Flood Cleanup Health Tips

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1 Fld Cleanup Health Tips Mntana Department f Public Health and Human Services Fd and Cnsumer Safety Sectin (406) Mntana Department f Envirnmental Quality Public Water Supply Sectin (406) HELENA, MONTANA Several kinds f diarrheal illness and ther cmmunicable diseases are mre cmmn in areas that have flded. The majr reasns are the use f unsafe water and unsafe fd. This brchure cntains infrmatin cmpiled and summarized frm varius natinal, state, and lcal health agencies. The purpse is t prvide ne cnvenient surce f emergency health infrmatin fr thse wh must return t, live in, and salvage fld stricken hmes.

2 DISINFECTION WATER Drinking Water 3 Disinfecting Hme Wells 3 FOOD SAFETY Stred Fds 5 Shelf Stable and Canned Gds 5 Refrigerated Fds 5 Frzen Fds 7 Fd Preparatin 7 HEALTH & HYGIENE ISSUES Entering Damaged Buildings 9 Cleaning Bedding and Clthing 9 Medicines 9 Immunizatins 9 Persnal Hygiene 10 Wund Care 10 Keep Yurself Safe 10 Hme Sanitatin 11 Mld 12 MOSQUITO & VECTOR CONTROL Disease Vectrs 13 West Nile Virus 13 Prtecting Yurself 13 Guidelines fr Reducing Msquit Ppulatins 14 2

3 DISINFECTING WATER When cleaning up after a fld, hand washing is the single mst imprtant thing yu can d t prtect yur health and the health f ther members f yur husehld. Fr this yu will need safe water. DRINKING WATER All water pssibly cntaminated by flding must be disinfected, whether frm wells, springs, r cisterns. If available, bttled water which has nt been in cntact with may be used during cleanup. Flding ften disables pwer r gas service alng with ther utilities, making it difficult t sanitize flded wells and restre refrigeratin. In such cases, bttled water may be the best chice fr husehld water until utilities are restred. Yu may use yur wn bttles and fill them at a surce knwn t be safe. Other drinking water shuld be treated by ne f the 2 methds given belw. Nte: if the water is excessively turbid (cludy r clred), it may be difficult t sanitize it withut biling. 1. Bil water fr five minutes and stre in a clean cntainer. The flat taste can be eliminated by shaking the water in a bttle r puring it frm ne cntainer t anther. 2. Mix 5 drps f husehld bleach with 1 quart f water (r 20 drps per galln) and let stand fr at least five minutes (preferably 30 minutes t an hur) r lnger befre drinking. Bleach shuld be unscented and free f detergents r additives. This water will be suitable fr drinking, hand washing, and fr washing pts and utensils. An insulated beverage cntainer with a bttm spigt is useful fr string a small supply f drinking and culinary water. Public service annuncements may indicate a surce f water prvided fr the public as a part f the disaster respnse plan. Disaster respnse agencies may make interim bttled r tanked water available t the public. This may allw yu time t sanitize and renvate yur husehld water supply. DISINFECTING HOME WELLS Once fldwaters have receded and pwer has been restred, wells, springs r cisterns shuld be adequately prtected against all knwn surces f cntaminatin befre disinfecting the supply. Guidance fr disinfecting varius sizes and depths f wells are given n page 4, Table 1. T disinfect mst wells, mix tw quarts f liquid husehld bleach with ten gallns f water and pur the cntents dwn the well (inside the casing). If available, run a hse t the well and run water dwn the inside f the well casing, being sure t wet all f the interir well casing, fr fifteen minutes. This will cause the chlrine t mix with the water in the well and will als allw yu t disinfect all f the well casing. Replace well cver and turn n all water taps, starting with thse farthest frm the well and mving twards the well, until there is an dr f chlrine. Turn ff the water and d nt use it fr eight hurs. Then pen all taps and spigts and flush ut the chlrine. Keep flushing until the chlrine dr has disappeared. D nt flush chlrinated water int perennial streams r lakes. It is nt advised t use yur septic system fr flushing chlrine water, but if yu must, adjust the flw f faucets r fixtures that discharge int septic systems t a very lw rate f flw t avid verlading the system. 3

4 TABLE 1 Disinfecting Husehld Wells (Using 5.25% husehld bleach) Husehld bleach (5.25 t 6%) shuld be mixed with water befre adding t the well casing at the rate f 1 cup r less per 5 gallns f clear water; 2 cups t 1 quart in 10 gallns f clear water; and 2 r mre quarts f bleach in 20 gallns f water. Then fllw the steps given abve. Nte: Depth f water in well is measured frm the static water level t the bttm f the well. DEPTH OF WATER IN WELL (ft) DIAMETER OF WELL (INCHES) 4" CASING 6" CASING 8" CASING 24" DUG WELL 36" DUG WELL 48" DUG WELL 5 FEET 1 cup 1 cup 1 1/2 cups 4 cups 3 quarts 5 quarts 10 1 cup 1 cup 1 1/2 cups 3 quarts 6 quarts 2 1/2 gallns 15 1 cup 1 cup 1 1/2 cups 4 quarts 2 gallns 4 gallns 20 1 cup 1 cup 2 cups 5 quarts 30 1 cup 2 cups 4 cups /2 cup 2 cups 1 quart 60 2 cups 4 cups 2 quarts 80 2 cups 1 quart 2 quarts cups 1 1/2 quarts 2 1/2 quarts cups 2 1/2 quarts 4 quarts The effectiveness f disinfectin can be checked after cmpleting the abve prcess by submitting a water sample t a labratry t be analyzed fr the presence f clifrm bacteria. The sample shuld be cllected in a cntainer supplied by a certified labratry and taken in accrdance with labratry sampling instructins. Samples shuld be cllected nly after the chlrine has been ut f the system fr at least 72 hurs. TABLE 1A Disinfectant Slutins Summary: (Husehld bleach 5.25% 6% sdium hypchlrite) Sanitizing Drinking r Culinary Water, Hand Washing Water, and Utensils Fr Salvaging Cans, Cleaning Flded Walls, Surfaces, Cunters, Flrs, and Tys 5 drps f husehld bleach with 1 quart f water (20 drps per galln) 1 cup f bleach with 5 gallns f water (2 3 tablespns per quart) *Use prtective glves & glasses and rinse this slutin frm metal surfaces after 10 minutes t prevent crrsin. Fr Disinfecting Flded Wells, Plumbing, and Strage Tanks 2 quarts f bleach with 10 gallns f water (see Table 1 abve) *Use safety glasses, prtective glves, and clthing. Avid direct skin r cntact with these slutins. Sampling bttles and instructins can be btained frm the DPHHS Envirnmental Labratry, Bttles and instructins can be mailed upn request. 4

5 FOOD SAFETY STORED FOODS T prevent diarrheal diseases and ther illnesses, the fllwing items shuld be destryed if they have been expsed t s: fresh meats pultry fresh vegetables fruit ready t eat fds lunch meats cheese hme canned fds Shelf Stable and Canned Fds Seepage can carry harmful bacteria int all but airtight cntainers. Cntents f crwn capped bttles, screw tp glass cntainers (including canned fd in glass jars), and unprtected flexible packages shuld nt be used it is very difficult t pen them withut spreading the cntaminatin frm the package clsure t the fd inside. Sealed metal cans are unsafe if punctured, bulging, r leaking. Sealed metal cans and hermetically sealed packages with prtective uter packaging in gd cnditin may be salvaged, but they must be carefully cleaned and disinfected befre pening. If such packages are leaking, bulging, r shw evidence f puncture they shuld be destryed. medicines and csmetics packages that are nt hermetically sealed (airtight) flur packaged frzen fds ther cmmdities in bags The recmmended prcedure fr cleaning and disinfecting cans f fd: 1. Remve labels, but mark the can in a way that will enable yu t identify the cntents after disinfectin. Clred crayn, wax pencil, indelible marker, r adhesive tape may be used. 2. Wash cans in warm water cntaining sap r detergent. Then rinse the detergent frm the can. 3. Sak the cans fr at least 1½ t 2 minutes in a tub cntaining a disinfecting slutin made by mixing a slutin at the rate f 1 cup f husehld bleach* t 5 gallns f water (r 2 TBSP per quart). Rinse the cans in clear water that is bttled, disinfected, r which has been previusly biled fr at least 5 minutes. *Cautin: This cncentratin f bleach will damage sme fabrics and may have a pungent dr. Use waterprf glves and d nt wash yur hands in this slutin. 4. Re inspect the packages. If there is any dubt abut the integrity f any package, d nt use it. Hermetically sealed fds which nrmally require freezing r refrigeratin shuld nt be salvaged unless they have been cntinuusly held within the prper temperature range. Refrigerated Fds Fld cnditins ften disrupt natural gas, electricity and ther utilities. Refrigeratrs will nt perate when electrical pwer is ut, and are ften dwn fr hurs r days. If the refrigeratr has been dwn fr mre than six hurs, r if the fd has been warmed t abve 45 F fr mre than 3 hurs, discard fds needing refrigeratin (milk, eggs, meat, puddings, fish, and canned hams labeled "Keep Refrigerated"). Where pwer is expected t be reinstated within minutes, keep the refrigeratr r freezer dr clsed as much as pssible. Refer t Table 2 n page 6 fr mre guidance. 5

6 Where pwer is ut r turned ff and alternate refrigeratin is nt available, fds nrmally requiring refrigeratin shuld be placed in insulated cntainers r ice chests and transprted t alternate refrigeratin as sn as pssible. In n case shuld they be left withut refrigeratin fr mre than 4 hurs. Wherever pssible the temperature shuld be held belw 45 F. If dry ice is available, it may be used fr temprary refrigeratin r t preserve frzen fds. If the times and temperatures are unknwn, the fd shuld be discarded. "When in dubt, thrw it ut." There are a number f cndiments and ther fds which are typically stred at rm temperature until after the packaging is pened r the prduct is partly used, at which pint they are usually refrigerated. These may include margarine, hard cheeses, fruit pies, fruit preserves, breads, fruits, salad dressing, jelly, relish, barbeque sauce, tartar sauce, hrseradish, mustard, and ketchup. These fds may be salvaged and placed in refrigeratin if they have nt been directly cntacted by the fldwater. TABLE 2 When T Save & When t Discard Refrigerated Fd DAIRY EGGS CHEESE FRUITS VEGETABLES MEAT POULTRY FISH FOOD TYPE milk, cream, ygurt, baby frmula butter, margarine, shrtening fresh, hard cked, egg dishes, egg salad, custard pies custards, puddings, egg batter (uncked) hard cheeses, prcessed cheese sft cheeses, cttage cheese, brie etc. bttled fruit juices, pened canned fruits, fresh fruits, raisins, dried fruit, dates, vegetables, cked r raw; vegetable juices, pened, cut nins, baked ptates, chpped garlic in il r butter casserles, sups, stews Fresh r Leftver meat r pultry, raw thawing meat tuna, shrimp, chicken, gravy, stuffing lunch meat, bacn, sausage, dried beef, meat, pizza, canned meats (pen), ham FOOD STILL COLD HELD ABOVE 45 F FOR UNDER 3 HOURS AFE, if nt in cntact with FOOD HELD ABOVE 45 F FOR OVER 3 HOURS by by by by DISCARD, if abve 45 F fr mre than 1 day r if abve 50 F fr mre than 8 hurs by by DISCARD, after 6 hurs by by 6

7 PASTRIES PIES BREADS MAYONNAISE SPREADS canned ham labeled keep refrigerated cream r cheese filled Pies, fruit Cakes, muffins, biscuits (cked), crn chips, cked ckies refrigeratr biscuits, rlls, ckie dugh, cked pasta, pasta salads w/ maynnaise, r vinegar base, macarni & cheese Tartar sauce, hrseradish, chpped garlic, salsa (pened r fresh) Peanut butter, pened salad dressings, jelly, relish, barbeque sauce, lives, ketchup, mustard, tac sauce, apple butter by by by DISCARD, if abve 45 F fr mre than 1 day r if abve 50 F fr mre than 8 hurs Frzen Fds Frzen fds shuld immediately be transprted t alternate freezers in well insulated chests r bxes, r placed with dry ice. Thse that have been thawed and then held abve 45 F fr mre than fur hurs shuld be discarded. Thse which are thawed fr up t three hurs and which still cntain ice crystals and are cld as if refrigerated, may be re frzen, and can usually be refrigerated and salvaged. Sme fds can be re frzen even if they are abve 45 F fr a day r mre. These include frzen juices, cmmercially packaged fruit, breads, rlls, cakes, pie crusts, cmmercial bread dugh, flur, crn meal, and nuts. There is sme risk f mld, yeasty smell r texture lss, including sliminess n the exterir f the fd. If this ccurs, discard the fd. Sealed bags f smked fish require refrigeratin at belw 38 F. Discard thse prducts if they are held abve that temperature fr mre that 4 hurs. FOOD PREPARATION Here are a few hints t insure safe and easier meals: 1. Bil r disinfect water used fr fd preparatin as described in Table 1A n page 4 r bttled water that has nt cme in cntact with. 2. Wash hands and cking utensils in clean r disinfected water (5 drps f husehld bleach with 1 quart f water (r up t 20 drps per galln) and let stand fr at least five minutes (preferably 30 minutes t an hur) as yu wuld fr drinking water (see rw 2 n page 4). This mild cncentratin shuld be adequate fr cking, hand washing, r drinking, but it will taste better if stred in a clean vessel fr a few hurs befre drinking. 3. Cnserve fuel, water, and energy, as well as the number f cking and serving utensils, by preparing casserles and ne dish meals such as stews, pt rasts, and sups. 7

8 4. Bil and save the liquids f canned vegetables. Substitute them fr water in recipes fr sups, stews and ther cked dishes. 5. Drain and save juices frm canned fruits. They may be mixed and cmbined with ther canned fruit juices and used as beverages and in making gelatin salads/desserts, instead f scarce water. 6. If yur ven is in wrking cnditin, use it t ck stews, vegetables and ther fds. Oven cking will require less attentin and free yu t d ther tasks while the meal cks. 7. If yu lack refrigeratin, ck nly as much as can be eaten at ne meal. Avid leftvers. If yu have refrigeratin, yu may want save time by preparing fd fr mre that ne meal in advance. 8. When purchasing frmula ingredients fr infants, such as evaprated r dry skim milk, be sure the cntainers are sealed. After pening in the hme, be sure they are tightly cvered t prevent cntaminatin. In the absence f refrigeratin, make up nly enugh frmula fr immediate use. If mixing pwdered milk r dry frmula, we recmmend bttled water. 9. Avid fds that are subject t quick spilage and bacterial cntaminatin, such as creamed fds, hash, custards and cream pies, salads and sandwiches mixed with maynnaise r ther perishables, unless refrigeratin is available, r purchase individual prtins (entrees) which yu can heat, eat and discard the remainder. 10. Avid keeping prepared r cked fd at rm temperatures. Keep ht fds ht and cld fds cld. Plan yur meals t avid leftvers, unless yu have refrigeratin r insulated clers with dry ice. 11. In general, during the fld, cmmercially canned and packaged fds are recmmended: canned dried milk; canned meats, fish, pultry; canned fruits, vegetables and juices; packaged, dried r dehydrated fds; canned r packaged biscuits, breads, crackers, ckies; frzen fds which have nt been expsed t r thawed. 8

9 HEALTH AND HYGIENE ISSUES ENTERING DAMAGED BUILDINGS If there are any dubts abut the safety f a building which has been flded, d nt enter it. Seek prfessinal advice first, and arrange fr assistance wherever pssible. Infrmatin and advice may be available frm the fire department r the Disaster and Emergency Services agency in yur area. Als, shelters, safe fd, and safe water may have been set up by a public service agency. Yur lcal health department r sheriff may als be able t help prvide infrmatin. Even with guidance and assistance as mentined abve, when yu d enter a damaged building, check it fr buckled walls, electrical hazards, lse bricks, cracks r any shifting f the fundatin. D nt pump flded basements ut t quickly because the water saturated grund arund the basement culd push the walls in. Als be alert fr electrical hazards and dwned pwer lines. Fllw the instructins f yur utility cmpany cncerning the restratin f gas r electrical service. If unusual situatins ccur, call fr guidance. CLEANING CLOTHING AND BEDDING Since disease prducing bacteria ften carried by fldwater can remain alive fr lng perids in and n fabrics, care in laundering clthing and bedding is essential. First, brush ff all dirt. If the fabric is mud stained, rinse in cl water until as much mud as pssible is remved. Then wash as usual, using enugh detergent t keep sil frm redepsiting n fabrics. The use f a disinfectant in the rinse water is especially recmmended t destry bacteria. Fr white fabrics, husehld bleach is recmmended. Yur lcal market may have ther prducts fr ther fabrics. Manufacturers directins shuld be fllwed carefully. Sme types f mattresses saked with fldwater shuld be discarded since recnditining is t difficult t be dne at hme. There are types made with synthetic cverings r less absrbent materials which can be air dried (fr several days) and sanitized, preferably in the sun, and may be suitable fr re use. The general recmmendatin is t discard them. Hwever, fam rubber pillws, if left in their cvers, may be washed and air dried. D nt use an autmatic drier r dry cleaning slutin. MEDICINES Discard all medicines expsed t s and have all needed prescriptins refilled as sn as pssible. If yu have diabetes r ther chrnic disease fr which medicatins are needed n an nging basis, cntact yur physician t be sure yur prescriptins are current, and be cautius abut substitutins. Yur lcal public health nurse may be able t answer any questins yu may have. IMMUNIZATIONS There is n indicatin fr typhid immunizatin in mst fld emergencies. Typhid immunizatin requires abut six weeks t becme effective. Immediate prtectin frm diarrheal diseases is best prvided by using nly bttled water, water which has been biled fr five minutes r treated chemically, and by discarding fd which may have becme cntaminated r which was nt held at the prper temperature due t pwer utage. Tetanus, Diphtheria (TD) bster is needed nly n the recmmendatin f a physician in the case f an actual injury r wund. The fld itself impses n additinal risk f tetanus. 9

10 Infrmatin abut cmmunicable disease is ften prvided thrugh the media during flds. Watch fr infrmatin frm the health department. Yur lcal public health nurse can answer any questins. WOUND CARE Open wunds and rashes expsed t s can becme infected. T prtect yurself and yur family, Avid expsure t s if yu have an pen wund. Cver pen wunds with a waterprf bandage. Keep pen wunds as clean as pssible by washing well with sap and clean water. If a wund develps redness, swelling, r drainage, seek immediate medical attentin. Fr mre infrmatin, visit CDC s website, Emergency Wund Care after a Natural Disaster PERSONAL HYGIENE Several simple rules f persnal cleanliness shuld be fllwed: Wash hands with sap and bttled r disinfected water after using the tilet participating in fld clean up handling fld cntaminated articles befre and after smking Use biled r disinfected water fr brushing teeth and ther persnal hygiene. Children are especially at risk f diarrheal diseases; wash yur hands thrughly after diaper changing, and befre handling r playing with small children. KEEP YOURSELF SAFE Apprach any damaged areas with cautin. Hazards may include pesticides, harmful chemicals, r sewage in s. Als watch fr brken gas lines, electrical hazards, dead animal carcasses, displaced wildlife, and any ther hazards that culd be a ptential threat t yu and yur family. If yur electrical system is damaged, cntact yur utility cmpany abut restring the service, r see an electrician befre yu attempt t reset breakers r use electrical equipment. Belw are a few reminders: Set pririties t accmplish the vital tasks first and avid physical verexertin; rest ccasinally. Regardless f the crisis, be sure children are safe and being cared fr at all times. Never leave them alne r allw them t play in fld damaged buildings r areas that might be unsafe. Keep them away frm pnded water; it culd cntain dangerus pathgens r chemicals. Give special attentin t cleaning children's tys, cribs, playpens, and play equipment. Items a baby r tddler may put in his muth shuld be biled, r disinfected as shwn in Table 1A n page 6. Discard all stuffed tys and items that are nt easily cleaned r are water lgged. Read the Fd Safety sectin n page 5. Keep chemicals used fr disinfectin and pisns fr insect and rdent cntrl ut f reach f children. Wear prtective clthing cvering limbs, feet and hands while cleaning up debris and rubber glves while scrubbing fld damaged interirs and furniture. Be sure electrical appliances are dry and in gd cnditin befre using. Mnitr radi and televisin bulletins fr infrmatin cncerning emergency husing, ratins, emergency tilet facilities, travel, and ther imprtant guidance fr residents f the flded area 10

11 Make a list f emergency phne numbers t keep n hand Fire department Sheriff's ffice Lcal public health department Lcal Disaster and Emergency Services (DES) Crdinatr Lcal public water wrks ffice Public Water Supply Sectin f the MT Department f Envirnmental Quality Lcal Envirnmental Health Office (Sanitarian) Others Be cautius abut entering enclsed spaces where gasses may have accumulated sewers, manhles, basements, r ther enclsures. Yu cannt always smell txic r explsive gas. If yu find a prpane tank (whether a small 20# tank r a larger husehld tank) it may be a hazard t mve r disturb it. Cntact yur fire department fr help. Additinal infrmatin can be fund n the web at: HOME SANITATION Persnal hygiene, particularly hand washing is ne f the mst imprtant measures fr preventing illness frm fld cntaminatin. Always wash hands befre eating! D nt use cntaminated water r water which is questinable, fr any dmestic use, including cking, drinking, bathing, brushing f teeth etc., until it has been treated. Lk fr a surce f safe water such as a relative r friend in an area nt affected by the fld, and btain a supply in clean plastic jugs. A beverage cler with a spigt near the bttm will be helpful fr hand washing and getting started n cleanup safely. pssibly using ventilatin fans. Persns n cntaminated cmmunity water systems shuld bil the water r treat it with husehld bleach (see page 4) r use bttled water, until fficial ntice is given that the water supply is safe. Clean the building f all silt and refuse left by the fld. After dirt has been remved all wall and flr areas which have been tuched by the fldwater shuld be washed dwn with washing pwder r cncentrated detergent slutin (nt sap) and then rinsed with a chlrine slutin. If a "fld smell" remains, the building has nt been thrughly disinfected. Steam clean all carpeting. Many parts f the cleanup invlve drying, Fiberglass insulatin that has been expsed t fldwaters shuld be replaced. All eating and drinking utensils shuld be sanitized besides being thrughly cleaned. See Fd Preparatin n page 6. Wash slutins used fr laundering clthes, bedding, and ther fabric items, shuld include a disinfectant. Laundry bleach r ther cmmercially available prducts may be used. Fllw directins n cntainers. Inside surfaces f hmes cntaminated by fldwaters shuld be cleaned with a slutin invlving pwdered cleanser (use accrding t manufacturers instructins). It is imprtant t rinse affected walls and flrs with a chlrine 11

12 slutin (1 cup f husehld bleach t 5 gallns f water). After 10 minutes rinse chlrine slutin frm metal r wd grain surfaces t prevent chemical reactins r rusting. D nt apply strng chlrine slutin t rubber, rganic material, carpeting r absrbent surfaces. Dry ice may be used as temprary refrigeratin. Be sure t use glves when handling, and remember dry ice freezes anything and everything it cntacts. Placing it in paper bags r several layers f newsprint will make it easier t handle. Remember that sewage ften backs up int the huse r basement during flding. Rubber bts and waterprf glves are needed during cleanup MOLD Since peple can react t mld, whether it is living r dead, it must be remved. Take steps t prtect yur health during mld remval. If there is mre than a little mld, use a mask r respiratr that will filter ut mld spres. Usually it will be designated as an N95, 3M #1860 r TC 21C particulate respiratr. Wear eye prtectin, rubber glves and clthing that can be immediately laundered. In additin t areas that were flded, search fr misture in areas with a damp r mldy smell, especially in basements, kitchens and bathrms. Lk fr water stains r clred, fuzzy grwth arund ceilings, walls, flrs, windwsills and pipes. If yu smell a musty dr, search behind and belw carpeting, furniture r stred items. Inspect kitchens, bathrms and basements fr standing water, water stains and patches f ut f place clr. If yu can, take furniture that has been wet utside t dry and clean, because direct sunlight prevents mld grwth. Dispse f mld cntaminated materials, especially prus items. It is impssible t cmpletely remve mld frm prus surfaces such as paper, sheetrck (drywall), wall paper, and carpet padding, s these materials shuld be remved and discarded. Use pen windws, fans r dehumidifiers t dry surfaces as lng as the prblem remains. Dampen mldy materials befre remval t minimize the number f airbrne mld spres. Mld can be remved frm hard surfaces such as hard plastic, glass, metal and cunter tps by scrubbing with a nn ammnia sap r detergent. (D nt mix ammnia and bleach; the fumes are txic.) Scrubbing may nt cmpletely remve mld grwth n structural wd, such as wall studs, s it may need t be remved by sanding. Wear persnal prtective gear and islate the wrk area frm the rest f the hme. After the mld is remved, disinfect the area using a bleach and water slutin r anther disinfectant. The amunt f bleach recmmended per galln f water varies cnsiderably. A clean surface requires less bleach than a dirty surface. A slutin f 1/4 cup t 1/2 cup bleach t 1 galln f water shuld be adequate fr clean surfaces. The surface must remain wet fr abut 10 t 15 minutes t allw the slutin t disinfect. Cncentratins as high as 1½ cups f bleach per galln f water are recmmended fr wd and cncrete surfaces that culd nt be thrughly cleaned. Prvide adequate ventilatin during disinfecting and wear rubber glves. Finally, rinse the entire area with clean water, and then rapidly dry the surfaces. If there is a lt f water damage, and/r mld grwth cvers mre than 10 square feet, yu may need t hire a prfessinal. 12

13 MOSQUITO & VECTOR CONTROL DISEASE VECTORS Msquites, rdents and ticks are amng the principal vectrs fr diseases in humans in Mntana. During fld cnditins msquites becme the principal cncern fr residents f a cmmunity. Increasing msquit ppulatins resulting frm pled water can increase the threat f msquit brne diseases. Mre likely, hwever, increased msquit ppulatins will invlve "pest" types f msquites. Their effects will be expressed in terms f intense persnal discmfrt, and increased cases f secndary infectins. Nt all water is ideal fr msquit breeding. Water which is pen and, running water and water that is relatively free f emergent vegetatin des nt prmte msquit breeding. Temprary, shallw, standing water that lasts fr five days during exceptinally ht weather can prduce hrdes f pest msquites. Typically (at peak air temperatures f degrees Fahrenheit) the egg t adult develpmental time will be 7 r 8 days. Msquites lay their eggs n the surface f water which is typically shallw and has emergent vegetatin. T determine if water is prducing msquites, dip ut sme water (near the surface and clse t vegetatin) at weekly intervals. Examine it fr the aquatic stages such as eggs, larvae/wigglers, and pupae/tumblers. WEST NILE VIRUS West Nile virus (WNV) is ften transmitted thrugh the bite f an infected msquit. It can ptentially cause serius illness in humans and hrses, such as encephalitis. West Nile virus first appeared in Nrth America in 1999 and appeared in Mntana in Msquites belnging t members f the Culex species are the mst cmmn carriers f WNV in the Nrth America. In Mntana, Culex tarsalis is the mst cmmn WNV msquit vectr and generally emerges in mid r late summer. Hw is WNV maintained in nature? In nature, the virus is amplified during perids f adult msquit bld feeding and cntinuus viral transmissin between msquites and birds. Peple, hrses, and mst ther mammals are generally cnsidered "dead end" r incidental hsts. This means that mammals are nt knwn help maintain WNV in nature. What happens when humans becme infected with WNV? Many peple wh becme infected with West Nile virus experience n symptms. Sme individuals develp a mild illness, called West Nile fever, which may last fr three t six days. Generally, n treatment is needed. Other individuals, fewer than 1 ut f 150, may becme severely infected and develp symptms f encephalitis r meningitis. These symptms can include high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupr, disrientatin, cma, tremrs, cnvulsins, muscle weakness, visin lss, numbness and paralysis. These symptms may last several weeks, and neurlgical effects may be permanent. Peple typically develp symptms between 3 and 14 days after they are bitten by the infected msquit. In Mntana, mst human cases ccur between late July and the first freeze. There is n WNV vaccine available fr humans. PROTECTING YOURSELF Use these tips t help prevent msquit bites. When yu are utdrs, use insect repellent cntaining an EPA registered active ingredient. Fllw the directins n the package. The U.S. Public Health Service and Cnsumer Reprts state that the mst effective repellent chemical is diethyl tluamide (DEET). Fllw label directins and precautins. Care must be taken when using DEET n small children. Many msquites are mst active at dusk and dawn. Be sure t use insect repellent and wear lng sleeves and pants at these times r cnsider staying indrs during these hurs. 13

14 Make sure yu have gd screens n yur windws and drs t keep msquites ut. Repair windw and dr screens, and add screening where needed. Get rid f msquit breeding sites by emptying standing water frm flwer pts, buckets, and barrels. Change the water in pet dishes and replace the water in bird baths weekly. Drill hles in tire swings s water drains ut. Keep children's wading pls empty and n their sides when they aren't being used. While rganized msquit abatement districts can d mre t cntrl msquites than an individual r small independent grup, prperty wners can prtect themselves as well. It is best if msquites are cntrlled at their surce. Althugh sme types f adult msquites may cmmnly fly frm 3 t 5 miles, they thin ut as they disperse frm a rearing site, and mst mve nly far enugh t feed. Cnsult yur lcal msquit cntrl rganizatin, lcal health department, r yur lcal Extensin Office. Guidelines fr Reducing Msquit Ppulatin Remve unneeded standing water n yur prperty. Mst aquatic stages die if water is remved. Discard tires, cans, and ther items which hld water. Restre drainage. Stagnant pls r swampy places shuld be filled, drained, r deepened when practical. Remve debris and flating and emergent vegetatin frm thse areas that cannt be filled r drained. Avid having shallw pnd margins; steep straight banks withut emergent vegetatin prvide little cver fr msquit larvae. Ornamental r stck watering pnds can be stcked with fish. Trut r ther game fish keep pnds frm rearing many msquites if vegetatin is nt t dense. Msquitfish are effective. Surface irrigated fields shuld be prperly graded. Lw areas in fields that cllect water are majr surces f msquit prductin. D nt ver irrigate fields and pastures. Using nly necessary amunts f water (with adequate fertilizatin) increases hay quality and yield as well as reducing msquit prductin. D nt permit field laterals and drains t cntain excessive amunts f vegetatin. The n field ditches shuld be regularly cleaned and maintained t reduce msquit habitat. Bidegradable msquit cntrl "ils" may be applied t standing water. (Examine water fr larvae prir t any treatment). These ils are much less harmful t fish and vegetatin than kersene r fuel ils and have been used where livestck take water (cntact DEQ and/r Department f Agriculture fr mre infrmatin n larvacides). Registered insecticides can be applied t msquit rearing water n yur prperty if applied accrding t label directins by qualified persns. Keep lawns clipped and bushes trimmed t reduce the cver prvided t adult msquites. Registered insecticides can be used fr adult msquit cntrl. They can be applied t adult resting places as shrt term residual sprays, r space (cntact) sprays can be drifted thrugh areas n light air currents at dusk r dawn t kill adult msquites present at that mment. All insecticides must be used in accrdance with label directins and restrictins. In the event f a federally declared disaster, federal assistance fr the cntrl f msquit vectrs may be available, prvided a serius health hazard t humans has resulted r is develping which is clearly beynd state and lcal capabilities. Such vectr cntrl needs are unlikely but wuld be investigated by the state and lcal health agencies. Msquit cntrl wrk t eliminate a nuisance cnditin is nt eligible fr federal assistance. Yu can btain additinal infrmatin regarding msquit cntrl prgrams frm yur lcal msquit cntrl district, lcal health department, r lcal Extensin Office. 14

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