Työpaja Lähes nollaenergiarakennus (nzeb) tavoitteet ja. käsitteet, suuntaviivat kansallisella tasolla

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1 Lähes nollaenergiarakennus (nzeb) tavoitteet ja käsitteet, suuntaviivat kansallisella tasolla Työpaja Rakennusteollisuus RT ry LVItalotekniikkateollisuus ry Ympäristöministeriö

2 REHVA Technical Seminar, Technologies for nzeb March 5, 2014, Praha nzeb definitions in Europe Jarek Kurnitski Professor, Vicepresident REHVA Tallinn University of Technology Aalto University

3 EPBD recast Nearly zero energy buildings nzeb In the directive nearly zeroenergy building means a building that has a very high energy performance (EP). The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources (RES) produced onsite or nearby. nzeb = very high EP + onsite or nearby RES Definition of a very high EP and significant extent of RES let for Member States (MS), however the costoptimality principle has been set. EPBD Article 9 By 31 Dec 2020, all new buildings are nearly zero energy buildings After 31 Dec 2018, public authorities that occupy and own a new building shall ensure that the building is a nearly zero energy building

4 EPBD definition for energy performance EPBD definitions (article 2): energy performance of a building means the calculated or measured amount of energy needed to meet the energy demand associated with a typical use of the building, which includes, inter alia, energy used for heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water and lighting Other services may or may not be included in the rating included in REHVA definition

5 nzeb definitions European definitions based on EPBD recast: REHVA 2013 REHVA has revised its nzeb technical definition and set of system boundaries for primary energy indicator and RER calculation in cooperation with CEN, REHVA Report No:4 CEN is working with overarching EPBD standard pren 15603:2013, which will include calculation bases for primary energy and RER, EN excpected National definitions Progress report by EC, COM(2013) 483 final/2, : 4 (10) MS provided a definition that comprises both numerical target and a share of RES, included in a legal document Most MS report progress in defining nzeb Concerted Action CA EPBD Oct 2013 reports that 10 MS have nzeb numerical definitions (however it is not always clear are these values in legal document or not)

6 EPBD overarching standard pren15603:2013 defines energy balance of a building (a), on site perimeter (b), nearby (c) and distant energy production (d).

7 REHVA nzeb technical definition 2013 revision ZEB, net ZEB, PEB and nzeb definitions A set of system boundaries to calculate: Energy need Energy use Delivered and exported energy Primary energy Renewable energy ratio Nearby energy production Sites with multiple buildings Load matching and grid interactions Worked examples National low energy and nzeb requirements/targets from selected countries

8 Energy flows to be covered by nzeb definition for EP P calculation Primary energy indicator EP P EP P = E A P net = ( Edel, i f del, i ) ( Eexp, i fexp, i ) i A net i For thermal and electrical energy it applies: Delivered exported energy = energy use on site renewable

9 REHVA nzeb definition 2013 net zero energy building (net ZEB) Nonrenewable primary energy of 0 kwh/(m 2 a). net ZEB has exact performance level of 0 kwh/(m 2 a) primary energy NOTE A net ZEB is typically a grid connected building with very high energy performance. A net ZEB balances its primary energy use so that the primary energy feedin to the grid or other energy network equals to the primary energy delivered to ZEB from energy networks. Annual balance of 0 kwh/(m 2 a) primary energy use typically leads to the situation where significant amount of the onsite energy generation will be exchanged with the grid. nearly zero energy building (nzeb) Technically and reasonably achievable national energy use of > 0 kwh/(m 2 a) but no more than a national limit value of nonrenewable primary energy, achieved with a combination of best practice energy efficiency measures and renewable energy technologies which may or may not be cost optimal. NOTE 1 reasonably achievable means by comparison with national energy use benchmarks appropriate to the activities served by the building, or any other metric that is deemed appropriate by each EU Member State. NOTE 2. Renewable energy technologies needed in nearly zero energy buildings may or may not be costeffective, depending on available national financial incentives. nzeb depends on national conditions

10 EP and RER calculation needs detailed system boundaries System boundaries (SB) for energy need, energy use and delivered and exported energy calculation. The last one may be interpreted as the building site boundary. Demand reduction measures can be distinguished from RE solutions in the energy use SB, not in the delivered/exported energy SB

11 Example: nzeb office primary energy Electricity use of cooling, ventilation, lighting and appliances is 39.8 kwh/(m 2 a) Solar electricity of 6.0 kwh/(m 2 a) reduces the delivered electricity to 33.8 kwh/(m 2 a) Net delivered fuel energy (caloric value) is 4.2 kwh/(m 2 a) and primary energy is 54 kwh/(m 2 a)

12 RER: Example of nzeb office The same input data as in previous example

13 System boundary for nearby RE System boundary for nearby RE plants contractually linked to the building (a share of the capacity/production can be linked to the building) National legislation needed to allocate new RE capacity to the building/development with a long term contract

14 System boundary for multiple buildings DELIVERED ENERGY Electricity District heat Building n District cooling Fuels (renewable and nonrenewable) Building 2 Building 1 SITE ENERGY CENTRE EXPORTED ENERGY Electricity Heating en. Cooling en. Building site boundary = system boundary of delivered and exported energy

15 Situation with national energy frames In most of countries, on site renewable energy production is subtracted from delivered energy Differences in energy frames: primary energy not yet used in all countries Some countries (Germany, France) use reference building method, fixed values in other countries Both simulation (Estonia, Finland) and monthly methods (Germany, Denmark) used Inclusion of energy flows depends on country: Germany/residential heating energy only (space heating, DHW and heating of ventilation air) Germany/nonresidential cooling and lighting also included (appliances not) Denmark appliances and in residential also lighting not included Sweden appliances and user s lighting not included (facility lighting incl.) Estonia, Finland, Norway appliances and lighting included (all inclusive)

16 Region Zone 12 (Catania, Athens) Zone 3 (Budapest, Bratislava, Ljubjana) Zone 4 (Paris, Amsterda m Berlin, Brussels, Copenhag en, Dublin, London, Macon, Nancy, Prague, Warsaw) Country nzeb Energy performance Values Unit Metric Energy uses for: Building type EP calculation nzeb req. Cyprus 180 kwh/m 2 /y Primary heating, cooling, hot Residential No 25% 210 energy water, lighting Nonresidential No 25% Slovakia 54 Belgium BXL Belgium Walloon Belgium Flemish ,5*(V/S) kwh/m 2 /y kwh/m 2 /y Primary energy Primary energy 60 kwh/m 2 /y Primary energy France kwh/m 2 /y kwh/m 2 /y Energy use Primary energy Ireland 45 kwh/m 2 /y Energy load Heating, hot water, ventilation, cooling (nonres), lighting (nonres) heating, cooling (nonres), hot water, lighting (nonres) appliances heating, hot water, appliances Heating, cooling, hot water, ventilation, auxiliary systems heating, ventilation, cooling, hot water, lighting, auxiliary systems heating, ventilation, hot water, lighting Detached Apartment Offices Residential Offices, educational Residential and nonres. Residential Office and school Residential Office Office AC RES N.a. N.a. N.a. 50% 50% 50% N.a. 50% No No No >10 kwh/m 2 y >10 kwh/m 2 y Residential N.a. Netherlands 0 [] Energy heating, ventilation, Residential/ perform. cooling, hot water, nonresidential coefficien lighting t (EPC)

17 Region Country nzeb Energy performance RES Values Unit Metric Energy uses for: Building type EP calculation nzeb req. Zone 5 (Coopenh agen, Tallinn, Helsinki, Riga, Stockholm, Gdansk, Tovarene) Denmark Estonia kwh/m 2 /y kwh/m 2 /y Energy need Primary energy Latvia 95 kwh/m 2 /y Primary energy heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water, lighting (nonres) heating, ventilation, cooling, hot water, lighting, auxiliary electricity, appliances heating, cooling, domestic hot water, ventilation, lighting Residential Nonresidential Detached house Apartment Office Hotel Residential/ nonresidential 5156% 5156% N.a. Lithuania <0,25 [] Energy performance indicator C heating Residential/ notresidential N.a. 50% Data from CA EPBD Oct 2013 (Kurnitski et al. REHVA Journal 2/2014)

18 RES in energy frames and nzeb applications RES is not yet implemented in about half of present calculation frames (of 10 countries with nzeb application), Most of energy frames are not yet ready to support exported energy: Full utilization on annual bases: Denmark, Estonia, net plus energy program in Germany Monthly bases (limited to the amount of the delivered electricity each month and the rest of exported is not accounted): Germany Not accounted: Finland, Norway, Italy, 5 out of 10 countries have set specific indicator for RES in nzeb application None of EU countries have implemented nearby RES future issue to be solved with RES inclusion and exported energy

19 Towards nearly zero energy buildings Denmark Characteristic values Energy frame 2010 Energy frame 2015 Energy frame 2020 Maximum of primary energy to Residential buildings (houses, hotels, etc.) Nonresidential buildings (offices, schools, institutions and other buildings) /A in kwh/m²a /A in kwh/m²a /A in kwh/m²a /A in kwh/m²a 20 kwh/m²a 25 kwh/m²a Conversion factors Electricity District heating

20 Towards nearly zero energy buildings Estonia Primary energy requirements for 9 building types (apply from Jan 9, 2013) nzeb Low energy Min.req. new Min.req. maj.ren. A B C (cost opt.) D (cost opt.) kwh/(m 2 a) kwh/(m 2 a) kwh/(m 2 a) kwh/(m 2 a) Detached houses Apartment buildings Office buildings nzeb and low energy requirements officially given (not yet mandatory) Conversion factors: Electricity 2.0 Fossil fuels 1.0 District heat 0.9 Renewable fuels 0.75

21 Summary: REHVA nzeb 2013 Engineers need transparent and sound calculation methods to be able to implement EPBD: REHVA def is prepared as 100% technology neutral, providing equal treatment for any kind of energy efficiency and RES solutions Main issues covered: ZEB, net ZEB, PEB and nzeb definitions A set of system boundaries to calculate: Energy need Energy use Delivered and exported energy Primary energy Renewable energy ratio, Nearby energy production Load matching and grid interactions Worked examples National low energy and nzeb requirements/targets from some countries Since 2011 REHVA nzeb has been the only available methodology prepared in the level of detail to be suitable for the implementation in national building codes helps experts in the MS in defining nzeb buildings in a uniform way

22 Rakennusteollisuus RT ry LVItalotekniikkateollisuus ry Ympäristöministeriö

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