with production and sales), being a financial centre / attraction point for Istanbul, increased importance with regards to tourism/trade, cultural and social aspects; increase in resources intended for its conservation, being in the World Heritage List and being connected to international networks; importance attached to rehabilitation projects (continuity through conservation); importance attached to the cultural memory acting as the basis for the future and opportunities provided by Law 5366 and the existence of a zoning plan for conservation purposes. Threats depicted in the Historic Peninsula are related to: factors disrupting the silhouette, transportation policies applying pressure on the area, unqualified cluster of structures, renewal projects, abuse of the authorities assigned by Law 5366, misapplied restoration works; migration, temporary inhabitants, transportation projects that damage the fabric, being a focal point in transit transportation; lack of regulatory plans such as a tourism plan, or a visitor/guest management plan, excessive commercialisation; imbalance between residences, tourism and trade, displacing and discharging craftsmen, foreign sourced investments, safety/earthquake/natural disaster/fire related problems and pressure to earn income. As a result of the evaluation of the problems defined in the Search Conference, which was held within the scope of Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan, together with other studies conducted in this subject, the basic problems below were set forth. These problem areas were accepted as basic guides to determine the principles and policies of the Site Management Plan and to produce the objectives. The problems identified under the Management and Organisation heading are summarized as: duties, responsibilities and jurisdictions of authorised institutions, which operate under the scope of the Management Area, not being sufficiently known by the public and NGOs; the fact that these institutions generate similar projects from time to time, the lack of coordination between them; and presence of conflicts between the conservation legislation and other legislation. The problems identified under the heading of Conservation, Planning and the Quality of Life are organised into groups of Planning-Conservation, Conservation-Restoration and Quality of Life. The problems that can be considered under the heading of "Planning-Conservation" can be 138

153 summarized as: planning of land use, planning of transportation and the lack of harmony between transportation projects, the presence of activities which do not compliment the identity of the Site and the value of the cultural properties, the lack of sufficient sustainable social and economic conservation and strengthening of attempts to adequately integrate with the conservation of the cultural properties and the lack of attention paid to the conservation of the archeological assets that are studied under the scope of planning and project designing studies in the Site. The problems that are faced under the heading of Accessibility can be summarized as: the lack of research regarding the effects of transportation projects on cultural heritage during the project design phase and the utilisation of the Historic Peninsula as the transfer point of the transportation system; wheeled transportation system being widely used; insufficient development of the rail systems and lack of priority to sea transportation; the lack of integration of different types of transportation options and insufficient pedestrian and bicycle ways. The problems that are faced under the heading of Increasing Perception can be summarized as: the presence of high-density, low-quality, abandoned and unsupervised buildings within the boundaries of the Historic Peninsula, environment and buildings requiring maintenance and the lack of adequate illumination. Thus, heritage sites and important focus points are not being perceived by visitors as having any importance. Another problem requiring evaluation under this title is the lack of visual and written documents that are easily understandable, accessible and sufficient in numbers. The problems requiring evaluation under the Training- Awareness Raising and Participation heading can be summarized as: lack of awareness of the staff working in decision-making, operating institutions and the inhabitants in the Istanbul Historic Peninsula with regards to conservation of the natural and cultural heritage; a decrease in numbers of the construction masters to carry on the construction tradition and a weakness of the "master-apprentice" relationship in the traditional manufacturing sectors. These problems generally come under the scope of "Training and Increasing Awareness". Regarding "Participation", the main problems can be summarized as: the fact that an effective and sustainable participation mechanism in the conservation, planning and implementation processes between all of the stakeholders have not been established and secured by laws. Under the heading of Visitor Management, the main problems can be summarized as: the uncertainty of the future of the tourism sector in the Historic Peninsula; the generation of more visitors for the areas that are Listed at the World Heritage List, insufficient promotion of other important areas and work of arts, inaccessibility to these areas, the difficulty faced by the visitors while accessing information regarding cultural heritage; the problems encountered during management, research, exposition and security of the museums and inability to meet visitors needs. The problems faced under the heading of Risk Management can be summarized as: the high risk of earthquake in the Historic Peninsula, the presence of buildings which are not resistant to an earthquake which are constructed very closely together, height of these buildings, irregular building geometry and the street pattern in the Site being too dense and narrow; difficulty in evacuation and emergency response caused by this street pattern; the fact that cultural heritage buildings that are structurally worn are not resistant to earthquake, high risk of fire in the areas where there are many wooden buildings and the presence of there are potentially explosive and combustible factories within the boundaries of the Site. 139

154 2.1. Management Plan Vision All studies carried out during the preparation of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan (Analytic Study Report, research about the Historic Peninsula, inventories, current plans and projects, research meetings, thematic workshops and special group meetings) were enriched after mutual negotiations. At the end of this process, the Plan Vision adopted by the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan has been identified as below: For a Historic Peninsula which protects its rich historical background, preserve its liveliness, produces and passing on its socio-economic spatial and cultural identity to the future; a site management plan that protects the outstanding universal value of the Historic Peninsula and is executed by all related institutions and establishments in coordination and transparency by also participation of users and inhabitants Planning Principles and Policies The basic principles of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan have been developed within the scope of contemporary conservation principles and policies. The determined principles and policies were steered by the values that provide freedom for the Site, its characteristics, its potential, the studies carried out regarding the problems and the principles that were agreed upon at the attendant conference. Accordingly, the main principles of the Site Management Plan are as follows: Planning principles and policies regarding the Cultural Heritage; Providing ecological, economical, social, cultural and spatial sustainability and development for passing the cultural heritage on to the future Contributing to improve the authenticity of the cultural heritage and the quality of urban life-environment Providing the presence of cultural heritage within social life (balance between residentialtourism functions) Encouraging people to work and live in the Site Maintaining traditional manufacturing methods and handicrafts in the Site Limiting vehicle traffic within the boundaries of the World Heritage Sites, performing pedestrianisation operations, removing wheeled transportation vehicles from the Site and ensuring transportation utilises clean energy Highlighting its identity of being a "city of water". Planning principles and policies regarding Conservation and Use; Managing the Historic Peninsula as a whole in conservation projects Providing sustainable conservation and utilisation (silhouette, neighbourhood life, traditional manufacturing, transportation) according to national and international legislation for the tangible and intangible cultural properties (physical structures and the values they host) Awareness raising with regards to "conservation" Developing "construction materials" used in the Historic Peninsula specifically for the Site Providing health and safety conditions. 140

155 Planning principles and policies regarding Planning and Participation are; Producing transparent, clear and participative planning systems Opting for functions that do not cause overload during planning operations Encouraging cultural tourism by considering capacity Adhering to the planning decisions and proposed time schedules Providing legal infrastructure which will maintain the sustainability of the management plan Respecting accommodation, life and property rights of the people according to international legal norms during planning Adopting an accountability responsibility and obligations of the related institutions or establishments Providing coordination, communication and constant participation among all stakeholders and the institutions related to the Site during the conservation and development processes, (authorised and responsible institutions and establishments, expert NGOs and trade associations, private sector) and sharing these responsibilities with the public Encouraging the participation of all users (workers, visitors, students) and inhabitants, Developing social awareness programmes Plan Objectives, Strategies, Actions, Related Institutions and Establishments Problematic areas determined within the scope of the Planning Vision and principles of the Site Management Plan have been grouped under seven headings. These headings include the definitions of the objectives to solve problems, the strategies required to fulfil the objectives and their related actions as well as the responsible and supportive institutions and the establishments that will be execute such actions. Objectives for every problematic area have been specified during this process in which contributions were obtained from the current status determinations with regards to the areas and input from the meetings to address related problems and workshops. The required actions were identified after the strategies for the determined objectives had been decided. The responsible parties for carrying out these identified actions were determined in two levels: responsible institutions or establishments and supportive institutions or establishments. The seven themes identified in the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan are listed below: 1. Management and Organisation 2. Conservation, Planning and Quality of Life 3. Accessibility 4. Perception of Importance and Value of the Site 5. Training, Awareness Raising and Participation 6. Visitor Management 7. Risk Management In order to galvanise the logical connection between the project packages, a simple coding system has been developed to follow up the connection between the Site Management Plan objectives, strategies and actions. The coding system starts with Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII) representing the seven themes of the Plan. Objectives related to every theme, are represented with the letter H which stands for objective ( Hedef in Turkish) and a consecutive number in itself 141

156 (e.g.: IIH2, IVH4, etc.). Strategies connected to the same objectives are represented with the letter "S" which stands for strategy and consecutive strategy numbers (e.g.: IIH2S2, IVH4S3, etc.). The actions connected to the same strategies are represented with the letter E which stands for action ( Eylem in Turkish) and consecutive action numbers (e.g.: IIH2S2E1, IVH4S3E2, etc.) Management and Organisation Objectives, strategies and actions connected to "Management and Organisation" under the Site Management Plan and institutions or establishments proposed to execute these actions are addressed under this heading. Management and Organisation identifies the process which includes the preparation, implementation, following up the implementation and the monitoring of the Site Management Plan which is called the management system organisation. Within this context, four main problems were determined as follows: Apart from the public institutions, the areas of duty and responsibility of the related and authorised institutions operating within the boundaries of the Site are not clearly known The authorised institutions in the Site produce similar projects Lack of coordination between the authorised institutions in the Site The lack of harmony between the legislations of the related and authorised institutions in the Site. Objective IH1: Providing coordination between the institutions authorised in the Site in order to implement the Site Management Plan successfully. The basic objective has been determined as providing coordination between the institutions authorised in the Site in order to implement the Site Management Plan successfully and to solve problems arising from producing similar projects in the Site by institutions within the Site Management Plan and to also address the lack of coordination between authorised institutions. The first strategy determined in order to achieve this objective is ensuring that the conflicts, similarities, differences, inconsistencies and deficiencies in the duties of the authorised institutions within the boundaries of the Site Management Plan are eliminated. Actions that are specified in accordance with this strategy are to determine the conflicts, similarities, differences, inconsistencies and deficiencies in the authority s responsibilities and duties of the related and authorised institutions within the boundaries of the Site Management Plan; and to set forth the authorities, responsibilities and duties of the related and authorised institutions within the boundaries of the Site Management Plan. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions have been determined as IMM, the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Governorship of Istanbul, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, Fatih Municipality, Eyup Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality, Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKI) and the Privatisation Administration. The second strategy that is determined in order to achieve the related objective is ensuring that the Site Management Plan is understood and embraced equally by all related institutions and that the related institutions and establishments develop decisions in the given subjects in unison. The determined actions regarding this strategy are to arrange continuous, regular and scheduled meetings in order to gather the related institutions and establishments; to establish systems to pursue the implementation of the Site Management Plan decisions in every institution and to 142

157 develop programs and projects in order to establish the culture of producing mutual projects within these institutions. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions have been determined as IMM, the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Governorship of Istanbul, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, Fatih Municipality, Eyup Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality, Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKI) and the Privatisation Administration. A further strategy that is determined in order to achieve the specified objective is developing monitoring mechanisms in the implementation process of the Site Management Plan. The actions that are specified according to this strategy are to ensure that the Coordination and Supervision Board of the Site Management Directorate works orderly and efficiently within the Site Management Plan Area and to establish monitoring mechanisms. IMM and the Site Management Directorate have been determined as the institutions responsible for carrying out this action. The last strategy to achieve the related objective is providing an effective information system that will be used by the related institutions or establishments. The actions that are determined regarding this strategy are to standardise, digitalise and complete current inventory studies regarding the Historic Peninsula; to establish a digital data base and monitoring system in relation to the Site Management Plan Area and to provide access to stakeholders. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions have been determined as IMM, the Site Management Directorate, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, Fatih Municipality, Eyup Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality, Conservation Boards, the Renewal Board and the Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate. Objective IH2: Providing coordination between the legislations which bind all related institutions and establishments in the Management Area The first objective, that is providing coordination between the legislations which bind all related institutions and establishments in the Management Area, was developed due to the lack of coordination between the legislation which binds all related and authorised institutions in the Site. The first strategy determined as per this objective is ensuring that the conflicts, problems (similarities, differences, inconsistencies, deficiencies) between the legislations which bind all related institutions and establishments in the Management Area are eliminated. The action determined regarding this strategy is to scrutinise the entire legislation and to determine its problems, conflicts and deficiencies, to make legislative proposals and recommendations intended to eliminate the deficiencies. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions have been determined as IMM, the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, universities, NGOs and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. A further strategy determined in order to achieve this objective is ensuring that the deficiencies and problems in the conservation legislation regarding the Management Area are eliminated and if necessary, proposals regarding the legislation are developed. The first determined action regarding this strategy is to develop proposals in order to include the participation subject in the conservation legislation. The institutions responsible for carrying out this action have been determined as IMM, the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Fatih Municipality, related Conservation Boards, the Renewal Board, universities, NGOs and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The second action developed regarding this strategy is to propose necessary legal 143

158 arrangements for establishing a new neighbourhood management model (centred on conservation and improvement of neighbourhood) based on the cooperation of the related institutions and establishments. The institutions responsible for carrying out this action have been determined as IMM, the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Governorship of Istanbul, Fatih Municipality, trade associations, NGOs and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The final action developed with regards to this strategy is to develop proposals for the necessary legal arrangements in order to ensure that the cultural heritage is perceived and embraced by the inhabitants. The institutions responsible for carrying out this action have been determined as IMM, the Site Management Directorate, the Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate and the Provincial Directorate of National Education. 144

159 ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER2011 I. MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATION PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION Related and authorised institutions within the boundaries of the Site Management Plan Area producing similar projects on the same subjects within their areas of duties and authorities Lack of coordination between the authorised institutions in the Site Management Plan Area Lack of comprehension regarding the meaning and the importance of the Site Management Plan IH1. Providing coordination between the institutions authorised in the Site in order to implement the Site Management Plan successfully IH1S1. Ensuring that the conflicts, similarities, differences, inconsistencies and deficiencies in the duties of the authorised institutions within the boundaries of the Site Management Plan are eliminated IH1S2. Ensuring that the Site Management Plan is understood and embraced equally by all related institutions and that the related institutions and establishments develop decisions in the given subjects in unison IH1S3. Developing monitoring mechanisms in the implementation process of the Site Management Plan IH1S4. Providing an efficient information system to be used by related institutions and establishments IH1S1E1. To determine the conflicts, similarities, differences, inconsistencies and deficiencies in the authorities, responsibilities and duties of the related and authorised institutions within the boundaries of the Site Management Plan IH1S1E2. To set forth the authorities, responsibilities and duties of the related and authorised institutions within the boundaries of the Site Management Plan IH1S2E1.To arrange continuous, regular and scheduled meetings in order to gather the related institutions and establishments IH1S2E2.To establish systems to pursue the implementation of the Site Management Plan decisions in every institution IH1S2E3. To develop programs and projects in order to establish the culture of producing mutual projects within these institutions IH1S3E1. To ensure that the Coordination and Supervision Board of the Site Management Directorate works orderly and efficiently within the Site Management Plan Area IH1S3E2. to establish monitoring mechanisms IH1S4E1. To standardise, digitalise and complete current inventory studies regarding the Historic Peninsula IH1S4E2. To establish a digital data base and monitoring system in relation to the Site Management Plan Area and to provide access for the stakeholders RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS IMM, Site Management Directorate IMM, Site Management Directorate Site Management Directorate IMM, Site Management Directorate OTHER INSTITUTIONS The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Governorship of Istanbul, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, Fatih Municipality, Eyup Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality, Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKI) and the Privatisation Administration IMM 1st District Directorate of Foundations, Fatih Municipality, Eyup Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality, Conservation Boards, the Renewal Board and the Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate 145

160 ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN OCTOBER2011 IH2S1. Ensuring that the conflicts, problems (similarities, differences, inconsistencies, deficiencies) between the legislations which bind all related institutions and establishments in the Management Area are eliminated IH2S1E1. To scrutinise the entire legislation and to determine its problems, conflicts and deficiencies, to make legislative proposals and recommendations intended to eliminate the deficiencies IMM, Site Management Directorate The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, universities, NGOs and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey Lack of harmony between the legislations of the related and authorised institutions in the Site IH2. Providing coordination between the legislations which bind all related institutions and establishments in the Management Area IH2S2. Ensuring that the deficiencies and problems in the conservation legislation regarding the Management Area are eliminated and if necessary, proposals regarding the legislation are developed IH2S2E1. To develop proposals in order to include the participation subject in the conservation legislation IH2S2E2. To propose necessary legal arrangements for establishing a new neighbourhood management model (centred on conservation and improvement of neighbourhood) based on the cooperation of the related institutions and establishments IH2S2E3. To develop proposals for the necessary legal arrangements in order to ensure that the cultural heritage is perceived and embraced by the inhabitants. IMM, Site Management Directorate IMM, Site Management Directorate The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Fatih Municipality, Conservation Boards, the Renewal Board, universities, NGOs and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey The Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Governorship of Istanbul, Fatih Municipality, Trade Associations, NGOs and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey IMM, Site Management Directorate The Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, the Provincial Directorate of National Education 146

161 Conservation, Planning and Quality of Life This heading covers objectives, strategies and actions developed in respect of the problems determined in the Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Conservation, Planning and the Quality of Life". The proposed institutions or establishments to perform these actions are also discussed under this heading. This section is made up of three sub-headings namely, Planning- Conservation, Conservation-Restoration and The Quality of Life. The problems that are covered under the heading of Planning-Conservation are: The fact that there is more than one institution with the authority to create plans and projects in the Site, the lack of project integrity and implementations being performed independent from each other Inconsistency between land use planning, transportation planning and tourism projects The presence of the functions which do not conform with the conservation of the identity and the cultural properties of the Site, the lack of a sustainable social and economical conservation and improvement approach in sync with conservation of cultural properties Lack of importance given to keeping the cultural properties alive and for improving sociocultural characteristics within the Site The fact that during the planning and project design studies, insufficient attention is paid to the conservation of the archeological assets. The problems highlighted out under the heading of Conservation-Restoration are: Inability to reach the expected quality in the conservation and restoration implementations The fact that tenders for the restoration projects are carried out without making any research or the specifying of standards beforehand Insufficiencies and problems faced during the tender stage of the restoration projects such as establishing, using and implementation of resources Scientific and technical mistakes carried out during restoration works Lack of financial resources for the effective conservation of all the cultural properties in the Site and ineffective use of existing resources Lack of effective policies or implementations for the conservation of the traditional hand crafts or the small-scaled manufacturing tradition in the Historic Peninsula The fact that a clear definition of intangible cultural heritage was not given according to UNESCO convention. Thus materials to be classified cannot be determined Lack of an inventory of intangible heritage The fact that existing studies could not be collated within one main centre (such as information-document centre, library, Internet medium etc.) Lack of an approach that will specify how to protect intangible cultural heritage and how to exhibit it. 147

162 The problems highlighted under the heading of Quality of Life are: Insufficiency in meeting vital needs of the inhabitants living within the boundaries of the Site, lack of conservation/use balance The presence of the environmental problems in the Site. Objective IIH1: Providing coordination between the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan and other related planning and project operations and establishing integrity in plans Here, the problems determined are the failure to ensure integrity in the plan due to the existence of more than one institution with the authority to make plans and project designs in the Historic Peninsula; multiple implementations carried out independent of each other and the inconsistency between land use planning, transportation planning and tourism projects. The objective to resolve these problems is providing coordination between the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan and other related planning and project operations and establishing integrity in plans. The strategy to reach this objective is ensuring that the planning and project processes are participated by the related institutions and carried out in a transparent form. The actions that are determined regarding this strategy are to arrange periodic work meetings in order to discuss the institutional strategies and policies regarding conservation and planning of the institutions and establishments responsible for planning and implementation in the Historic Peninsula; to share information relating to planning activities, to report the periodic meetings to be arranged between the institutions and establishments responsible for planning and implementation and to share the outcomes with the public through the web page of the Site Management Directorate (or the Site Management Plan); to achieve harmony between the different mosaic of plans available in the Management Area and to provide harmonisation between the objectives, strategies, planning decisions and implementations of the Historic Peninsula Transportation Plan and Conservation Plan. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions have been determined as a commission that will be established within the body of the Site Management Directorate (or the Advisory Board), IMM, Fatih Municipality, related Conservation Boards, the Renewal Board, the Special Provincial Administration and 1st District Directorate of Foundations. Objective IIH2: Protecting the functions which are in conformity with the identity of the Historic Peninsula To address problems relating to the existence of functions which are not in conformity with the identity of the Historic Peninsula and cultural properties within. The solution is determined as protecting the functions which are in conformity with the identity of the Historic Peninsula. The strategy to achieve this objective is determined as evaluating the existing functions in the Historic Peninsula in terms of being in conformity with the Site. Actions determined in relation to this strategy are to provide sustainability of the functions which are determined to conform to the identity of the Site whilst acting to remove of the functions from the Site which do not conform with the identity of the Site. The institutions responsible of carrying out these actions have been determined as the Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality, and Conservation Boards, neighbourhood administrations, trade associations, related NGOs and the universities. 148

163 Objective IIH3: Conserving and improving the cultural properties of the Historic Peninsula in terms of their physical, social and economic aspects In order to address the lack of a sustainable social and economical conservation-improvement approach that is integrated with conservation of cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula together with a lack of attention given to maintaining cultural properties in the Site and to develop sociocultural characteristics, problems relating to conserving and improving the cultural properties of the Historic Peninsula in terms of their physical, social and economic aspects have been identified and related strategies determined. The first strategy determined in order to achieve this objective is encouraging all related institutions and establishments to research, develop resource and produce projects within this stance. The action that has been determined regarding this strategy is to prepare plans and programs which address physical, social and economic structures holistically in the Historic Peninsula. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions have been determined as the Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality and Conservation Boards, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the Governorship of Istanbul. The second strategy to achieve this objective has been specified as performing planning and project designing works and implementations in all scales by conserving all values of the cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula and in accordance with the social and cultural image of the Historic Peninsula. The first action determined in connection with this strategy is to have the Impact Assessment Process put into effect within the framework (see Appendix-15) accepted by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to ensure that all grand-scale plans and projects, which have been or will be prepared in relation to the Historic Peninsula and will affect the entire Area, do not include any decisions that would go against the sustainable conservation of the cultural properties, archeological values, historical fabric and silhouette of the area. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions have been determined as IMM Directorate of Planning, the Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, the Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality, universities and trade associations. The second action is to review and update the current Urban Design Guides in accordance with implementations, related studies, researches and international conservation principles and to ensure that the guides are used in the projects to be performed in the Historic Peninsula. The institutions responsible for carrying out the actions have been determined as IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, the Directorate of Urban Design, the Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality, universities and trade associations. Objective IIH4: Adopting approaches which are based on preserving the archeological values in the Site in the planning and project operations To solve the problem pertaining to the lack of attention paid to conserving the archeological assets during planning and project activities that are carried out in the Site, the solution is determined as adopting approaches which are based on preserving the archeological values in the Site in the planning and project operations. The first strategy to achieve this objective is ensuring that the outstanding universal value of the archeological heritage of the Site is understood and embraced by all related communities. The action that has been specified according to this strategy is to prepare a research and implementation guide for conservation and planning of the archeological heritage in the Historic Peninsula and to manage the implementations in accordance with this guide. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the 149

164 Site Management Directorate, Archeological Museums, IMM, Fatih Municipality, universities and trade associations. Objective IIH5: Strengthening and preserving the cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula which include monuments and civil architectural buildings through restoration projects and implementations to be performed in accordance with international criteria To address the problem of failure to reach the quality expected in conservation and restoration projects in the Site, the fact that tenders for the restoration projects are carried out without any preresearch or determining standards, problems arising from the insufficiency in creation and implementation of resources; the solution has been determined as strengthening and preserving the cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula which include monuments and civil architectural buildings through restoration projects and implementations to be performed in accordance with international criteria. The first strategy determined for achieving this objective is ensuring compliance with the conservation, planning and restoration principles which are nationally and internationally recognised in the conservation plan, project and implementations. The actions specified regarding this strategy are to ensure that the original conservation and restoration implementations are performed by conservation and restoration experts and for this purpose, to determine the principles required to be complied with in project and tender specifications, and to ensure that original and concordant materials and techniques are used in all restoration implementations. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, universities, IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic, KUDEB, Conservation Boards and the Chamber of Architects. The second strategy that has been determined in order to achieve said objective is performing efficient training programs in relation to conservation and restoration implementations and expanding these programs. The first action that has been developed related with the strategy in question is to support restoration expert training programs in order to perform original conservation and restoration implementations. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, universities, IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, KUDEB, Conservation Boards and the Chamber of Architects. The second action that has been developed in relation to the strategy in question is to organise periodic international meetings and workshops in order to share technologic developments and experiences in restoration implementations. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, universities, IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, KUDEB, Conservation Boards and the Chamber of Architects. The final action that has been formulated relating with the strategy in question is to execute a capacity building program in order to raise awareness with regards to conservation within the institution. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, universities and all public institutions and establishments. The third strategy that has been specified in order to achieve this objective is ensuring that concordant technology and original and appropriate materials are used in restoration implementations. The first action that has been specified in relation to this strategy is to develop accredited training programs for foremen and qualified workmen to take part in restoration implementations and to give certificates at the end of these programs. The responsible institutions have been determined as the Site Management Directorate, universities, IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, KUDEB, Conservation Boards and the Chamber of Architects. 150

165 The second action that will be implemented in order to carry out the related strategy is to ensure that certified people who participated in training programs actively take part in restoration implementations. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, KUDEB, Conservation Boards and Chamber of Architects. The third action specified in order to carry out the related strategy is to provide efficient supervision of restoration implementations and sustainable maintenance and reparation activities therein. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, KUDEB, IMM, Fatih Municipality, the Site Management Directorate, Conservation Boards and universities. The fourth strategy that has been determined in order to achieve this objective is developing an efficient restoration program which sets forth the prioritised activity areas of the entire Area. The action that has been determined regarding this strategy is to design the projects of prioritised activity areas, monuments and other symbolic elements determined to be conserved and restored urgently and to define the stages of implementations. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM, the Special Provincial Administration, IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites and Conservation Boards. The fifth strategy that has been specified to achieve this objective is pooling the investment programs of related institutions and establishments together and providing resource management according to priorities. The action regarding this strategy is to ensure that determined and phased implementations are included in the strategic plans and investment programs of related institutions and that resource are allocated accordingly in restoration implementations. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM, the Special Provincial Administration, related institutions, IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites and related conservation boards. Objective IIH6: Providing sufficient resource in the implementation process of the Site Management Plan The objective of providing sufficient resource in the implementation process of the Site Management Plan has been established to resolve the problem of lack of financial resources for effective conservation of the entire cultural heritage in the Site and the ineffective use of existing resources. The first strategy to achieve this objective is researching resources in the implementation process of the Site Management Plan, ensuring that management of the provided resources are activated and the resources are used efficiently. The first action that has been determined regarding this strategy is to ensure that the Contribution Fund which is managed by the Special Provincial Administration is used for prioritised activity areas, monuments and other symbolic elements. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality and all public institutions or establishments. Other actions that are determined regarding this strategy are to research new international resources and to ensure that they are transferred to the Historic Peninsula; to develop appropriate finance models for conservation and to improve implementations; and to encourage property owners and the private sector to make conservation and improvement investments and to direct them in utilising their resources efficiently. The responsible institutions for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM, and Fatih Municipality as well as the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the Governorship of Istanbul. 151

166 Objective IIH7: Developing efficient policies and implementations to protect small-scale manufacturing business and handicrafts as traditions To address the problem of inefficient policies and implementations for the conservation of smallscale manufacturing business and handicrafts as traditions in the Historic Peninsula; the solution has been determined as developing efficient policies and implementations to protect small-scale manufacturing business and handicrafts as traditions. The first strategy that has been determined in order to achieve this objective is encouraging all related institutions and establishments to research, develop resources and produce projects within this stance. The actions that are determined regarding this strategy are to revive the production techniques which were lost over time to their own manner of production and in their original locations; to make traditional manufacturing competitive and increase their value. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM, trade associations, associations, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Fatih Municipality and the universities. Objective IIH8: Determining and conserving the intangible cultural heritage and passing it on to future generations The objective of determining and conserving the intangible cultural heritage and passing it on to future generations has been developed to address the following problems: Clear definition of intangible cultural heritage was not given according to UNESCO convention, thus materials that needed to be classified cannot be determined and an inventory of the cultural heritage was not taken; existing works cannot be gathered under a specific centre (information document centrelibrary-internet medium etc.) and an approach regarding how to conserve and exhibit the intangible cultural heritage was not determined. The first strategy that has been developed in order to achieve this objective is defining and classifying the intangible cultural heritage unique to Historic Peninsula in accordance with UNESCO convention. The first action related with this strategy is to establish a documentation centre in which activities regarding intangible cultural heritage can be gathered and where written and verbal information can be classified. The second strategy that has been determined for achieving the objective is performing an inventory work. The action regarding this strategy is to take an inventory of intangible cultural heritage, update it regularly and to make intangible cultural heritage maps. The third strategy that has been identified for achieving this objective is conserving the intangible cultural heritage and establishing exhibition areas. Actions regarding this strategy are to protect natural areas and memorable places required to express the intangible cultural heritage and to deliver exhibitions in these areas through use of signs, audio-visual implementations, presentations etc. and to establish a museum area in order to exhibit the intangible cultural heritage. The fourth strategy that is specified for achieving this objective is passing the intangible cultural heritage on to future generations. The actions regarding this strategy are to organise educational and informational programs for the community in general and the youth in particular in order to raise sensitivity and awareness, to organise capacity building activities especially in areas such as management and scientific research in order to conserve intangible cultural heritage; and to conserve and pass on the intangible cultural heritage through international cooperation, exchange of information and experience through joint ventures. 152

167 The institutions responsible for carrying out the aforementioned actions are the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, universities, related NGOs and Research Centres. Objective IIH9: Upholding the balance between conservation/preservation/living during the services offered in planning and conservation activities in the area The objective to solve the problem of not being able to meet vital needs of the inhabitants if the Site and the imbalance between conservation/use has been developed as upholding the balance between conservation/preservation/living during the services offered in planning and conservation activities in the area. The first strategy determined to be able to achieve this objective is meeting the needs and expectations of the inhabitants in the Site in accordance with national and international criteria and increasing the efficiency of service delivery. The first action linked to this strategy is to research sufficiency of current urban services and equipments in the Site. The institutions responsible for carrying out this action will be the Site Management Directorate, the Governorship of Istanbul, IMM, Fatih Municipality and universities, along with IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, various boards, neighbourhood administrations, trade associations and related NGOs. The second action linked to the above strategy is to make researches with regards to the balance of conservation and socio-economic and vital needs, and to ensure that any missing equipment is replaced. Institutions responsible for carrying out this action are the Site Management Directorate, the Governorship of Istanbul, IMM, Fatih Municipality and universities together with IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, various boards, neighbourhood administrations, trade associations and related NGOs. The final action linked to the aforementioned strategy has been determined to increase urban landscape quality of the Site by revitalising its traditional green fabric, parks and gardens. The responsible institutions for carrying out this action are the Site Management Directorate, IMM Directorate of Parks and Gardens and the Fatih Municipality together with the neighbourhood administrations, trade associations, universities and related NGOs. The second strategy established to achieve the above objective is improving the quality of life of elders, people with disabilities and children. The action determined in connection with the second strategy is to develop problem-focused, sustainable projects in order to improve the quality of life of the elders, people with disabilities and children and to monitor their implementations. Institutions responsible for the implementation of this project are the Site Management Directorate, IMM, the Directorate of Parks and Gardens and Fatih Municipality along with the neighbourhood administrations, trade associations, universities and related NGOs. Objective IIH10: Taking control of the factors causing environmental problems A further problem determined within the context of Quality of Life in the area is that of environmental problems and the strategy determined in relation to this problem is to bring the factors causing environmental problems under control. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is providing environment management. The actions determined in association with this strategy is to monitor provision of environment cleaning, to establish a unit in order to monitor environment management and to monitor air and noise pollution prevention programs and implementations. The institutions responsible for implementing these actions are the Site Management Directorate, the Governorship of Istanbul, IMM and Fatih Municipality together with the neighbourhood administrations, trade associations, universities and related NGOs. 153

168 II. CONSERVATION, PLANNING, LIFE QUALITY PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION PLANNING-CONSERVATION Due to the fact that there is more than one institution authorised to make plans and develop projects regarding the Historic Peninsula; - Lack of plan unity and implementations being carried out independent of each other - Incompatibility of the land utilisation plans, transportation plans and tourism projects Existence of the functions that are not in conformity with the conservation of the identity and cultural properties of the Historic Peninsula IIH1. Providing coordination between the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan and other related planning and project operations and establishing integrity in plans IIH2. Protecting the functions which are in conformity with the identity of the Historic Peninsula IIH1S1. Ensuring that the planning and project processes are participated in by the related institutions and carried out in a transparent form IIH2S1. Evaluating the existing functions in the Historic Peninsula in terms of being in conformity with the Site IIH1S1E1. To arrange periodic work meetings in order to discuss the institutional strategies and policies regarding conservation and planning of the institutions and establishments responsible for planning and implementation in the Historic Peninsula IIH1S1E2. To report the periodic meetings to be arranged between the institutions and establishments responsible for planning and implementation and to share outcomes with the public through the web page of the Site Management Directorate (or Management Plan) IIH1S1E3. To achieve harmony between the different mosaic of plans available in the Management Area IIH1S1E4. To provide harmonisation between the objectives, strategies, planning decisions and implementations of the Historic Peninsula Transportation Plan and Conservation Plan IIH2S1E1.To research existing functions in the Site that are suggested and discussed for decentralisation and to evaluate their compatibility with the sustainable conservation of the Site IIH2S1E2. To provide sustainability for the functions determined to conform with the identity of the Site IIH2S1E3. To provide the removal of the functions from the Site which are determined not to conform with the identity of the Site RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS Site Management Directorate, (or Advisory Board), commission to be established within this scope Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality, Boards of Conservation OTHER INSTITUTIONS Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Investments and Establishments, IMM, Fatih Municipality, Boards of Conservation / the Renewal Board, the Special Provincial Administration, 1st District Directorate of Foundations Neighbourhood administrations, trade associations, related NGOs, universities, Ministry of Culture and Tourism s Boards of Conservation 154

169 Lack of a sustainable social and economic conservation and improvement approach integrated with the conservation of the cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula Lack of attention regarding the survival and development of socioeconomic characteristics of the cultural properties available in the area Failure to pay the necessary attention to the conservation of archeological assets in the planning and project preparation work executed in the Historic Peninsula IIH3. Conserving and improving the cultural properties of the Historic Peninsula in terms of their physical, social and economic aspects IIH4. Adopting approaches which are based on preserving the archeological values in the Site in the planning and project operations IIH3S1. Encouraging all related institutions and establishments to research, develop resources and produce projects within this stance IIH3S2. Performing planning and project designing works and implementations in all scales by conserving all values of the cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula and in accordance with the social and cultural image of the Historic Peninsula IIH4S1. Ensuring that the outstanding universal value of the archeological heritage of the Site is understood and embraced by all related communities IIH3S1E1. To prepare plans and programs which address physical, social and economic structures together in the Historic Peninsula IIH3S2E1. To have the impact assessment process put into effect within the framework accepted by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to ensure that all grand-scale plans and projects, which have been or will be prepared in relation to the Historic Peninsula and will affect the entire Site, do not include any decisions that would be against the sustainable conservation of the cultural properties, archeological values, historical fabric and silhouette of the site IIH3S2E2. To review and update the current Urban Design Guides in accordance with implementations, related studies, researches and international conservation principles and to ensure that this Guide is used in the projects to be performed in the Historic Peninsula IIH4S1E1. To prepare a research and implementation guide for conservation and planning of the archeological heritage in the Historic Peninsula and to manage the implementations in accordance with this guide Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality, Boards of Conservation IMM Directorate of Planning, IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, the Directorate of Urban Design Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Site Management Directorate, Ministry of Culture and Tourism s Archeological Museums The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Ministry of Culture and Tourism s Boards of Conservation, the Governorship of Istanbul Ministry of Culture and Tourism s Boards of Conservation, the Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality, universities, Trade Associations Ministry of Culture and Tourism s Boards of Conservation, the Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality, universities, Trade Associations IMM, Fatih Municipality, universities, Trade Associations 155

170 PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION CONSERVATION- RESTORATION RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS OTHER INSTITUTIONS Failure to achieve the expected quality in conservation and restoration studies IIH5S1. Ensuring compliance with the conservation, planning and restoration principles which are nationally and internationally recognised in the conservation plan, project and implementations IIH5S1E1. To ensure that the original conservation and restoration implementations are performed by conservation and restoration experts and for this purpose, to determine the principles required to be complied with in project and tender specifications IIH5S1E2. To ensure that original and concordant materials and techniques are used in all restoration implementations Site Management Directorate, universities IMM Directorate of Historic Environment Conservation, KUDEB, Boards, Chamber of Architects Tendering of restoration jobs without preliminary research and determination of applicable standards Deficiencies and conflicts in tendering restoration projects, creation and implementation of resources Errors in restoration implementations IIH5. Strengthening and preserving the cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula which include monuments and civil architectural buildings through restoration projects and implementations to be performed in accordance with international criteria IIH5S2. Performing efficient training programs in relation to conservation and restoration implementations and expanding these programs IIH5S2E1. To support restoration expert training programs in order to perform original conservation and restoration implementations IIH5S2E2. To organise periodic international meetings and workshops in order to share technologic developments and experiences in restoration implementations Site Management Directorate, universities Site Management Directorate, universities IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, KUDEB, Boards, Chamber of Architects IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, KUDEB, Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums, Chamber of Architects IIH5S2E3. To execute a capacity building program in order to raise awareness regarding conservation within the institution Site Management Directorate, universities All public institutions and establishments 156

171 IIH5S3. Ensuring that concordant technology and original and appropriate materials are used in restoration implementations IIH5S3E1. To develop accredited training programs for foremen and qualified workmen to take part in restoration implementations and to give certificates at the end of these programs IIH5S3E2. To ensure that certified people who participated in the training program take part in restoration implementations IIH5S3E3. To provide efficient supervision of restoration implementations and sustainable maintenance and reparation activities therein Site Management Directorate, universities Site Management Directorate IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, KUDEB IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, KUDEB, Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums, Chamber of Architects IMM/ Fatih Municipality/ Site Management Directorate/ Boards/Universities IIH5S4. Developing an efficient restoration program which sets forth the prioritised activity areas of the entire Area IIH5S4E1. To design the projects of prioritised activity areas, monuments and other symbolic elements determined to be conserved and restored urgently and to define the stages of implementations Site Management Directorate, IMM, the Special Provincial Administration The Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums, IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites IIH5S5. Pooling the investment programs of related institutions and establishments together and providing resource management according to priorities IIH5S5E1. To ensure that determined and staged implementations are included in the strategic plans and investment programs of related institutions and that resources are allocated for use in restoration implementations Site Management Directorate, IMM, the Special Provincial Administration, related Institutions The Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums, IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites 157

172 Inability to create financial resources in order to conserve all cultural properties of the Historic Peninsula and inability to utilise created resources efficiently IIH6. Providing sufficient resource in the implementation process of the Site Management Plan IIH6S1. Researching resource in the implementation process of the Site Management Plan, ensuring that management of the provided resources are activated and the resources are used efficiently IIH6S1E1. To ensure that the Contribution Fund which is managed by the Special Provincial Administration is used for prioritised activity areas, monuments and other symbolic elements IIH6S1E2. To research new international resources and to ensure that they are transferred to the Historic Peninsula IIH6S1E3. To develop appropriate finance models for conservation and improvement implementations IIH6S1E4. To encourage property owners and private sector to make conservation and improvement investments and to direct them to utilise their resources efficiently Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality, the Special Provincial Administration Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality, the Special Provincial Administration All public institutions and establishments The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Governorship of Istanbul Lack of efficient policy and implementations to protect small- scale manufacturing tradition and traditional handicrafts in the Site IIH7. Developing efficient policies and implementations to protect small-scale manufacturing business and handicrafts as traditions IIH7S1. Encouraging all related institutions and establishments to research, develop resources and produce projects within this stance IIH7S1E1. To revive the production techniques which were lost over time with their own manner of production and in their original locations IIH7S1E2. To make traditional manufacturing s competitive and increase their value Site Management Directorate, IMM, Trade chambers and associations The Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Research and Education, Fatih Municipality, universities 158

173 IIH8S1. Defining and classifying the intangible cultural heritage unique to the Historic Peninsula in accordance with UNESCO convention IIH8S1E1. To establish a documentation centre in which activities regarding intangible cultural heritage can be gathered and written and verbal information can be classified Clear definition of intangible cultural heritage was not given according to UNESCO convention. Thus materials to be classified cannot be determined Inability to take an inventory of intangible cultural heritage Inability to bring the current studies under a certain central roof (data documentation centrelibrary-internet medium, etc.) Failure to determine an approach concerning how to conserve and exhibit the intangible cultural heritage IIH8. Determining and conserving the intangible cultural heritage and passing it on to future generations IIH8S2. Performing an inventory work IIH8S3. Conserving the intangible cultural heritage and establishing exhibition areas IIH8S4. Passing the intangible cultural heritage on to future generations IIH8S2E1. To take an inventory of intangible cultural heritage, update it regularly and to make intangible cultural heritage maps IIH8S3E1. To protect natural areas and memorable places required to express the intangible cultural heritage and to make exhibitions in these areas through use of signs, audio-visual implementations, presentations etc. IIH8S3E2. To establish a museum area in order to exhibit intangible cultural heritage IIH8S4E1. To organise educational and informational programs for the community in general and the youth in particular in order to raise sensitivity and awareness IIH8S4E2. To organise capacity building activities especially in areas such as management and scientific research in order to conserve intangible cultural heritage The Ministry of Culture and Tourism The Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Research and Education, the Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, Universities, Related NGOs and Research Centres IIH8S4E3. To conserve and pass on the intangible cultural heritage through international cooperation; exchange of information and experience through joint ventures 159

174 PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION QUALITY OF LIFE Insufficient meeting of the vital requirements of the inhabitants in the Historic Peninsula, failure to establish a conservation/use balance IIH9. Upholding the balance between conservation/preservation/liv ing during the services offered in planning and conservation activities in the area IIH9S1. Meeting the needs and expectations of the inhabitants in the Site in accordance with national and international criteria and increasing the efficiency of service delivery IIH9S2. Improving the quality of life of elders, people with disabilities and children IIH9S1E1. To research sufficiency of current urban services and equipments in the Site IIH9S1E2. To make researches with regards to the balance of conservation and socio-economic and vital needs, to ensure that any missing equipment is replaced IIH9S1E3. To increase urban landscape quality of the Site by revitalising its traditional green fabric, parks and gardens IIH9S2E1. To develop problem-focused, sustainable projects in order to improve the quality of life of the elders, people with disabilities and children and to monitor their implementations RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS Site Management Directorate, IMM, Governorship of Istanbul, Fatih Municipality, universities Site Management Directorate, IMM, the Directorate of Parks and Gardens, Fatih Municipality OTHER INSTITUTIONS IMM Directorate of Conservation of Historic Sites, Boards, Neighbourhood administrations, Trade associations, related NGOs Neighbourhood administrations, Trade associations, related NGOs, universities Presence of environment related problems IIH10. Taking control of the factors causing environmental problems IIH10S1. Providing environment management (providing efficient presentation of environment management.) IIH10S1E1. To monitor provision of environment cleaning IIH10S1E2. To establish a unit in order to monitor environment management IIH10S1E3. To monitor air and noise pollution prevention programs and implementations Site Management Directorate, Governorship of Istanbul, IMM, Fatih Municipality Neighbourhood administrations, Trade associations, related NGOs, universities 160

175 Accessibility This heading covers objectives, strategies and actions developed in respect of the problems determined in the Site Management Plan Area under the heading of "Accessibility" as well as the institutions or establishments who will perform these actions. The problems that this heading attempts to solve are as follows: Lack of research regarding the impacts of the transportation investments of the Site at the project design stage Historic Peninsula being used as a transit area and transfer centre The fact that transportation by wheeled vehicles are the preferred mode of transport in the Historic Peninsula The fact that the rail systems are not developed enough for urban transportation The fact that sea transport not the preferred mode of transport for inner-city transportation The fact that different modes of transport in the Site are not being integrated with each other Insufficient pedestrian transportation arrangements Absence of bicycle lanes Insufficient parking lots in the Historic Peninsula and using the roads as parking lots and Limited accessibility for disadvantageous groups and people with disabilities in the Site. The Historic Peninsula Traffic Management Plan documents prepared by Department of Transportation in 2011 together with the aforementioned problems were used for the determination of objectives, strategies and actions. Objective IIIH1: Ensuring that the cultural properties of the Historic Peninsula are considered in transportation planning The main objective has been determined as ensuring that the cultural properties of the Historic Peninsula are considered in transportation planning in order to address the problem that transportation by wheeled vehicles is the preferred mode of transport in the Historic Peninsula - which is the first determined problem under the heading of Accessibility in the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan. The strategy to achieve this objective has been determined as ensuring that the experts and decision makers involved in the transportation planning are informed about cultural heritage. The action determined in respect of this strategy is to inform experts, decision makers and technical crews in matters of cultural heritage and to prepare training programs accordingly. The responsible institutions for carrying out this action have been determined as IMM, the Site Management Directorate, Trade Associations, universities, the Ministry of Transportation, Maritime Affairs and Communications, TCDD, IETT and IDO. 161

176 Objective IIIH2: Reducing the pressure of the transportation investments on the Historic Peninsula and integrating different modes of transport Further problems identified under the heading of Accessibility in the Site Management Plan Area are the fact that the Historic Peninsula is being used as a transit area and transfer centre, transportation by wheeled vehicles is the preferred mode of transport in the site, underdevelopment of rail systems, lack of priority given to sea transportation and lack of integration of various transportation systems in the area. The solution has been determined as reducing the pressure of the transportation investments on the Historic Peninsula and integrating different modes of transport. The strategy to achieve this objective has been determined as establishing a mass transit-based transportation system in the Historic Peninsula which is mainly railway and seaway-oriented, highcapacity and high-quality and integrates different modes of transport in a way to feed and complement each other. The actions associated with this strategy are to provide controlled entrance and exits of wheeled vehicles in and out of the Historic Peninsula and to arrange the geometries of road intersections; to develop the sea transport capacity and to provide extensive use of the same; to review and accordingly arrange the routes of IETT mass transit system and to move the central station points out of the Historic Peninsula and to use specially designed public vehicles in the Site. The responsible institutions for carrying out these actions have been determined as IMM, the Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality, the Ministry of Transportation, Maritime Affairs and Communications, TCDD, IETT, IDO and Traffic Branch Directorate. Objective IIIH3: Increasing possibilities of safe pedestrian and bicycle circulation in the Site Another problem identified under the heading of Accessibility in the Site Management Plan Area is the insufficiency of pedestrian transportation arrangements and lack of bicycle lanes. The solution has been determined as increasing possibilities of safe pedestrian and bicycle circulation in the Site. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is ensuring that the pedestrian circulation system and pedestrian areas are integrated with rail systems, highway mass transit system, sea transport and parking lots. The action determined in relation to this strategy is to limit vehicle traffic in the Site and to organise pedestrian and bicycle transportation routes. The responsible institutions for carrying out this action have been determined as IMM, the Site Management Directorate and Fatih Municipality. Objective IIIH4: Implementing parking lot policy in the management of vehicle parking in the Site A further problem identified under the heading of Accessibility in the Site Management Plan Area is the insufficient parking lots in the Historic Peninsula and the subsequent use of the roads as parking lots. The solution has been determined as increasing the number of parking lots. The strategy determined to achieve this objective has been determined as analysing the parking lots according to limitations imposed on the transportation system in the Historic Peninsula. The actions determined in regards to this strategy are to develop a park and ride system in order to reduce transportation by automobiles and taxis in central zones; to implement short-term parking for the vehicles moving in the inner wall traffic; to encourage private automobile drivers to use the parking lots in Fatih District which are underused during the daytime; to assign pm to 6.00 am as the entry-exit hours for commercial load vehicles to the cultural heritage areas and to ensure that warehouses are kept open 162

177 and security services in the zone are increased within those hours. The responsible institutions for carrying out these actions have been determined as IMM, the Site Management Directorate and Fatih Municipality. Objective IIIH5: Using seaway transportation more effectively to access Surici In order to address a further problem under the heading of Accessibility in the Site Management Plan Area of ineffective access to the Historic Peninsula from the sea, the solution has been determined as using seaway transportation more effectively to access Surici. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is implementing new solutions in seaway transportation and its management. The actions determined related to this strategy are to organise piers that are supported by distributing and collecting land public transportation systems, to ensure active management of parking opportunities at piers for private cars and to implement frequent and punctual transportation methods that are coordinated with time scheduled public transportation systems. The responsible institutions for carrying out these actions have been determined as IMM and IDO. Objective IIIH6: Providing accessibility for disadvantageous groups The final problem identified under the heading of Accessibility in the Site Management Plan Area pertains to limited access of disadvantageous and disabled groups to the Site. The solution has been determined as providing accessibility for disadvantageous groups. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is taking the needs of disadvantageous groups into consideration in arrangements of pedestrian and vehicle transportation routes and signalling systems. The action determined in relation to this strategy is to develop standards and make arrangements in order to meet the needs of disadvantageous groups in arrangements of pedestrian and vehicle transportation routes, transportation vehicles and signalling systems. The institutions responsible for carrying out this action are IMM and the Traffic Branch Directorate. 163

178 III. ACCESSIBILITY PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION Lack of research on the impacts of transportation investments on cultural heritage during the project design stage Using the Historic Peninsula as a transit area and transfer centre The fact that transportation by wheeled vehicles are the preferred mode of transport in the Historic Peninsula The fact that the rail systems are not developed enough Lack of prioritisation of sea transportation, Absence of integration of different modes of transportation in the Site. Insufficient pedestrian transportation arrangements Absence of bicycle lanes IIIH1. Ensuring that the cultural properties of the Historic Peninsula are considered in transportation planning IIIH2. Reducing the pressure of the transportation investments on the Historic Peninsula and integrating different modes of transport IIIH3. Increasing possibilities of safe pedestrian and bicycle circulation in the Site IIIH1S1. Ensuring that the experts and decision makers involved in the transportation planning are informed about cultural heritage IIIH2S1. Establishing a mass transitbased transportation system in the Historic Peninsula which is mainly railway and seaway-oriented, high-capacity and high-quality and integrates different modes of transport in a way to feed and complement each other IIIH3S1. Ensuring that pedestrian circulation system and pedestrian areas are integrated with rail systems, highway mass transit system, sea transport and parking lots IIIH1S1E1.Informing the experts, decision makers and technical crews in matters of cultural heritage and prepare training programs accordingly IIIH2S1E1. To provide controlled entrance and exits of wheeled vehicles in and out of the Historic Peninsula and to arrange the geometries of road intersections IIIH2S1E2. To ensure the development of the rail system network in the Historic Peninsula with a new axes IIIH2S1E3. To develop the sea transport capacity and to provide extensive use of the same IIIH2S1E4. To review and accordingly arrange the routes of IETT mass transit system and to move the central station points out of the Historic Peninsula IIIH2S1E5. To use specially designed public vehicles in the Site IIIH2S1E6. To execute the implementations of a One-Ticket System and Smart Ticket-Automation System for integration with the metropolitan transportation system IIIH3S1E1. To limit vehicle traffic in the Site and to organise pedestrian and bicycle transportation routes RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS IMM, Site Management Directorate, Trade Associations, universities IMM, Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality IMM, Fatih Municipality OTHER INSTITUTIONS The Ministry of Transportation, Maritime Affairs and Communications, TCDD, IETT, IDO The Ministry of Transportation, Maritime Affairs and Communications, TCDD, IETT, IDO, Traffic Branch Directorate The Traffic Branch Directorate 164

179 IIIH4S1E1. To develop a park and ride system in order to reduce transportation by automobiles and taxis in central zones Insufficient parking lots in the Historic Peninsula and using the roads as parking lots IIIH4. Implementing parking lot policy in the management of vehicle parking in the Site IIIH4S1. Analysing the parking lots according to limitations imposed on the transportation system in the Historic Peninsula IIIH4S1E2. To implement short-term parking for the vehicles moving in the inner wall traffic IIIH4S1E3. To encourage private automobile drivers to use the parking lots in Fatih District which are underused during the daytime IMM, Fatih Municipality The Traffic Branch Directorate IIIH4S1E4. To assign 10 pm to 6 am as entry-exit hours of commercial load vehicles to the cultural heritage areas and to ensure that warehouses are kept open and security services in the zone are increased within those hours IIIH5S1E1.Arranging terminals whose access is supported with distributing and collecting land public transportation systems Lack of efficiency of seaway transportation in the Historic Peninsula IIIH5.Using seaway transportation more effectively to access Surici IIIH5S1.Benefiting from new solutions in seaway transportation and its management IIIH5S1E2.Enabling the efficient management of parking opportunities for private automobile owners in the terminals IIIH5S1E3.Putting frequent and punctual transportation implementations into practice coordinated with time scheduled public transportation systems IMM IDO Limited accessibility for disadvantaged groups and people with disabilities in the Site IIIH6. Providing accessibility for disadvantageous groups IIIH6S1. Taking the needs of disadvantaged groups into consideration in arrangements of pedestrian and vehicle transportation routes and signalling systems IIIH6S1E1. To develop standards and make arrangements in order to meet the needs of disadvantaged groups in arrangements of pedestrian and vehicle transportation routes, transportation vehicles and signalling systems IMM The Traffic Branch Directorate 165

180 Perception of Importance and Value of the Site The heading of "Perception of Importance and Value of the Site" was discussed under "Visual Integrity" and "Strengthening the Image" sub-headings in the Site Management Plan Area. The objectives, strategies and actions developed in respect of the problems determined and the institutions or establishments who will carry out these actions were defined. The problems discussed under the heading of Visual Integrity are as follows: The fact that visitors have difficulty in perceiving and are not fully aware of the heritage areas and important focal points due to reasons such as occasional high-density, unqualified, unoccupied and unsupervised buildings, neglected environment conditions and insufficient lighting implementations in the Site Under the heading of Strengthening the Image, the following problem is outlined: An absence of sufficient written and visual, easily understandable and accessible documents to ensure that the Historic Peninsula is adequately perceived by visitors and users. Objective IVH1: Redeveloping the visual integrity of the Historic Peninsula, preserving, improving and promoting its historic character The problems determined in the Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Visual Integrity" are the fact that visitors have difficulty in perceiving and are not fully aware of the heritage areas and important focal points. This is due to reasons such as occasional high-density, unqualified, unoccupied and unsupervised buildings, neglected environment conditions and insufficient lighting implementations in the Site. The objective determined with the purpose of solving the problems is redeveloping the visual integrity of the Historic Peninsula and preserving, improving and promoting its historic character. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is removing all elements which weaken the perception of importance and value of the Historic Peninsula. The action determined in relation to this strategy is to scrutinise the current situation and decisions of the conservation plan, to remove the high-density, unqualified buildings which weaken the perception of the Historic Peninsula and to make the unoccupied buildings usable. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are IMM, the Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality, Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, the Special Provincial Administration, 1st District Directorate of Foundations and universities. The second strategy determined to achieve this objective is increasing the urban environmental quality in the Historic Peninsula, and the determined related actions are to supervise the built-on facades, notice boards, landscape designs, urban furniture and lighting armatures which have a negative effect on the perception of the historic environment and cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula and to support more favourable implementations. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are IMM, the Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality, Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, the Special Provincial Administration, 1st District Directorate of Foundations and universities. 166

181 The third strategy determined to achieve the same objective is ensuring that the landmarks and focal points in the Site become more perceptible by the visitors and users and its related action is to develop a design guide for designing new buildings, facades, notice boards, the landscape, urban furniture, lighting armatures etc. in the Historic Peninsula. The responsible institutions for carrying out these actions are IMM, the Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality, Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, the Special Provincial Administration, 1st District Directorate of Foundations and universities. Objective IVH2: Recognising, conserving and developing the authenticity, image, character, distinctiveness and aesthetic quality of the Site The problem determined in the Site Management Plan Area under the heading of "Strengthening the Image" relates to the absence of sufficient written and visual, easily understandable and accessible documents to ensure that the Historic Peninsula is adequately perceived by visitors and users. Within this concept, the objective is recognising, conserving and developing the authenticity, image, character, distinctiveness and aesthetic quality of the Site. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is strengthening and increasing the recognisability of the image of the Site at both a national and international scale. The actions determined to reach this strategy are to make and/or encourage researches and studies in order to expose different fabrics and zones, roads, landmarks and focal points and to support the studies performed; to broadcast the results of the researches performed through printed and digital media mediums in order to ensure that the Historic Peninsula is perceived by visitors and users. The responsible institutions for carrying out these actions are IMM, the Site Management Directorate and Fatih Municipality as well as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, promotion agencies and universities. 167

182 IV. PERCEPTION OF THE IMPORTANCE AND VALUE OF THE AREA PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION The fact that visitors have difficulty in perceiving and are not fully aware of the heritage areas and important focal points due to reasons such as occasional high-density, unqualified, unoccupied and unsupervised buildings, neglected environment conditions and insufficient lighting implementations in the Site Absence of written and visual, easily understandable and accessible documents to ensure that the Historic Peninsula is adequately perceived by visitors and users IVH1. VISUAL INTEGRITY Redeveloping the visual integrity of the Historic Peninsula, preserving, improving and promoting its historic character IVH2. STRENGHTENING THE IMAGE Recognizing, conserving and developing the authenticity, image, character, distinctiveness and aesthetic quality of the Site IVH1S1. Removing all elements which weaken the perception of importance and value of the Historic Peninsula IVH1S2. Increasing the urban environmental quality in the Historic Peninsula IVH1S3. Ensuring that the landmarks and focal points in the Site become more perceptible by the visitors and users IVH2S1. Strengthening and increasing the recognisability of the image of the Site at both a national and international scale IVH1S1E1. To scrutinise the current situation and decisions of the conservation plan and to remove the high-density, unqualified buildings which weaken the perception of the Historic Peninsula and to make the unoccupied buildings usable IVH1S2E1. To perform maintenance and reparation on the cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula through an extensive and sustainable program, to design their associated areas IVH1S2E2. To supervise the built-on facades, notice boards, landscape designs, urban furniture and lighting armatures which have a negative effect on the perception of the silhouette of the Historic Peninsula, the genius loci, the historic environment and cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula and to support more favourable implementations IVH1S3E1. To develop a design guide for designing new buildings, facades, notice boards, the landscape, urban furniture, lighting armatures etc. in the Historic Peninsula IVH2S1E1. To make and/or encourage researches and studies in order to expose different fabrics and zones, roads, landmarks and focal points and to support the implementation of the studies performed IVH2S1E2. To broadcast the results of the researches performed through printed and digital media mediums in order to ensure that the Historic Peninsula is perceived by visitors and users RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS IMM, Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality OTHER INSTITUTIONS Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, the Special Provincial Administration, the Directorate of Foundations 1 st Region, universities The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate, Advertising Agencies, universities 168

183 Training, Awareness Raising and Participation The heading of "Training, Awareness Raising and Participation" was discussed under the "Training and Awareness Raising " and "Participation" sub-headings in the Site Management Plan Area. The objectives, strategies and actions developed in respect of the problems determined and the institutions or establishments who will perform these actions were defined. The problems discussed under the heading of Training and Awareness Raising are as follows: Insufficient knowledge of employees in decision-making and implementing institutions regarding natural and cultural heritage and conservation of this heritage Insufficient knowledge of inhabitants and employees of the Historic Peninsula regarding cultural heritage Decrease in the number of traditional construction craftsmen as well as stone and wood craftsmen who can enable the sustainability of cultural properties Weakening of master-apprentice training in traditional manufacturing industries (jewellery, weaving, shoemaking etc.). The problems whose solutions are sought under the heading of Participation are as follows: The fact that efficient and sustainable participation mechanisms in conservation, planning and implementation processes have not been established between stakeholders and are not secured by law Lack of systems in place to measure/evaluate the participation. Objective VH1: Developing knowledge infrastructure of employees of public institutions and inhabitants in the Historic Peninsula regarding natural and cultural heritage The first objective determined for the purpose of solving the insufficient knowledge of employees in decision-making and implementing institutions regarding natural and cultural heritage and conservation of said heritage, (the first problem determined in the Site Management Plan Area under the heading of "Training and Awareness Raising") is developing knowledge infrastructure of employees of public institutions and inhabitants in the Historic Peninsula regarding natural and cultural heritage. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is informing the directors, employees and trainers systematically regarding the cultural heritage. The actions determined in respect of this strategy are to establish a training unit and to prepare information programs in order to inform directors of public institutions, employees and trainers regarding the cultural heritage. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are the Site Management Directorate, the Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, the Provincial Directorate of National Education, IMM, Fatih Municipality, universities and trade associations. Objective VH2: Developing knowledge infrastructure of inhabitants, employees and users in the Historic Peninsula regarding natural and cultural heritage The objective determined with the purpose of solving the insufficient knowledge of inhabitants and employees of the Historic Peninsula regarding cultural heritage, (the second problem determined in 169

184 the Site Management Plan Area under the heading of "Training and Awareness Raising") is developing knowledge infrastructure of inhabitants, employees and users in the Historic Peninsula regarding natural and cultural heritage. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is informing each interest group with regards to cultural heritage and conservation at the level accessible to their respective socio make up (age, education, culture etc.). The actions determined in respect of this strategy are to prepare training programs and to organise promotional trips, essay and photograph competitions in grade schools in order to strengthen the knowledge infrastructure with regards to cultural heritage; to establish training programs for inhabitants in the Site from every age group regarding cultural heritage and its conservation; to support conferences, seminars, museums and exhibitions and to organise promotion trips and to produce and distribute visual and written materials regarding cultural heritage for all age groups. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are the Site Management Directorate and Provincial Culture, the Tourism Directorate, the Provincial Directorate of National Education, Public Training Centres, neighbourhood administrations, Trade Associations and NGOs. Objective VH3: Reviving the traditional manufacturing as an intangible heritage in the Historic Peninsula The final set of problems determined in the Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Training and Awareness Raising" relates to the decrease in the number of traditional construction craftsmen as well as stone and wood craftsmen who can enable the sustainability of cultural properties and weakening of master-apprentice training in traditional manufacturing industries (jewellery, weaving, and shoemaking). The objective under this heading is reviving the traditional manufacturing as an intangible heritage in the Historic Peninsula. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is reviving the traditional construction techniques for maintenance and repair works of cultural properties. The first action determined in relation to this strategy is to train construction craftsmen in traditional arts and crafts and to organise training programs for stone, wood, glass, iron, etc. craftsmen in order to enable the sustainability of cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula. The second strategy determined to achieve this objective is reviving the master-apprentice relationship in traditional manufacturing industry. The second action determined in relation to this strategy is to carry out researches to strengthen the industries in order to enable the sustainability of jewellery, weaving and shoemaking manufacturing in the Historic Peninsula. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are the Site Management Directorate, Chamber of Commerce and Industry, related Trade Associations, IMM, KUDEB, ISMEK and NGOs as well as the Provincial Directorate of National Education, Public Training Centres, neighbourhood administrations and universities. Objective VH4: Providing sustainable and efficient participation of stakeholders to conservation, planning and implementation processes in an equal and transparent way The objective determined with the purpose of solving the fact that efficient and sustainable participation mechanisms in conservation, planning and implementation processes have not been established between stakeholders and are not secured by law (the first problem determined in the Site Management Plan Area under the heading of "Participation") is providing sustainable and efficient participation of stakeholders to conservation, planning and implementation processes in an equal and transparent way. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is providing 170

185 implementation of equality, transparency and sustainability principles in participation. The action determined in relation to this strategy is to implement a systematic and constant training program regarding participation methods to all stakeholders in relation to the Historic Peninsula and cultural heritage. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are IMM and the Site Management Directorate as well as universities, NGOs and neighbourhood administrations. Objective VH5: Providing efficient participation of all stakeholders related to the Management Area in order to successfully implement the Site Management Plan The second objective determined with the purpose of solving the fact that efficient and sustainable participation mechanisms in conservation, planning and implementation processes have not been established between stakeholders and are not secured by law, (the first problem determined in the Site Management Plan Area under the heading of "Participation") is providing efficient participation of all stakeholders related to the Management Area in order to successfully implement the Site Management Plan. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is awareness raising and increasing information of all stakeholders regarding the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan. The actions determined in respect of this strategy are to establish information offices, to arrange web pages and to make broadcasts in order to inform all stakeholders regarding the Site Management Plan; to develop and execute training programs regarding the Site Management Plan and the Site for directors and employees who work in the institutions related to the Site. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are IMM and the Site Management Directorate as well as Fatih Municipality, universities, trade associations and NGOs. Objective VH6: Establishing a system related to measuring and evaluating the participation The objective determined with the purpose of solving the lack of systems in place to measure and to evaluate the participation, (the second and last problem determined in the Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Participation") is in establishing a system related to measuring and evaluating the participation. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is realizing the participation accompanied with experts and together with actual stakeholders and providing sustainability. The actions determined in respect of this strategy are to establish a unit to provide sustainability of participation to the Site Management Plan and to form its working principles; to prepare and implement measuring/monitoring documents such as participation agreement and participation statement; to perform international workshop studies which support training activities and to support researches and experts studies to be conducted in relation to developing participation mechanisms. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are IMM and the Site Management Directorate as well as Fatih Municipality, universities, trade associations and NGOs. 171

186 V. TRAINING, AWARENESS RAİSİNG AND PARTICIPATION PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION EDUCATION, INCREASING AWARENESS Insufficient knowledge of employees in decisionmaking and implementing institutions regarding natural and cultural heritage and conservation of this heritage Insufficient knowledge of inhabitants and employees of the Historic Peninsula regarding cultural heritage Decrease in the number of traditional construction craftsmen as well as stone and wood craftsmen who can enable the sustainability of cultural properties Weakening of masterapprentice training in traditional manufacturing (jewellery, weaving, shoemaking) VH1. Developing knowledge infrastructure of employees of public institutions in the Historic Peninsula regarding natural and cultural heritage VH2.Developing knowledge infrastructure of inhabitants, employees and users in the Historic Peninsula regarding natural and cultural heritage VH3.Reviving the traditional manufacturing as an intangible heritage in the Historic Peninsula VH1S1. informing the directors, employees and trainers systematically regarding the cultural heritage VH2S1. Informing each interest group with regards to cultural heritage and conservation at the level accessible to their respective socio make up (age, education, culture etc.) VH3S1.Reviving the traditional construction techniques for maintenance and repair works of cultural properties VH3S2.Reviving the master-apprentice relationship in traditional manufacturing industry VH1S1E1. To establish a training unit and to prepare information programs in order to inform directors of public institutions, employees and trainers regarding the cultural heritage VH2S1E1. To prepare training programs and to organise promotional trips, essay and photograph competitions in grade schools in order to strengthen the knowledge infrastructure regarding cultural heritage VH2S1E2. To establish training programs for inhabitants in the Site from every age group regarding cultural heritage and its conservation, to support conferences, seminars, museums and exhibitions and to organise promotional trips VH2S1E3. To produce and distribute visual and written materials regarding cultural heritage for all age groups VH3S1E1.Training construction craftsmen in traditional arts and crafts and to organise training programs for stone, wood, glass, iron, etc. craftsmen in order to enable the sustainability of cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula VH3S2E1.Carrying out strengthening research for industries in order to enable the sustainability of jewellery, weaving and shoemaking production in the Historic Peninsula RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS Site Management Directorate and Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate Site Management Directorate and Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate Site Management Directorate, Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Related Trade Associations, IMM, KUDEB, ISMEK and Nongovernmental Organisations OTHER INSTITUTIONS The Provincial Directorate of National Education, IMM, Fatih Municipality, universities, trade associations The Provincial Directorate of National Education, Public Education Centres, neighbourhood administrations, trade associations and Nongovernmental Organisations The Provincial Directorate of National Education, the Special Provincial Administration, Public Education Centres, neighbourhood administrations, universities 172

187 PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION PARTICIPATION The fact that efficient and sustainable participation mechanisms in conservation, planning and implementation processes have not been established between stakeholders and are not secured by law Lack of systems in place to measure/evaluate the participation VH4. Providing sustainable and efficient participation of stakeholders to conservation, planning and implementation processes in an equal and transparent way VH5. Providing efficient participation of all stakeholders related to the Management Area to the process in order to successfully implement the Site Management Plan VH6. Establishing a system related to measuring and evaluating the participation VH4S1. Providing implementation of equality, transparency and sustainability principles in participation VH5S1. Awareness raising and increasing information of all stakeholders regarding Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan VH6S1. Realizing the participation accompanied with experts and together with actual stakeholders and providing sustainability VH4S1E1. To implement a systematic and constant training program regarding participation methods to all stakeholders in relation to the Historic Peninsula and cultural heritage VH5S1E1. To establish information offices, to arrange web pages and to make broadcasts in order to inform all stakeholders regarding the Site Management Plan VH5S1E2. To develop and execute training programs regarding the Site Management Plan and the Site for directors and employees who work in the institutions related to the Site VH6S1E1. To establish a unit to provide sustainability of participation to the Site Management Plan and to form its working principles VH6S1E2. To prepare and implement measuring/monitoring documents such as participation agreement and participation statement VH6S1E3. To perform international workshop studies which support training activities VH6S1E4. To support researches and experts studies to be conducted in relation to developing participation mechanisms RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS IMM, Site Management Directorate IMM, Site Management Directorate IMM, Site Management Directorate OTHER INSTITUTIONS Universities, Nongovernmental Organisations, neighbourhood administrations Fatih Municipality, universities, trade associations and Nongovernmental Organisations Fatih Municipality, universities, trade associations and expert Non-governmental Organisations 173

188 Visitor Management The heading of Visitor Management covers the tourism sector in the Historic Peninsula, and problems, objectives, strategies and actions in the Site Management Plan Area. Furthermore, the institutions or establishments that are to carry out these actions have been determined. The problems discussed under this heading are as follows: Lack of clarification of strategies in relation to the future of tourism industry in the Site Insufficient promotion of other important monuments while the sites listed in the World Heritage List are visited by visitors in the Site with some areas difficult to access Difficulty of visitors in accessing information with regards to cultural heritage in the Site Problems in terms of management, research, exhibition and security of museums in the Site, insufficiency of museum and exhibition areas and the lack of opportunities for exhibition of artifacts Insufficient provision of guidance requirements of visitors in the Site Insufficient provision of support for small and medium-scale tourism enterprises which may also be undertaken by local public through utilising the authentic values in the Site Failure to execute the regular tracking and assessment activities for the purpose of increasing the performance of tourism activities in the Site. Objective VIH1: Developing a sustainable tourism infrastructure which integrates with alternative tourism and cultural tourism The first problem determined in the Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Visitor Management" is the lack of scientific research programs of archeological areas in the Site and planning decisions in relation to the future of the tourism industry. The objective developed in relation to this problem is developing a sustainable tourism infrastructure which integrates with alternative tourism and cultural tourism. The strategy determined in achieving this objective is making the tourism approach, which adopts the conservation-use balance in the Site, a key principle, a common point in all plans. The action determined in relation to this strategy is to have a Tourism Management Plan prepared for the Historic Peninsula and to ensure the coordination of this plan with other related plans. The responsible institution of carrying out the actions are IMM, and the related institutions are the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, the General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Fatih Municipality, Touristic Hotels and Investors Association (TUROB), Association of Turkish Travel Agencies (TURSAB), Federation of Turkish Tourist Guide Associations (TUREB), other tourism associations, related NGOs, independent culture institutions and universities. Objective VIH2: Turning all cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula into attraction points for visitors The second problem determined in the Site Management Plan Area in relation to tourism activities and visitor management is that tourists tend only to visit the areas listed in the World Heritage List and the well-known areas in the Historic Peninsula. This is due to insufficient introduction of other 174

189 important areas and artifacts and poor access to these areas. The objective developed in relation to the problem is to transform all cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula into attraction points for visitors. The first strategy determined to achieve this objective is planning visitor management for all conservation zones in the Historic Peninsula, particularly the heritage sites. The actions determined in respect of this strategy are to prepare or have others prepare Visitor Management Plans in connection with the Tourism Management Plan for all featured conservation zones in the Historic Peninsula, particularly the World Heritage Sites; to determine touring routes throughout the Site and to develop their infrastructure. Another strategy determined for the related objective is increasing the experience variety in tourism by establishing new attraction points in the Historic Peninsula. The actions determined in respect of executing this strategy are to establish sustainable programs which bring out the cultural heritage of the Site and social-cultural activities unique to the Site; to encourage the use of historic structures for cultural and artistic purposes; to strengthen the museums in the Historic Peninsula through public and private incentives and to raise awareness to them; to support the creative industries in the Historic Peninsula and to raise awareness towards areas in which creative industries are gathered (jewellery design, shoe design etc.) and to establish and promote touring routes which will ensure the integration of different attraction points in the area. The responsible institution for carrying out the actions is IMM. The related institutions are The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, the General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Fatih Municipality, Touristic Hotels and Investors Association (TUROB), Association of Turkish Travel Agencies (TURSAB), Federation of Turkish Tourist Guide Associations (TUREB), other tourism associations, related Non-governmental Organisations, independent culture institutions and universities. Objective VIH3: Providing an easily accessible information medium regarding cultural heritage areas and monuments for visitors The objective determined with the purpose of addressing the difficulties of visitors access of to information regarding cultural heritages in the Site, which is the third problem determined in the Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Visitor Management", is providing an easily accessible information medium regarding cultural heritage areas and monuments for visitors. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is promoting the Historic Peninsula by written and visual broadcast to the public. The actions determined in respect of this strategy are to make scientific research programs of the areas; to support researches which study relationships between cultural heritage, conservation, tourism and visitor management; to shoot promotional and documentary films to be broadcast in international media mediums; to prepare new guidance books and brochures promoting World Heritage Sites; to establish information boards regarding monuments, civil architectural buildings and other important artifacts in the Site. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Site Management Directorate, tourism associations, universities and trade associations. 175

190 Objective VIH4: Solving the problems that the museums face and ensuring that they reach a sustainable visitor capacity The fourth problem determined in the Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Visitor Management" is the difficulty in provision of management, research, exhibition and security of museums in the Site and insufficiency of museum and exhibition areas for storing of artifacts. Within this concept, the objective is solving the problems that the museums face and ensuring that they reach a sustainable visitor capacity. The first strategy determined to achieve this objective is developing existing museums. The action determined in relation to this strategy is to prepare a museum management plan for every museum. The second strategy determined to achieve this objective is opening new museums for the monuments that cannot be exhibited. The actions determined in respect of this strategy are to open a Historic Peninsula Museum and new thematic museums for monuments that cannot be exhibited; to take legal, administrative and financial measures to facilitate the foundation and management of museums. The responsible institution of carrying out the actions is The Ministry of Culture and Tourism. The related institutions are the Site Management Directorate, the Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, the Special Provincial Administration, IMM, universities and NGOs related to culture and museums. The last strategy determined to achieve this objective is developing archeological excavations and outdoor museums. The action determined in relation to this strategy is to solve legal, administrative and resource issues of archeological museum areas. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Site Management Directorate, Archeological Museums. The related institutions are the Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, the Special Provincial Administration, IMM, universities, and NGOs related to culture and museums. Objective VIH5: Increasing the capacity of guidance services in accordance with the cultural identity of the Site The objective determined with the purpose of solving the insufficiency in fulfilment of guidance requirements of visitors in the Site, which is further problem determined in the Site Management Plan Area under the heading of "Visitor Management", is increasing the capacity of guidance services in accordance with the cultural identity of the Site. The first strategy determined to achieve this objective is increasing the service level of guides. The action determined in respect of this strategy is to organise special courses and seminars promoting cultural heritage for guides. The action determined in relation to the meeting the local needs of visitors, which is the second strategy determined to achieve the related objective is to establish Visitor Centres to promote the Site, answer questions and directing the requirements of visitors. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Site Management Directorate, archeological museums, Touristic Hotels and Investors Association (TUROB), Association of Turkish Travel Agencies (TURSAB), Federation of Turkish Tourist Guide Associations (TUREB), universities and trade associations. 176

191 Objective VIH6: Reinforcing the tourism infrastructure by also using local resources Another objective determined in relation to the tourism activities in the Historic Peninsula is the insufficient provision of support for small- and medium-scale tourism enterprises which could also be undertaken by local public by utilising the authentic values in the Site. The objective determined in relation to this problem is reinforcing the tourism infrastructure by also using local resources. The first one of these three strategies determined to achieve this objective is increasing the quality of employees in service sector and the establishment of professional certificate programs for employees in the tourism sector in order to realise this strategy. Another strategy determined for the related objective is developing the quality of bed capacity. The actions determined in relation to this strategy are to ensure that tourism establishments are inspected regularly and to support qualified boutique hotels and family pensions. The final strategy determined to achieve the related objective is developing the opportunities provided by tourism in the improvement of the local community. The actions determined in relation to this strategy are to raise awareness in the local community regarding economic returns of tourism; to develop the skills of the local community in terms of tourism activities and to organise programs supporting tourism initiatives of the local community. The responsible institution of carrying out these actions is the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the related institutions being IMM, related NGOs and tourism associations. Objective VIH7: Monitoring and evaluating the tourism services in the Site on a regular basis and addressing deficiencies Another objective determined in relation to the execution of tourism activities in the Historic Peninsula is the lack of execution of regular tracking and assessment activities for the purpose of increasing the performance of tourism activities in the Site. The objective determined in relation to this problem is monitoring and evaluating the tourism services in the Site on a regular basis and addressing deficiencies. The first strategy determined to achieve this objective is developing the performance of the tourism sector and to ensure participation and sharing of related actors and the action determined in respect of realizing this strategy is to measure and evaluate the performance of the tourism sector periodically. A further strategy determined for the related objective is conducting researches for visitors. The actions determined in relation to this strategy are to encourage researches relating to the performance evaluation of the tourism sector and its effects on the Historic Peninsula and to submit the obtained results for the information of related actors; to measure demands of different visitor profiles and visitor satisfaction periodically and to ensure that they are reflected in implementations. For realisation of objectives, strategies and actions, the Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate have been proposed to be the responsible institution with universities and related NGOs as the related institutions. 177

192 VI. VISITOR MANEGEMENT PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION Lack of planning decisions in relation to the future of the tourism industry in the Site Insufficient promotion of other important monuments while the sites listed in the World Heritage List are visited by visitors in the Site, difficult access to these areas VIH1. Developing a sustainable tourism infrastructure which integrates with alternative tourism and cultural tourism VIH2. Turning all cultural properties in the Historic Peninsula into attraction points for visitors VIH1S1. Making the tourism approach, which adopts the conservation-use balance in the Site, a key principle, a common point in all plans VIH2S1. Planning visitor management for all conservation zones in the Historic Peninsula, particularly the heritage sites VIH2S2. Increasing the experience variety in tourism by establishing new attraction points in the Historic Peninsula VIH1S1E1.To have a Tourism Management Plan prepared for the Historic Peninsula and to ensure the coordination of this plan with other related plans VIH2S1E1. To prepare or have others prepare Visitor Management Plans in connection with the Tourism Management Plan for all featured conservation zones in the Historic Peninsula, particularly the World Heritage Sites VIH2S1E2.To determine touring routes throughout the Site and develop their infrastructure VIH2S2E1. To establish sustainable programs which bring out the cultural heritage of the Site and social-cultural activities unique to the Site VIH2S2E2. To encourage the use of historic structures for cultural and artistic purposes VIH2S2E3. To strengthen the museums in the Historic Peninsula through public and private incentives and to raise awareness to them VIH2S2E4. To support the creative industries in the Historic Peninsula and to raise awareness towards areas in which creative industries are gathered (jewellery design, shoe design etc.) VIH2S2E5. To establish and promote touring routes which will ensure the integration of different attraction points in the area RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS IMM IMM IMM OTHER INSTITUTIONS The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Fatih Municipality TUROB, TURSAB, TUREB, Other Tourism Associations, Related Nongovernmental Organisations, Independent Culture Institutions and universities 178

193 Difficulty of visitors in accessing information regarding cultural heritage in the Site VIH3. Providing an easily accessible information medium regarding cultural heritage areas and monuments for visitors VIH3S1. Promoting the Historic Peninsula by written and visual broadcast to the public VIH3S1E1. To make scientific research programs of the areas VIH3S1E2.To support researches which study relationships between cultural heritage, conservation, tourism and visitor management VIH3S1E3.To shoot promotional and documentary films to be broadcast on international media mediums VIH3S1E4. To prepare new guidance books and brochures promoting World Heritage Sites VIH3S1E5.To establish information boards regarding monumental, civil architectural buildings and other monuments in the Site The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, IMM, Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate The Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Promotion, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality Tourism Associations, Universities, Trade Associations Problems in terms of management, research, exhibition and security of museums in the Site, insufficiency of museum and exhibition areas, the lack of opportunities for exhibition of artifacts VIH4. Solving the problems that the museums face and ensuring that they reach a sustainable visitor capacity VIH4S1. Developing existing museums VIH4S2. Opening new museums for the monuments that cannot be exhibited VIH4S3. Developing archeological excavations and outdoor museums VIH4S1E1. To prepare museum management plan for every museum VIH4S2E1. To open a Historic Peninsula Museum and new thematic museums for monuments that cannot be exhibited VIH4S2E2. To take legal, administrative and financial measures to facilitate foundation and management of museums VIH4S3E1. To solve legal, administrative and resource problems of archeological museum areas The Ministry of Culture and Tourism The Ministry of Culture and Tourism The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Site Management Directorate, Archeological Museums, the Special Provincial Administration Site Management Directorate, Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, Special Provincial Administration, IMM, universities, Nongovernmental Organisations related to culture and museums, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums and Museums 179

194 Insufficient provision of guidance requirements of visitors in the Site VIH5. Increasing the capacity of guidance services in accordance with the cultural identity of the Site VIH5S1. Increasing the service level of guides VIH5S2. Meeting the local needs of visitors VIH5S1E1. To organise special courses and seminars promoting cultural heritage for guides VIH5S2E1. To establish Visitor Centres providing promotion of the Site, answering questions and directing the requirements of visitors VIH5S2E2. To develop current information centres in terms of staff and distribute information documents under the name of Visitor Centre and to increase their numbers The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Promotion The Site Management Directorate, Archeological Museums, TUROB, TURSAB, TUREB, Universities, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums and Museums VIH6S1. Increasing the quality of employees in service sector VIH6S1E1. To establish professional certificate programs for employees in the tourism sector Insufficient provision of support for small and medium-scale tourism enterprises which may also be undertaken by local public by utilising the authentic values in the Site VIH6. Reinforcing the tourism infrastructure by also using local resources VIH6S2. Developing the quality of bed capacity VIH6S3. Developing the opportunities provided by tourism in the improvement of the local community VIH6S2E1. To ensure that tourism establishments are inspected regularly VIH6S2E2. To support qualified boutique hotels and family pensions VIH6S3E1. To raise awareness of the local community regarding economic returns of tourism VIH6S3E2. To develop skills of the local community in terms of tourism activities VIH6S3E3. To organise programs supporting tourism initiatives of the local community The Ministry of Culture and Tourism IMM, Related Nongovernmental Organisations, Tourism Associations 180

195 Failure to execute the regular tracking and assessment activities for the purpose of increasing the performance of tourism activities in the Site VIH7. Monitoring and evaluating the tourism services in the Site on a regular basis and addressing the deficiencies VIH7S1. Developing the performance of the tourism sector and to ensure participation and sharing of related actors VIH7S2. Working towards increasing the number, profile and satisfaction of visitors VIH7S1E1. To measure and evaluate the performance of the tourism sector periodically VIH7S2E1. To encourage researches relating to the performance evaluation of the tourism sector and its effects on the Historic Peninsula and to submit the obtained results for the information of related actors VIH7S2E2. To measure demands of different visitor profiles and visitor satisfaction periodically and to ensure that they are reflected in implementations Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate Universities, Related Nongovernmental Organisations 181

196 Risk Management Objectives, strategies and actions developed in respect of the problems determined in the Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Risk Management" as well as the institutions or establishments to perform these actions are discussed as follows: The fact that the Site is located in the First degree seismic belt where the earthquake risk is the highest together with the risk of landslide and liquefaction Soil-structure incompatibility, landslide risk, liquefaction potential and soil amplification arising from the geological structure of the area which will increase the damage in a possible earthquake The building stock of the Historic Peninsula consisting of illegal floors, low construction quality, row housing structuring, high buildings, irregular building geometry which all increase vulnerability to earthquakes The character of the Site consisting of highly dense narrow streets preventing the necessary evacuation and relief works in the cases of a disaster Lack of resistance of structurally worn-out cultural properties against an earthquake The restriction of accessibility due to the narrowness of streets in the Sites where wooden buildings constitute a collective character, the insufficient number of fire hydrants and the high risk of fire The presence of explosive and combustive manufacturing industry in the Site. Objective VIIH1: Addressing reduction and elimination of disaster risks in the Site as a prioritized subject and keeping this subject on the agenda Problems determined in the Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Risk Management" are that the location of the Historic Peninsula on the 1st seismic belt which has the highest risk of earthquake together with the risk of landslide and liquefaction. The objective determined to minimize the negative effects of this problem is addressing reduction and elimination of disaster risks in the Site as a prioritized subject and keeping this subject on the agenda. The strategy determined to achieve this objective is supporting reinforcement works against potential disasters, particularly earthquakes, within the Site Management Plan Area. The first action in relation to this strategy is to place and consistently keep the reinforcement works against disasters in the Site Management Plan Area high on the agenda by aid of the Site Management Directorate. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development as well as AKOM, IMM Department of Fire Brigade, the Governorship-Provincial Directorate of Disaster and Emergency and the Special Provincial Administration-Istanbul Project Coordination Unit. The responsible institutions for executing the expansion of the Emergency Action Plan of World Heritage Site through training and promotion activities and to schedule pilot implementations, which is the second action in relation to the related strategy, are the Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development as well as AKOM, IMM Department of Strategy Development and IMM Department of Fire Brigade. 182

197 The action determined regarding providing efficient use of research results regarding disaster risks (earthquakes, landslides, liquefactions etc.) in the planning studies, which is the second strategy determined to achieve the related objective, is to enable the assessment of disaster risk research results in all planning studies regarding the Historic Peninsula. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Urban Development as well as AKOM, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development, the Governorship-Provincial Directorate of Disaster and Emergency and the Special Provincial Administration- Istanbul Project Coordination Unit. Objective VIIH2: Minimising the limitations arising from the historical fabric The first strategy determined to achieve the minimisation of the limitations arising from the historical fabric, (the second objective developed in the Site Management Plan Area under the heading of "Risk Management") is monitoring the concentration reduced as per development plan decisions. The first action of this strategy is to constantly monitor the transportation system and emergency stocks. The responsible institutions for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM Directorate of Transportation as well as AKOM, IMM Department of Urban Development. The other action determined in relation to this strategy is to ensure that disaster logistics planning is in place for disasters. The responsible institutions for carrying out the action are the Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development as well as AKOM. The second strategy determined to achieve this objective is keeping the building and population concentration to a minimum in problematic areas in terms of disaster, particularly earthquake risk. The actions in relation to this strategy are to arrange parks and open areas as secure evacuation areas, to improve the current narrow street pattern so that they can be used for secure evacuation and as emergency vehicle access roads. The responsible institutions for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development as well as AKOM, IMM Department of Urban Development. Objective VIIH3: Reinforcing and conserving the cultural heritage against earthquakes The first strategy determined to achieve the objective of reinforcing and conserving the cultural heritage against earthquakes, (the third objective developed in the Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Risk Management") is performing the building status analyses in the Historic Peninsula according not only to their physical attributes but the earthquake parameters. The first actions determined in relation to this strategy are to determine the cultural heritage under earthquake risk; to prioritize the stages of activities of reinforcing the cultural properties at risk against disasters and to establish a budget and time schedule accordingly. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are the Site Management Directorate and IMM Department of Survey and Projects. The action is to ensure that the resources of the institutions which have budgets for projects such as restoration, reinforcement etc. are allocated to the Site Management Plan Area for a minimum of one year. The responsible institutions for carrying out the action are the Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Survey and Projects as well as IMM Department of Strategy Development, IMM Department of Financial Services, IMM Department of Urban Development as well as AKOM, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban 183

198 Development, the Governorship-Provincial Directorate of Disaster and Emergency, and the Special Provincial Administration-Istanbul Project Coordination Unit. Objective VIIH4: Reinforcing and conserving the cultural heritage against fire The fourth and last objective developed for the aforementioned problems determined in the Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Risk Management" is reinforcing and conserving the cultural heritage against fire. The first action determined in relation to making arrangements in the Site which will mitigate the fire risk and provide urgent response in time, which is the strategy determined to achieve this objective is to define the cultural heritage which are shown to be at risk according on the fire risk map, to update them periodically and to ensure that necessary precautions are taken. The responsible institutions for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development as well as IMM Department of Survey and Projects, and the Special Provincial Administration-Istanbul Project Coordination Unit. The responsible institutions for carrying out the action of ensuring that the number of fire hydrants in the zone are increased to sufficient level (which is the second action determined in relation to this strategy), are the Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Fire Brigade as well as Istanbul General Directorate of Civil Defence s Directorate of Search and Rescue Association, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development. The last action determined in relation to the aforementioned strategy is to lead in establishing a system which will determine risky practices in terms of fire risk, to determine the activities which will not be included in the area, to define the necessary precautions and responsible institutions for implementation and supervision, to appoint them for urgent response accordingly and to develop the security infrastructure. The responsible institutions for carrying out the action are the Site Management Directorate, AKOM, Istanbul General Directorate of Civil Defence -Istanbul Directorate of Search and Rescue Association as well as IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development, and IMM Department of Fire Brigade. 184

199 VII. RISK MANAGEMENT PROBLEM OBJECTIVES STRATEGIES ACTIONS The fact that the Site is located on the First degree seismic belt where the earthquake risk is the highest, risk of landslide and liquefaction Problems such as soil-structure incompatibility, landslide risk, liquefaction potential and soil amplification arising from the geological structure of the area which will increase the damage in a probable earthquake. The building stock of the Historic Peninsula consisting of unlicensed floors, low-quality constructions, attached buildings, high buildings and irregular building geometry which all increase the vulnerability to earthquakes The character of the Site consisting of highly intensive structured narrow streets preventing the necessary evacuation and response works in the cases of disaster and risk Lack of resistance of structurally worn-out cultural properties against earthquake VIIH1. Addressing reduction and elimination of disaster risks in the Site as a prioritized subject and keeping this subject on the agenda VIIH2. Minimising the limitations arising from the historical fabric VIIH1S1. Supporting reinforcement works against potential disasters, particularly earthquakes, within the Site Management Plan Area VIIH1S2. Providing efficient use of research results regarding disaster risks (earthquakes, landslides, liquefactions etc.) in the planning studies VIIH2S1. Monitoring the concentration reduced as per development plan decisions VIIH1S1E1. To put and consistently keep the reinforcement works against disasters in the Site Management Plan Area high on the agenda by aid of the Site Management Directorate VIIH1S1E2. To expand the Emergency Action Plan of World Heritage Site through training and promotion activities and to schedule pilot implementations VIIH1S2E1.Enabling the assessment of disaster risk research results in all planning studies with regards to the Historic Peninsula VIIH2S1E1.Decreasing the height and intensity in narrow streets VIIH2S1E2. To monitor the transportation system and emergency stocks constantly VIIH2S1E3. To ensure that disaster logistics planning is in place for disasters RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Urban Development Site Management Directorate, IMM Directorate of Transportation Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development OTHER INSTITUTIONS AKOM, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development, IMM Department of Fire Brigade, the Governorship-Provincial Directorate of Disaster and Emergency, the Special Provincial Administration, Istanbul Project Coordination Unit AKOM, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development, IMM Department of Strategy Development and IMM Department of Fire Brigade AKOM, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development, the Governorship-Provincial Directorate of Disaster and Emergency, the Special Provincial Administration-Istanbul Project Coordination Unit AKOM, IMM Department of Urban Development AKOM 185

200 The restriction of accessibility due to the narrowness of streets in the Sites where wooden buildings constitute a collective character Insufficient number of fire hydrant and high risk of fire Presence of explosive and combustive manufacturing industry VIIH3. Reinforcing and conserving the cultural heritage against earthquakes VIIH4.Improvem ent and conservation of cultural heritage against fire VIIH2S2. Keeping the building and population concentration to a minimum in problematic areas in terms of disaster, particularly earthquake risk VIIH3S1. Performing the building status analyses in the Historic Peninsula according not only to their physical attributes but the earthquake parameters VIIH4S1. Making arrangements in the Site which will mitigate the fire risk and provide urgent response in time. VIIH2S2E1. To arrange parks and open areas as secure evacuation areas, to improve the current narrow street pattern so that they can be used for secure evacuation and as emergency vehicle access roads VIIH3S1E1. To determine the cultural heritage under earthquake risk VIIH3S1E2. To prioritize the stages of activities of reinforcing the cultural properties at risk against disasters and to establish a budget and time schedule accordingly VIIH3S1E3. To ensure that the resources of the institutions which have budgets for projects such as restoration, reinforcement etc. are allocated to the Site Management Plan Area for a minimum of one year VIIH4S1E1. To define the cultural heritage which are shown to be at risk according to the fire risk map, to update them periodically and to ensure that necessary precautions are taken VIIH4S1E2. To ensure that the number of fire hydrants in the zone are increased to sufficient level VIIH4S1E3. To lead in establishing a system which will determine risky practices in terms of fire risk, to determine the activities which will not be included in the area, to define the necessary precautions and responsible institutions for implementation and supervision, to appoint them for urgent response and to develop the security infrastructure Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Survey and Projects, the Special Provincial Administration Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Survey and Projects Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development Site Management Directorate, IMM Department of Fire Brigade Site Management Directorate, AKOM, Istanbul General Directorate of Civil Defence -Istanbul Directorate of Search and Rescue Association AKOM, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development, IMM Department of Strategy Development and IMM Department of Fire Brigade, IMM IMM Department of Survey and Projects IMM Department of Strategy Development, IMM Department of Financial Services, the Special Provincial Administration-Istanbul Project Coordination Unit IMM Department of Survey and Projects, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development, the Special Provincial Administration-Istanbul Project Coordination Unit Istanbul General Directorate of Civil Defense -Istanbul Directorate of Search and Rescue Association, IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development IMM Department of Earthquake Risk Management and Urban Development, IMM Department of Fire Brigade 186

201 2.4. Historic Peninsula World Heritage Sites Plan Objectives, Strategies, Actions, Related Institutions and Establishments The objective, strategy and action systems for four World Heritage Sites were planned in the light of the framework identifying the objectives (and the strategies needed to achieve these objectives and the related actions), responsible and supportive institutions and establishments charged with realising these actions which were identified under seven Historic Peninsula-wide themes located in the Site Management Plan Area, Chapter 2.3. The projects for implementation in relation to this planning can be found in Chapter Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site Objectives, strategies and actions developed in respect of the problems determined in the Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site" as well as the institutions or establishments identified to perform these actions are discussed under this title. The problems whose solutions are sought under this title are as follows: Insufficient utilisation of archeological heritage in the Site Lack of development of monuments and building environment in the Site with suitable functions Lack of sufficiently perceiving the outstanding universal value of Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site Decrease of residential areas in the Site Insufficient recognition of Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site. Objective AP-H1. Conserving, preserving and utilising above ground and underground cultural properties of Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site in accordance with their identities The first objective determined with the purpose of solving the problems of insufficient utilisation of archeological heritage and the lack of development of monuments and building environments in the Site with suitable functions determined in relation to "Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site" in the Site Management Plan Area is conserving, preserving and utilising aboveground and underground cultural properties of the Site in accordance with their identities. The strategy has been developed in order to utilise the archeological heritage within urban settlement places through approaches in accordance with conservation and preservation principles and standards. Three actions in connection with the subject matter strategy have been defined: The first action in respect of the strategy is to organise the Great Palace and Saint Euphemia remains as an archeological park and the second action is to utilise the remains in the gardens of Gulhane Park and Archaeology Museum as an archeological park. The final action is to ensure the preparation of feasibility reports regarding method of conservation and utilisation of the underground artifacts and whether an excavation will be held or not with regards to conservation and utilisation of archeological areas. The responsible institutions for carrying out both actions are the Site Management Directorate and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism as well as the Directorate 187

202 of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality, and related museums. Objective AP-H2. Ensuring that the Great Palace remains (Bucoleon Palace, Mosaic Museum) are perceived in harmony The second objective determined with the purpose of solving the problems of insufficient utilisation of archeological heritage and the lack of development of monuments and building environment in the Site with suitable functions determined in relation to Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site is ensuring that the Great Palace remains (Bucoleon Palace, Mosaic Museum) are perceived in harmony. In relation to this objective, the strategy of developing convenient and applicable methods to conserve the Great Palace and Hippodrome and pass it on to the next generations was determined. The responsible institutions for "arranging the Great Palace remains under supervision of related Museums " (which is the first action developed in relation to the strategy), are the Site Management Directorate, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism and related museums as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM and Fatih Municipality. The responsible institutions for "improving and monitoring the plans and programs which were prepared to protect the integrity of the fabric composed by the Great Palace Remains and Ottoman Civil Architecture structures" (which is the second action) are the Site Management Directorate and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality, related museums and 1st District Directorate of Foundations. Objective AP-H3. Creating a Museums Area which emphasises the outstanding universal value of Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site which reflects the Ottoman, Byzantine and Classic Eras The objective developed in relation to the problem of insufficient perception of the outstanding universal value relating to Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site is to create a "Museum Area" which highlights the outstanding universal value of Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site by reflecting the Ottoman, Byzantium and Antique Periods. The action determined in relation to the "utilisation of Topkapi Palace and all of its units as a monument and a museum which reflects its era and original use" (which is the first strategy associated with the objective) is to " to consider Sur-i Sultani (the area which contains Topkapi Palace, Archaeology Museum, Darphane-i Amire, Hagia Irene, other places and gardens) as an entire monument and to establish a board of monuments/museum in order to utilise Sur-i Sultani as a museum of monuments". The responsible institutions for carrying out the action are the Site Management Directorate and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties. Three actions were determined in relation to "ensuring use of high standards in management and design of cultural properties, in implementation, specialty and equipment" (which is the second strategy associated with the objective). for preparation, implementation and monitoring of conservation plans in scales of architectural and landscape design which will ensure conservation of Sur-i Sultani, reflect the original use and may be implemented in short, medium and long term (which is the first of these actions), the responsible institutions for the process are the Site Management 188

203 Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, IMM as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, Fatih Municipality, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, and the Special Provincial Administration. The responsible institutions for establishing boards of monuments (unique to each monument) in order to conserve and develop the immovable cultural properties having the quality of a monument in the Site" (which is the second action), are the Site Management Directorate and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties. The final action determined in relation to the strategy is to prepare, implement and track the conservation and development projects - applicable in short, medium and long terms - that cover the vision regarding spatial, physical and thematic improvement for monuments as well as conservation, promotion and exhibition of monuments. The responsible institutions for carrying out this action are the Site Management Directorate and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality, related museums, 1st District Directorate of Foundations and the Special Provincial Administration. Objective AP-H4. Protecting the existing residential function The objective of "protecting the existing residential function and to address the problem of a decrease in residential areas in the Site" was intended for Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site. The strategy determined to realise the objective is "providing balance between residential-commercial and tourism functions" and the action developed for this strategy is "providing balance between residential-commercial and tourism functions in Sultanahmet, Cankurtaran and Little Hagia Sophia neighbourhoods, preparing, implementing and monitoring conservation and development projects in order to improve the quality of life". The responsible institutions for carrying out the action are the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, IMM and Fatih Municipality as well as Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, NGOs and universities. Objective AP-H5. Promoting the World Heritage Site The objective of "Promoting the World Heritage Site" was determined in relation to the lack of recognition of Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site, which is the last problem determined for Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site. The strategy of promoting the World Heritage Site at a national and international level with communication tools was determined to achieve the objective and four actions were determined in relation to this strategy. The actions determined are ensuring the establishment of an activity network, which will provide national and international cooperation and sharing to develop culture tourism; scheduling projects such as informative notice boards, scale models, etc. covering both the existing monuments and the Sphendone; prepare publications, maps and brochures promoting the World Heritage Site and arrange / have others arrange informative trips promoting the World Heritage Site. The responsible institutions for carrying out these four actions are the Site Management Directorate and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality, 1st District Directorate of Foundations and related museums. 189

204 SULTANAHMET ARCHEOLOGICAL PARK WORLD HERITAGE SITE PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION AP-H1S1E1. To organise the Great Palace and Saint Euphemia remains as an archeological park RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS OTHER INSTITUTIONS Insufficient utilisation of underground and above ground cultural properties in the Site Lack of development of monuments and building environment in the Site with suitable functions AP-H1. Conserving, preserving and utilising aboveground and underground cultural properties of Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site in accordance with their identities AP-H2. Ensuring that Great Palace remains (Bucoleon Palace, Mosaic Museum) are perceived in an integrity AP-H1S1. Utilising the archeological heritage within urban settlement places through approaches in accordance with conservation and preservation principles and standards AP-H2S1. Developing convenient and applicable methods to conserve the Great Palace and Hippodrome and pass it on to the next generations AP-H1S1E2. To utilise the remains in the gardens of Gulhane Park and Archaeology Museum as an archeological park AP-H1S1E3. To ensure the preparation of feasibility reports regarding method of conservation and utilisation of the underground artifacts and whether an excavation will be held or not with regards to conservation and utilisation of archeological areas AP-H2S1E1. To arrange the Great Palace remains under supervision of related Museums AP-H2S1E2. To improve and monitor the plans and programs which were prepared to protect the integrity of the fabric composed by the Great Palace Remains and Ottoman Civil Architecture structures Site Management Directorate, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism Site Management Directorate, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums and Museums Site Management Directorate, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality, Related Museums The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality, Related Museums, 1st District Directorate of Foundations 190

205 AP-H3. Creating a Museums Area which emphasises the outstanding universal value of Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site which reflects the Ottoman, Byzantine and Classic Eras AP-H3S1. Utilising Topkapi Palace and all of its units as a monument and a museum which reflects its era and original use AP-H3S1E1. To consider Sur-i Sultani (the area which contains Topkapi Palace, Archaeology Museum, Darphane-i Amire, Hagia Irene, other places and gardens) as an entire monument and to establish a board of monuments/museum in order to utilise Sur-i Sultani as a museum of monuments AP-H3S1E2. To prepare, implement and monitor conservation plans in scales of architectural and landscape design which will ensure the conservation of Sur-i Sultani, reflect the original use and may be implemented in short, medium and long term AP-H3S1E3. To establish boards of monuments (unique to each monument) in order to conserve and develop the immovable cultural properties having the quality of a monument in the Site Site Management Directorate, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, IMM Site Management Directorate, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, IMM Site Management Directorate, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, Fatih Municipality, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, the Special Provincial Administration The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties Lack of sufficiently perceiving the outstanding universal value of Sultanahmet Archeological Park World Heritage Site AP-H3S2. Ensuring use of high standards in management and design of cultural properties, in implementation, specialty and equipment AP-H3S2E1. To prepare, implement and track the conservation and development projects - applicable in short, medium and long terms - that cover the vision regarding spatial, physical and thematic improvement for monuments as well as conservation, promotion and exhibition of monuments Site Management Directorate, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality, Related Museums, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, the Special Provincial Administration Decrease of residential area in the Site AP-H4. Protecting the existing residential function AP-H4S1. Providing balance between residential-commercial and tourism functions AP-H4S1E1. To provide balance between residential-commercial and tourism functions in Sultanahmet, Cankurtaran and Little Hagia Sophia neighbourhoods, to prepare, implement and monitor conservation and development projects in order to improve the quality of life. Site Management Directorate, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, IMM, Fatih Municipality The Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Investment and Enterprises, Nongovernmental Organisations, universities 191

206 Insufficient recognition of Sultanahmet World Heritage Site AP-H5. Promoting the World Heritage Site AP-H5S1. Promoting the World Heritage Site at a national and international level with communication tools AP-H5S1E1. Ensuring the establishment of an activity network, which will provide national and international cooperation and sharing to develop the culture tourism AP-H5S1E2. Scheduling projects such as informative notice boards, scale models, etc. covering both the existing monuments and the Sphendone AP-H5S1E3. Preparing publications, maps and brochures promoting the World Heritage Site AP-H5S1E4. Arranging / having others arrange informative trips promoting the World Heritage Site IMM, Fatih Mun. Provincial Culture Directorate, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Promotion, Site Management Directorate Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, Related Museums 192

207 Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site Objectives, strategies and actions developed in respect of the problems determined in the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan Area, under the heading of "Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site" as well as the institutions or establishments to perform these actions are discussed herein. The problems whose solutions are sought under this title are as follows: Inadequate conservation, decay of monuments Failure to protect the civil architectural structures, the fact that they are in decay, are rundown and in a state of collapse Scientific and technical errors being made in conservation and restoration implementations, inability to achieve required quality with respect to materials and workmanship Widespread approach of demolishing and rebuilding of registered structures Widespread reconstruction efforts of monuments without certificates, or which have been destroyed Financial resources created regarding conservation not being used efficiently in the effective conservation of cultural properties in the Site Certain sections of social complexes (Suleymaniye, Sehzadebasi) and civil architectural buildings being used for inappropriate functions. Objective SC-H1. Conserving the cultural properties within Suleymaniye World Heritage Site; performing their maintenance and reparations in accordance with contemporary conservation principles and standards, and provision of international and national support to ensure that the work can be conducted faster and in a more accurate manner The first objective developed with the purpose of solving the problems determined in relation to Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site in the Site Management Plan Area conserving the cultural properties within Suleymaniye World Heritage Site; performing their maintenance and reparations in accordance with contemporary conservation principles and standards, and provision of international and national support to ensure that the work can be conducted faster and in a more accurate manner. The first strategies determined to achieve this objective are the adoption of a conservation and preservation approach in maintenance and reparations of registered civil architectural buildings within Suleymaniye World Heritage Site; using traditional materials and traditional construction techniques, minimising the loss of original materials and techniques and using contemporary conservation principles and standards in mandatory reconstruction implementations. The first action developed in respect of the determined strategies is to continue and monitor the conservation and restoration works initiated in the Site by expanding them to the whole area. The responsible institutions for carrying out the action are the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, IMM and Fatih Municipality as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, and the Special Provincial Administration. 193

208 The second action determined in relation to this strategy is to to establish programs which ensure that existing financial resources are efficiently used in the restoration of registered structures and to search for new resources, to maintain the existing programs and to encourage property owners and private sector to invest in restoration. The responsible institutions for carrying out the action are the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture, IMM as well as Fatih Municipality, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, the Special Provincial Administration, NGOs, banks and exchanges. The action determined in relation to the third strategy is to develop the scientific and technical infrastructure regarding this subject. The institutions responsible for carrying out the action are the Site Management Directorate and IMM along with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Fatih Municipality and the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties. The fourth and final action determined within this scope is to encourage construction of structures that are in harmony with their surroundings in place of monuments that do not have certificates or have been destroyed beyond reconstruction. The responsible institutions for carrying out the action are the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and IMM as well as Fatih Municipality and the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties. A further strategy developed in relation to the same objective is conserving the monuments and kulliye structures within Suleymaniye World Heritage Site together with performing their maintenance and reparations in accordance with conservation and sustainability principles and standards. The responsible institutions for carrying out the action of "to recognise the kulliye structures affiliated to Suleymaniye Mosque as a monument and to establish a Board of Monuments " (which is the first action determined in relation to this strategy), are the Site Management Directorate and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties. The second action in respect of the related strategy is to program, implement and track the maintenance and simple repairs of monuments such as Suleymaniye Square Fountain, Mimar Sinan Tomb, Bozdogan Arch, Atif Efendi Library, Molla Gurani Mosque, Sebsefa Hatun Mosque, Vefa High School, Kalenderhane Mosque, etc. The responsible institutions for carrying out the action are the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, IMM, Fatih Municipality, the Ministry of National Education, and the Special Provincial Administration. Objective SC-H2. Conserving the traditional street pattern of Suleymaniye World Heritage Site; performing its maintenance and reparations The objective developed to address the distortion risk of the traditional street pattern which is problem determined in relation to Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site in the Site Management Plan Area is the conserving the traditional street pattern of Suleymaniye World Heritage Site; performing its maintenance and reparations". The strategy developed in relation to this objective is "complying with efficient and integrated urban conservation principles and standards in conservation of traditional street pattern". 194

209 The first action developed in respect of the strategy is to develop, implement and monitor projects which will protect the authenticity of Kirazli Mescit, Ayranci, Fetva Yokusu, Yogurtcu, Hayriye Hanim etc. streets during maintenance, reparation and other implementations. The responsible institutions for carrying out the actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM and Fatih Municipality as well as the Directorates of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, the Special Provincial Administration, the 1st District Directorate of Foundations and NGOs. The other two actions determined in relation to this strategy are to ensure the implementation of design guides, which were developed in order to provide harmony between new buildings to be constructed in the Site, the existing street pattern and environment and to perform and monitor urban design implementations which will ensure that all elements composing the street pattern are in harmony with the cultural properties in the Site The responsible institutions for carrying out both actions are the Site Management Directorate, IMM and Fatih Municipality as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties and Universities. Objective SC-H3. Ensuring that the Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site is recognized The objective developed with the purpose of addressing the inadequate, inefficient advertising the Site, which is one of the problems determined in relation to Suleymaniye Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site in the Site Management Plan Area is ensuring that the World Heritage Site is better recognized. The strategy determined to achieve the objective is promoting the World Heritage Site at a national and international level with communication tools". Four actions were determined in relation to the strategy. The actions determined are "to establish an activity network, which will provide national and international cooperation and sharing to develop the culture tourism", "to schedule projects such as informative notice boards, scale models, etc. covering the monuments at Suleymaniye Mosque and surroundings", "to prepare publications, maps and brochures promoting the World Heritage Site" and "to arrange or have others arrange informative trips promoting the World Heritage Site". The responsible institutions for carrying out these actions are Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality together with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and Site Management Directorate. At the same time, Governorship of Istanbul, Board of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, Fatih Municipality, universities and related museum administrations are also among the institutions that are proposed to work in coordination in respect of the actions. 195

210 SULEYMANIYE MOSQUE AND SURROUNDING WORLD HERITAGE SITE PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS OTHER INSTITUTIONS Inadequate conservation, decay of Monuments at Suleymaniye World Heritage Site Inability to protect urban architectural structures and their decay, being run-down, and in a state of collapse Scientific and technical errors being made in conservation and restoration implementations, not being able to achieve required quality with respect to materials and labour Widespread approach of demolishing and rebuilding of registered structures Widespread reconstruction efforts of monuments which do not have certificates or have been destroyed Financial resources created regarding conservation not being used efficiently in the effective conservation of cultural properties in the Site Certain sections of social complexes (Suleymaniye, Sehzadebasi) and civil architectural buildings being used for inappropriate functions SC-H1. Conserving the cultural properties within Suleymaniye World Heritage Site ; performing their maintenance and reparations in accordance with contemporary conservation principles and standards, and provision of international and national support to ensure that the work can be conducted faster and in a more accurate manner SC-H1S1. Adopting a conservation and preservation approach in maintenance and reparations of registered civil architectural buildings within Suleymaniye World Heritage Site SC-H1S2. Using traditional materials and traditional construction techniques and minimising the loss of original materials and techniques SC-H1S1E1. Continue and monitor the conservation and restoration works initiated in the Site by expanding them to the whole area SC-H1S1E2. To establish programs which ensure that existing financial resources are efficiently used in restoration of registered structures and search for new resources, to maintain the existing programs and to encourage property owners and private sector to invest in restoration SC-H1S2E1. To support Timber and Stone Training Workshop operating under IMM KUDEB, to continue its maintenance and reparation works on the cultural properties in Suleymaniye in accordance with conservation principles and standards Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, IMM, Fatih Municipality Site Management Directorate, IMM, the Special Provincial Administration Site Management Directorate, IMM, KUDEB The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, the Special Provincial Administration The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Fatih Municipality, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, Concerned NGOs, Banks and Exchanges Fatih Municipality, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, the Special Provincial Administration 196

211 SC-H1S3. Using contemporary conservation principles and standards in mandatory reconstruction implementations SC-H1S3E1. To develop the scientific and technical infrastructure regarding this subject Site Management Directorate, IMM The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Fatih Municipality, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties SC-H1S4. Conserving the monuments and kulliye structures within Suleymaniye World Heritage Site; performing their maintenance and reparations in accordance with conservation and sustainability principles and standards SC-H1S4E1. To recognise the kulliye structures affiliated to Suleymaniye Mosque as a monument and to establish a Board of Monuments SC-H1S4E2. To program, implement and track the maintenance and simple repairs of monuments such as Suleymaniye Square Fountain, Mimar Sinan Tomb, Bozdogan Arch, Atif Efendi Library, Molla Gurani Mosque, Sebsefa Hatun Mosque, Vefa High School, Kalenderhane Mosque, etc. Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 1st District Directorate of Foundations 1st District Directorate of Foundations IMM, Fatih Municipality, the Ministry of Education, the Special Provincial Administration Possible threat of loss of traditional street pattern SC-H2. Conserving the traditional street pattern of Suleymaniye World Heritage Site; performing its maintenance and reparations SC-H2S1. Complying with efficient and integrated urban conservation principles and standards in conservation of traditional street pattern SC-H2S1E1. To develop, implement and monitor projects which will protect the authenticity of Kirazli Mescit, Ayranci, Fetva Yokusu, Yogurtcu, Hayriye Hanim etc. Streets during maintenance, reparation and other implementations Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality Directorates of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, the Special Provincial Administration, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, universities, NGOs 197

212 SC-H2S1E2. To ensure the implementation of design guides, which were developed in order to provide harmony between new buildings to be constructed in the Site, the existing street pattern and the environment Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, universities SC-H2S1E3. To perform and monitor urban design implementations which will ensure that all elements composing the street pattern are in harmony with the cultural properties in the Site Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, universities Suleymaniye Mosque and surrounding World Heritage Site not being sufficiently known SC-H3. Ensuring that the World Heritage Site is recognized SC-H3S1. Promoting the World Heritage Site with communication tools at national and international level SC-H3S1E1. To establish an activity network, which will provide national and international cooperation and sharing to develop the culture tourism SC-H3S1E2. To schedule projects such as informative notice boards, scale models, etc. covering the monuments at Suleymaniye Mosque and surroundings SC-H3S1E3. To prepare publications, maps, and brochures promoting the World Heritage Site SC-H3S1E4. To arrange or have others arrange informative trips promoting the World Heritage Site Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, concerned museums 198

213 Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site Objectives, strategies and actions developed in connection to problems determined regarding Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and it s associated Conservation Area World Heritage Site together with institutions and establishments proposed to realise such actions are covered in the following section. Problems related to Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site are follows: Inadequate conservation of monuments and civil architectural monuments at Zeyrek World Heritage Site Scientific and technical errors being made in conservation and restoration implementations and not being able to achieve required quality with respect to materials and workmanship Widespread approach of demolishing and rebuilding of registered structures Widespread reconstruction efforts of monuments, without certificates, or that have been destroyed Financial resources created regarding conservation not being used efficiently in the effective conservation of cultural properties at the Site Danger of losing the traditional street pattern Not giving priority to documenting and protecting of the area s archeological assets located within the Site The Area not being sufficiently known. Objective ZC-H1. Conserving the cultural heritage within Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site and performing their maintenance and reparations in accordance with international conservation principles and standards. The first objective determined is conserving the cultural heritage within Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site and performing their maintenance and reparations in accordance with international conservation principles and standards. The strategies determined in order to achieve this objective are: using contemporary conservation and preservation principles and standards in maintenance and reparations of registered civil architectural buildings within Zeyrek World Heritage Site, using traditional materials and construction techniques in restoration implementations and minimising the loss of original materials and techniques, and adopting contemporary conservation approaches in mandatory reconstruction implementations; conserving the monuments; performing their maintenance and reparations in accordance with conservation and preservation principles and standards. The first action developed with regards to the strategies determined is to establish programs which ensure that existing financial resources are efficiently used and search for new resources for conservation of Zeyrek World Heritage Site are undertaken, to encourage property owners and private sector to invest in restoration. Besides the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and IMM, other institutions that have been determined as also being responsible for the realisation of the action are Fatih Municipality, the Directorate of Regional Boards 199

214 of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, the Special Provincial Administration and related NGOs. The second action developed in connection with the second strategy is to support Timber and Stone Training Workshops operating under IMM KUDEB to continue its maintenance and reparation works on the cultural properties in Zeyrek in accordance with efficient and integrated conservation principles and standards. In addition to the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, IMM, the institutions which will also be responsible for the realisation of the action have been determined as KUDEB, ICOMOS, Turkish Timber Association, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, the Special Provincial Administration, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, and Universities. Institutions determined as being responsible for the third and final action developed in connection with the strategy, which is to encourage construction of structures that are in conformity with their surroundings in place of monuments that do not have certificates or have been destroyed beyond reconstruction, are the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, IMM, and Fatih Municipality, as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties. The action determined directed at the third strategy is to develop the scientific and technical infrastructure regarding the subject. The institutions responsible for carrying out this action were determined to be the Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality as well as the Ministry of Tourism and Culture and KVK Regional Directorate. Four actions have been realised with regards to conserving the monuments; performing their maintenance and reparations in accordance with conservation and preservation principles and standards strategy, which is yet another strategy connected to the same objective. Institutions determined as being responsible for the first of these actions, which is to review the monuments in terms of their maintenance and reparation needs and to schedule restoration works accordingly, to perform and monitor restoration works developed in connection with aforementioned strategy are the Site Management Directorate and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, as well as 1st District Directorate of Foundations, the Special Provincial Administration, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality and universities. The second action developed in connection with the said strategy is to consider Zeyrek Mosque, whose restoration works are in progress, as a monument and to establish a Board of Monuments accordingly. Institutions responsible in the realisation of the action have been determined as the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, and the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties. The third action determined in connection with this strategy is to complete the restoration of Zeyrek Mosque in accordance with conservation principles and standards and to promote it to the public. Institutions responsible in the realisation of the action have been determined as the Site Management Directorate, the 1st District Directorate of Foundations, as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, universities, UNESCO, and ICOMOS Turkey. 200

215 The final action developed in connection with the said strategy is to complete the ongoing restoration of Zeyrek Cistern in accordance with conservation principles and standards and to promote it to the public. Institutions responsible in the realisation of the action have been determined as the Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality, as well as Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, and universities. Objective ZC-H2. Conserving the traditional street pattern of Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site; performing its maintenance and reparations The objective developed in the Site Management Plan to resolve the threat of possible loss of the traditional street pattern in connection to Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site, which is one of the problems determined, is conserving the traditional street pattern of Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site; performing its maintenance and reparations. The strategy of complying with urban conservation standards in conservation of traditional street pattern has been determined. The first action determined in connection with this strategy is to perform urban design implementations which will ensure that all elements composing the street pattern are in harmony with the cultural properties in the Site. The institutions responsible in the realisation of the action have been determined as the Site Management Directorate, IMM, and Fatih Municipality, as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, and universities. The second action developed to realise the mentioned strategy is to ensure that the new buildings are in harmony with existing street pattern and historic environment. Institutions responsible in the realisation of the action have been determined as the Site Management Directorate, IMM, and Fatih Municipality, as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, and universities. Objective ZC-H3. Researching and conserving the underground cultural properties in Zeyrek World Heritage Site and raising them to the level of perceptibility Researching and conserving the underground cultural properties in Zeyrek World Heritage Site and raising them to the level of perceptibility has been determined as an objective to resolve documentation and conservation of archeological assets at the Site that have not been given a priority, which stands out as one of the problems determined in connection with Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) and its associated Area World Heritage Site. The strategy of researching archeological cultural heritage has been determined in order to achieve this objective. The first action determined in connection with this strategy is to conduct researches for identifying the archeological assets located in Zeyrek Mosque and its associated Area World Heritage Site and to carry out documentation studies. Institutions responsible in the realisation of the action have been determined as the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, as well as the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, Archeological Museum, universities, and NGOs. The second action determined in connection with the strategy is to perform excavation works in areas which are deemed necessary in order to recover archeological assets and to design archeological parks in convenient areas where underground and aboveground cultural properties are 201

216 exhibited. Institutions responsible in the realisation of the action have been determined as the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, and IMM, as well as the Board of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, concerned museums, and Fatih Municipality. Objective ZC-H4. Providing Promotion of Zeyrek Mosque (Pantocrator Church) World Heritage Site Providing promotion of Zeyrek Mosque Zeyrek Mosque World Heritage Site has been determined as an objective to solve one of the problems of the Site which is not being effectively promoted. The strategy determined to achieve the objective is promoting the World Heritage Site through communication tools at both national and international levels. Four actions have been developed in connection with the strategy. These have been determined as follows: to ensure that an activity network is established which will provide national and international cooperation and sharing in order to develop cultural tourism, to establish tools such as informative notice boards, scale models etc. for promoting the Site, to prepare publications, maps and brochures promoting the World Heritage Site, and Arrange / have others arrange informative trips promoting the Site. Institutions responsible in the realisation of the actions in question are defined as being the Site Management Directorate, and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. However, it has been proposed that the works related to the action should be undertaken in coordination with the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality, the 1st District Directorate of Foundations, and concerned museums. 202

217 ZEYREK MOSQUE (PANTOCRATOR CHURCH) AND ITS ASSOCIATED AREA WORLD HERITAGE SITE PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS OTHER INSTITUTIONS Inadequate conservation of Monuments and civil architectural monuments at Zeyrek World Heritage Site Scientific and technical errors being made in conservation and restoration implementations, not being able to achieve required quality with respect to materials and labour Widespread approach of demolishing and rebuilding of registered structures Widespread reconstruction efforts of monuments that do not have certificates, or have been destroyed Financial resources created regarding conservation not being used efficiently in the effective conservation of cultural properties at the Site ZC-H1. Conserving the cultural heritage within Zeyrek World Heritage Site; performing their maintenance and reparations in accordance with contemporary conservation principles and standards ZC-H1S1. Using contemporary conservation and preservation principles and standards in maintenance and reparations of registered civil architectural buildings within Zeyrek World Heritage Site ZC-H1S2. Using traditional materials and construction techniques in restoration implementations and minimising the loss of original materials and techniques ZC-H1S3. Adopting contemporary conservation approaches in mandatory reconstruction implementations ZC-H1S4. Conserving the monuments; performing their maintenance and reparations in accordance with conservation and preservation principles and standards ZC-H1S1E1. To establish programs which ensure that existing financial resources are efficiently used and to search for new resources for conservation of Zeyrek World Heritage Site, to encourage property owners and private sector to invest in restoration ZC-H1S2E1. To support Timber and Stone Training Workshops operating under IMM KUDEB to continue its maintenance and reparation works on the cultural properties in Zeyrek in accordance with efficient and integrated conservation principles and standards ZC-H1S3E1. To develop the scientific and technical infrastructure regarding the subject ZC-H1S4E1. To review the monuments in terms of their maintenance and reparation needs and to schedule restoration works accordingly, to perform and monitor restoration works ZC-H1S4E2. To consider Zeyrek Mosque, whose restoration works are in progress, as a monument and to establish a Board of Monuments accordingly Site Management Directorate, IMM, the Special Provincial Administration Site Management Directorate, IMM Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality Directorate General of Foundations, Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Directorate General of Foundations, Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Fatih Municipality, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, Concerned NGOs The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, KUDEB, ICOMOS Turkish Timber Association, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, the Special Provincial Administration, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, universities The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties 1st District Directorate of Foundations, the Special Provincial Administration, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality, universities The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties 203

218 Possible threat of loss of traditional street pattern Priority not being given to documentation and conservation of archeological assets found in the Site The Area not being sufficiently known ZC-H2. Conserving the traditional street pattern of Zeyrek World Heritage Site; performing its maintenance and reparations ZC-H3. Researching and conserving the underground cultural properties in Zeyrek World Heritage Site and raising them to a level of perceptibility ZC-H4. Providing promotion of the World Heritage Site ZC-H2S1. Complying with efficient and integrated urban conservation principles and standards in conservation of traditional street pattern ZC-H3S1. Researching archeological cultural heritage ZC-H4S1. Promoting the World Heritage Site through communication tools at both national and international levels. ZC-H1S4E3. To complete the restoration of Zeyrek Mosque in accordance with conservation principles and standards and to promote it to the public ZC-H1S4E4. To complete the ongoing restoration of Zeyrek Cistern in accordance with conservation principles and standards and to promote it to the public ZC-H2S1E1. To perform urban design implementations which will ensure that all elements composing the street pattern are in harmony with the cultural properties in the Site ZC-H2S1E2. To ensure that the new buildings are in harmony with the existing street pattern and historic environment ZC-H3S1E1. To conduct researches for identifying the archeological assets and documentation studies ZC-H3S1E2. To perform excavation works in areas which are deemed necessary in order to recover archeological assets and to design archeological parks in convenient areas where underground and aboveground cultural properties are exhibited ZC-H4S1E1. To ensure that an activity network is established which will provide national and international cooperation and sharing in order to develop cultural tourism ZC-H4S1E2. To establish tools such as informative notice boards, scale models etc. for promoting the Site ZC-H4S1E3. To prepare publications, maps and brochures promoting the World Heritage Site ZC-H4S1E4. To arrange or have others arrange promotional and informative trips to the World Heritage Site Site Management Directorate, 1st District Directorate of Foundations Site Management Directorate, Fatih Municipality Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality Site Management Directorate, IMM, Fatih Municipality Ministry of Culture and Tourism Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, IMM Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, universities The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, universities The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, universities The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, Fatih Municipality, universities Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Cultural Properties and the General Directorate of Museums, universities, NGOs Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Cultural Properties and the General Directorate of Museums, Fatih Municipality The Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, IMM, Fatih Municipality, 1st District Directorate of Foundations, concerned museums 204

219 Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site The objectives, strategies and actions developed in relation to the problems determined in the Istanbul Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan regarding Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site, and the institutions and establishments that are prescribed to take these actions are provided under this heading. The problems determined regarding the Land Walls World Heritage Site are as follows: Not ensuring the expected level and quality in the conservation and restoration practices related to Land Walls and other cultural properties Widespread approach of reconstructing the monuments without documents and lost over time as cultural properties Not giving sufficient importance to documenting, evaluating and protecting the archeological assets in the Site The existence of non-functional areas and structures, or areas and structures not in compliance with the identity of the Site. Objective KS-H1. Ensuring that the cultural properties in Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site are conserved and sustained in accordance with contemporary principles and standards The objective of ensuring that the cultural properties in Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site are conserved and sustained in accordance with contemporary principles and standards, was developed in order to address problems such as, failing to meet the expected level and quality in the conservation and restoration practices related to Land Walls and other cultural properties, dispersing the approach regarding the conversion of the destroyed works as cultural properties and not giving sufficient importance to documenting, evaluating and protecting the archeological assets in the Site. In order to reach the objective, the recognising the Land Walls and its associated buildings and archeological areas (inner and outer wall areas, moats, gates, towers and structures attached to the walls) as monuments and conserve them is determined as the first strategy. The first action determined in relation to this strategy is to clean Land Walls and its associated area by convenient techniques as an emergency intervention in the short term schedule (within the scope of maintenance, reparation and reinforcement implementations of Land Walls and its associated buildings). The institutions responsible for carrying out this action are the Site Management Directorate in cooperation with Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Fatih Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality and Eyup Municipality. The second action determined in relation to this strategy is to complete maintenance, reparation and reinforcement implementations which pay attention to original qualities of Land Walls and its associated buildings by use of convenient techniques in the long term schedule. The institutions responsible for carrying out this action are the Site Management Directorate and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in cooperation with Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, Fatih Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality and Eyup Municipality. 205

220 The third action determined in relation to this strategy is To review and supervise the vehicle traffic at the gates of the walls in terms of its effects on the Land Walls. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Fatih Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality and Eyup Municipality. The first action developed for the second strategy, which is researching the archeological heritage in Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site, is to make researches and documentation studies in order to determine the archeological areas around the Land Walls. The institutions responsible for carrying out the actions are the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, related museums, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Fatih Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality, Eyup Municipality, universities and NGOs. Two further actions are being developed to support research on the Land Walls, which is the final strategy developed in order to reach the objective. The first action is to document the cultural properties in historic cemeteries and to perform their maintenance and reparations. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The second action is to establish a Land Walls Research Centre and museum concerning Land Walls, related structures and archeological areas, and to perform research, development and training activities in the Research Centre for contemporary and suitable techniques to be applied to maintenance, reparation and reinforcement works. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, the related museums, Fatih Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality, Eyup Municipality, universities and NGOs. Objective KS-H2. Highlighting the cultural properties within the Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site in terms of conservation-use balance, providing them for public use and reviving them with the functional usages and design practices in compliance with its identity As a solution to the non-functional areas or areas not in compliance with its identity, the objective is putting forward the cultural properties in Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site within the framework of the conservation-use balance, making them available for public use and highlighting functional uses and design practices in compliance with its identity. The strategy that has been determined in order to reach the objective is managing the green areas and designated cultural areas together with the Land Walls, moats, related archeological assets, gates, towers and structures next to the walls in the related plan decisions. The first action realised in accordance with the strategy is managing the Land Walls and the related structures as a whole and supporting works for protecting them as monuments. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, related museums, Fatih Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality, Eyup Municipality, universities and NGOs. The second action developed in accordance with the strategy is organising theme parks, archeological parks, outdoor museums which manage the Land Walls and areas outside the walls as a whole, highlight the cultural properties as well as the meaning and significance of the Site. The institutions responsible for 206

221 carrying out these actions are the Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, related museums, Fatih Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality, Eyup Municipality, universities and NGOs. Objective KS-H3. Ensuring the promotion of Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site The objective is to ensure the promotion of Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site as a solution to it not being promoted effectively previously which is considered an important issue among those determined in the Site Management Plan regarding Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site. The strategy that has been determined in order to reach the objective is promoting the World Heritage Site through use of communication tools at a national and international level. Four actions have been taken in relation to the strategy. These are to ensure that an activity network is established which will provide national and international cooperation and sharing in order to develop cultural tourism, to schedule projects such as informative notice boards, scale models etc. which contain the monuments integrated with Land Walls and walls, to prepare publications, maps and brochures promoting the World Heritage Site and to arrange/have others arrange promotional and informative trips to the World Heritage Site. The institutions responsible for carrying out these actions are Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the Site Management Directorate. Furthermore, the Governorship of Istanbul, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, 1st District Directorate of Foundations Fatih Municipality, Zeytinburnu Municipality, Bayrampasa Municipality, Eyup Municipality, universities and the related museum directorates are the institutions proposed to work in coordination with such works. 207

222 ISTANBUL LAND WALLS WORLD HERITAGE SITE PROBLEM OBJECTIVE STRATEGY ACTION Not ensuring the expected level and quality in the conservation and restoration of Land Walls and other cultural properties Dispersing the approach providing that the non documented works are similar to cultural properties Not giving necessary significance for the documentation, evaluation and conservation of the archeological assets in the region KS-H1. Ensuring that the cultural properties in Istanbul Land Walls WHS are conserved and sustained in accordance with contemporary principles and standards KS-H1S1. Managing the Land Walls and its associated buildings and archaeological areas (inner and outer wall areas, ditches, gates, towers and structures attached to the walls) as monuments and conserve them KS-H1S2. Researching the archaeological heritage in Istanbul Land Walls WHS KS-H1S3. Supporting the researches to be performed for Land Walls KS-H1S1E1. To clean Land Walls and its associated area by convenient techniques as an emergency intervention in the short term schedule (within the scope of maintenance, reparation and reinforcement implementations of Land Walls and its associated buildings) KS-H1S1E2. To complete maintenance, reparation and reinforcement implementations which pay attention to original qualities of Land Walls and its associated buildings by using convenient techniques in the long term schedule KS-H1S1E3. To review the vehicle traffic at the gates of the walls in terms of its effects on the Land Walls and to put it under control KS-H1S2E1. To make researches and documentation studies in order to determine the archaeological areas around the Land Walls KS-H1S3E1. To document the cultural properties in historic cemeteries and to perform their maintenance and reparations KS-H1S3E2. To establish a Land Walls Research Centre and museum concerning Land Walls, related structures and archaeological areas. To perform research, development and training activities in the Research Centre for contemporary and suitable techniques to be applied to maintenance, reparation and reinforcement works RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS Site Management Directorate, IMM Site Management Directorate, IMM, the Special Provincial Administration Site Management Directorate, IMM Site Management Directorate, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Site Management Directorate, IMM Site Management Directorate, IMM OTHER INSTITUTIONS Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums, Fatih. Mun. Zeytinburnu Mun., Bayrampasa Mun., Eyup Mun Ministry of Culture and Tourism s General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums, Fatih. Mun. Zeytinburnu Mun., Bayrampasa Mun., Eyup Mun Fatih. Mun. Zeytinburnu Mun., Bayrampaşa Mun., Eyup Mun Related museums, IMM, Fatih. Mun. Zeytinburnu Mun., Bayrampaşa Mun., Eyup Mun., universities, NGO The Ministry of Culture and Tourism The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, related museums, Fatih. Mun. Zeytinburnu Mun., Bayrampaşa Mun., Eyup Mun., universities, NGO 208

223 Existence of nonfunctional areas and structures or areas and structures not in compliance with the identity of the Site Not presenting Land Walls WHS efficiently KS-H2. Highlighting the cultural properties within the Istanbul Land Walls World Heritage Site in terms of conservation-use balance, providing them for public use and reviving them with the functional usages and design practices in compliance with its identity KS-H3. Ensuring promotion of the World Heritage Site KS-H2S1. Managing the green areas and designated cultural areas together with the Land Walls, moats, related archeological assets, gates, towers and structures next to the walls in the related plan decisions KS-H3S1. Promoting the World Heritage Site through use of communication tools at a national and international level KS-H2S1E1. To support works for the conservation of Land Walls and related structures as monument works KS-H2S1E2. To organize theme parks, archeological parks, open air museums taking into account the Land Walls and external, and external wall, areas as a whole and featuring the cultural properties in the Site and the meaning and significance of the Site KS-H3S1E1. To ensure that an activity network is established which will provide national and international cooperation and sharing in order to develop cultural tourism KS-H3S1E2. To schedule projects such as informative notice boards, scale models etc. which contain the monuments integrated with Land Walls and city walls KS-H3S1E3. To prepare publications, maps and brochures promoting the World Heritage Site KS-H3S1E4. To arrange/have others arrange promotional and informative trips to the World Heritage Site Site Management Directorate, IMM Site Management Directorate, IMM Site Management Directorate, IMM, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Fatih. Mun. Zeytinburnu Mun., Bayrampaşa Mun., Eyup Mun., universities, NGO The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, related museums, Fatih Mun., Zeytinburnu Mun., Bayrampaşa Mun., Eyup Mun., universities, NGO Governorship of Istanbul, the Directorate of Regional Boards of Conservation of Cultural and Natural Properties, Fatih Mun., Zeytinburnu Mun., Bayrampaşa Mun., Eyup Mun., 1st District Directorate of Foundations, related Museums, universities 209

224 3. ISTANBUL HISTORIC PENINSULA SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN PROJECTS / PROJECT PACKAGES 3.1. Historic Peninsula Project Packages Within the scope of the planning objectives of the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan which were determined under the adopted vision and implementation of the strategies and actions in relation to these objectives, the Site Management Plan Area of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula and project packages relating to the four World Heritage Sites were defined. These project packages were formed on two levels, by integrating the Site Management Plan objectives, strategies and actions. These two levels were determined as the project packages of the Historic Peninsula and the World Heritage Sites. The content of the project packages of the Site Management Plan Area of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula were formed within the framework of the seven themes which had been determined and presented under the same seven titles. The project packages consist of the titles of Project Code, Project Name, Project Definition, Link with the Site Management Plan, Responsible Institutions, Related Institutions, Resources, Term and Link with the Scheduled Projects of Other Institutions. Project Code consists of two components. The first component which is expressed with Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and VII) indicates the theme of the project. It is intended to facilitate an understanding of the themes of each project which includes the Site Management Plan objectives, strategies and actions. The second component of the project code is the project number, and the numbering proceeds independent from the themes. A sample coding of the project packages of the Site Management Plan Area of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula is as follows: II-PP6 >II: Conservation, Planning and Quality of Life PP6: Project 6 Project Name indicates the name of the related project. Project Definition includes a brief explanation about the project and underlines the scope of the project. The main input resource of 210

225 the Project Definition part is the actions defined affiliated to the objectives and strategies of the Historic Peninsula Site Management Plan. Link with the Site Management Plan has four subcomponents. These subcomponents are Related Objective(s), Related Strategy (Strategies), Related Action(s) and Related Project Packages. The content of each component is designed in a way as to establish, again through the codes, the connection and reference between the other projects which were formed by the same objectives, strategies and actions related to the project in question. A project may be connected with more than one of the objectives, strategies and actions and projects. The connection between a project and other projects may be an input-output relationship as well as a complementary relationship. Responsible Institution indicates the institution which may lead the execution of the project. The responsible institution may not necessarily be the institution which provides financial resources in relation to the execution of the project. The responsible institution has the primary function of providing administrative responsibility and project coordination. In some of the project packages, more than one responsible institution is specified. Related institutions defines the institutions aside from the responsible institution(s) which possess capacities such as knowledge, human resource, technology and similar project experiences and may execute the projects in coordination with the responsible institution(s). Under the heading of Resources, it is mainly the institution(s) which may provide the financial resources for the execution of the project that are specified. The basic determining elements here are the investment program, object of foundation of the institutions and their ability to allocate financial resources from their budgets within the scope of the activities. Related Institutions and Resources may be public institutions and local government units as well as public-private sector partnerships, agencies, non-governmental organisations and private sector institutions. Term indicates the period of time in which the related project can be completed. In the project tags, the expression short corresponds to 1-2 years, medium 3-4 years and long 5 years of project terms. However these terms are approximate and estimated. As soon as these projects are clarified by the institutions, terms will become more definite. Term of the project packages which constitute sustainability such as maintenance, repair, education and awareness raising are indicated as ongoing. In the Link with the Scheduled Projects of Other Institutions section under the project packages, studies and projects related to the project which are currently approved, accepted to the investment and service program and offered within this concept by the related institutions are included. As for Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, the projects included in the 2011 Investment Program are indicated with their own codes. A key was prepared in relation to the explanations of these project codes. 211

226 Figure 3. Sample Project Definition in relation to the Site Management Plan Area of the Istanbul Historic Peninsula 212

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